Key words: conspiracy; criminal combination //complot, conspiration

[Home -- Accueil]
[Main Page -- Criminal Law / Page principale -- droit pénal]

updated and corrections / mise à jour et corrections: 8 November 2011

- To assist researchers, please do not hesitate to suggest titles to these bibliographies.  Thank you.
- Pour le bénéfice de tous, n'hésitez pas à suggérer des ajouts aux bibliographies.  Merci.

by / par ©François Lareau, 2005, Ottawa, Canada
First posted on the Internet on: 27 August 2005

Selected Bibliography on Conspiracy
Bibliographie choisie sur le complot

II- Comparative Law / Droit comparé

Authors / Auteurs

See also / Voir aussi:
Comparative Law / Droit comparé : Auteurs/Authors: L-Z
Canadian Law / Droit canadien
- To assist researchers, please do not hesitate to suggest additions to these bibliographies.  Thank you.
- Pour le bénifice de tous, n'hésitez pas à suggérer des ajouts aux bibliographies.  Merci.

ABBATE, Fred J., "The Conspiracy Doctrine: A Critique" in Michael J. Gorr and Sterling Harwood, eds., Controversies in criminal law : philosophical essays on responsibility and procedure, Boulder: Westview Press, 1992, xii, 273 p., at pp. 55 to 67 approx, ISBN: 0813314836 and  0813314844 (pbk.); copy of the book is not available in the Ottawa area libraries; also with the same title in (1973-74) 3 Philosophy and Public Affairs 295-311 with a copy at the University of Ottawa, H 1 .P54  Location: MRT Periodicals;

ABRAMS, Norman, "Conspiracy and Multi-venue in Federal Criminal Prosecutions: the Crime Committed Formula", (1962) 9 U.C.L.A. Law Review 751-818;

ADAMOLI, Sabrina, Andrea Di Nicola, Ernesto Savona, and Paola Zoffi, Organized Crime Around the World, Helsinki: HEUNI, 1998, 177 p. (series; HEUNI Publication Series; number 31, 1998), ISBN: 9515317460; see summary at (accessed on 27 August 2005); title noted but book not consulted;

The World is faced with the growth of transnational criminal organizations which enter into alliances with governments through corrpution or coercion. Illicit activities expand into new markets.

The growing concern regarding the development of organized crime has been translated into an increasing number of international initiatives involving such institutions as the UN,  the Council of Europe, the G7, the European Union, the OECD, and the OAS. On the national level, many countries have adopted measures to criminalize money laundering and        membership in criminal groups, to seize and confiscate illegal assets and to conduct electronic surveillance. ..." (source:, accessed on 27 August 2005)

ADAMS, Carl David, "The 'Tort' of Civil Conspiracy in Texas", (2002) 54 Baylor Law Review 305-329;

AFTUCK, Scott A., Erica J. Dominitz and Stephanie A. Pickels, "Federal Criminal Conspiracy", (Winter 1995) 32(2) American Criminal Law Review 379-406; 10th Survey of White Collar Crime;

AIYAR, Krishna, Jagadisa, 1885-, Law relating to criminal conspiracies in India and Pakistan, Delhi : Eastern Book Co., 1954, xxxi, 465 p.; title noted in my research but book not consulted;  no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (verification of 20 July 2005); copy at University of Calgary, Library, KF9479 .A94;

ALESSANDRIA, Peter J., Comments, "Intra-Entity Conspiracies and Section 1 of the Sherman Act: Filling the 'Gap' After Copperweld Corp. v. Independence Tub Corp."(1984) 34 Buffalo Law Review 551-593;

ALEXANDER, Larry and Kimberly D. Kessler, "Mens Rea and Inchoate Crimes", (1997) 87 The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 1138-1193;

ALLEN, Arthur M., "Criminal Conspiracy in Restraint of Trade at Common Law", (1909-10) 23 Harvard Law Review 531-548;

ALLISON DAVIS, Beth, and Josh Vitullo, "Federal Criminal Conspiracy", (2001) 38(3) American Criminal Law Review 777-817; 16th Annual Survey of White Collar Crime;

ALLIX, Dominique, Essai sur la coaction : contribution à l’étude de la genèse d’une notion prétorienne / par Dominique Allix ; préf. de Jean-Claude Soyer, Paris: Librairie générale de droit et de jurisprudence, 1976, iii, 239 p., ISBN : 2275012915; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa,  FTX General: KJV 7972.3 .B52 V.20 1976;


4. La diversité des hypothèses de pluralité nécessaire d'auteurs pour une même infraction...5
5. La classification des hypothèses de pluralité nécessaire d'auteurs pour une même infraction...6
6. Division du chapitre...6

7. La notion de réunion en vue d'une infraction...7
8.  Le recensement des hypothèses de réunion en vue d'une infraction...7

§ 1. Le complot...8

9. La définition du complot...8
10. La répression du complot...8
§ 2. La bande armée...9
11.  Incrimination et répression de l'appartenance aux bandes armées...9
§ 3. Le mouvement insurrectionnel...9
12. La notion de mouvement insurrectionnel...9
13. La répression de l'appartenance à un mouvement insurrectionnel...10
§ 4. La coaltion de fonctionnaires...10
14.  La double incrimination de la coaltion de fonctionnaires...10
15.  La coalition simple: incrimination et répression...10
16. La coalition par démissions concertées: incrimination et répression...11
§ 4. L'association de malfaiteurs...12
17. Objet de l'incrimination d'association de malfaiteurs et répression...12
§ 4. La colusion économique...13
18. La répression des atteintes concertées au jeu normal de l'économie...13
19.  L'atteinte portée au jeu naturel de l'offre et de la demande...13
20 La pratique de prix illicites...14
21. Conclusion sur les hypothèses de réunion en vue d'une infraction: l'individuaslisation préventive de la répression...15" (pp. 231-232)

ALSTON, Ethel R., "Annotation: Admissibility of Statement by Co-Conspirator Under Rule 801(d)(2)(E) of Federal Rules of Evidence", (1979) 44 A.L.R. Fed. 627-665;

AMBOS, Kai, "1. Individual Criminal Responsibility in International Criminal Law: A Jurisprudential Analysis -- From Nuremberg to the Hague", in Gabrielle Kirk McDonald and Olivia Swaak-Goldman, eds., Substantive and procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law.  The Experience of International and National Courts", vol. I, Commentary, The Hague-London-Boston: Kluwer Law International, 2000, xvi,705 p., at pp. 5-31, and see "Conspiracy" at p. 12-13; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, K5000 S83 2000, v. 1;

AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION, Section of Antitrust Law, available at (accessed on 24 August 2005); note search: the Antitrust Magazine;

THE AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTE, ALI Proceedings (1960) 402-414; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, microfiches;

__________ ALI Proceedings (1962) 226-227; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, microfiches;

___________Model Penal Code and Commentaries (Official Draft and Revised Comments), Part I - General Provisions §§3.01 to 5.07, Philadelphia: The American Law Institute, 1985, xl, 506 p., see "Section 5.03.   Criminal Conspiracy", at pp. 382-475; "Section 5.04. Incapacity, Irresponsibility or Immunity of Party to Solicitation or Conspiracy", at pp. 475-484; and "Section 5.05.  Grading of Criminal Attempt, Solicitation and Conspiracy; Mitigation in Cases of Lesser Danger; Multiple Convictions Barred", at pp. 484-492;

___________Model Penal Code: Proposed Official Draft, Philadelphia: The American Law Institute, 1962, xxii, 346 p.,  see "Section 5.03.  Criminal Conspiracy", at pp. 83-86; "Section 5.04. Incapacity, Irresponsibility or Immunity of Party to Solicitation or Conspiracy", at p. 86; and "Section 5.05.  Grading of Criminal Attempt, Solicitation and Conspiracy; Mitigation in Cases of Lesser Danger; Multiple Convictions Barred", at p. 87;

___________ Model Penal Code: Tentative Draft No. 10,  Philadelphia: The American Law Institute, 1960, xii, 197 p.; see see "Section 5.03.   Criminal Conspiracy", at pp. 96-169; "Section 5.04. Incapacity, Irresponsibility or Immunity of Party to Solicitation or Conspiracy", at pp. 170-174; and "Section 5.05.  Grading of Criminal Attempt, Solicitation and Conspiracy; Mitigation in Cases of Lesser Danger; Multiple Convictions Barred", at pp. 174-197;

AMERICAN LAW REPORTS, ALR Digest of Decisions and Annotations with Related Total Client-Service Library Reference ALR 3d, ALR4th, ALR5th, ALR Fed, volume 2A Civil Service to Contenpt, Rochester: Lawyers Cooperative Publishing, 1994, ix, 649 p., and see "Conspiracy" at pp. 150-169; with cumulative supplement, issued April 1999, 73 p., and see "Conspiracy", at pp. 14-16; copy of these publications at the LIbrary of the Supreme Court of Canada;

ANDENAES, Johannes, "Comment by Prof. Johannes Andenaes Comparing Study Draft of Proposed New Federal Criminal Code to European Penal Codes (Prof. Johannes Andenaes, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, August 31, 1970)" in Working Papers of the National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws, vol. 3, Washington, July 1971 at pp. 1451-1476, see "Complicity, Facilitation and Conspiracy" at pp. 1457-1458;

ANDERSON, Karen and Megan Bertron,  "Federal Criminal Conspiracy", (Spring 1996) 33(3) American Criminal Law Review 729-755; 11th Survey of White Collar Crime;

ANDREWS, John, "Conspiracy and Criminal Law Reform", [1976] The Criminal Law Review 483-500; deals with the Law Commission's report number 76, Criminal law : report on conspiracy and criminal law reform, 1976;

"Annotation: Admissibility of Statements of Coconspirators made after Termination of Conspiracy and Outside Accused's Presence", (1965) 4 ALR3d 671-748;

ANTUNES, Luis Miguel Pais, "Agreements and Concerted Practices under EEC Competition Law: Is the Distinction Relevant?", (1991) 11 YearBook of European  Law 57-77; about article 85(1) of the EEC Treaty; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, K29 E37;

AREEDA, Phillip, "Intraenterprise Conspiracy in Dedine", (1983-84) 97 Harvard Law Review 451-473;

ARENS, Richard, "Conspiracy Revisited", (1953-54) 3 Buffalo Law Review 242-268;

ARREOLA, Robert R., Angela Ranel Brown, Isabelle Ord, and Norman Minnear, "Federal Criminal Conspiracy", (1997) 34(2) American Criminal Law Review 617-644; 12th Survey of White Collar Crime;

ASSANT, Gilles, "Anti-trust intracorporate conspiracies: a comparative study of French, EEC and American laws",  (1990) 11(2) European Competition Law Review 65-79; copy at Affaires étrangères et Commerce international, Bibliothèque juridique/Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Legal Library, Ottawa; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (27 August 2005);

___________"Anti-trust intracorporate conspiracies: a comparative study of French, EEC and American laws / Les ententes anticoncurrentielles au sein d'un groupe: étude comparée de droits français, communautaire et américain", (1989) Revue de Droit des Affaires Internationales/International Business Law Journal 121-152; note: in French and English except that there are no notes in the French text; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, K 7340 .A13 R489  Location: FTX Periodicals;

ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONALE DE DROIT PÉNAL  (AIDP) (International Association of Penal Law), "Projet de Code pénal international", (1981) 52(1-2) Revue internationale de droit pénal;

"Paragraphe 8. Entente criminelle (« Conspiracy »)

8.0. Une personne est coupable d'entente criminelle lorsque, dans l'intention de commettre une infraction spécifique, elle s'entend avec une autre personne pour commettre cette infraction et que l'un des membres de l'entente commet un acte matériel visant à l'accomplissement de l'accord." (source: et voir aussi; sites vérifiés le 13 novembre 2007)

ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONALE DE DROIT PÉNAL  (AIDP) (International Association of Penal Law) and Istituto Superiore Internazionale di Scienze Criminali (ISISC) (International Institute of Higher Studies in Criminal Sciences) and Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law (MPI), Draft Statute
for an International Criminal Court -- Alternative to the ILC-Draft -- (Siracusa-Draft), prepared by a Committee of Experts Siracusa/Freiburg, July 1995, 88 p.; available at (accessed on 10 December 2005);

"Art. 33 i

A person is punishable for conspiracy when, with the intent to commit a specific crime, he agrees with another to perpetrate that crime." (p. 52)

ASWORTH, Andrew, "The draft code, complicity and the inchoate offences", [1986] Criminal Law Review 303-314;

AUSTRALIA, Attorney-General's Department, Review of commonwealth criminal law : interim report : principles of criminal responsibility and other matters, Canberra: Australian Government  Publishing Service, c1990, vii, 491, iii, 31, 5, 3 p., on conspiracy, see Part VII, at pp. 353-429, ISBN: 0644127244 (Chairman: The Right Honourable Sir Harry Gibbs);



    NOT CRIMES...363
    ACT 1901...375

___________Australian Capital Territory, The Legislative Assembly (as prensented) (Attorney General),  Criminal Code 2002, and see section 48 on conspiracy, available at (accessed on 26 August 2005); see also (accessed on 26 August 2005);

___________Australian Capital Territory, The Legislative Assembly, Criminal Code 2002 -- Explanatory Memorandum, and see the comments on clause 47, "Conspiracy", at pp. 30-32, available at (accessed on 26 August 2005);

___________Commonwealth Attorney's General in association with the Australian Institute of Judicial Administration,  The Commonwealth Criminal Code: A Guide for Practitioners, March 2002, 369 p., on conspiracy, see 276-291, ISBN: 0642210349; available at (accessed on 16 August 2003);

___________Commonwealth of Australia, Criminal Code Act 1995 (web site #1 at, accessed on 26 August 2005) and (web site # 2, at, accessed on 26 August 2005), and see section 11.5 on conspiracy;

___________Criminal Law and Penal Methods Reform Committee of South Australia, The Substantive Criminal Law, 1977, xlviii, 460 p., see pp. 309-316 on conspiracy (Chair: The Honourable Justice Roma Flinders Mitchell);

___________Criminal Law Officers Committee of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General, Model criminal code : Chapter 2, General principles of criminal responsibility: discussion draft, Canberra : Commonwealth Government Printer, 1992, x, 107 p., see on conspiracy, pp. 84-93, ISBN: 064425372X;

___________Criminal Law Officers Committee of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General, Model criminal code : Chapter 2, General principles of criminal responsibility : final report, Canberra : Published for the Attorney-General's Department by the Australian Government Publishing Service, 1992, x, 119 p., see on conspiracy, pp. 96-103,  ISBN: 0644287438;

___________Model Criminal Code Officers Committee of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General,  Model Criminal Code.  Chapter 3: Conspiracy to Defraud, Discussion Paper, [Canberra] : Standing Committee of Attorneys-General, 1996, xii, 88 p., ISBN: 0642208565;

__________Model Criminal Code Officers Committee of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General, Report.  Model Criminal Code.  Chapter 3: Conspiracy to Defraud, [Canberra] : Standing Committee of Attorneys-General, 1997, xi, 99 p., ISBN: 0642208913;

___________The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, House of Representatives, Criminal Code Bill 1994 - Explanatory Memorandum, 1994, (circulated by authority of the Minister for Justice, the Hon. Duncan Kerr MP), 48 p., and see "Proposed Section 11.5 -- Conspiracy", at pp. 38-41;

__________ The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Criminal Code Bill 1994 and Crimes Amendment Bill 1994: Report by the Senate Legal and Constitutional Legislation Committee, December 1994, 39, [8] p., and see "Conspiracy" at pp. 23-28;

___________Review of Commonwealth Criminal Law, Conspiracy, Canberra : The Review, 1988, 32 leaves (series; Discussion paper; number 9);

BAKER, Donald I., "To Indict or Not to Indict: Prosecutorial Discretion in the Sherman Act Enforcement", (1977-78) 63 Cornell Law Review 405-418;

___________"The Use of Criminal Law Remedies to Deter and Punish Cartels and Bid-Rigging", (2000-2001) 69 George Washington  Law Review 693-714;

AVINOR, Shaul, "The Fallacy of the Conventional Theory on the Historical Development of the Concept of Criminal Liability", (2004) 15 Criminal Law Forum 411-466, and see "The Scope of Conspirators' Liability at Common Law and under the Model Code", at pp. 458-461;;

BAKER, James E.S., "Combinations and Conspiracies -- Is There a Difference?", (1969) 14 Antitrust Bulletin 71; copy at Carleton University, KF1649.A1A6  Location; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (27 August 2005);

BALANCY, Eddy, The law of conspiracy in Mauritius, [Mauritius? : s.n., 1984], xiv, 83 p. (series; Studies in criminal law and procedure vol. 2); title noted in my research but book not consulted; no copy of this book in the libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 2 August 2005);

BALL, James, Comments, "Criminal Conspiracy: A Balance Between the Protection of Society and the Rights of the Individual", (1971-72) 16 Saint Louis University Law Journal 254-275;


    In summary, the question is whether the Model Penal Code, if enacted, would halt the apparent expansion of the law of conspiracy favoring society and truly achieve a balance between the protection of society and the rights of the individual. It seems, if anything, the Code would only retard this expansion, but would not place the scales in equilibrium. The Code's most conducive feature, that of imposing on the government the burden of proving that the individual acted with the purpose of promoting the substantive crime, seems to check the expansion of the doctrine toward the protection of society.  However, this feature alone is not enough to counterbalance the other encroachments on the rights of the individual.

    Further modifications must be made, not to increase the burden of the prosecutor to carry out an already difficult task, but to insure that the defendant in a conspiracy trial is given due process of law.  The first modification is that the defendant should be able to make his own case stand by itself, having an absolute right to a separate trial. Next, instead of de-emphasis on the role of the overt act, it should be required for conviction in all conspiracy cases, thus mitigating the possibility that the defendant is being punished for his evil mind. Because of the facility of proving an overt act for conspiracy and in order to prevent the prosecution from producing overt acts only in a jurisdiction favorable to it, and thus circumvent the venue   protections of the Sixth Amendment, the defendant should be subject to prosecution for conspiracy only at the place where the combination was formed. Additionally, to assure the right of freedom of expression and the right to combine with others of a like mind, a constitutionally protected activity should be inadmissiable to prove overt acts for conspiracy convictions. Finally, the conspiracy statutes should restrict and reduce the number of substantive criminal offenses for conspiracy to the more odious acts since there are those crimes that are so insignificant as to warrant no variance in penal approach whether an individual or a combination undertakes to commit them. Only by these modifications will the doctrine of conspiracy strike the proper balance between the society and the individual." (p. 275)

BANTEKAS, Ilias, Principles of direct and superior responsibility in international humanitarian law, Manchester, UK ; New York : Manchester University Press, 2002, XXV, 162 p., see "Conspiracy under International Law", at p. 45- to approx. 49 (series; Melland Schill studies in international law),  ISBN: 071906080X; copy at Affaires étrangères et Commerce international, Bibliothèque juridique /  Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Legal Library, Ottawa, call number: KZ 6471 .B36 2002; title noted in my research but book not consulted yet (20 July 2005);

BARNDT, Richard V., "Two Trees or One?  The Problem of Intra-Enterprise Conspiracy", (1961-62) 23 Montana Law Review 158-199;

BARRET, Richard P. and Laura E. Little, "Lessons of Yugoslav Rape Trials: A Role for Conspiracy Law in International Tribunals", (2003-2004) 88 Minnesota Law Review 30-85; available at SSRN:  (accessed on 18 November 2008);

BEARD, Roy C.,  Recent Cases, "Copperweld Corpration v. Independence Tube Corpration: The Demise of the Intra-EnterpriseConspiracy Doctrine", (1985-86) 31 Loyola Law Review 161-172;

BECK, Matthew E., and Matthew E. O'Brien, "Corporate Criminal Liability", (2000) 37(2) American Criminal Law Review 261-289, see "Conspiracy", at pp. 270-271; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa;

BEIGBEDER, Yves, Judging War Criminals: The Politics of International Justice with a foreword by Theo van Boven, Houndsmills (Great Britain): MacMillan Press; New York: St Martin's Press, 1999, xi, 230 p., and see "Count 1: Conspiracy", at pp. 41-42 of Chapter 2, "The Nuremberg Precedent", with corresponding notes at p. 209, ISBN: 0333681533 (MacMillan) and 0312216491 (St. Martin's Press); copy at the Library of Parliament, Br. B K5000 B45;

"Count 1: Conspiracy

The concept of conspiracy was introduced in the Charter at the initiative of the Americans, against the objections of the French and the Soviets.  As related by Taylor, its author, Murray Bernays, a New York lawyer, promoted the conspiracy and 'organizational guilt idea with the purpose of obtaining a judgment of criminality in a single trial, following which convictions of members who had joined voluntarily would follow automatically and punishments could be imposed in summary proceedings against hundreds of thousands of members'.  The French viewed this concept as 'a barbarous legal mechanism unworthy of modern law'. ... " (p. 41, of  Chapter 2, "The Nuremberg Precedent"; notes omitted)

BELLER, Iris L., "Co-Conspirator Exception to the Hearsay Rule -- United States v. Puco, 476F.2d 1099 (2d Cir.1973)", (1973-74) 40 Brooklyn Law Review 1231-1239;

BERCÉ, Yves-Marie, 1936-, et Elena Fasano Guarini, Complots et conjurations dans l’Europe moderne : actes du colloque international organisé par l’Ecole française de Rome, l’Institut de recherches sur les civilisations de l’Occident moderne de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne et le Dipartimento di storia moderna e contemporanea dell’Università degli studi di Pisa, Rome, 30 septembre-2 octobre 1993 / sous la direction de Yves-Marie Bercé et Elena Fasano Guarini, Rome : L’Ecole, 1996, 773 p. (Collection; Collection de l’Ecole française de Rome; 220), ISBN: 2728303622;  title noted in my research but book not consulted;  no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (verification of 20 July 2005); copie à l'Université Laval, Bibliothèque générale, D 3 A3 C737 1996;

BERGER, Mark, "Conspiracy and Federal Jurisdiction: From Crimmins to Feola", (1976-77) 22 Villanova Law Review 554-577;

BERGMAN, Paul B., "The Coconspirators' Exception: Defining the Standard of the Independent Evidence Test  Under the New Federal Rules of Evidence", (1976-77) 5 Hofstra Law Review 99-110;

BERMAN, Harold Joseph, 1918-, Law and revolution, II : the impact of the Protestant reformations on the Western legal tradition, Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 2004, xii, 522 p., ISBN: 0674011953; see in Chapter 10, "The Transformation of English Criminal Law", at pp. 306-329, with notes at pp. 487-497, the part entitled "Conspiracy", at pp. 326-328;

BERRA, Paul Silvio, "Co-conspirator liability under 18 U.S.C.  § 924(c): Is it possible to escape?", [1996] Wisconsin Law Review 603-632;

BIERSCHBACH, Richard A. and Alex Stein, "Mediating  Rules in Criminal Law",  (September 2007)  93(5) Virginia Law Review 1197-1258, and see "Conspiracy", at pp. 1226-1234; available at (accessed 16 March 2008);

BIRCH, D.J., "Conspiracy -- conspiracy to defraud at common law -- persons who agreed to manufacture and sell dishonest devices whose sole purpose was to cause loss, liable to conviction.   Detention of defendants pending appeal by Crown to House of Lords -- order under section 37(2) Criminal Appeal Act 1968 to be made unless strong reasons for not doing so.  R. v. Hollinshead; Dettlaf and Griffiths [H. of L.], [1985] The Criminal Law Review 653-657; case reported by Maggy Pigott at pp. 653-655 and commentary by Birch at pp. 655-657;

BLACKMORE, Joshua D.A., "The Jurisdictional Problem of the Extraterritorial Conspiracy", (2006) 17 Criminal Law Forum 71-101;

BLACKSTONE, William, Commentaries on the Laws of England: A Facsimile of the First Edition of 1765-1769, Volume IV Of Public Wrongs With an Introduction by Thomas A. Green, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1979, xiv, 436, vii, [39], viii, ISBN: 0226055450;

"A CONSPIRACY also to indict an innocent man of felony falsely and maliciously, who is accordingly indicted and acquitted, is a farther abuse and perversion of public justice; for which the party injured may either have a civil action by writ of conspiracy, (of which we spoke in the preceding bookc) or the conspirators, for there must be at least two to form a conspiracy, may be indicted at the suit of the king, and where by the ancient common lawd to receive what is called the villenous judgment; viz. to lose their liberam legem, whereby they are discredited and disabled to be jurors or witnesses; to forfeit their goods and chattels, and lands for life;  to have those lands wasted, their houses rased, their trees rooted up, and their own bodies committed to prisone.  But it now is the better opinion, that the villenous judgment is by long disuse become obsolete; it not having been pronounced for some ages: but instead thereof the delinquents are usually sentenced to imprisonment, fine, and pillory.  To this head may be referred the offence of sending letters, threatening to accuse any person of a crime punishable with death, transportation, pillory, and other infamous punishment, with a view to extort from him any money or other valuable chattels.  This is punishable by statute 30 Geo. II. c. 24.  at the discretion of the court, with fine, imprisonment, pillory, whipping, or transportation for seven years.
c See Vol. III. pag. 126.
d Bro. Abr. t. conspiracy. 28.
e 1 Hawk. P.C. 164." (p. 136)

BLAIR, Frank P., "The Judge-Made Law of Conspiracy", (1903) 37 American Law Review 33-62;

BLAKEY, G. Robert and Kevin P. Roddy, "Reflections on Reves v. Ernst & Young: its meaning and impact on substantive, accessory, aiding abetting and conspiracy liability under RICO", (1996) 33(5) American Criminal Law Review 1345-1702; copy at the University of Ottawa, KF 9202 .A425  Location: FTX Periodicals;

BLUM, Julie Ann, "Conspiracy", (Winter 1988) 25(3) American Criminal Law Review 386-393; White Collar Crime: Survey of the Law -- 1988 Update;

BORCH, Major Frederick, "The use of Co-Conspirator Statements under the Rules of Evidence: A Revolutionary Change in Admissibility", (Spring 1989)  124 Military Law Review; available at (accessed on 18 December 2003);

BORISKY, S. Douglas, Notes, "Reconciling the Conflict Between the Coconspirator Exemption from the Hearsay Rule and the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment", (1985) 85 Columbia Law Review 1294-1316;

BOUIFFROR, Sofiène et Claire Derycke, "Les organisations criminelles", dans, sous la direction de Hervé Ascensio, Emmanuel Decaux et Alain Pellet, Paris : Pedone, 2000,  xvi, 1053 p., chapitre 14, aux pp. 167-179, ISBN: 2233003721; copie à la Bibliothèque de l'Université d'Ottawa, FTX General, K 5055 .D76 2000; copie à la Bibliothèque de la Cour suprême du Canada, K5000 D76 2000;

BRANDEN, James M., "Conspiracy", (Winter 1987) 24(3) American Criminal Law Review 459-490; 4th White Collar Crime -- Survey of the Law;

BRENNER, Susan W., "Of Complicity and Enterprise Criminality: Applying Pinkerton Liability to RICO Actions", (1991) 56 Missouri Law Review 931-1014;

___________"RICO, CCE and Other Complex Crimes: The Transformation of American Criminal Law?", (1993) 2 William and Mary Bill of Rights  Journal 239-304;

BRICKEY, Kathleen F.,  "Conspiracy, Group Danger and the Corporate Defendant", (1983) 52 University of Cincinnati Law Review 431-455;

BRIGHAM, Clifford, "Strikes and Boycotts as Indictable Conspiracies at Common Law", (1887) 21 American Law Review 41-69;

BRODERICK, Patrick A., "Conditional Objectives of Conspiracies", (1984-85) 94 Yale Law Journal 895-908;

BROOKBANKS, Warren J., "Compulsion and self-defence" in Neil Cameron and Simon France, eds., Essays on Criminal Law in New Zealand Towards Reform?,  Victoria: Victoria University of Wellington Law Review and Victoria University Press, 1990, 243 p., at pp. 95-116, and see "conspiracies and associations", at pp. 105-106 (series; VUW Law Review Monograph 3), ISBN: 0864732066;

BROWN, Arthur March, "Labor Questions in the Courts of Masschusetts", (1908) 42 American Law Review 706-734;

BRUN, Catherine, La préparation de l'infraction, Thèse de doctorat : Droit privé et science criminelle : Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 2000, 479 p., Numéro national de thèse: Thèse : 2000NICE0059; directeur de thèse: Roger Bernardini; titre noté dans mes recherches mais non consulté;

"Résumé: Cette thèse a pour but de conférer à la notion de préparation de l'infraction une structure nouvelle entrainant un régime de la tentative d'un type nouveau. La notion de préparation de l'infraction présente, en droit pénal, des dimensions multiples. Recouvrant une diversité de situations infractionnelles précises, cette notion peut conditionner l'organisation de l'intervention pénale. Mais cette fonction répressive n'est que secondaire et accessoire. En effet, malgré un champ d'expression étendue, le concept d'acte préparatoire se caractérise le plus souvent par son impunité, son statut dépendant de la conception actuelle de la tentative. Mais en excluant l'acte préparatoire de l'infraction tentée, la loi a dénaturé la valeur réelle de la préparation de l'infraction, partie intégrante de l'activité délictuelle : la théorie de la tentative, fiction juridique, a pris la place d'une observation directe des comportements délinquantiels." (source: catalogue Abès)

BRYAN, James Wallace, 1884-, The development of the English law of conspiracy, Baltimore, Md. : Johns Hapkins Press, 1909, 161 p.; also appeared in Johns Hopkins University studies in historical and political science : 27th ser., v. 3-5; note: Thesis (Ph.D.)--Johns Hopkins University, 1908; reprint in: Holmes Beach, Fla. : Gaunt, 1999, 162 p., ISBN: 1561695564; available at (accessed on 6 March 2008);

BUNDESEN, Russell, Recent Criminal Cases, "Conspiracy -- Evidence Necessary to Sustain Conviction", (1936-37) 27 Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology 128-130;

BURDICK, Francis M., "The Tort of Conspiracy", (1908) 8 Columbia Law Review 117-120;

BURGMAN,  Dierdre A., "Unilateral Conspiracy: Three Critical Perspectives", (1979-80) 29 DePaul Law Review 75-113;

BURKE, James Alexander and Sanford H. Kadish, ed., "Conspiracy" in Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, New York: The Free Press, 1983, vol. 1, pp. 231-238, ISBN: 002918100;

BURKE, James Alexander, Sanford H. Kadish, and Dan M. Kahan, "Conspiracy", in Joshua Dressler, editor in chief,  Encyclopedia of crime & justice, 2nd ed., New York : Macmillan Reference USA, c2002,  4 v. (xxxvi, 1780 p.), in vol. 1, pp. 240-247,  ISBN : 002865319X (for set of 4 volumes) and 0028653203 (v. 1 );

BURNS, Kenneth J., "Conspiracy Prosecutions in the Federal Courts", (1949-500) 40 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 760-768;

BUSCEMI, Peter, Notes, "Conspiracy: Statutory Reform Since the Model Penal Code", (1975) 75 Columbia Law Review 1122-1188;

CALVERT, H., "The Case of the Schizophrenic Managing Director", (1964) 27 Modern Law Review 220-222; R. v. Blamires Transport Services, Ltd.;[1963] 3 W.L.R. 496

CAMPBELL, Colm, "Two Steps Backwards: The Criminal Justice (Terrorism and Conspiracy) Act 1998", [1999] The Criminal Law Review 941-959, and see "the Extra-territorial Reach of Conspiracy Charges" at pp. 955-959;

CANTONI, Linda, Note, "Withdrawal from Conspiracy: A Constitutional Allocation of Evidentiary Burdens", (1982-83) 51 Fordham Law Review 438-467;

CARD, Richard, "The Working Paper on Inchoate Offences: (2) Reform of the Law of Conspiracy", [1973] Criminal Law Review 674-689;

CARPINIELLO, Mia V. and Abigail Roberts, "Federal Criminal Conspiracy"; (2000) 37(2)  American Criminal Law Review 495-527; 15th Survey of White Collar Crime;

CARTER, Geoff Lunden, "Agreements within Government Entities and Conspiracies under § 1985(3) -- A New Exception to the Intracorporate Conspiracy Doctrine?", (1996) 63 University of Chicago Law Review 1139-1174;

CASEY, Carrie and Lisa Marino, "Federal Criminal Conspiracy", (2003) 40(2) American Criminal Law Review 577-612; 18th Survey of White Collar Crime;

CASSESE, Antonio, International criminal law, Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press, 2003, lvi, 472 p., see Chapter 9, "Perpetration and Other Modalities of Criminal Conduct" at pp. 179-199, ISBN:  0199261288 and  0199259119 (pbk); copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, K5000 C37 2003 c. 01;

"In many legal systems (particularly in common law countries) three categories of such crimes are envisaged: attempt, conspiracy, and incitement.  In international law, while attempt is regarded as admissible as a general class of inchoate crimes, conspiracy and incitement are only prohibited as 'preliminary' (not consumated) offences when connected to the most serious crime, genocide.  The very limited acceptance of conspiracy is probably due to the fact that this class of criminal offence is not accepted in most civil law countries; hence it has been considered admissible at the international level only with regard to the most heinous and dangerous crime.  Indeed, genocide is a crime that by definition attacks individuals qua members of a group and with a view to destroying the group as such." (p. 191)

CESONI, Maria Luisa, 1955-, sous la direction de, Criminalité organisée: des représentations sociales aux définitions juridiques,  Paris : LGDJ ; Genève : Georg ; Bruxelles : Bruylant, 2004, xix, 788 p., ISBN :  282570816X (Georg),  2802718894 (Bruylant) et 275023984 (LGDJ); note: Ouvrage issu de la recherche "Criminalité organisée : vers une définition opérationnelle" (Projet n°4040-054320) menée dans le cadre du programme national de recherche n° 40 "Violence au quotidien et criminalité organisée" du FNRS (Fonds national suisse de la recherche scientifique); copie commandée pour l'Université d'Ottawa, MRT général (août 2005);

CHAN,  Wing-Cheong, "Abetment, Criminal Conspiracy and Attempt",  in Wing-Cheong Chan, Barry Wright, and Stanley Yeo, eds., Codification, Macaulay and the Indian Penal Code : the legacies and modern challenges of criminal law reform, Farnham, Surrey, England ; Burlington, VT, USA : Ashgate, c2011, xiii, 379 p., at pp.129 to approx. 154; ISBN: 9781409424420 (hardback); title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (7 November 2011);   

CHARLESWORTH, J., "Conspiracy as a Ground of Liability in Tort", (1920) 36 Law Quarterly Review 38-52;

Charter of the International [Nuremberg] Military Tribunal, annexed to the Agreement for the estanlihment of an international military tribunal, London, August 8, 1945; 82 U.N.T.S. 280;


Article 6

    The Tribunal established by the agreement referred to in article 1 hereof for the trial and punishment  of the major war criminals of the European Axis countries shall have the power to try and punish persons who, acting in the interests of the European Axis countries, whether as individuals or as members of organizations, committed any of the following crimes.

    The following acts, or any of them, are crimes coming within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal for which there shall
be individual responsibility:

(a) Crimes against peace:  namely, planning, preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the foregoing;

(b) War crimes:  namely, violations of the laws or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to, murder, ill-treatment or deportation to Wave labour or for any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory, murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity;

(c)  Crimes against humanity:  namely, murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population, before or during the war, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated.

    Leaders, organizers, instigators and accomplices participating in the formulation or execution of a common plan or conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing crimes are responsible for all acts performed by any persons in execution of such plan." (emphasis in bold added by me)

CHEUNE, Julia, Maria T. Pelaia and Christopher J. Sullivan,  "Federal Criminal Conspiracy", (Spring 1994) 31(3) American Criminal Law Review 591-627; 9th Survey of White Collar Crime;

CHEYNEY, Edward Potts, 1861-1947, "Decisions of the courts in conspiracy and boycott cases", (1889) 4 Political Science Quarterly 261-278; copy at the University of Ottawa, H 1 .P8  Location: MRT Storage;

CHINNI, Christine L., Notes & Comments, "Whose Head Is in the Sand? Problems With the Use of the Ostrich Instruction in Conspiracy Cases", (1991) 13 Western New England Law Review 35-62; copy at the Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, on microfilm;

CHRISTIE, Sarah Ann, Inchoate Crimes: Incitement, Conspiracy and Attempts in Scottish Criminal Law, Edinburgh : W. Green/Sweet & Maxwell, 2001, xvii, 214 p., ISBN: 0414013905 (hbk); title noted in my research but book not consulted; no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (verification of 4 July 2006); copy at McGill University, Nahum Gelber Law Library, KDC 920 I53 C47 2001;

"[Contents]1. Law, Crime and Inchoate offences -- 2. Incitement to Commit Crime -- 3. Criminal Conspiracies -- 4. Intentional Aspects of  Conspiracy -- 5. Actus Reus in Attempted Crimes -- 6. Mens Rea in Attempted Crimes -- 7. The Possibility of Impossible Attempts -- 8. The Justification of Punishment -- 9. The Way Forward. (Source: AMICUS cataloge, Library and Archives Canada)"

CHRISTOFFERSON, Jennifer Martin, "Obstacles to Civil Rights: The Intracorporate Conspiracy Dctrine Applied to 42 U.S.C. § 1985(3)", [1995] University of Illinois Law Review 411-440;

CHURCH,  Thomas W. (Thomas Watson), 1945-, Conspiracy law and seditious speech offenses : constitutional ramifications of the use of criminal conspiracy as a device for the regulation of political speech, Thesis (Ph. D.), Cornell University, 1973, iii, 182 leaves; available at Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms, 1984; title noted in my research but thesis not consulted; no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 5 August 2005);

"Coconspirator Statements and Former Testimony in New York and Federal Courts with Some Comments on Codification",  (1994-95) 11 Touro Law Review 37-56;

COHAN, John Allan, "Seditious Conspiracy, The Smith Act, and Prosecution for Religious Speech Advocating the Violent Overthrow of Government, (2003) 17 St. John's Journal of Legal Commentary 199-245;

COHEN, Michael, "The Law Commission Report on Attempt and Impossibility in Relation to Attempt, Conspiracy and Incitement. (2) Questions of Impossibility",  [1980] Criminal Law Review 773-779;

COLE, Lance and Ross Nabatoff, "Prosecutorial Misuse of the Federal Conspiracy Statute in Election Law Cases", (1999-2000) 18 Yale Law & Policy Review 225-260; copy at Ottawa University, KF 175 .Y34  Location: FTX Periodicals;

Comment, "Intra-Enterprise Conspiracy under the Sherman Act", (1953-54) 63 Yale Law Journal 372-388;

Comment, "Reconstructing the Independent Evidence Requirement of the Coconspirator Hearsay Exception", (1978-79) 127 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1439-1471;

Comments, "Criminal Conspiracy", (1973-74) 68 Northwestern University Law Review 851-869;

Comments, "Criminal Law -- Conspiracy and  Conspirators in California", (1952-53) 26 Southern California Law Review 64-80;

Comments, "The Hearsay Exception for Co-Conspirators' Declarations", (1957-58) 25 University of Chicago Law Review 530-542;

COMMONS, John R. Commons, Ulrich B. Phillips, Eugene A. Gilmore, Helen L. Sumner, and John B. Andrews, eds., With preface by Richard T. Ely and introduction by John B. Clark, A documentary history of American industrial society, New-York : Russell & Russell, 1958, 10 vol , and see Labor Conspiracy Cases, 1806-1842, New Preface to Volume III and IV by Richard B. Morris, vol. 3, xii, 385 p. and  Labor Conspiracy Cases, 1806-1842, vol. 4, 341, 136 p.; Notes: "Prepared under the auspices of the American Bureau of Industrial Research with the co-operation of the Carnegie Institution of Washington."; copy at the Library of the University of Ottawa,  MRT General: HC 103 .D63 1958;

"Conspiracies in Fraudulent Entries on Government Land", (1910) 71 Central Law Journal  219-221; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada;

"Conspiracy", (1981-82) 19 American Criminal Law Review 295-317;

"Conspiracy", (1984-85) 22 American Criminal Law Review 521-544;

Corpus Juris, article 8 on conspiracy; available at (accessed on 21 February 2004); note: "European Union code for conducting criminal procedures known as Corpus Juris was originally requested by the European Parliament and compiled by a group of "academic experts" under the aegis of the European Commission".

Article 8 -- Conspiracy

1 -- A conspiracy which harms the Community budget constitutes a criminal offence.

2 -- A conspiracy is when two or more persons work together, setting up the necessary organisation, with a view to carrying out one or more of the offences set out in Articles 1 to 7.

COULSON, Chris, "Criminal Conspiracy Law in Japan", (2008) 28(4) Michigan Journal of International Law 863-894; available at  (accessed on 15 January 2009);

COULTER, Chad W., "The Unnecessary Rule of Consistency in Conspiracy Trials", (1986-87) 135 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 223-246;

COUSENS, Theodore W., "Agreement As an element in Conspiracy", (1936-37) 23 Virginia Law Review 898-912;

COWARD, Barry, 1941-,  and Julian Swann, eds., Conspiracies and conspiracy theory in Early Modern Europe : from the Waldensians to the French Revolution, Aldershot, Hants, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, 2004, ix, 276 p., ISBN:  0754635643;; notes: based on a conference held at Birkbeck College in July 2001; copy at the University of Ottawa,   MRT General, D 210 .C68 2004;

- Introduction/Barry Coward and Julian Swann...1
- Detecting the ultimate conspiracy, or, How Waldensians became witches / Wolfgang Behringer...13
- Conspiracy and its prosecution in Italy, 1500-1550 : violent responses to violent solutions / Kate Lowe...35
- Huguenot conspiracies, real and imagined, in sixteenth century France / Penny Roberts...55
- Vengeance and conspiracy during the French wars of religion / Stuart Carroll...71
- The monarchical republic of Elizabeth I revisited (by its victims) as a conspiracy / Peter Lake...87
- The paranoid prelate : Archbishop Laud and the Puritan plot/ Jason Peacey...113
- The closest bond : conspiracy in seventeenth century French tragedy / Malina Stefanovska135
- Faults on both sides : the conspiracies of party politics under the later Stuarts / Mark Knights...153
- Popery at St. James's : the conspiracy theses of William Payne, Thomas Hollis, and Lord George
  Gordon /Colin Haydon...173
- Conspiracy and political practice from the Ancien Régime to the French Revolution/
   Peter Campbell...197
- Burke and the conspiratorial origins of the French revolution: some Anglo-French resemblances/Nigel Aston...213
- 'The Tartuffes of Patriotism': Fears of Conspiracy in the Political Language of Revolutionary Government, France 1793-1794/Marisa Linton...235
- The 'Foreign Plot' and the French revolution: A Reappraisal/Munro Price...255
COWLEY, David, "Conspiracy -- The Mental Element: R. v. Siracusa & others", (1990) 54 Journal of Criminal Law 312-315;

CROUZEL, Jacques Adrien, 1852-, Étude historique, économique et juridique sur les coalitions et les geèves dans l'industrie, Paris, A. Rousseau, 1887, vi, 543 p.; available at,M1 and (accessed on 2 July 2008);

CURTHOYS, M. C. (Mark C.), Governments, labour, and the law in mid-Victorian Britain : the trade union legislation of the 1870s, Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2004, viii, 284 p.;  (series; Oxford historical monographs), ISBN : 0199268894; title noted in my research but book not consulted;  no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (verification of 6 August 2005);
"Contents: Introduction -- After the Combination Acts -- 'Under sufferance': unions outside the law, 1825-1866 -- Union funds, free labour, and the franchise -- Reconciling unions and the law -- Trade unions legalized -- The Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1871 -- The gas stokers' case and the right to strike -- Reforming labour law, 1873-1874 -- The workmen's victory? -- Conclusion: combination and the liberal state." (source: AMICUS catalogue)

DAMASKA, Mirjan, "Comment by Dr. Mirjan Damaska Comparing Study Draft of Proposed New Federal Criminal Code to European Penal Codes (Prof. Mirjan Da,aska, Professor of Law, University of  Zagreb, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, September 26, 1970)" in Working Papers of the National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws, vol. 3, Washington, July 1971 at pp. 1477-141505, see "Conspiracy" at pp. 1498-1499;

DANGEL, Edward Miron, 1891-, Notes on conspiracy in Massachusetts, Boston, E. W. Hildreth, 1929, vii, 251 p.; copy at Harvard University; title noted in my research but book not consulted; no copy in the Canadian libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (20 July 2005);

DANNER, Allison Marston, and Jenny S. Martinez, "Guilty Associations: Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development of International Criminal Law" (January  2005) 93(1) California Law Review 75-169; copy at the University of Ottawa, KFC 69 .C335  Location, FTX Periodicals; important contribution;

DAVENPORT, David S., "The Confrontation Clause and the Co-Conspirator Exception in Criminal Prosecutions: A Functional Analysis", (1971-72) 85 Harvard Law Review 1378-1407;

DAVIS, David Brion, ed., The fear of conspiracy; images of un-American subversion from the Revolution to the present, Ithaca [N.Y.] : Cornell University Press, [1971], xxiv, 369 p., ISBN: 080140598X; copy at the University of Ottawa, MRT General: HN 64 .D344 1971; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (27 August 2005);

DAVID, Kenneth A., "The movement toward statute-based conspiracy law in the United Kingdom and the United States", (1992-93) 25 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 951-990;

__________ "Parties, conspiracies and attempts" in Neil  Cameron and Simon France, eds., Essays on Criminal Law in New Zealand: Towards Reform?, Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington Law Review in conjunction with Victoria University Press, 1990,  [iii], 243 p., at 117-146 (series; Victoria University of Wellington Law Review Monograph; number 3), ISBN: 0864732066;

DAY, Barton D., "The Withdrawal Defense to Criminal Conspiracy: An Unconstitutional Allocation of the Burden of Proof", (1982-83) 51 George Washington Law Review 420-442;

D.C.H., Notes, "Elliott v. United States: Conspiracy Law and the Judicial Pursuit of Organized Crime through RICO", (1978) 65 Virginia Law Review 109-127;

DENNIS, Ian, "Preliminary Crimes and Impossibility", [1978] Current Legal Problems 31-54, ans see "Conspiracy and impossibility" at 47-50; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada; copy at the University of Ottawa, K 179 .C87  Location: FTX Periodicals;

___________"The Rationale of Criminal Conspiracy", (1977) 93 Law Quarterly Review 39-64; copy at the University of Ottawa, KD 322 .L37  Location FTX Periodicals;

"Two main types of rationale have been identified.  The first type regards conspiracy as essentially auxiliary to the substantive offence.  It is no more than an act of preparation in the same way as an attempt, and a concept of agreement is a clear and convenient basis of liability for preparation to commit crime.  The offence take its colour from the crime contemplated.  The second type regards conspiracy as an act inherently heinous or culpable; in fact, almost as a substantive offence in its own right as well as an act directed to the commission of another offence.  It has been argued that the variation of this type which views conspiracy as a criminal partnership is the only comprehensive and adequate rationale for agreement." (pp. 63-64)

DICEY, A.V., "Combination Laws as Illustrating the Relation between Law and Opinion in England During the Nineteenth Century", (1903-04) 17 Harvard Law Review 511-532;

DIGBY, Kenelm E., "The Law of Criminal Conspiracy in England and Ireland", (1890) 6 Law Quarterly Review 129-143;

DONNEDIEU DE VABRES, Henri, "Le procès de Nuremberg devant les principes modernes du droit pénal international", (1947-I) Recueil des cours de l'académie de droit international de La Haye 476-580, et voir "La question du complot", aux pp. 528-542; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, KZ 24 .H35  Location: FTX Periodicals;

DUKE, "Conspiracy, Complicity, Corporations, and Federal Code Reform", in Abraham Abramovsky, ed., Criminal Law and the Corporate Counsel/Sixth Annual Fordham Corporate Law Institute, New York, N.Y. Law & Business : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, c1981, xiii, 384 p., at pp. 147-179, ISBN: 0150039832; title noted in my research but book not consulted;  no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (verification of 6 August 2005);

The Dutch Penal Code, Translated by Louise Rayar and Stafford Wadsworth in collaboration with Mona Cheung, Gudule Geelen, Marjolein Heesbeen, Maike de Lange, Gert Van Slik, and Jolien Zwarts, Revision by Hans Lensing, Instructions by Grat Van Den Heuvel and Hans Lensing, Littleton (Colorado): Rothman, 1997, xxiii, 277 p. (The American series of penal codes; vol. 30), ISBN: 0837700507; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, K5001 A63 no. 30; includes historical coverage;


In contrast to many common-law systems, conspiracy is not an inchoate offense in Dutch criminal law.  However, conspiracy to commit specific serious offenses is punishable, such as conspiracy to commit an offense against the security of the state (see, e.g., arts. 96 and 103).  In 1994, a new inchoate offense was introduced, called 'preparation' (art. 46).  In brief, possessing or obtaining objects for the purpose of jointly committing an offense punishable by imprisonment of not less than eight years was made an offense.  This applies, for instance, to the acquiring of weapons for use in a bank robbery a person is planning to commit jointly with someone else.  The purpose of article 46 is to be able to apply of criminal law to preparatory acts, without having to await an attempt to commit, or the completion of, the offense.  Under criminal procedure, police officers have been given powers to prevent planned crimes while still in the preparatory stage." (p. 21)


Article 80
From the moment two or more persons agree to commit a serious offense, this constitutes conspiracy." (p. 106)

EATON, Amasa M., "Conspiracy to Commit Acts not Criminal Per Se", (1906) 6 Columbia Law Review 215-228;

EDDY, Arthur Jerome, 1859-1920, The law of combinations embracing monopolies, trusts, and combinations of labor and capital; conspiracy, and contracts in restraint of trade, together with federal and state antitrust legislation and the incorporation laws of New Jersey, West Virginia and Delaware, Chicago, Callaghan and company, 1901, 2 volumes; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, KF 1649 E32 1901;

EINHORN, Lorin, "Mens Rea Required for Genocide vs. Mens Rea Required for Conspiracy to Commit Genocide", 9 January 2004, 21 p.; available at (accessed on 20 October 2005); note: New England School of Law International War crimes Project Rwanda Genocide Prosecution;

ELLIOTT, D.W., "Mens Rea in Statutory Conspiracy.  (1) A Comment", [1978] The Criminal Law Review 202-205;

ESPAGNE / SPAIN, Code pénal / Penal Code;

"Artículo 17.

1. La conspiración existe cuando dos o más personas se conciertan para la ejecución de un delito y resuelven ejecutarlo.

2. La proposición existe cuando el que ha resuelto cometer un delito invita a otra u otras personas a ejecutarlo.

3. La conspiración y la proposición para delinquir sólo se castigarán en los casos especialmente previstos en la Ley."

(Ley Orgánica 10/1995, de 23 de noviembre, del Código Penal, available at, accessed on 3 August 2005)


"[Article 17]

1.  La conspiration existe lorsque deux ou plusieurs personnes se concertent pour l'exécution d'un délit et décident de le commettre.

2.  La proposition existe lorsque celui qui a décidé de commettre le délit invite une ou plusieurs personnes à l'exécuter.

3.  La conspiration et la proposition pour commettre une infraction sont punissables uniquement dans les cas prévus par la loi."

(Traduction prise dans Nathalie Hustin-Denies et Dean Spielmann, L'infraction inachevée en droit pénal comparé, Bruxelles: Bruylant, 1997, 163 p., aux pp. 36-37 (Collection; Université Catholique de Louvain, Faculté de droit), ISBN: 2802710710)

EUROPEAN COMMISSION / Competition web site, available at (accessed on 31 July 2005);

"Ex-Bayer AG executives indicted in U.S.", The Ottawa Citizen, Thursday, 11 August 2005, p. D3;

WASHINGTON.  Two former Bayer AG executives were indicted on charges they participated in a global conspiracy to fix the price of chemicals used to improve the strength of tires, outdoor furniture, hoses and rubber belts. ...

    Bayer has already agreed to pay $66 million U.S. fine for its role in the conspiracy."

FELLER, S.Z., "Conspiracy vis-à-vis Participation in Crime", (1976) 7 Mishpatim 232; in hebrew; title noted in my research but article not consulted; 

FICHTELBERG, Aaron, "Conspiracy and International Criminal Justice", (June 2006) 17(2) Criminal Law Forum 149-176;

FILVAROFF, David B., "Conspiracy and the First Amendment", (1972-73) 121 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 189-253;

FINCH, J.D., Comments, "Conspiracy, Society and the Press: the Recent Experience in English Law", (1972) 50 Canadian Bar Review 522-531; copy at the University of Ottawa, FTX Periodicals, KE 365 .A2 C344;

FINCH, Michael, "Governmental conspiracies to violate civil rights: a theory reconsidered", (1996) 57 Montana Law Review 1-48;

FISHER, Spencer R., "CORPORATE CRIMINAL LIABILITY", (Spring 2004) 41(2) American Criminal Law Review 367-395, see "Conspiracies", at pp.374-375; note: part of the 19th survey if white collar crime; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, Periodicals;

"There is some disagreement among Circuits regarding whether a corporation may conspire with its own employee(s).  The 'intracorporate conspiracy doctrine' declares that because a conspiracy requires an agreement between two or more distinct persons, and because a company is a single entity made up of its empoloyees, it may not be convicted of conspiring with itself.  Most courts have declined to extend the 'intracorporate conspiracy doctrine' to criminal cases, stating that to do so would shield corporations from the liability.  However, the rule is not universal, and there is no definitive Supreme Court ruling on the matter." (pp. 374-375; 4 footnotes omitted).

FLETCHER, George P., Book Review, "Is Conspiracy Unique to the Common Law: ACCORDO CRIMINOSO E CONSPIRACY.  TIPICITA E STRETTA LEGALITA NELL'ANALISI COMPARATA by Elisabetta Grande, Milan: Cedam, 1993, Pp. 332", (1995) 43 American Journal of Comparative Law 171-174; important contribution;

"The doctrine of conspiracy remains one of the mysteries of the common law tradition of punishing crime. ...

She [Grande] concludes that there are two institutions found in all Western legal systems that duplicate the essential tasks of conspiracy law. One is the inchoate crime of attempts, and the other, the criteria for complicity in the crimes of another. Conspiracy, she argues, should be considered an early stage attempt. The agreement is but the first step in the execution of each individual's criminal plan." (pp. 171-172)

____________Editorial Comments,"Guantanamo Revesited.  The Hamdan Case and Conspiracy as a War Crime: A New Beginning for International Law in the US", (2006) 4 Journal of International Criminal Justice 442-447; important contribution;

"The international community has quietly rejected this feature of Anglo-American law.  The reason, I believe, is that international criminal proceedings are oriented to post-hoc justice, to condemn those who have already brought about massacres and other major crimes of concern to the international community.  Conspiracy, in contrast, is properly suited to a legal system that emphasizes early police intervention before criminal plans develop into harmful activity.  Early intervention is possible in a domestic legal system but there is no international police that could fulfil a similar function in an international order based on sovereign independent states." (p. 446)

___________Rethinking Criminal Law, Boston: Little, Brown, 1978, xxviii, 898 p.; reprint in: Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN:
"The relentless criticism of the doctrine of conspiracy invites some retrenchment in the scope of liability.  The primary libertarian concern is that the prosecution of political conspiracies trenches too far on protected freedoms of thought and speech.  A sensible restrictive measure would be strengthening the overt act requirement.  This would insure that the prosecution stay its hand until a politically dissident group manifests palpable danger to the community." (p. 225)

FOULKE, Roland R., "Restraints on Trade", (1912) 12 Columbia Law Review 97-133 and  220-251;

FRANCE, Code de justice militaire, art. 424;

"Du complot militaire
Article 424

(Loi nº 65-542 du 8 juillet 1965 Journal Officiel du 9 juillet 1965 en vigueur le 1er janvier 1966)
(Loi nº 82-621 du 21 juillet 1982 Journal Officiel du 22 juillet 1982 rectificatif JORF 3 août 1982 en vigueur le 1er mai 1983)
 (inséré par Loi nº 92-1336 du 16 décembre 1992 art. 187 Journal Officiel du 23 décembre 1992 en vigueur le 1er mars 1994)

        Tout individu coupable de complot ayant pour but de porter atteinte à l'autorité du commandant d'une formation militaire, d'un bâtiment ou d'un aéronef militaire, ou à la discipline ou à la sécurité de la formation, du bâtiment ou de l'aéronef, est puni de la réclusion criminelle de dix ans.    Il y a complot dès que la résolution d'agir est concertée et arrêtée entre deux ou plusieurs individus.    Le maximum de la peine est appliqué aux militaires  les plus élevés en grade et aux instigateurs dudit complot.    Si le complot a lieu en temps de guerre, ou sur un territoire en état de siège ou d'urgence, ou dans toutes circonstances pouvant mettre en péril la sécurité de la formation, du bâtiment ou de l'aéronef, ou a pour but de peser sur la décision du chef militaire responsable, le coupable est puni de la réclusion criminelle à perpétuité." (disponible à, visionné le 8 octobre 2005)

___________Code pénal, voir l'art. 412-2 sur le complot et les articles 450-1 à 450-5 "De la participation à une association de malfaiteurs";

 Des autres atteintes aux institutions de la République ou à l'intégrité du territoire national

Section 1
De l'attentat et du complot

Article 412-1
(Loi nº 92-1336 du 16 décembre 1992 art. 364 et 373 Journal Officiel du 23 décembre 1992 en vigueur le 1er mars 1994)
(Ordonnance nº 2000-916 du 19 septembre 2000 art. 3 Journal Officiel du 22 septembre 2000 en vigueur le 1er janvier 2002)

        Constitue un attentat le fait de commettre un ou plusieurs actes de violence de nature à mettre en péril les institutions de la République ou à porter atteinte à l'intégrité du territoire national.  L'attentat est puni de trente ans de détention criminelle et de 450000 euros d'amende.  Les peines sont portées à la détention criminelle à perpétuité et à 750000 euros d'amende lorsque l'attentat est commis par une personne dépositaire de l'autorité publique.  Les deux premiers alinéas de l'article 132-23 relatif à la période de sûreté sont applicables à l'infraction prévue au présent article.

Article 412-2
(Ordonnance nº 2000-916 du 19 septembre 2000 art. 3 Journal Officiel du 22 septembre 2000 en vigueur le 1er janvier 2002)

Constitue un complot la résolution arrêtée entre plusieurs personnes de commettre un attentat lorsque cette résolution est concrétisée par un ou  plusieurs actes matériels.  Le complot est puni de dix ans d'emprisonnement et de 150000 euros d'amende. Les peines sont portées à vingt ans  de détention criminelle et à 300000 euros d'amende lorsque l'infraction est commise par une personne dépositaire de l'autorité publique."
(Source:, visionné le 21 août 2005)




Act no. 92-1336 of 16th December 1992 Article 364 and 373 Official Journal of 23rd December 1992 came into force the 1st March 1994

Ordinance no. 2000-916 of 19th September 2000 Article 3 Official Journal of 22nd September 2000 came into force the 1st January 2002

An attack consists of the commission of one or more acts of violence liable to endanger the institutions of the Republic or violate the integrity of the national territory.

Attack is punished by thirty years’ criminal detention and a fine of € 450,000.

The penalty is increased to life criminal detention and a fine of € 750,000 where the attack was committed by a person holding public authority.

            The first two paragraphs of article 132-23 governing the safety period are applicable to the offences set out in the present article.

Ordinance no. 2000-916 of 19th September 2000 Article 3 Official Journal of 22nd September 2000 came into force the 1st January 2002

    Plotting consists of a resolution agreed upon by several persons to commit an attack where the resolution was put into effect by one or more material actions.

    Plotting is punished by ten years’ imprisonment and a fine of € 150,000.

    The penalty is increased to twenty years’ criminal detention and a fine of € 300,000 where the offence was committed by a person holding public authority." (Source:, accessed on 21 August 2005)

FRIDMAN, G.H.L., "Mens Rea in Conspiracy", (1956) 19 Modern Law Review 276-284;

GALVIN, Harriett and Sherri Venokur, "Resolution of the Multiple Conspiracies Issue via a 'Nature of the Enterprise' Analysis: The Resurrection of Agreement", (1975-76) 42 Brooklyn Law Review 243-308;

GANGULI, Munindra Nath, The law of joint acts, abetment and conspiracy, Calcutta: The Eastern law house, [1926], xii, 675 p.; title noted in my research but book not consulted; no copy in the Canadian libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 30 July 2005);

GARLAND, Norman M., and Donald E. Snow, "The Co-Conspirators Exception to the Hearsay Rule: Procedural Implementation and Confrontation Clause Requirements", (1972) 63 Journal of Criminal L, Criminology and Police Science 1-22;

GEE, Michelle Midgal, "Annotation: Prosecution or Conviction of one Conspirator as Affected by Disposition of Case Against Coconspirators", (1983) 19 A.L.R.4th 192-231;

GEORGE, M. Dorothy, "The Combination Laws", (October 1935) 6(2) Economic History Review 172-178; copy at Ottawa University, HC 10 .E4  Location, MRT Periodicals;

GERMANY / ALLEMAGNE, Penal Code, see subsection 12(1) and section 30; see also section 127 on Formation of a criminal organization and 129a Formation of terrorist organization / Code pénal, voir le paragraphe 12(1) et l'article 30; voir aussi les article 129 sur l'association de malfaiteurs et 129a sur la formation d'associations terroristes

"§ 12. Felonies and misdemeanors

    (1) Felonies are crimes which are punishable by imprisonment for one or more years. ....

§ 30.  Attempt to enlist participation in crime

    (1) Whoever attempts to incite another to commit a felony or whoever instigates another to do so shall be punished in accordance with the provisions governing felony attempts.  The punishment shall be reduced in accordance with the provisions of § 49(1).  The provisions of  § 23(3) shall correspondingly apply.

    (2) whoever declares his willinness, accepts an offer of another, or agrees with another to commit or to instigate a felony shall be similarly punished."

(The Penal code of the Federal Republic of Germany [of 1975], Translated  by Joseph J. Darby With an Introduction by Hans-Heinrich Jescheck, Littleton (Colorado):  F.B. Rothman and London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1987, xxvi, 257 p., at pp. 53 and 58 (series; The American Series of Foreign Penal Codes; vol. 28), ISBN: 0837700485; Research Note/Note de recherche: available on the internet /disponible sur l'internet  Buffalo Criminal Law Center (and click on "Criminal Law Resources on the Internet")


Crimes et délits

(1) Les crimes sont les actes portant atteinte au droit, punis, au minimum, d'une peine privative de liberté d'un an ou plus.

Tentative de participation

(1) Celui qui tente de déterminer un tiers à commettre un crime, ou de l'inciter à le commettre, est puni selon les dispositions relatives à la tentative de ce crime.  Totefois, la peine doit être atténuée conformément à l'article 49, alinéa 1.  L'article 23, alinéa 3 est applicable par analogie.

(2) Est puni de même celui qui se déclare prêt à commettre un crime ou à inciter à le commettre, accepte la proposition d'un tiers, ou se concerte avec lui à cette fin.

(Les nouveaux codes pénaux de langue allemande: Autriche (1974), République démocratique allemande (1968) et République fédérale d'Allemagne (1975), Paris: La  Documentation française avec le concours du Centre français de droit comparé, 1981, 565 p., aux pp. 329 et 337(Collection des codes pénaux européens du Comité de législation étrangère et de droit international du Ministère de la Justice, sous la direction de Marc Ancel avec la collaboration de Yvonne Marx; tome 5)


"§ 12. Verbrechen und Vergehen.

(1) Verbrechen sind rechtswidrige Taten, die im Mindestmaß mit Freiheitsstrafe von einem Jahr oder darüber bedroht sind.

§ 30. Versuch der Beteiligung.

(1) Wer einen anderen zu bestimmen versucht, ein Verbrechen zu begehen oder zu ihm anzustiften, wird nach den Vorschriften über den Versuch des Verbrechens bestraft. Jedoch ist die Strafe nach § 49 Abs.1 zu mildern. § 23 Abs. 3 gilt entsprechend.

(2) Ebenso wird bestraft, wer sich bereit erklärt, wer das Erbieten eines anderen annimmt oder wer mit einem anderen        verabredet, ein Verbrechen zu begehen oder zu ihm anzustiften." (available at, accessed on 6 August 2005)

GIBSON, R. Chrisman, Note, "Co-Conspirator Declarations: Constitutional Defects In The Admissions Procedure", (1976) 9 University of California at Davis Law Review 63-88;

GILLIES, Peter S., 1950-, The Law of Criminal Conspiracy, 2nd ed., Sydney : Federation Press, 1990, xvi, 271 p., ISBN: 1862870195; title noted in my research but 2nd edition not consulted; no copy in the Canadian libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 21 August 2005);

___________The Law of Criminal Conspiracy, 1st edition: Sydney: The Law Book Company, 1981, xviii, 215 p., ISBN: 0455200793; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of canada KF 9479 G55 1981;

___________The law of criminal conspiracy in Australia and England, LL.M. Thesis, University of Sydney (Australia), 1977, 482 leaves; copy at University of Alberta, Cameron Library, KF 01 347;

___________"The Law of Criminal Conspiracy in Australia and England", (1977-78) 8 Sydney Law Review 107-134;

___________"The Offence of Conspiracy to Defraud", (1977) 51 Australian Law Journal 247-256;

___________ "Secondary Offences and Conspiracy",  (1991) 15 Criminal Law Journal 157-165;

GLOVER, F. Graham, "Criminal Conspiracy: The Defence of Impossibility"  (1979) 143(4) Justice of the Peace 60-61;

GOLDSTEIN, Abraham S., "Conspiracy to Defraud the United States", (1958-59) 68 Yale Law Journal 405-463;

GOLDSTEIN, Alvin H., "The Krulewitch Warning: Guilt by Association", (1965-66) 54 Georgetown Law Journal 133-155;

GOODHART, A.L., "The Shaw Case: The Law and Public Morals", (1961) 77 Law Quarterly Review 560-568; copy at Ottawa University, KD 322 .L37  Location: FTX Periodicals;

GORDON, G.C., "Issues in the law on parallel conduct and proof of conspiracy", (2000) 1 The Sedona Conference Journal 147-158;  title noted in my research but article not consulted; no copy of this periodical in the Canadian libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (20 July 2005);

GORMLEY, Ken, "Private Conspiracies and the Constitution: A Modern Vision of 42 U.S.C. Section 1985(3)", (1985-86) 64 Texas Law Review 527-588;

GOYDER, D.G., EC Competition Law, 4th ed., Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, lxvii, 592 p., (Series: Oxford EC law library),  ISBN: 0199261458 and 0199257884 (pbk.); title noted in my research but book not consulted; no copy in the Canadian libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (10 August 2005);

GRACE, Ryan Thomas, "Defining the Sprawling Arms of Conspiracy: The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit Correctly Addressed the 'Clean Breast" Doctrine as it Affects withdrawal from a Conspiracy in United Sates v. Grimmett", (2001-2002) 35 Creighton Law Review 433-484;

GRANDE, Elisabetta, Accordo Accordo criminoso e conspiracy : tipicità e stretta legalità nell'analisi comparata, Padova : CEDAM, 1993, x, 332 p. (series; Dipartimento di scienze giuridiche, Università di Trento; volume 17), ISBN: 8813183461; book reviewed by Fletcher, supra, Book Review, "Is Conspiracy Unique to the Common Law..."; no copy of this book in Canadian libraries covered by  the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 20 July 2005);

GREAT BRITAIN, Her Majesty's Commissioners on Criminal Law, Seventh Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners on Criminal Law, command number 448 in  Sessional Papers [British Parliamentary Papers] 1843,  volume 19,  pp. 1-285; this Seventh Report is also published in Irish University Press Series of British Parliamentary Papers: Reports From The Royal Commission On The Criminal Law With Appendices And index 1834-41, vol.4, Legal Administration Criminal Law, Dublin: Shannon University Press, 1971, pp. 9-296, ISBN: 0716511401;

"The general principle on which the crime of conspiracy is founded is this, that the confederacy of several persons to effect any injurious object creates such a new and additional power to cause injury as requires criminal restraint, although none would be necessary were the same things proposed, or even attempted, to be done by any person singly.  And this principle extends not merely to a confederacy to commit a crime, or to attain an object not in itself criminal through the medium of a crime, but also to the causing hurt or prejudice to the public, or to a private person, although neither the effecting that object nor the use of the proposed means to effect it would constitute a substantive crime.  An inclination seems to have been manifested, in some modern instances, to narrow the boundaries of the more ancient law on this subject.  In the case of the King v. Turner (13 East. 228, 231), Lord Ellenborough, C.J. said, 'I should be sorry that the cases in conspiracy against individuals, which have gone far enough, should be pushed still further.  I should be sorry to have it doubted whether persons agreeing to go and sport upon another's ground, in other words to commit a civil trespass, should be thereby in peril of an indictment for an offence which would subject them to infamous punishment.'  It is difficult to support the decision of the court to the extent of this case: the agreement was, not only to do an act injurious and highly offensive to another, but to do it in so forcible a manner as in truth to approximate to, if not to constitute, a riot.  The language of the court, however, imports that mere agreements to commit trespasses on the lands of others ought not to be regarded as criminal; it is, however, very difficult to establish a distinction founded merely on the nature and extent of injury: there may be many which, although they be in legal consideration mere trespasses, may yet be attended with such circumstances as would not only well justify a rule wide enough to include them, but as could not consistently be excepted from any general rule that ought to be prescribed.  It seems to us that the malicious intention of the parties in such cases constitutes a preferable test. ...." (p. 90, and for the Shannon University Press edition, p. 102)

GREENWOOD, Christopher, Case and Comment, "Conspiracy to Do the Impossible", (1978) 37 Cambridge Law Journal 208-211; Nock v. D.P.P., [1978] 3 W.L.R. 57;

GREGG, Ellen M., Note, "Antitrust -- Repudiation of the Intraenterprise Conspiracy Doctrine -- Copperweld Corp. v. Independence Tube Corp.", (1984-85) 7 Campbell Law Review 369-382;

GUÉDON, Jean-Philippe, 1972-, Criminalité organisée et droit pénal, Thèse de doctorat : Droit privé : Paris 1 (Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris)) : 2002, 522 p.; titre noté dans mes recherches; thèse non consultée;

La criminalité organisée est une notion vague qui ne se limite pas au phénomène des mafias, et qui inclut le terrorisme. Une lutte efficace suppose une intervention anticipée ( ex : par des incriminations précoces comme l'association de malfaiteurs), la prise en compte du caractère collectif des infractions (circonstance aggravante de bande organisée) et la mise en cause de chaque participant (y compris l'instigateur et le groupe criminel en tant que personne morale). La répression en droit français se caractérise par la recherche d'une efficacité procédurale (régime spécial de garde à vue, perquisitions facilitées, procédés d'enquête spécifiques comme les livraisons contrôlées de stupéfiants) et par la sévérité des peines. Mais la répression n'est pas sans limites (traitement de faveur accordé aux repentis, respect des principes essentiels du droit pénal). Il faut parvenir à   un équilibre entre les nécessités impérieuses de la répression et le respect des droits fondamentaux." (source: catalogue Abès)

GUIZOT, François, 1787-1874, Des conspirations et de la justice politique ; De la peine de mort en matière politique, [Paris] : Fayard, 1984, 217 p.; notes: Reprend, en modernisant la typographie, le texte respectif de l'édition de 1821 et de 1822; copie à Bibliothèque USP Library - Collection générale -General collection, HV 6275 G85D48 1984; title noted in my research but book not consulted yet (26 August 2005);

GUPTA, Ram Lal, Law of abetment, criminal conspiracy, and constructive liability, Allahabad, Law Book Co., 1965, xxix, 476 p.; title noted in my research but book not consulted; no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (20 July 2005); copy at York University, Osgoode Hall Law School, Law Library, KF 9479 G86;

GYLES, R.V., "Conspiracy to Defraud the Revenue", (1984) 58 Australian Law Journal 567-572;

HABEED, Wade R., "Annotation: Right of Defendants in Prosecution for Criminal Conspiracy to Separate Trials", (1978) 82 ALR3d 366-519;

HADDEN,  T.B. (Tom B.), "Conspiracy to Defraud", [1966] Cambridge Law Journal 248-271;

___________"The Origin and Development of Conspiracy to Defraud", (1967) 11 The American Journal of Legal History 25-40;

HALL WILLIAMS, J.E., Notes of Cases, "The Ladies' Directory and Criminal Conspiracy: The Judge As Custos Morum", (1961) 24 Modern Law Review 626-631;

HAMBREY JONES, T., Letter to the Editor, "Conspiracy under the Criminal Law Act 1977", [1978] The Criminal Law Review 108 (1 p. only);

HANDLER, Milton and Thomas A. Smart, "The Present Status of the Intracorporate Conspiracy Doctrine", (1981-82) 3 Cardozo Law Review 23-75;

HARDING, Alan, "The Origins of the Crime of Conspiracy", (1983) 33 Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (5th series) 89-108; copy at the University of Ottawa, DA 20 .R9  Location: MRT Periodicals; important contribution to the subject;

HARDING, Christopher, 1961-,  "Business Cartels as a Criminal Activity. Reconciling North American and European Models of Regulation", (2002) 9 Maastricht Journal of Eurpean and  Comparative Law 393;  title noted in my research but article not consulted; no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (verification of 10 August 2005); copy of this volume at the University of Montreal;

___________"Forging the European Cartel Offence : the Supranational Regulation of Business Conspiracy", (2004) 12(4) European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 275-300; about article 81 of the EC Treaty;

HARDING,  Christopher, 1961-, and Julian Joshua, "Breaking Up the Hard Core: the Prospects for the Proposed Offence", [December 2002] The Criminal Law Review 933-944; copy at the University of Ottawa, KD 7862 .C734  Location, FTX Periodicals;

___________Regulating Cartels in Europe : a study of legal control of corporate delinquency, Oxford (England)/New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, xxv, 301 p., (series; Oxford studies in European law), ISBN:  0199242445; copy at Industrie Canada, Bureau de la concurrence, Centre de ressources/Industry Canada, Competition Bureau, Resource Centre, KJC6471 .H3 2003; title noted in my research but book not consulted yet (20 July 2005);

HARNO, Albert J., "Intent in Criminal Conspiracy", (1941) 89 University of Pensylvania Law Review 624-647;

HARRISON, David, 1894-, Conspiracy as a Crime and as a Tort in English Law, London: Sweet and Maxwell, 1924, xiv, 239 p.; doctoral thesis, University of London; copy at Ottawa University, KD 7955 .H377 1924; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, KF 9479 H37;


           CHAPTER I. -- HISTORY.



Period 1. -- To the end of the 16th Century...3
Period 2. -- The 17th Century...13
Period 3. -- After the 17th Century
(a) Extension of Conspiracy properly so called...17
(b) Extension of the 17th Century Rule...20
(c) Extension beyond the 17th Century Rule...22





Examination of Suggested Headings.
(1) Conspiracy within the Ancient Oridnances...77
(2) Statutory Combinations...78
(3) Conspiracy to commit a Crime...80
(4) Conspiracy to Defraud...82
(5) Conspiracy to commit any Tort...91
(6) Conspiracy to procure Breach of Contract...96
(7) Conspiracy to do acts not within the former heads...99
(a) Combinations against Public Morality...100
(b) Combinations against Public Security...103
(c) Combinations to Defeat or pervert Justice...109
(d) 'Conspiracy to injure'...114








(a) Arguments for the Affirmative...165
(b) Arguments for the Negative...171
(c) Summary of this Section...186




INDEX..237" (pp. v-vi)

HASLAM, Alec Leslie,  The Law Relating to Trade Combinations ..with a foreword by W. T. S. Stallybrass, London : Allen & Unwin, 1931, 215 p.; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, KF 1649 H37 ML/BP;

HATTAM, Victoria Charlotte, "Courts and the Question of Class: Judicial Regulation of Labor under the Common Law Doctrine of Criminal Conspiracy", Christopher L. Tomlins, 1951-,  and Andrew J. King, eds.,  Labor law in America: historical and critical essays, Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, c1992, vi, 355 p., at pp. 44 to approx. 70 (series; The Johns Hopkins symposia in comparative history ; 20th),  ISBN: 0801843626;  title noted in my research but book not consulted;  no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (verification of 20 July 2005);

___________Labor visions and state power : the origins of business unionism in the United States,  Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1993, xi, 266 p., see Chapter 2, "Judicial Regulation of Labor: The Common Law Doctrine of Criminal Conspiracy, 1806-1896", at pp. 30 to approx. 75 (series; Princeton studies in American politics), ISBN: 069107870X; copy at the University of Ottawa, MRT General, HD 6508 .H34 1993; important contribution and excellent research;

HAZELL, Robert, Conspiracy and civil liberties : a memorandum submitted to the Law commission by the Cobden Trust and the National Council for Civil Liberties / Robert Hazell, London : Bell [for the Social Administration Research Trust], 1974, 128 p. (series; Occasional papers on social administration; 55), ISBN:  0713519096; copy at the Library of Parliament, KD 7955 H39 1974;


1. Introduction...9
2. The Historical Background...13
3. The Present Law of Conspiracy...20
4. Defects of the Present Law: the Substantive Law...50
5. Defects of the Present Law: Procedure
6. The Law of Public Order...86
7. The Rationale of Conspiracy...93
8. Conspiracy in other Jurisdictions...101
  (a) Civil Law System
  (b) Common Law Systems
9.  Proposals for Reform: The Substantive Law...106
10. Proposals for Reform: Reform...119
11. Summary of Main Conclusions...124
12. Postscript...125
13. Index of Cases...128" (p. 7)

HEFFEY, Peter G. "The Survival of Civil Conspiracy: A Question of Magic or Logic" (1974-75), 1 Monash University Law Review 136-186;

HELLER, Kevin Jon, "Whatever Happened to Proof beyond a Reasonable Doubt? Of Drug Conspiracies, Overt Acts, and United States v. Shabini", (1996-97) 49 Stanford Law Review 111-142;

HENNEQUIN, “Du complot, des préparatifs, de l’attentat”, (avril – septembre 1835) 2 Revue de législation et de jurisprudence 25-31; revue publiée sous la direction de L. Wolowski; copie à la bibliothèque de la Cour suprême du Canada;

HERMANN, Donald H.J., "Conspiracy, the Business Enterprise, White Collar Crime and Federal Prosecution: A Primer for Practice", (1975-76) 9 Creighton Law Review 647-676;

HOCKING, Barbara Ann, "Communication, Conviction, Conspiracy, Community (Part I)", (1998) 62 Journal of Criminal Law 483-509; and "Communication, Conviction, Conspiracy, Community. (Part II)", (1998) 62 Journal of Criminal Law 592-607;

___________"Conspiracy as a very enduring practice: Part I", (1998) 8 Irish Criminal Law Journal 1-19 and  "Conspiracy as a very enduring practice: Part II", (1998) 8 Irish Criminal Law Journal 121-140;

___________"The Fame, Fortunes and Future of the 'Rump of the Common Law': Conspiracy to Defraud and English Law (Part 1)", (2000) 64 Journal of Criminal Law 506-517;

__________"The Fame, Fortunes and Future of the 'Rump of the Common Law': Conspiracy to Defraud and Australian Law (Part 2)", (2000) 64 Journal of Criminal Law 602-623;

HODGSON, Derek, "Law Com. No. 76 -- A Case Study in Criminal Law Reform" in P.R. Glazebrook, ed., Reshaping the Criminal Law: Essays in Honour of Glanville Williams, London: Stevens & Sons, 1978, xii, 492 p., at pp. 240-265, ISBN: 042045540X; note about The Law Commission, Criminal Law : Report on Conspiracy and Criminal Law Reform;

HOFFMAN, Susan J., "Corporate Criminal Liability for Intracorporate Conspiracy", (1983-84) 72 Kentucky Law Journal 225-238;

HOLDSWORTH, W.S. (William), "Conspiracy and Abuse of Legal process", (1921) 37 Law Quarterly Review 462-472; book review of P.H. Winfield, The History of Conspiracy and Abuse of Legal Procedure and more;

"The modern crime of conspiracy is almost entirely the result of the manner in which conspiracy was treated by the Court of Star Chamber.  Almost the only idea which it has borrowed from the common law is the rule taken from the statutory writ of conspiracy, that the crime (like the crime of riot) cannot be committed by one person, though the other persons need not be specified and may, indeed, be unknown.  The other two essential features of the crime -- (i.) the fact that the gist of the offence is the conspiracy and not acts done in pursuance thereof, and (ii.) the fact that the crime is committed if persons conspire to commit any unlawful act or any lawful act by unlawful means -- are derived ultimately from the practice of the Star Chamber, and were developed by the Common Law Courts after the Restoration..." (pp. 464-465)

___________A History of English Law  / Sir W.S. Holdsworth ; edited by A.L. Goodhart and H.G. Hanbury, with an introductory essay and additions by S.B. Chrimes, London : Methuen, Sweet & Maxwell, [1956-1972], 16 volumes, and see vol. 3, pp. 401-407; vol. 5, pp. 203-205;  vol. 8, pp. 378-397; vol. 11, pp. 479-483; vol. 13, pp. 342-351; and vol. 15, see the index; copy at the University of Ottawa, copy at the University of Ottawa,  FTX General: KD 532 .H6 1956;


    Both Bracton5 and Britton6 mention conspiracies or confederacies among the pleas of the crown which should be presented by the jury of presentment.  Bracton would seem to eqate those who conspired to commit crimes with accessories to crimes. Britton would seem to confine the term to conspiracies to hinder justice;8 and in 1279 Edward I. had issued letters close to the justices in Eyre ordering them to enquire into such conspiracies -- a step which led to the inclusion in the Articles of the Eyre of the Article 'de mutuis sacramentis.'9  But it is not till certain statutes of Edward I.'s reign gave a writ of conspiracy that the offence definitely emerged.  Though some writers have thought that such a writ existed at common law,10 Dr. Winfield's examination of the MSS. Registers would seem to make it very much more probable that it owes its origin to these statutes.11 ...
5 f. 128.
6 i 95.
7 'Ubi principale non consistit, nec ea quae sequuntur locum habere debent, sicut dici poterit de precepto, conspiratione, et consimilibus quamvis hujusmodi esse possunt etiam sine facto, et quandoque puniuntur si factum subsequatur, sed sine facto, juxta illud: quid enim obfuit conatus, cum injuria nullum habuit effectum.  Nec enim obesse debent preceptum, conspiratio, preceptum et consilium, nisi factum subsequatur,' f. 128.
8 Let it also be enquired concerning confederacies between the jurors and any of our officers, or between one neighbour and another, to the hindrance of justice; and what persons of the country procure themselves to be put upon inquests and juries, and who are ready to perjure themselves for hire, or through fear of anyone: and let such persons be ransomed at our pleasure, and their oath never after be admissible,' i 95.
9 H. E. Cam, Vinogradoff, Oxford Studies vi, xi 58-59.
10 Staunford, Pleas of the Crown 172a; Coke, Second Instit. 562; Y.B. II Hy. VII. Trin. pl. 7 per Fairfax, J.; Smith v. Cranshaw [1625] W. Jones 93.
11 Hist. of Conspiracy 29-37." (vol. 3, p. 401)

HOLMAN, W.A., "Evidence in Conspiracy Cases", (1930-31) 4 Australian Law Journal 247-251;

HOLROYD, Jessica, "The Reform of Jurisdiction over International Conspiracy", (2000) 64 The Jounal of Criminal Law 323-331;

HOSKINS, R ichard J., "A Comparative analysis of the crime of conspiracy in Germany, France and the US", (1973) 6 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 245-270;

HUDA, Syed Shamsul, 1862-1922, The principles of the law of crimes in British India, Calcutta ; Winnipeg : Butterworth, 1919, xv, 455 p., see Lecture IV, Inchoate Crimes - II. Abetment" at pp. 88-167, and more particularly, "Criminal Conspiracy" at pp. 98-132  (Tagore Law Lectures - 1902);  
- Table of Contents, Index and Index of Cases Cited;
- i-xv and 1-215;
- 216-455;

HUGHES, G.J., "The Tort of Conspiracy", (1952) 15 Modern Law Review 209-213;

HUNTER, William Alexander, 1844-1898, Scotland. Criminal Law Amendment Act Repeal Association, A lecture on the criminal laws affecting labour. Master and servant act. Criminal law amendment (violence, threats, &c.) act. Law of Conspiracy / delivered by W.A. Hunter, Edinburgh : Criminal Law Amendment Act Repeal Association, 1874, 15, [1] leaves (series; Glasgow tracts for trade unionists  no. IV); notes: "Printed for the Criminal Law Amendment Act Repeal Association", "Revised by the Author"; copy at York University, Law Library; KF 894 A75 H86 1874 (only location in Canada, according to AMICUS, the catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 7 August 2004); noted in my research but not consulted;

ICKLER, Nancy L., "Conspiracy to Violate RICO: Expanding Traditional Conspiracy Law", (1982-83) 58  Notre Dame Law Review 587-615;

IMWINKELRIED, Edward J., "Prejudice to the Nth Degree: The Introduction of Uncharged Misconduct Admissible Only Against a Co-Defendant at a Megatrial", (2000) 53 Oklahoma Law Review 35-55;

IRELAND, Gordon, "Double Jeopardy and Conspiracy in the Federal Courts", (1949) 40 The Journal of Criminal Law and Police Science 445-457;

IRELAND, Law Reform Commission, Inchoate Offences, Dublin : Law Reform Commission, 2008, xvii, 125 p. (series; LRC CP -- 2008); available at  (accessed on 29 February 2008); part deals with incitement;

___________Report Inchoate Offences, Dublin : Law Reform Commission, 2010, (series; LRC 99 -- 2010); available at (accessed on 28 December 2010);

ITALY, The Italian penal Code, see subsections 115(1) and (2) ans s. 416 ("Association for Purposes of Delinquency");

"Article 115.  Agreement to Commit an Offense.  Instigation.

    Except as the law provides otherwise, whenever two or more persons agree to commit an offense, and it is not committed, none of them shall be punishable for the mere fact of agreement.

    However, in a case of agreement to commit a crime, the judge may apply security measures."

[source: The Italian penal code / translated by Edward M. Wise, in collaboration with Allen Maitlin ; introd. by Edward M. Wise, Littleton (Colo.) : F. B. Rothman, 1978, at p. 40]


"Art. 115 - Accordo per commettere un reato. Istigazione

Salvo che la legge disponga altrimenti, qualora due o più persone si accordino allo scopo di
commettere un reato, e questo non sia commesso, nessuna di esse è punibile per il solo fatto

Nondimeno, nel caso di accordo per commettere un delitto, il giudice può applicare una
misura di sicurezza." [source:, accessed on 24 August 2005]

JACKSON, Haneefah A., "When Love is a Crime: Why the Drug Prosecutions and Punishments of Female Non-Conspirators Cannot Be Justified by Retributive Principles", (2003) 46 Howard Law Journal 517-547; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, microfiche;

JACKSON, J.D., "The Criminal Attempts and Conspiracy (NI) Order 1983", (1984) 35 Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly 274-292;

JANCKO-BAKEN, Ellen, "When Will the Idling Statute of Limitations Start Running in RICO Conspiracy Cases?", (1988-89) 10 Cardozo Law Review 2167-2192;

JEFFERSON, Michael, Comment, "Conspiracy to Defraud and Dishonesty", (1998) 62 The Journal of Criminal Law 580-584;

JOHNSON, Phillip E., "The Unnecessary Crime of Conspiracy", (1973) 61 California Law Review 1137-1188;

JOLIET, René, "La notion de pratique concertée et l'arrêt I.C.I. dans une perspective comparative", (1974) 10 Cahiers de droit européen 251-286; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, KJ 0 .C345  Location: FTX Periodicals;

JONES, Ann I., "IntraenterpriseAntitrust Conspiracy: A Decisionmaking Approach Approach", (1983) 71 California Law Review 1732-1760;

JORGENSEN, Nina H.B., "A Reappraisal of the Abandoned Nuremberg Concept of Criminal Organisations in the Context of Justice in Rwanda", (2001) 12 Criminal Law Forum 371-406, and see "Conspiracy, Joint Trials and Government Responsibility", at pp. 401-402; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada;

JOSHUA, Julian Mathic, "Proof in Contested EEC Competition Cases: A Comparison with the Rules of Evidence in Common Law", (1987) 12 European Law Review 315-353, and see "Hearsay evidence", at pp. 324-328; copy at the University of Ottawa, KJ 0 .E97  Location: FTX Periodicals;

___________"A Sherman Act Bridgehead in Europe, or a Ghost Ship in Mid-Atlantic", (2003) 23 European Competition Law Review 231;  copy at Affaires étrangères et Commerce international, Bibliothèque juridique/Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Legal Library, Ottawa;

JOSHUA, Julian M. and Sarah Jordan, "Combinations, Concerted Practices and Cartels: Adopting the Concept of Conspiracy in European Community Competion Law", (2003-2004) 24 Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 647-681;

KAPLAN, Cheryl A., Recent Development, "The Co-Conspirator Exemption from the Hearsay Rule and the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment: The Supreme Court Resolves the Conflict?", (1986-87) 20 John Marshall Law Review 597-606;

KAPLAN, R.J.,  "Attempt, Solicitation, and Conspiracy Under the Proposed California Criminal Code",  (1971-72) 19 University of California at Los Angeles Law Review 603-621;

KAUFMAN, David, "Joinder of Conspiracy and Attempt", (1939-40) 28 Georgetown Law Journal 608-619;

KATYAL, Neal Kumar, "But Conspiracy, Folks...Don't Gut Conspiracy Laws When We Need Them Most", Slate, 20 November 2002, available at (accessed on 19 February 2005);

___________"Conspiracy Theory", Georgetown University Law Center; Visiting Professor - Harvard University - Law School Georgetown Public Law & Law and Economics Research Paper No. 346500; and Harvard Law  School, Public Law Research Paper No. 43, available on the internet at (accessed on 6 August 2005); also (2003) 112 Yale Law Journal 1307-1398; copy at Ottawa University, KFC 3669 .Y34  Location: FTX Periodicals;

KATZ, Al, "A Psycho-Analysic Peek at Conspiracy", (1970-71) 20 Buffalo Law Review 239-251;

KAYSEN, Carl, "Collusion under the Sherman Act", (1951) 65 The Quarterly Journal of Economics 263-270; copy at the University of Ottawa, HB 1 .Q3  Location: MRT Periodicals;

KEDEM, Allon, Case Comment, "Can Attorneys and Clients Conspire?", (2005) 114 The Yale Law Journal 1819-1826; copy at the University of Ottawa, KFC 3669 .Y34  Location: FTX Periodicals;

KEENAN, John David, Comment, "Criminal Law -- First Circuit Abandons     Rule of Consistency in Conspiracy: Appearance of Justice not Satisfied -- United States v. Bucuvalas"909 F.2d 593 (1st Cir. 1990)", (1991) 25 Suffolk University Law Review 316-324;

KEENAN, Joseph Berry, 1888-1954, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, The Criminal conspiracy in the Japanese war crimes trials, [Tokyo? Japan : GHQ, SCAP?, 1946], 346, [61] p.; NOTES: Cover title. "Memorandum for the Honorable Joseph B. Keenan, chief of counsel, acting on behalf of the United States of America, for the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. Washington, D.C., May 23, 1946"--P. 1. Includes index.; title noted in the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada, but no location in Canada given;

KEMPF, Donald G., "Bathtub Conspiracies: Has Seagram Distilled a More Potent Brew?  A brief review of the intra-enterprise conspiracy doctrine; its genesis where it stands now, and what lies ahead", (1968-69) 24 Business Lawyer 173-181;

KESSLER, Lawrence W., "The Treatment of Preliminary Issues of Fact in Conspiracy Litigation: Putting the Conspiracy Back Into the Conspirator Rule", (1976-77) 5 Hofstra Law Review 77-98;

KEYTE, James A., "Copperweld Corp. v. Independence Tube Corp.: Has the Supreme Court Pulled the Plug on the 'Bathtub Conspiracy?", (1985) 18 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 857-894;

KLEIN, Solomon A., "Conspiracy -- The Prosecutor's Darling", (1957-58) 24 Brooklyn Law Review 1-11;

KORAH, Valentine, "Concerted Practices", (1973) 36 Modern Law Review 220-226;

KOVACIC, William E., "The Identification and Proof of Horizontal Agreements under the Antitrust Laws", (1993) 38 Antitrust Bulletin 5-81; copy at University of Ottawa, HD 2795 .A58  Location, FTX Periodicals;

KOWAL, Steven M., "Applying the Co-Conspirator Rule in a Sherman Act Prosecution", (Spring 1991) 5 Antitrust Magazine 26; title noted in my research but article not located; no copy in the Canadian libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada (20 July 2005);

KOZLOV-DAVIS, Jessica A., "A Hybrid Approach to the Use of Deliberate Ignorance in Conspiracy Cases", (2001-2002) 100 Michigan Law Review 473-501;

KRAUSE, Harry D., "The Multi-Corporate International Bisiness under Section 1 of the Sherman Act -- Intraenterprise Conspiracy Revisited", (1961-62) 17 Business Lawyer 912-938;

KREIT, Alex, "Vicarious Liability and the Constitutional Dimensions of Pinkerton"; forthcoming in  (2008) 57(3) American University Law Review 585-639; available at (accessed on 5 April 2008) and at  SSRN:

KREMNITZER, Mordecai,  "On the Nature of Criminal Conspiracy and Its Relationship to Procuration", (1985) 14 Mishpatim 231; in Hebrew; title noted in my research but article not consulted;

KUTZ, Christopher Lee, "Conspiracy"  in Christopher Berry Gray, ed., The Philosophy of Law: An Encyclopedia, New York Garland Publishing, 1999, 2 volumes ( xxxviii, 950 p.), in vol. 1, at pp. 150-152 (series; Garland reference library of the humanities ; vol. 1743), ISBN: 0815313446;

[Home -- Accueil]
[Main Page -- Criminal Law / Page principale -- droit pénal]