Key words: criminal law, bibliography on the defence of entrapment, abuse of process, defence of entrapment, defense of entrapment, entrapment defence, entrapment defense, the outrageous government defence, due process, police entrapment, police traps, stay of proceedings.  Mots clés: droit pénal, bibliographie sur la provocation policière,  piège policier, agent provocateur,  agents provocateurs, arrêt des procédures,  piège illégal, provocation policière, abus de procédures

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updated to / mise à jour au: 8 November 2011  

- To assist researchers, please do not hesitate to suggest titles to these bibliographies.  Thank you.
- Pour le bénéfice de tous, n'hésitez pas à suggérer des ajouts aux bibliographies.  Merci.

by / par ©François Lareau, 2000-, Ottawa, Canada

Selected Bibliography on the
Defence of Entrapment --
Comparative Law
Bibliographie choisie sur la
provocation policière --
Droit comparé

See also / Voir aussi: Canadian Law / Droit canadien

ABELSON, Daniel M., Comment, "Sentencinf Entrapment: An Overview and Analysis", (2002-2003) 86 Marquette Law Review 773-795;

ABRAMSON, Leslie W. and Lisa L. Lindeman, "Entrapment and Due Process in the Federal Courts", (1980) 8 American Journal of Criminal Law 139-182;  available at  (accessed on 12 July 2007);

A.B.S., Annotation, "Entrapment to commit crime with view to punishment" (1933) 86 American Law Reporter, Annotated 263-271;

ALLEN, David K., "Entrapment and Exclusion of Evidence", (1980) 43 Modern Law Review 450-456;

ALLEN, Michael J., "Entrapment: Time for Reconsideration", (1984) 13(4) Anglo-American Law Review 57-84;

___________"Judicial Discretion and the Exclusion of Evidence in Entrapment Situations in Light of the House of Lords Decision in R. v. Sang", (1982) 33  Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly 105-131;

ALLEN, Ronald J., Melissa Luttrell, and Anne Kreeger, "Clarifying Entrapment", (1999) 89 The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 407-431; with the same title in ICE (International Commentary on Evidence), paper published 6 August 1998, available at (accessed on 12 July 2006);

ALTMAN, Andrew and Steven Lee, "Legal Entrapment", (1983) 12 Philosophy and Public Affairs 51-69;

American Jurisprudence : A Modern Comprehensive Text Statement of American Law, State and FederalCompletely Revised and Rewritten in The Light of Modern Authorities and Developments, 2nd ed., see on entrapment, vol. 21, 1998, sections 243-267 at pp. 306-326;

THE AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTE, Model Penal Code and Commentaries (Official Draft and Revised Comments), Part I - General Provisions §§3.01 to 5.07, Philadelphia: The American Law Institute, 1985, xl, 506 p., see Section 2.13, "Entrapment", at pp. 405-420;

___________Model Penal Code: Proposed Official Draft, Philadelphia: The American Law Institute, 1962, xxii, 346 p., see Section 2.13,  "Entrapment"  at pp. 43-44;

___________ Model Penal Code: Tentative Draft No. 9,  Philadelphia: The American Law Institute, 1959, xvi, 220, [84] p., see "Section 2.10. Entrapment" at pp. 13-24;

ANDERSON, Charles Edward, "Racism and Entrapment: Critics claim black officials singled out for prosecution", (1990) 76 American Bar Association Journal 32-33; issue of November 1990;

ASHWORTH, A.J., "Article 6 of ECHR -- right of fair trial -- police methods amounting to entrapment: Teixeira de Castro v. Portugal", [1998] Criminal Law Review 751-753; the commentary at pp. 752-753 is by "A.J.A." and the case is reported by Clare Ovey;

___________"Defences of General Application: The Law Commision Report No. 83: (3) Entrapment", [1978] Criminal Law Review 137-140;

___________"Entrapment and Criminal Justice (R v Looseley and Attorney General's Reference (No 3 of 2000))", (2002) 2 Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal 125-131;

___________"Re-drawing the Boundaries of Entrapment", [2002] The Criminal Law Review 161-179;

___________"Should the Police Be Allowed to Use Deceptive Practices?", (1998) 114 The Law Quarterly Review 108-140;

___________"Testing Fidelity to Legal Values: Official Involvement and Criminal Justice", (2000) 63 The Modern Law Review 633-659; also with the same title in  Stephen Shute, 1955-,  and A.P. Simester, eds., Criminal law Theory : Doctrines of the General Part,  New York, N.Y. : Oxford University Press, c2002, 332 p. at pp. 299-330, ISBN: 0199243492 (series; Oxford monographs; Oxford monographs on criminal law and justice); copy at the library of the Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, call number: K5018 C77 2002;

___________"What Is Wrong With Entrapment?", [1999] Singapore Journal of Legal Studies 293-317;

A.S.M., Annotation, "Entrapment to commit crime with view to punishment therefor" (1922) 18 American Law Reporter, Annotated 146-192;

AUSTRALIA, THE LAW REFORM COMMISSION, Criminal Investigation: An Interim Report, Canberra : Australian Government Pub. Service, 1975, xxiii, 224 p., ISBN: 0642017921 1975 (series; report; 2), see "Entrapment" at pp. 107-109, paragraphs 226-229; see also Appendix B, Criminal Investigation Bill, clause 67, "Entrapment"  at p. 207;

BANCROFT, David P., "Administration of the Affirmative Trap and the Doctrine of Entrapment: Device and Defense", (1963-64) 31 University of Chicago Law Review 137-179;

BARKER, Margaret, "Criminal Law : Entrapment in Ohio", (1983-84) 17 Akron Law Review 709-715;

BARLOW, N.L.A., "Entrapment and the Common Law: Is There a Place for the American Doctrine of Entrapment?", (1978) 41 Modern Law Review 266-285;

___________"Recent Developments in New Zealand in the Law Relating to Entrapment: 1 and 2", [1976] New Zealand Law Journal 304-312 and 328-334;

BARTLETT, Michael, Case and Comment, "Entrapment, DAU v. EMANUELLE, Full Court, Federal Court of Australia: Gallop, Wilcox and Burchett, : ACT G25 of 1995, 4 December 1995, (1995) 60 FCR 270", (1996) 20 Criminal Law Journal 219-221;

__________"Police Entrapment", The Australian National University, Faculty of Law, Research unit paper, for Prof. Simon Bronitt, 1996; available at (accessed on 17 November 2005)

BATES, Frank, "Evidence unfairly obtained: Home thoughts from abroad", (1982) 46 Journal of Criminal Law 49-56;

BAUMGARTNER, M.P., "Utopian Justice: The Covert Facilitation of White-Collar Crime",  (1987) 43(3) Journal of Social Issues 61-69;

BENNETT, Fred Warren, "From Sorrells to Jacobson: Reflections on Six Decades of Entrapment Law, and Related Defenses, in Federal Court", (1992) 27 Wake Forest Law Review 829-870;

BERGAN, Edmund P., Case Notes, "Entrapment in the Federal Courts - Subjective Test Reaffirmed Against Lower Court Departures", (1973-74) 42 Fordham Law Review 454-466; deals with United States v. Russell, 411 U.S. 423 (1973);

BERMAN, Peter S., and Norman Goldenberg, Notes and Comments, "Entrapment - A Call for the Elimination of the Ninth Circuit Prohibition Against Pleading Inconsistent Defenses", (1972) 4 Southwestern University Law Review 121-133;

BIRCH, Diane J., "Excluding Evidence from Entrapment: What is a 'fair cop'?", (1994) 47 Current Legal Problems (Part 2: Collected Papers) 73-99;

BLECKER, Robert I., "Beyond 1984: Undercover In America - Serpico to Abscam", (1983-84) 28 New York Law School Review 823-1024;

BLEIFUSS, Leslie G., Comment, "Entrapment: Jacobson v. United States: 'Doesn't the government realize that they can destroy a man's life?'" (1992-93) 13 Northern Illinois University Law Review 431-467; not at SCC; not at carleton; not at Fauteux;

BLUM, Fred M., "CRIMINAL LAW--ENTRAPMENT--CALFORNIA REJECTS THE  SUBJECTIVE TEST OF ENTRAPMENT AND ADOPTS THE OBJECTIVE  TEST--People v. .Barraza, 23 Cal. 3d 675, 591 P.2d 947, 153 Cal. Rptr. 459 (1979)",  (1979-80) 2 Whittier Law Review 589-598;

BOHLER, Narnia, "Lead us not into temptation: The criminal liability of the trappee revisited", (1999) 12 South African Journal of Criminal Justice 317-330;

BONNER, Tim, Notes, "Entrapment: Sorrells to Russell, (1973-74) 49 Notre Dame Lawyer 579-588;

BRAITHWAITE, John, Brent Fisse, and Gilbert Geis, "Covert Facilitation of Crime: Restoring Balance to the Entrapment Debate",  (1987) 43(3) Journal of Social Issues 5-41;

___________"Overt Observations on Covert Facilitations: A Reply to the Commentators", (1987) 43(3) Journal of Social Issues 101-122;

BREMER, William D., "Admissibility of Expert Testimony as to Susceptibility of Defendant to Inducement for Purpose of Establishing Entrapment Defense", (1999) 70 American Law Reports (5th) 491-512;

BRIDGES,  Katrice L., Note, "The Forgotten Constitutional Right to Present a Defense and Its Impact on the Acceptance of Responsibility-Entrapment Debate", (2004-2005) 103 Michigan Law Review 367-395;

BRITTAIN, R.P., "Entrapment - The English Approach", (1974) 124 New Law Journal 1072-1073; issue of November 21, 1974;

BRONITT, Simon, "Entrapment, Human Rights and Criminal Justice: A Licence to Deviate?", (1999) 29 Hong Kong Law Journal 216-239;

___________"The Law in Undercover Policing: A Comparative Study of Entrapment and Covert Interviewing in Australia, Canada and Europe", (2004) 33(1) Common Law World Review 35-80; available at  (accessed on 12 July 2006);  important contribution;

___________"Sang is Dead, Loosely Speaking: R. v. Loosely", [2002] Singapore Journal of Legal Studies 374-387;

BRONITT, Simon and Declan Roche, "Between Rhetoric and Reality: Sociolegal and Republican Perspectives on Entrapment", (2000) 4 International Journal of Evidence and Proof  77-106; note: published London : Blackstone Press, 1996-; title noted in my research noted in my research but article not consulted; no copy of this periodical in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 12 March 2005);

___________"Entrapment, the art of police deception", (January – February 2001) 73 AQ 20-25; deals with Australian law;

BRONSTEIN, Victoria, "Unconstitutionally Obtained Evidence - A Study of Entrapment", (1997) 114 South African Law Journal 108-133;

B.S.S., Recent Decisions, "Criminal Law - Entrapment: The Defense is Available Solely to a Defendant who Lacqued Predisposition to Commit the Crime",  (1974) 40  Brooklyn Law Review 802-816;

BURETTA, John David, "Reconfiguring the Entrapment and Outrageous Conduct Doctrines", (1995-96) 84 The Georgetown Law Review ou Georgetown Law Journal 1945-1983;

BURGMAN,  Dierdre A., "Unilateral Conspiracy: Three Critical Perspectives", (1979-80) 29 DePaul Law Review 75-113, see "Entrapment" at pp. 103-108;

BURTON, W. Amon, Notes, "Criminal Law - Entrapment - Once the Issue of Entrapment is Raised by a Showing of the Offense was Attended by the Intervention of a Government Agent, the Burden of Persuasion Rests Upon the Prosecution to Establish the Absence of Entrapment By A Reasonable Doubt.  Notaro v. United States, 363 F.2d 169 (9th Cir. 1966)",  (1966-67) 45  Texas Law Review 578-585;

CALABRESE, Alex, Case note,"CRIMINAL LAW  -- Entrapment Defense -- Jury Entitled to Disbelieve a Defendant's Unrebutted Testimony Concerning Entrapment: United States v. Townsend, 555 F.2d 152 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 98 S. Ct. 277 (1977).", (1977-78) 6 Fordham Urban Law Journal 427-438;

CALL, John R., Comment, "United States v. Demma: Assertion of Inconsistent Defences in Entrapment Cases Allowed", [1975] Utah Law Review 962-968;

CALLAHAN, Michael, Entrapment and the Federal Courts, [Washington, D.C.:] U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, [1984], ii, 64 p.;

CAMP, Damon D., "Out of the Quagmire After Jacobson v. United States: Towards a More Balanced Entrapment Standard", (1992-93) 83 The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 1055-1097;

CAMPEN, Steven D., "California Adopts the Unproven Federal Minority View of Entrapment", (1979-80) 7 Pepperdine Law Review 401-429;  

CARLON, Andrew, "Entrapment, Punishment, and the Sadistic State" .(June 2007) 93(4) Virginia Law Review 1081-1134, available at SSRN:  (accessed on 30 October 2007);

CARLSON, Jonathan C., "The Act Requirement and the Foundations of the Entrapment Defense", (1987) 73 Virginia Law Review 1011-1108;

CARRON, Reid, Comments, "Entrapment: A Critical Discussion", (1972) 37 Missouri Law Review 633-659;

Case and Comment, "R. v. Sang", [1979] Criminal Law Review 656-657;

Case Comments, "Criminal Procedure: Supreme Court Attempts to Clarify Limits of Entrapment Defense", (1973-74) 58 Minnesota Law Review 325-334;

Case notes, "Criminal Procedure -- Entrapment.-- State v Ford, 276 N.W.2d 178 (Minn.1979)", (1980) 6 William Mitchell Law Review 201-208;

CATON, John E., "Note.  The Entrapment Defense in Kansas: Subjectivity Versus an Objective Standard", (1972) 12 Washburn Law Journal 64-76;

CHAFEE, Zechariah, 1885-1957, Entrapment, [n.p., 1930?], [47] p.; copy at Harvard University;

CHAMBERS, Teri L., "United States v. Jacobson: A Call for Reasonable Suspicion of Criminal Activity as a Threshold Limitation on Governmental Sting Operations", (1991) 44 Arkansas Law Review 493-517;

CHOO, Andrew L.-T.,  Abuse of Process and Judicial Stays of Criminal Proceedings, Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1993, xxxiii, 207 p., see chapter 6, "Entrapment" at pp. 148-181,  ISBN: 0198258011;

__________"Abuse of process -- Stay of proceedings -- Entrapment: HSING: Court of Criminal Appeal, New South Wales: Gleason, C.J., Samuels J.A. and Hunt J.: 8 October 1991", (1992) 16 Criminal Law Journal 129-132 with the commentary at pp. 131-132;

___________"A Defence of  Entrapment", (1990) 53 Modern Law Review 453-471;

___________"Entrapment and Section 78 of PACE", (1992) 51 Cambridge Law Journal 236-238; PACE = Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984;

___________"Entrapment: SLOANE: Court of Criminal Appeal, New South Wales: Gleeson, C.J., Wood and Badgery-Parker JJ.: 21 August 1990 ((1990) 49 A. Crim. R. 270)",  (1991) 15 Criminal Law Journal 220-222 with the commentary at pp. 221-222;

___________"Entrapment: THOMPSON: Court of Criminal Appeal, New South Wales; Hunt C.J. at C.L., Enderby and Allen JJ.: 17 March 1992",  (1992) 16 Criminal Law Journal 356-358 with commentary the at p. 358;

___________Evidence, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, xl, 436 p.,  and see Chapter 5. "Investigatory Impropriety: Violations of Article 8 and Undercover Police Operations", ISBN: 0198763980 (pbk); available at  (accessed on 12 July 2006);

CHOO, Andrew L.-T., and Menda Mellors, "Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (or Didn't Say)", [1995] 2 Web JCLI; available at (accessed on 25 February 2006);

CINI, Dale A., Comments, "Due Process of Law and the Entrapment Defense", (1964) University of Illinois Law Forum 821-827;

CIRACE, John, "An Interest Balancing Test for Entrapment", (1997) 18 Pace Law Review 51-81;

CLARE, Allison, "Entrapment: R. v. Loosely; Attorney-General's Reference (No. 3 of 2000) [2001] UKHL 53, The Times (29 October 2001)", (2002) 66 Journal of Criminal Law 146-148, with commentary at p. 148;

CLEARY, Richard D., Case Comments, "Due Process Defense When Government Agents Instigate and Abet Crime: United States v. Twigg, 588 F.2d 373 (3d Cir. 1978)", (1979-79) 67 Georgetown Law Journal 1455-1472;

COHEN, Neil P., Michael G. Johnson, and Tracy B. Henley, "The Prevalence and use of Criminal Defenses: A Preliminary Study", (1992-93) 60 Tennessee Law Review 957-982;

COHN, Roy M., "The Need for an Objective Approach to Prosecutorial Misconduct", (1979-80) 46 Brooklyn Law Review 249-267;

COLQUITT, Joseph A., "Rethinking entrapment", (2004) 41(4) American Criminal Law Review 1389-1437;  advance copy available at  (accessed on 9 March 2006);

COLVIN, Eric, "Controlled Operations, Controlled Activities and Entrapment", (2002) 14 Bond Law Review 227-250; available at (accessed on 7 March 2005);

Comment, "The Assertion of Inconsistent Defenses in Entrapment Cases", (1970-71) 56 Iowa Law Review 686-695;

Comments, "Criminal Law - Defenses - Entrapment", (1928-29) 2 Southern California Law Review 283-293;

Comments, "Criminal Law - Entrapment by Federal Oficers", (1958) 33 New York University Law Review 1033-1041;

Comments, "The Viability of the Entrapment Defense in the Constitutional Context", (1973-74) 59 Iowa Law Review 655-670;

CONNELLY, Sean, "Bad advice: the entrapment by estoppel doctrine in criminal law", (1994) 48 University of Miami Law Review 627-648;

CORKER, David, and David Young, Abuse of Process and Fairness in Criminal Proceedings, London: Butterworths, 2000, xxviii, 235 p., see Chapter 6, "Investigative impropriety" at pp. 140-169, ISBN: 0406902585; there is a 2nd ed., with Mark Summers as an additional author in London/Dayton (Ohio) : Butterworths LexisNexis, c2003,xliii, 325 p., ISBN: 0406951365 which I have not consulted (12 July 2006);

COWDERY, Nicholas, "Police Informants and Agents Provocateurs: Accomplices or Handmaidens of the Law?", International Bar Association, Section on Legal Practice, Committee 6 and Subcommittee 6a, Biennal Conference 2000, Amsterdam, Monday, 18 September 2000; available at (accessed on 30 June 2006);

COWEN, Richard A., "The Entrapment Doctrine in the Federal Courts,  and Some State Court Comparisons", (1958-59) 49 Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 447-460;

CRONIN, Joseph D., "The Law of Entrapment in Massachusetts and the First Circuit", (1980) 14 Suffolk University Law Review 1203-1249;

DAMASKA, Mirjan, "Comment by Dr. Mirjan Damaska Comparing Study Draft of Proposed New Federal Criminal Code to European Penal Codes (Prof. Mirjan Damaska, Professor of Law, University of  Zagreb, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, September 26, 1970)" in Working Papers of the National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws, vol. 3, Washington, July 1971 at pp. 1477-141505, see "Entrapment" at pp. 1493-1494;

DANIELS, Richard Lawrence, "United States v. Simpson: 'Outrageous!' What Does It Really Mean?" - An Examination of the Outrageous Conduct Defense", (1988) 18  Southwestern University Law Review 105-126;

DAVENPORT, Linda G., Comment, "California Entrapment Law: Time to Practice What We Preach", (1974-75) 11 California Western Law Review 390-413;

DAVIS, R.P., Annotation, "Availability of defense of entrapment where accused denies participating at all in offense", (1958) 61 American Law Reports (2d) 677-682;

DAWSON,  J.B., Comments on Recent Developments, "Death of a Discretion", (1977-80) 4 Otago Law Review 503-511; discusses R. v. Sang;

DE FEO, Michael A., "Entrapment as a Defense to Criminal Responsibility: Its History, Theory and Application", (1967) 1 University of San Francisco Law Review 243-276;

DEIS, J. Gregory, Notes, "Economics, Causation, and the Entrapment Defense", (2001) University of Illinois Law Review 1207-1246;

DEJA, Daniel R., Notes, "Entrapment in the Federal Courts: Sixty Years of  Frustration", (1974) 10 New England Law Review 179-252;

DE VALKENEER, Christian, "La loi [belge] du 6 janvier 2003 concernant les méthodes particulières de recherche et quelques autres méthodes d'enquête", dans
Françoise Roggen, coordinatrice; Christian De Valkeneer, Emmanuel Roger France, Actualité de droit pénal, Bruxelles: Bruylant, c2005, 133 p., aux pp. 55-100, voir "La prohibition de la provocation policière", aux pp. 61-62 (Collection; UB3; 5), ISBN: 2802720724; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, FTX général, KJV 3799 .A38 2005;

"La prohibition de la provocation policière

    L'article 47quater interdit la provocation en spécifiant que 'Dans le cadre d'une méthode particulière de recherche, un fonctionnaire de police ne peut amener un suspect à commettre d'autres infractions que celles qu'il avait l'intention de commettre.'  La loi confirme la prohibition de la provocation policière unanimement admise par la jurisprudence et la doctrine(12).  Pour la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme, il y a violation du droit au procès équitable lorsque rien n'indique que sans intervention des policiers, l'infraction eut été commise (13). [...]
(12) Voy. notamment, Cass., 8 janvier 1945, J.T., 1945, p. 232 et note S. HUYNEN; Bruxelles, 15 mars 1989, J.L.M.B., 1990, p. 51; Bruxelles, 18 juin 1987, J.T., 1987, p. 596; A. DE NAUW, 'La provocation à l'infraction par un agent de l'autorité.', Rev. dr. pén. et crim., 1980, pp. 325 et 326; F. KUTY, 'Regard sur la provocation policière et ses conséquences.', J.T., 1999, pp. 10 à 12;
(13) Cour eur. D.H. arrêt Texeira de Castro, 9 juin 1998, J.L.M.B., 1998, pp. 1149 à 1156." (pp. 61-62)

DEVLIN, K.M., "Informers, Spies and Agents Provocateurs", (1971) 19 Chitty's Law Journal 65-68;

DILLOF, Anthony M., "Unraveling Unlawful Entrapment", (2004) 94(4) The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 827-896; available as an ExpressO Preprint Series , 2004, paper  252, at  (accessed on 20 July 2006);

DIX, George E., "Undercover Investigations and Police Rulemaking", (1974-75) 53 Texas Law Review 203-294;

D.L.S., "Criminal Law - Entrapment - Federal Court Rule Reaffirmed -- The Tennessee Rule?", (1959) 26 Tennessee Law Review 554-560;

DONNELLY, Richard C., "Judicial Control of Informants, Spies, Stool Pigeons, and Agent Provocateurs", (1951) 60 Yale Law Journal 1091-1131;

DOUCET, Earl N., "United States v Simpson and the Due Process Challenge of Outrageous Conduct", (1988) 10 George Mason University Law Review 547-557;

DOWLER, Peter C. and Edwin W. Duncan, "Entrapment in California", (1967-68) 19 Hastings Law Journal 825-847;

DRIPPS, Donald A., "At the Borders of the Fourth Amendment: Why A Real Due Process Test Should Replace The Outrageous Government Defense", [1993] University of Illinois Law Review 261-284;

DUBBER, Markus Dirk, "Toward a Constitutional Law of Crime and Punishment", (2003-2004) 55 Hastings Law Journal 509-571, and see pp. 557-558; available also at SSRN: (accessed on 21 May 2006); 

DUDMAN, Jan Mark, "The Defense of Entrapment in Administrative Proceedings", (1973-74) 1 Pepperdine Law Review 316-325;

DUNHAM, Dan S., "Hampton v. United States: Last Rites for the 'Objective' Theory of Entrapment", (1976-77) 8-9 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 223-262;

DWORKIN, Gerald, "Entrapment and the Creation of Crime" in Michael J. Gorr, 1949 and Sterling Harwood, 1958-, eds., Controversies in criminal law : philosophical essays on responsibility and procedure, Boulder: Westview Press, 1992, xii, 273 p., pp. 220 to 234 approx., ISBN: 0813314836 and  0813314844 (pbk.); title noted in my research but article not consulted yet; no copy of this book in the Ottawa area libraries;

___________"Ethics and Entrapment", (1987) 43(3) Journal of Social Issues 57-59;

___________"The Serpent Beguiled Me and I Did Eat: Entrapment and the Creation of Crime", (1985) 4 Law and Philosophy 17-33; with the same title in Gerald Dworkin, The Theory and Practice of Autonomy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, xiii, 173 p., at chapter 9, pp.130-149,  (series; Cambridge studies in philosophy), ISBN: 0521344522 and 0521357675 (pbk.); with the title "Entrapment and the Creation of Crime" in Michael J. Gorr and Sterling Harwood, eds., Controversies in criminal law : philosophical essays on responsibility and procedure, Boulder: Westview Press, 1992, xii, 273 p., at p. 220,  ISBN: 0813314836 and 0813314844 (pbk.);

"Editorial: Police Use of Informants", (1969) 119 New Law Journal 513 (part of one page only); includes Home Office statement to Chief officers of police;

EDKINS, Vanessa A. and Lawrence S. Wrightsman, "The Psychology of Entrapment", in G. Daniel Lassiter, 1954-, ed., Interrogations, confessions, and entrapment, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, c2004, xix, 290 p., see Chapter 10, at pp. 215 to approx. 246 (series; Perspectives in law & psychology; volume 20), ISBN: 0306484706; title noted in my research but book not consulted yet; no copy of this book in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 20 November 2005);

EDWARDS, Susan D., and  Paul N. Edwards, "Entrapment in the Federal Courts: Variations on a Theme", (1981) 8  Ohio Northern University Law Review 223-247;

EIDAM, Lutz, Book Review, "Making Comparative Criminal Law Possible.  EINFÜHRUNG IN DAS US-AMERIKANISCHE STRAFRECHT.  By Markus Dirk Dubber.  Munich: C.H. Beck, 2005, Pp. xvii, 216, E[uro] 19.80" , (May 2006) 54(1) Buffalo Law Review 235-249, and see pp. 246-247; discusses Model Penal Code and German law;

ELA, Beth, Recent Development, "Criminal Law Entrapment - Predisposition of Defendant Crucial Factor in Entrapment Defense: United States v. Russell, 411 U.S. 423 (1975)", (1973-74) 59 Cornell Law Review 546-568;

ELBAZ, David J., "The Troubling Entrapment Defense: How About An Economic Approach?", (1999) 36 American Criminal Law Review 117-143;

"Entrapment as Defense to Charge of Selling or Supplying Narcotics where Government Agents Supplied Narcotics to Defendant and Purchased Them from Him", (1993) 9 American Law Reports (5th) 464-552;

"Entrapment: Hampton v. United States, 425 U.S. 484 (1987)", (1976) 67 Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 424-429;

"Entrapment Through Unsuspecting Midllemen", (1981-82) 95 Harvard Law Review 1122-1142;

FEENEY, Brain Thomas, Notes, "Scrutiny for the Serpent: The Court Refines Entrapment Law", (1992-93) 42 Catholic University Law Review 1027-1062;

FEINBERG, Joel, 1926-, Problems at the Roots of Law: Essays in Legal and Political Theory, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2003, viii, 220 p., see Essay 3, "Criminal Entrapment: Instigating the Unpredisposed", at pp. 57-76, ISBN: 0195155262;

FELD, Daniel E., Annotation, "Admissibility of Evidence of Other Offences in Rebuttal of Defense of Entrapment", 61 American Law Reports 3d 293-341;

FENNELLY, John E., "Filling the Void: Another Look at Florida's Approach to Entrapment", (1992-93) 20 Florida State University Law Review 631-651;

FIJNAUT, Cyrille, 1946-, and Gary T. Marx, Gary T., eds., Undercover: police surveillance in comparative  perspective, The Hague/Boston : Kluwer Law International, 1995, x, 337, ISBN: 9041100156; title noted in my research but book not consulted; may not deal with enterapment; may be useful for researchers; no copy in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 5 March 2005); copy at the Univiversity of Montreal;


Introduction: The Normalization of Undercover Policing in The West; Historical and Contemporary Perspectives / Cyrille Fijnaut, Gary T. Marx...1

Undercover Policing in France: Elements for Description and Analysis / Dominique Monjardet, Rene Levy...29

 Undercover Tactics as an Element of Preventive Crime Fighting in the Federal Republic of Germany / Heiner Busch, Albrecht Funk...55

Undercover Policing in Canada: A Study of its Consequences / Jean-Paul Brodeur...71

Covert Policing in the Netherlands / Peter Klerks...103

Twenty Years of Undercover Policing in Belgium: The Regulation of a Risky Police Practice / Lode Van Outrive, Jan Cappelle...141

Soviet Undercover Work / Louise Shelley...155

High Tackles and Professional Fouls: The Policing of Soccer Hooliganism / Gary Armstrong, Dick Hobbs...175

Covert Policing and the Investigation of 'Organized Fraud': The English Experience in International Context / Michael Levi...195

When the Guards Guard Themselves: Undercover Tactics Turned Inward / Gary T. Marx...213

The Secrete Drug Police of Iceland / Helgi Gunnlaugsson, John F. Galliher...235

Undercover in Sweden: The Swedish Security Police and their Modi Operandi / Dennis Tollborg...249

The DEA in Europe / Ethan A. Nadelmann...269

International Undercover Investigations / Nikos Passas, Richard B. Groskin...291

Undercover: Some Implications for Policy / Gary T. Marx...313

Undercover in Comparative Perspective: Some Implications for Knowledge and Social Research / Gary T. Marx...323

References...337" (Source: Biddle Law Library, University of Pennsylvania Law School, available at, accessed on 5 March 2005)

FISSE, Brent, "'Entrapment' as a Defence", (1988) 12 Criminal Law Journal 367-386;

FLETCHER, George P., Rethinking Criminal Law, Boston: Little, Brown, 1978, xxviii, 898 p., see "Entrapment" at pp. 541-544;

FOGARTY, Michael T., Comments, "California Entrapment Law --A Need for Statutory Clarification", (1974) 5 Pacific Law Journal 603-623;

FRANKS, Dennis, Note, "Constitutional Law -- Entrapment and Due Process of Law -- The Efficacy of ABSCAM Type Operations --United States v. Jannotti 673 F.2d 578 (3d Cir. 1982) (en banc), cert. denied, 102 S. Ct. 2906  (1982)", (1982-83) 5 Campbell Law Review 377-413;

FRASER, Colin J., "Undercover Law Enforcement in Scots Law: Weir v Jessop, 1992 SLT 533", (1994) 52 Scots Law Times 113-118,

GALBALLY, Robert and Brian Walters, "Entrapment: 'The serpent beguiled me' ", (September 1995) 69(9) The Law Institute Journal 913-914;

GALLAWAY, Captain Robert L., "Due process: Objective Entrapment's Trojan Horse", (1980) 88 Military Law Review 103-131; available at (accessed on 18 December 2003);

GARELLA, Elena Luisa, "Reshaping the Federal Entrapment Defense: Jacobson v. United States", (1993) 68 Washington Law Review 185-205;

GEORGE, Paul F., "Entrapment: The Myth of the Model Penal Code in Pennsylvania", (1981-82) 86 Dickinson Law Review 115-136;

GERSHMAN, Bennett L., "Abscam, the Judiciary, and the Ethics of Entrapment", (1981-82) 91 Yale Law Journal 1565-1591;

___________"Entrapment, Shocked Consciences, and the Staged Arrest", (1981-82) 66 Minnesota Law Review 567-638; available at (accessed on 20 July 2006);

___________"The 'Perjury Trap', (1980-81) 129 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 624-700;

GETMAN, Jack L., Recent Decisions, "Criminal Law: Entrapment", (1956-57) 6 Buffalo Law Review 348-;

GILL, Michael A., Notes, "The Entrapment Defense in New Jersey: A Call For Reform", (1989-90) 21 Rutgers Law Journal 419-446;

GLASSMAN, Jan A., Notes, "Rejection of the Conduit Theory of Entrapment, Hampton v. United States", 425 U.S. 484 (1976)", 8 University of Toledo Law Review 473-499;

GOLDSTEIN, Joseph, "For Harold Lasswell: Some Reflections on Human Dignity, Entrapment, Informed Consent, and the Plea Bargain", (1974-75) 84 Yale Law Journal 683-703;

GOODNOW, John S., Note, "Entrapment: An Analysis of Disagreement", (1965) 45 Boston University Law Review 542-571;

GORR, Michael, "Entrapment, Due Process and the Perils of 'Pro-Active' Law Enforcement", (1999) 13 Public Affairs Quarterly 1-24;

GRAVEN, Jean, "Le problème de l'agent provocateur", dans Mélanges en l'honneur du Professeur George Sauser-Hall, Facultés de droit des Universités de Genève et Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel et Paris: Delachaux et Niestlé, 1952, aux pp.233-252;

GREANY, Gail M., "Crossing the Constitutional Line: Due Process and the Law Enforcement Justification", (1991-92) 67 Notre Dame Law Review 745-797;

GREAT BRITAIN, Royal Commission on Police Powers and Procedure, Report of the Royal Commission on Police Powers and Procedure, London: Her Majesty's Stationnery Office, 1929, Command 3297; there is a reprint by New York : Arno Press & The New York Times, 1971, vi, 161 p.,  (series; Police in America), ISBN:  040503394X; text not consulted; copy at York University for example;

GREGG, Jennifer, "Caught In The Web: Entrapment In Cyberspace, (1996-97) 19 Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal 157-197;

GREEN, Barry D., "Police Encouragement and the Fourth Amendment. (Privacy Edition)", (1986-87) 20 The John Marshall Law Review 661-691;

GREVLIN, Katharine, Notes, "Illegality, Entrapment and a New Discretion", (1996) 112  Law Quarterly Review 41-46;

GROOT, Roger D., "The Serpent Beguiled Me and I (Without Scienter) Did Eat - Denial of Crime and the Entrapment Defense", (1973) University of Illinois Law Forum 254-278;

GUBANSKI, Jakub, "Comparative criminal justice -- Special investigation techniques during criminal trial -- disclosure issues in Polish and American (USA) legal systems", (2004) 41 Crime, Law  & Social Change 15-32;

HAMILTON, Jack T., Notes and Comments, "Entrapment in North Carolina", (1955-56) 34 North Carolina Law Review 536-545;

HANEWICZ, Nancy Y.T., Notes, "The Entrapment Defense and Judicial Supervision of the Criminal Justice System", (1993) Wisconsin Law Review 11633-1193;

HANSON, Jarrod S., "Entrapment in Cyberspace: A Renewed Call for Reasonable Suspicion", [1996] The University of Chicago Legal Forum 535-551;

HARDY, Ben A., "The Traps of Entrapment", (1974-75) 3 American Journal of Criminal Law 165-204;

HARRIS, Cindy M., Notes, "Entrapment: A Source of Continuing Confusion in the Lower Courts", (1981-82) 5 American Journal of Trial Advocacy 293-308;

HARRIS, Wendy, "Entrapment", (1994) 18 Criminal Law Journal 197-222;

HARRISON, Jack B., Case Notes, "The Government as Pornographer: Government Sting Operations and Entrapment.  United States v. Jacobson 916 F.2d 467 (8th Cir. 1990), rev'd 112 S.Ct. 1535 (1992)", (1993) 61 University of Cincinnati Law Review 1067-1096;

HASTINGS, Karis A., Notes, "Entrapment and Denial of the Crime: A Defense of the Inconsistency Rule", (1986) Duke Law Journal 866-891;

HAY, Bruce, "Sting operattions, undercover agents, and entrapment", Cambridge, MA : Harvard Law School, [2003] (series; Discussion paper, ISSN 1045-6333; number 441);  Notes: Discussion papers published since September 1997 are available for downloading free-of-charge from the Olin Center web site; "10/2003."; information from Hollis, Harvard Univerty catalogue; available at (accessed on 11 March 2005); published at (2005) 70 Missouri Law Review 387-431;

HAYNES, Kelly M., Casenote, "Criminal Law - Florida Adopts a Dual Approach to Entrapment.  Cruz v. State 465 So. 2d 516 (Fla. 1985)",  (1985-86) 13 Florida State University Law Review 1171-1189;

HEALY, John J., Recent Decision, "Criminal Law -- Entrapment Defense -- Where the Government Has Induced an Individual to Break the Law the Prosecution  Must Prove Beyond a Reasonable Doubt that the Defendant Had the Disposition to Commit the Criminal Act Prior to First Being Approached by Government Agents", (1992-93) 62 Mississippi Law Journal 191-208; Jacobson v United States 112 S. Ct. 1535;

HEROLD, John W., Recent Decisions, "Constitutional Law - Defenses - Entrapment: The Supreme Court of the United States has held that the defense of entrapment is available only if the police implant a criminal design or intent in an otherwise innocent person and thereby induce him to commit a crime: United States v. Russell, 411 U.S. 423 (1973)", (1973) 12 Duquesne University Law Review 340-348;

HEYDON, J.D.,  "Entrapment and Unfairly Obtained Evidence in the House of Lords", [1980] Criminal Law Review 129-135;

___________"Illegally Obtained Evidence (1) and (2)", [1973] Criminal Law Review 603-612 and 690-699;

___________"The Problems of Entrapment", (1973) 32 Cambridge Law Journal 268-286;

HEYMANN, Philip B., Policy Essay, "Understanding Criminal Investigations", (1985) Harvard Journal on Legislation 315-334;

HICKS, III, George Robert, "Criminal Law - The 'No I Didn't, and Yes I Did But...' Defense Is the Entrapment Defense Available to Criminal Defendants Who Deny Doing the Crime -- Mathews v. United States?", (1988-89) 11 Campbell Law Review 279-309;

HITCHLER, W.H., "Entrapment as a Defense in Criminal Cases", (1937-38) 42 Dickinson Law Review 195-203;

HOCKING, Barbara Ann, Criminal Cases in the High Court of Australia, "Abuse of process -- Entrapment, Evidence --Unlawfully obtained, RIDGEWAY, High
Court of Australia: Mason CJ, Brennan Deane, Dawson, Toohey, Gaudron and McHugh JJ: 19 April 1995 (1995) 69 ALJR 484; 78 A Crim R 307", (1996) 20
Criminal Law Journal 160-166;

HOFFMAN, Stephen Clare, Note, "State v. Glendon Johnson: The Entrapment Defense Is Sprung on South Dakota", (1979) 24 South Dakota Law Review 510-522;

HOFMEYR, Kate, "The Problem of Private Entrapment", {April 2006] Criminal Law Review 319-336;

HUGHES, Paul M., "Temptation and Culpability in the Law of Duress and Entrapment", (2006) 51(3) The Criminal Law Quarterly 342-359;

___________"Temptation, Culpability and the Criminal Law",  (Summer 2006) 37(2) Journal of Social Philosophy 221-232;

___________"What is wrong with entrapment?", (2004) 42 The Southern Journal of Philosophy 45-60; copy at St-Paul University;

INSALACO, Richard C. and Peter G. Fitzgerald, "Denying the Crime and Pleading Entrapment: Putting the Federal Law in Order", (1986-87) 20 Journal of Law Reform 567-586;

J.A.C., House of Lords, Comments on Cases, "The So-Called Defence of Entrapment", (1980)  44 Journal of Criminal Law 38-40;

JACOBS, Harold, "Decoy Enforcement of Homosexual Laws", (1963-64) 112 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 259-284;

J.A.H., Recent Cases, "Criminal Law - Entrapment as a Defense", (1933) 11 Texas Law Review 385-386;

JOHNSTON, Jenna Ruth, "CRIMINAL PROCEDURE --Objective Test of Entrapment Applied by Trial Court -- A Trial judge,  using the objective test of entrapment, must determine in an evidentiary hearing whether th    e defendant has proved entrapment by a preponderance of evidence. People v. D'Angelo, 401 Mich. 167, 257 N.W. 2d 655 (1977)", (1978-79) 56 University of Detroit Journal of Urban Law 201-224;

JOHNSON, Robert S., Notes, "The ills of the the Federal Sentencing Guidelines and the Search for a Cure: Using Sentence Entrapment to Combat  Governmental Manipulation of Sentencing", (1996) 49 Vanderbilt Law Review 197-225;





A.   Before the Guidelines: Disparity, Uncertainty, and Judicial Discretion...201
B.   The Guidelines: An. Attempt to Solve the Problem...203
C.   After the Guidelines: Disparity and Governmental Manipulation...206



A. Staufer Revisited...217
B. Sentence Manipulation --The Claim Best Suited to the Sentencing Context...219

VIII. CONCLUSION...225" (p. 197)

JOHNSON III, W.H., "Proving a Criminal Predisposition: Separating the Unwary Innocent from the Unwary Criminal", (1993) 43 Duke Law Journal 384-423;

J.R.B., Annotation, "Entrapment to commit crime with view to punishment therefor" (1930) 66 American Law Reporter, Annotated 478-508;

JUREV, Lark Lucretia, Annual survey of Rhode Island law, "Entrapment -- Use of a Prior Indictment to Prove Defendant's Predisposition..(1981) 15  Suffolk University Law Review 771-778; Rhode Island Supreme Court decision of State v. Jones 416 A.2d 676 (R.I. 1980);

J.W.L., Case Comments, "Criminal Law - Entrapment - Regardless of Defendant's Predisposition, Government's Involvement Constitutes Entrapment as a Matter of Law", (1973) 3 Memphis State University Law Review 397-402;

KAPNOULLAS, Stephen, "Entrapment defence rejected by Supreme Court", (July 1989) 63(7) Law Institute Journal 607-609;

KATZ, David, "The Paradoxical Role of Informers Within the Criminal Justice System: A Unique Perspective", (1981) 7 University of Dayton Law Review 51-71;

KATZ, Leo, Bad Acts and Guilty Minds: Conundrums of the Criminal Law, Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1987, xii, 343 p., see on entrapment, pp. 155-61 with notes at pp. 322-32, ISBN: 0226425916 and 0226425924 (pbk.);

KELLER, Kristine K., "Evolution and Application of the Entrapment Defense: Abandonment of the Inconsistency  Rule", (1988) 11 Hamline Law Review 351-370;

KELMAN, Mark, "Interpretative Construction in the Substantive Criminal Law", (1980-81) 33 Stanford Law Review 591-673, see "Subjective Entrapment" at pp. 644-645; available at (accessed on 25 March 2008);

KENT, Arthur H., Notes, "The Nature of the Defense of Entrapment", (1933-34) 1 University of Chicago Law Review 115-119;

KERSTETTER, Wayne A., "Undercover Investigations: An Administrative Perspective" in Gerald M. Caplan and The Police Foundation, eds., ABSCAM Ethics: Moral Issues and Deception in Law Enforcement,  [Cambridge, Mass.] : Ballinger Pub. Co., c1983, x, 156 p.,  at pp. 135-147, ISBN: 0884106349;

KLAR, Jeffrey N., "The Need for a Dual Approach to Entrapment", (1981-82) 59 Washington University Law Quarterly 199-224;

KLEINIG, John, 1942-,  The Ethics of Policing, Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1996, viii, 335 p.,  ISBN: 0521482062 (hardback) and 0521484332 (paperback), see chapter 8, "Entrapment" at pp. 151-162 with notes at pp. 307-308;

KLEVEN, Paul, "People v. Barraza: California's Latest Attempt to Accomodate an Objective Theory of Entrapment", (1980) 68 California Law Review 746-764;

KLINE, Robert C., Editorial Notes, "Note.  Entrapment under the National Prohibition Act", (1932-33) 1 George Washington Law Review 371-374;

KUTY, Franklin, "Regard sur la provocation policière et ses conséquences", (2 janvier 1999) 118 Journal des Tribunaux10 à 12; numéro 5909; périodique belge;

LaBINE, Jeff, "Sentencing Entrapment under the Federal Sentencing  Guidelines: Activism or Interpretation?", (1998-99) 44 Wayne Law Review 1519-1553 ; copy at the University of Ottawa, FTX periodicals, KFM 4269 .W39;

LANHAM, David, Notes, "Entrapment, qualified defences and codification", (1984) 4 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 437-454;

THE LAW COMMISSION, Codification of the Criminal Law - General Principles - Defences of General Application, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1974,  iv, 61 p., see  entrapment at pp. 42-51 and 53  (series; Working Paper; No 55),   ISBN: 0117300861;

__________Criminal Law Report on Defences of General Application,  London: Her Majesty Stationery Office, 1977, v, 68 p., see on entrapment pp. 32-52 and 54 (series; Report; No. 83), ISBN: 0102556776;

LEIDHEISER, Stephen E., "Defense of Entrapment: the Confusion Continues", (1982-83) 13 Cumberland Law Review 373-395;

LEVINSON, Sanford, "Under Cover: The Hidden Costs of Infiltration" in Gerald M. Caplan and The Police Foundation, eds., ABSCAM Ethics: Moral Issues and Deception in Law Enforcement,  [Cambridge, Mass.] : Ballinger Pub. Co., c1983, x, 156 p.,  at pp. 43-64, ISBN: 0884106349;

LEVY, Lance B., Note, "The 'Sting' of Government Operations: An Analysis of Predisposition as It Relates to the Entrapment Defense -- Jacobson v. United States, 112 S. Ct.1535 (1992)", (1992) 26 Suffolk University Law Review 1177-1185;

LEVY, Marie L., Case Note, "Criminal law - Evidence - Expert Testimony Regarding a Defendant's Susceptibility to Entrapment Is Admissible When Based Upon the Expert's Examination of the Defendant and Data Presented to the Expert Extrajudicially - United States v. Hill", (1982) 27 Villanova Law Review 706-725;

LEWIS, Eric Weldon, A Social Psychological Investigation of Legal Entrapment, Ph.D. thesis, University of Nevada, Reno, 1996, viii, 254 leaves; thesis not consulted;

LING, Tan Yock, "Sing A Song of Sang, A Pocketful of Woes?", [1992] Singapore Journal of Legal Studies 365-414;

L.J.C., "WHEN ENTRAPMENT IS A BAR TO CONVICTION", (1923-24) 10 Virginia Law Review 316-319;

LOMBARDO, John D., "Causation and 'Objective' Entrapment: Toward a Culpability-Centered Approach", (1995)  43 University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Law Review 209-261;

LONG, R. Scot, "Entrapment - A Due Process Defense - What Process is Due?"(1979) 11 Southwestern University Law Review 663-690;

LORD, Kenneth M., "Entrapment and Due process: Moving Toward a Dual System of Defenses", (1998) 25 Florida State University Law Review 463-517;

LOW, G.L., "Entrapment and the Singapore Criminal Law", (1997) 17 Singapore Law Review 185-220; title noted in my research but article not consulted; no copy in the Ottawa area  libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verfication of 9 March 2006);

LUNDY, Joseph R., "Editorial Note: Police Undercover Agents: New Threat to First Amendment Freedoms", (1969) 37 The George Washington Law Review 634-668;

MAGNESS, W. Bruce, "The Defense of Entrapment - Definition, Bases and Procedure", (1971) 3 Texas Tech Law Review 117-133;

MALMUD, Joan, "Defending a Sentence: The Judicial Establishment of Sentencing Entrapment and Sentencing Manipulation Defenses", (1997) 145 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1359-1399;

MANDEL, Barbara A., "New Mexico Expands the Entrapment Defense: Baca v. State", (1990) 20 New Mexico Law Review 135-160;

MARCUS, Paul, 1946-,  "The Challenge of Prosecuting Organized Crime in the United States: Procedural Issues", (1998-99) 44 Wayne Law Review 1379-1400, and see "Undercover Operations and the Entrapment Defence", at pp. 1393-1400;  note:  XVI International Congress of Penal Law -- Report Submitted by the American National Section, AIDP; copy at University of Ottawa, Fauteux Periodicals, KFM 4269 .W39;

___________"The Development of Entrapment Law", (1986-87) 33 Wayne Law Review 5-37;

___________"The Due Process Defense in Entrapment Cases: The Journey Back", (1989-90) 27  American Criminal Law Review 457-472;

___________"Entrapment", in Joshua Dressler, editor in chief, Encyclopedia of crime & justice, 2nd ed., New York : Macmillan Reference USA, c2002,  4 v. (xxxvi, 1780 p.),  in vol. 2, at pp. 619-623, ISBN : 002865319X (for set of 4 volumes) and 0028653211 (vol. 2);

___________The Entrapment Defense, 3rd ed., [Newark, NJ]: LexisNexis, 2002, xiv, 793 p., ISBN: 0874734320; research notes on previous editions: 2nd. ed., Charlottesville (Virginia): Michie Co., 1995, xv, 742 p., ISBN: 1558342567; first edition: c1989; books not consulted;

___________"The Entrapment Defense and the Procedural Issues: Burden of Proof, Questions of Law and Fact, Inconsistent Defenses", (1986) 22 Criminal Law Bulletin 197-243;

___________"Interview.  The Entrapment Defense: An Interview with Paul Marcus", (2004) 30 Ohio Northern University law Review  211-233;

___________"Presenting, Back from the [Almost] Dead, the Entrapment Defense, (1995) 47 Florida Law Review 205-245;

___________"Proving Entrapment under the Predisposition Test", (1987) 14 American Journal of Criminal Law 53-95;

___________"Toward an Expanded View of the Due Process Claim in Entrapment Cases", (1989-90) 6 Georgia State University Law Review 73-84;

MARINO, Kevin H., "Outrageous Conduct: The Third Circuit's Treatment of the Due Process Defense", (1989) 19 Seton Hall Law Review 606-642;

MARJORIBANKS, Grant, "Entrapment - The Juristic Basis", (1988-91) 6 Auckland University Law Review 360-386;

MARX, Gary T.,  "Ironies of Social Control: Authorities as Contributors to Deviance Through Escalation, Nonenforcement and Covert Facilitation", (1980-81) 28 Social Problems 221-246;

___________"Restauring Realism and Logic to the Covert Facilitation Debate",  (1987) 43(3) Journal of Social Issues 43-55;

___________"Thoughts on a Neglected Category of Social Movement Participant: The Agent Provocateur and the Informant", (1973) 80 American Journal of Sociology 402-442;

___________"Undecover Cops: Creative Policy or Constitutional Threat?", (1977-78) 4(2) Civil  Liberties Review 34-44;

___________Undercover: Police Surveillance in America, Berkeley: University of California Press, c1988, xxv, 283 p., ISBN: 0520062868;

___________"Under-the-Covers Undercover Investigations: Some Reflections on the State's Use of Sex and Deception in Law Enforcement", (Spring 1992) 11(1) Criminal Justice Ethics 13-24;

___________"Who Really Gets Stung?  Some Issues Raised by the New Police Undercover Work",  in Gerald M. Caplan and The Police Foundation, eds., ABSCAM Ethics: Moral Issues and Deception in Law Enforcement,  [Cambridge, Mass.] : Ballinger Pub. Co., c1983, x, 156 p., at pp. 65-99, ISBN: 0884106349;  also published in (1982) ) Crime and Delinquency 165-193;

MASCOLO, Edward G., "Due Process, Fundamental Fairness, and Conduct That Shocks the Conscience: The Right Not to Be Enticed or Induced to Crime by Government and Its Agents", (1984-85) 7 Western New England Law Review 1-54;

MAXTON, J., Case Notes, "The Judicial Discretion to Exclude Evidence Obtained by Agents Provocateurs", (1980-81) 9 New Zealand Universities Law Review 73-78;

McADAMS, Richard H., "The Political Economy of Entrapment", (Fall 2005) 96 The Journal of Criminal law and Criminology 107-186; available at (accessed on 25 March 2008);

____________"Reforming Entrapment Doctrine in United States v. Hollingsworth" , (2007) 74 University of Chicago Law Review 1795-1812, available at SSRN: (accessed on 2 July 2008);

__________"A Tempting State: The Political Economy of Entrapment", 29 August 2005, University of Illinois Law & Economics Research Paper No. LE05-019, 57 p. ; available at (accessed on 6 October 2005);    

McCLEAN, J.D., "Informers and Agents Provocateurs", [1969] Criminal Law Review 527-537;

McCOWAN Jr., Charles S., Comments, "Entrapment: Instigation Not Investigation", (1965-66) 26Louisana Law Review 848-859;

McINERNEY, Susan M., Comments, "A Claim of Entrapment in the Abscam Cases", (1982-83) 6 Criminal Justice Journal 315-332;

MEADOWS, Joseph M., Notes, "The Koon Trap: Why Imperfect Entrapment Fails to Justify Departure from the Federal Sentencing Guidelines" (2002) 77 Indiana Law Journal 341-362;

MEIS, Conrad F., "United States v. Tucker: The Illegitimate Death of the Outrageous Governmental Conduct Defense?", (1995) 80 Iowa Law Review 955-978;

M.H., Recent Cases, "Criminal Law - Defense in Liquor Prosecution", (1933) 10 New York University Law Quarterly 533-536; deals with Sorrells v. United States, 287 U.S. 435 (1932);

MIKELL, William E., "The Doctrine of Entrapment in the Federal Courts", (1941-42) 90 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 245-265;

MILHIZER, Major, TJAGSA Practice Notes, Criminal Law Notes, "The Evolving Entrapment Defense", (January 1989) The Army Lawyer 40-44;

MILLER, Stephen A., "The Case for Preserving the Outrageous Government Conduct Defense", (1996) 91 Northwestern University Law Review 305-373;

MIRAKIAN, Stephen G., Notes, "Entrapment: Time to Take an Objective Look", (1976-77) 16 Washburn Law Journal 324-343;

MOORE, Christopher D., "The Elusive Foundation of the Entrapment Defense", (1995) 89 Northwestern University Law Review 1153-1188;

MOORE, Mark H., "Invisible Offenses: A Challenge to Minimally Intrusive Law Enforcement" in Gerald M. Caplan and The Police Foundation, eds., ABSCAM Ethics: Moral Issues and Deception in Law Enforcement,  [Cambridge, Mass.] : Ballinger Pub. Co., c1983, x, 156 p., at pp. 17-42, ISBN: 0884106349;

M.S., Recent Decisions, "Criminal Law and Procedure - The Defense of Entrapment", (1933) 31 Michigan Law Review 1159-1160; deals with Sorrells v. United States (U.S. 1932) 53 Sup. Ct. 210;

MULLOCK, Philip, "The Logic of Entrapment", (1984-85) 46 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 739-753;

MURCHISON, Kenneth M., "The Entrapment Defense in Federal Courts: Emergence of a Legal Doctrine", (1976) 47 Mississsippi Law Journal 211-236;

___________"The Entrapment Defense in Federal Courts: Modern Developments", (1976) 47 Mississippi Law Journal 573-619;

NAGLE, Major James F., "Inconsistent Defences in Criminal Cases", (1981) 92 Military Law Review 77-128; available at (accessed on 18 December 2003);

NATHAN, Irvin B., "ABSCAM: A Fair and Effective Method for Fighting Public Corruption" in Gerald M. Caplan and The Police Foundation, eds., ABSCAM Ethics: Moral Issues and Deception in Law Enforcement,  [Cambridge, Mass.] : Ballinger Pub. Co., c1983, x, 156 p.,  at pp. 1-16, ISBN: 0884106349;

NATIONAL COMMISSION ON REFORM OF FEDERAL CRIMINAL LAWS, Final Report of the National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws - A Proposed New Federal Criminal Code (Title 18, United States Code), Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971, xxv, 364 p., see  §702, "Entrapment" at pp. 58-60; see the research paper by Starrs, infra, done for the National Commission; the proposed code is available on the internet at the Buffalo Criminal Law Center: along with other "Materials on Federal Criminal Code Reform" at;

NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES (GREAT BRITAIN), Entrapment and Official Instigation of Crime: Memorandum to the Law Commission on Working Paper 55, London: National Council for Civil Liberties., 1975, [1], 12 p., ISBN: 0901108421;

NESHEIM, Doug, Case Comment, "Criminal Law - Entrapment:  Illegal Police Conduct Gets Stung by the Entrapment Defense in State v. Kummer.  State v. Kummer, 481 N.W.2d 437 (N.D. 1992)", (1993) 69 North Dakota Law Review 969-997;

NETTUM, Richard Even, "Criminal Procedure - The Entrapment Defense - A Reexamination", (1974) 25 Mercer Law Review 957-967;

NICHOLS, Molly Kathleen, Comment, "Entrapment and Due Process. How Far Is Too Far?", (1984) 58 Tulane Law Review 1207-1235;

NOEL, William, Note and Comment, "Criminal Law - Defenses - Entrapment" (1933) 12 Oregon Law Review 313-316;

Note, "Criminal Law: Entrapment", (1959-60) 11 Hastings Law Journal 88 (less than 1 p.);

Notes, "Entrapment", (1959-60) 73 Harvard Law Review 1333-1345;

Notes, "Entrapment as a Defense to Criminal Prosecution", (1930-31) 44 Harvard Law Review 109-113;

Notes, "Entrapment as Defense in Prosecution for Prohibition Violation", (1932-33) 42 Yale Law Journal 803-804;

Notes, "Entrapment by Government Officials", (1928) 28 Columbia Law Review 1067-1075;

Notes, "The Supervisory Power of the Federal Courts", (1963) 76 Harvard Law Review 1656-1667;

Notes and Comments, "Judicial Control of Secret Agents", (1966-67) 76 Yale Law Journal 994-1019;

Notes and Comments, "The Serpent Beguiled Me and I Did Eat: The Constitutional Status of the Entrapment Defense", (1964-65) 74 Yale Law Journal 942-955;

NSEREKO, Daniel D. Ntanda, "Police Informers and Agents Provocateurs: Accomplices or Handmaidens of the Law? Perspectives from the Courts of Eastern and Southern Africa", (1998-99) 9 Criminal Law Forum 151-169;

NUTTING, Linda M., Case Comments, "Criminal Law - A Significant Divergence from the Traditional Approach to Entrapment: United States v. Rodriguez, 858 F.2d 809 (1st Cir. 1988)", (1989) 23 Suffolk University Law Review 913-920;

O'CONNOR, Peter J., "Entrapment Versus Due Process: A Solution to the Problem of the Criminal Conviction Obtained by Law Enforcement Misconduct", (1978-79) 7 The Fordham Urban Law Journal 35-53;

O'NEILL, Kevin Hackett, Comments, "Entrapment, De Lorean and the Undercover Operation: A Constitutional Connection", (1984-85) 18 The John Marshall Law Review 365-405;

OPACK, Jerry H., Recent Decisions, "Criminal Law - Note: Entrapment by Government Officials as a Matter of Law", (1959) 8 The American University Law Review 58-62;

ORCHARD, G.F., "Unfairly Obtained Evidence and Entrapment", [1980] New Zealand Law Journal 203-208;

ORFIELD, Lester B., "The Defence of Entrapment in the Federal Courts", (1967) Duke Law Journal 39-71;

ORLANDO, Kelly, "Nebraska and the Entrapment Defense: A Movement Toward Positional Predisposition?  State v. Canaday, 263 Neb. 566, 641 N.W. 2d. 13 (2002)", (2004) 82 Nebraska Law Review 866-888;

ORMEROD, D. and A. Roberts, "The Trouible with Teixeira: Developing a Principled Approach to Entrapment", (2002) 6 International Journal of Evidence and Proof 38; note: published London : Blackstone Press, 1996-; title noted in my research noted in my research but article not consulted; no copy of this periodical in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada;

OSCAPELLA, Eugene, "A Study of Informers in England", [1980] Criminal Law Review 136-146;

PARK, Roger (Roger C.), "Entrapment" in Sanford H. Kadish, ed., Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, vol. 2 of 4, New York: The Free Press, A Division of Macmillan, 1983 at pp. 704-708, ISBN: 0029181100 (set of 4 vols.);

__________"The Entrapment Controversy", (1975-76) 60 Minnesota Law Review 163-274;

___________"Would a market-based test clarify entrapment?",  in ICE (International Commentary on Evidence), paper published 14 May 1999, available at (accessed on 12 July 2006);

PATON, Scott C., Notes, "'The Government Made Me Do It': A Proposed Approach to Entrapment under Jacobson v. United States", (1994) 79 Cornell Law Review 995-1044;

PERELLI-MINETTI, C. Robton, Comments, "Causation and Intention in the Entrapment Defence", (1980-81) 28 Universisty of California Los Angeles Law Review 859-905;

PÉREZ, Cynthia, Casenote, "United States v. Jacobson: Are Child Pornography Stings Creative Law Enforcement or Entrapment?", (1991-92) 46 University of Miami Law Review 235-261;

PERKINS, Amy, "Jacobson v. United States - Entrapment redefined? (Case Note)", (1994) 28 New England Law Review 847-880;

PETERS, Trixy M., Recent Case Comments, "Criminal Law - Defenses - Entrapment - Sorrells v. United States", (1932-33) 39 West Virginia Law Review 261-264;

PFEIFFER, Richard, " Proposed Affirmative Defenses of Forced Perpretration, Entrapment, Intoxication and Insanity ", (1972) 33 Ohio State Journal 397-421, see "Entrapment", at pp. 403-409; note: Student Symposium: The Proposed Ohio Criminal Code--Reform and Regression;

PICCARRETA, Michael L. and Jefferson Keenan, "Entrapment Targets and Tactics: Jacobson v. United States", (1993) 29 Criminal Law Bulletin 241-252;

POLYVIOU, P.G., "Illegally Obtained Evidence and R v Sang" in Crime, Proof and Punishment: Essays in Memory of Sir Rupert Cross, London: Butterworths, 1981, xxvi, 336 p. at pp. 226-247, ISBN: 0406569991;

PONSOLDT, James F. and Stephen Marsh, "Entrapment when the Spoken Word is the Crime", (1999-2000) 68 Fordham Law Review 1199-1243;

POOLE, Karen Maausser, Case Note, "When Use of the Entrapment Defense Is Barred; Is There a Viable Alternative?  United States v. Simpson 813 F.2d 1462 (9th Cir. 1987) cert. denied, 108 S. Cr. 233 (1987)",  (1988) 5 Cooley Law Review 203-222;

POWER, Helen, "Entrapment and Gay Rights, (1993) 143 New Law Journal 47-49 and 63;

PREIS, John F., "The Edges of Exculpation in Entrapment Cases", (1999) 6 Vanderbilt Law Review 1869-1909;

PUERTO RICO, The Penal Code of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico of 2004, available at (accessed on 16 June 2006) / in Spanish/en espagnol: Codigo Penal del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico -- Ley Num. 149 de 18 de Junio de 2004, available at (accessed on 16 June 2006);

    "Section 31.- Entrapment.- Whoever commits an offensive act, the criminal intent of which is induced into his mind by scheme, persuasion or fraud of a public officer or a private person acting in collaboration with the public officer, shall not be held liable.

    This exception shall not benefit the coauthor alien to the deceitful inducement of the public officer or the person collaborating with the latter."


    "Artículo 31. Entrampamiento. No incurre en responsabilidad quien realiza el hecho delictivo inducida la intención criminal en su mente por ardid, persuasión o fraude de un agente
del orden público, o de una persona privada actuando en colaboración con el agente.

    Esta causa de exclusión de responsabilidad no beneficia al coautor que está ajeno a la inducción engañosa del agente del orden público o de la persona que con éste colabore."

"R. v. Sang.  Commentary", [1979] Criminal Law Review 656-657;

RANKIN, Lori J., "Casenote.  Entrapment: A Defense for the Willing, Yet, Unready Criminal?: United States v. Hollingsworth, 9 F.3d 593 (7th Cir. 1993), vacated and reh'g en banc granted, 92-2399, 92-2483, 92-2695, 1994 U.S. App. LEXIS 588 (7th Cir. Jan. 10, 1994)", (1994-95) 63 University of Cincinnati Law Review 1487-1517;

RANNEY, James T., "The Entrapment Defense - What Hath the Mode Penal Code Wrought?", (1977-78) 16 Duquesne Law Review 157-166;

RAUBACH, Thomas J., Notes, "Denial of the Crime and the Availability of the Entrapment Defense in the Federal Courts", (1980-81) 22 Boston College Law Review 911-933;

Recent Cases, "Comment.  Criminal Law -Defenses - Defense of Entrapment is Available in Federal Prosecution Although Inducement was by State Officer and Although Defendant Denies Acts Charged", (1956-57) 70 Harvard Law Review 1302-1306;

Recent Cases, "Criminal Law - Defenses - Entrapment as Defense Under the General Issue", (1932-33) 46 Harvard Law Review 848-850; deals with Sorrells v. United States, 53 Sup. Ct. 210 (1932);

Recent Developments in Utah Law, "Criminal Law: An Objective Test for Entrapment",  [1980]  Utah Law Review 680-684; case of State v. Taylor 599 P.2  496 (Utah 1975);

Regina v. Looseley, [2001] UKHL 53 (House of Lords) available at

RENZ, Jeffrey Charles, Casenotes, "Criminal Law - Inconsistent Defenses - Availability of Entrapment Defense to a Defendant Who Denies Elements of a  Crime - Mathews v. United States, 108 S.Ct. 883 (1988-89)", (1989) 19 Cumberland Law Review 435-446;

RHODES, Lori G., "Criminal Procedure - Entrapment - Defendant Has Been Entrapped as a Matter of Law When the Government's Protracted and Insistent Efforts Create in Defendant a Predisposition to Engage in Unlawful Conduct - Jacobson v. United States, 112 S.Ct. 1535 (1992)", (1992-93) 23 Seton Hall Law Review 728-761;

"Right of Criminal Defendant to Raise Entrapment Defense Based on Having Dealt with other Party who was Entrapped", (1993) 14 American Law Reports (5th) 39-91;

RILEY, Michelle, "A Proposed Defence of Entrapment", (1977) 121 Solicitors' Journal (London, England) 384-385;

ROBERTS, A.J., compiled by, Global Digest, "Entrapment (Regulatory Test Purchase) -- Australia 
Robinson v Woolworths Ltd
[2005] N.S.W.C.C.A. 426", [April 2006] Criminal Law Review 379-380;

ROBERTSON, Geoffrey, "Entrapment Evidence: Manna from Heaven, or Fruit of the Poisoned Tree?", [1994] Criminal Law Review 805-816;

ROBINSON, Paul H., 1948-, and John M., Darley, Justice, Liability, and  Blame: Community Views and the Criminal Law, Boulder (Colorado, USA): Westview Press, 1995, xvii, 299 p., ISBN: 0813324505, (Series: New directions in social psychology); see Chapter 5, "Doctrine of Excuse: When Is One's Rule Violation Blameless?" at pp. 127-155, and, in particular, "Study 14: Duress and Entrapment Defenses" at pp. 147-155 and the "Chapter Summary" at p. 155;

ROBINSON, Paul H., Criminal Law Defences, vol. 2 of 2, St. Paul (Minnesota):  West Publishing, 1984,  xxvii, 783 p. (for vol. 2), see in volume 2, "Entrapment" at  pp. 509-524 (series; Criminal Practice Series), ISBN: 0314815139 (series of 2 volumes).

___________"Criminal Law Defenses: A Systematic Analysis", (1982) 82 Columbia Law Review 199-291, see "Entrapment: Excuse or Nonexculpatory Defense?" at pp. 236-239;

ROFFER, Michael H., Note, "Pleading the Entrapment Defense, The Propriety of Inconsistency", (1983-84) 28 New York Law School Law Review 1025-1078;

ROIPHE, Rebecca, "The Serpent Beguiled Me: A History of the Entrapment Defense", (2003) 33(2) Seton Hall Law Review 257-302;

___________Law and the modern soul, 1870-1930, Ph. D. thesis, University of Chicago, 2002, 256 leaves, and see  "The Serpent Beguiled Me: A History of the Entrapment Defense", at pp. 125-182;

ROOT, Roger, "The Serpent Beguiled Me and l (Without Scienter) Did Eat  -- Denial of Crime and the Entrapment Defense, [1973] University of Illinois Law Forum 254-278;

ROSER, W.G., "Entrapment: Have the Courts Found a Solution to this Fundamental Dilemma to the Criminal Justice System?", (1993) 67 Australian Law Journal 722-743; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada;

ROSS, Jacqueline E., "Impediments to Transnational Cooperation in Undercover Policing: A Comparative Study of the United States and Italy", (2004) 52 The American Journal of Comparative Law 569-623, and see "Societal Norms, Police Norms, and Two Views of Entrapment", at pp. 577-581 and "Conception of Entrapment", at pp. 604-605;

ROSS, Mary Massaron, Notes, "Entrapment Reconsidered: A Nonexculpatory Defense Based on the Need for Reciprocity Between the Government and the Governed", (1988-89) 35 Wayne Law Review 99-118;

ROSSUM, Ralph A., "The Entrapment Defense And The Supreme Court On Defining The Limits of Political Responsibility", (1976-77) 7 Memphis State University Law Review 367-401;

___________"The Entrapment Defense and the Teaching of Political Responsibility: The Supreme Court as Republican Schoolmaster", (1978) 6 American Journal of Criminal Law 287-306;

ROTENBERG, Daniel L., "Entrapment"  in Christopher Berry Gray, ed., The Philosophy of Law: An Encyclopedia, New York Garland Publishing, 1999, 2 volumes ( xxxviii, 950 p.), in vol. 1, at pp. 257-258 (series; Garland reference library of the humanities ; vol. 1743), ISBN: 0815313446;

__________"The Police Detection Practice of Encouragement", (1963) 49 Virginia Law Review 871-903;

ROTHSTEIN, Elliot, "United States v. Hollingsworth: The Entrapment Defense and the Neophyte Criminal - When the Commission of a Criminal Act Does Not Constitute a Crime", (1995) 17 Western New England Law Review 303-335;

RUBIN, John, The entrapment defense in North Carolina, [Chapel Hill] : Institute of Government, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001, viii, 103 p., ISBN:156011388X; title noted in my research but book not consulted;

RYU, Paul Kichyun, "The New Korean Criminal Code of October 3, 1953.  An Analysis of Ideologies Embedded in It", (1957) 48 Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 275-295, see "Entrapment" at pp. 291-292;

SAGARIN, Edward and Donal E. MacNamara, "The Problem of Entrapment", (1970) 16 Crime and Delinquency 363-378; see the interesting "legal, or ...sociological, questions" by Gerhard Mueller et al. at p. 378;

SANDY, Carolyn Smith, "The Michigan Entrapment Defense: Review and Analysis", (1983-84) 61 University of  Detroit  Journal of Urban Law 287-304;

SCHNEIDER, J.R., Notes, "Criminal Law - Capacity to Commit And Responsibility for Crime - Defense of Entrapment Allowed to Procurer - Cooper v. State, 288 S.W. 2d. 762 (Tex. Crim. App. 1956)", (1956-57) 35 Texas Law Review 129-131;

SCHREIBSTEIN, Jerry, "Entrapment in Light of  Mathews v. United States: the Propriety of Inconsistency and the Need for 0bjectivity", (1989-90) 24 University of San Francisco Law Review 541-570;  

SCHULTZ, Catherine A., "Victim or the Crime?  The Government's Burden of Proving Predisposition in Federal Entrapment Cases", (1998-99) 48 The DePaul Law Review 949-986;

SCHWARTZ, Louis B., "Reform of the Federal Criminal Laws: Issues, Tactics and Prospects", [1977] Duke Law Journal 171-230, and see "Entrapment" at pp. 208-209;

SEIDMAN, Louis Michael,  "Entrapment and the 'Free Market' for Crime" , 6 June 2008, available at SSRN: (accessed on 11 June 2008);

___________"The Supreme Court, Entrapment, and our Criminal Justice Dilemma", (1981) The Supreme Court Review 111-155; available at (accessed on 25 March 2008);

SEIDMAN, Louis Michael, et al., "Entrapment and the 'Free Market' for Crime",  in Paul H. Robinson, Stephen P. Garvey and Kimberly Kessler Ferzan, eds., Criminal Law Conversations, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, xxvii, 732 p., Chapter 209, at pp. 493-513, ISBN: 9780195391633 and 0195391632; copy at Fauteux, K5018 .C753 2009;
Table of Contents
- Louis Michael Seidman, Entrapment and the 'Free Market' for Crime, 493-503;
- Sherry F. Colb -- Making Sense of Entrapment Law After the Death of Lochner, 503;
- Miriam Baer -- Entrapment and the Quandary of the Undercover Investigation, 505;
- Bruce Hay  -- An Enforcement Policy Perspective on Entrapment, 507;
- Richard H. McAdamsl -- The Entrapment Defense Defended, 509;
- Louis Michael Seidman, 512;

SHARPE, Sybil, "Covert Policing: A Comparative View", (1996) 25 Anglo-American Law Review 163-187;

___________"Sang Revisited - Judicial Approval of Police Incitement", (1991) 155 Justice of the Peace 761-762;

SHERMAN, Lawrence W., "From Whodunet to Who Does It: Fairness and Target Selection in Deceptive Investigations" in Gerald M. Caplan and The Police Foundation, eds., ABSCAM Ethics: Moral Issues and Deception in Law Enforcement,  [Cambridge, Mass.] : Ballinger Pub. Co., c1983, x, 156 p., at pp. 118-134, ISBN: 0884106349;

__________"Reinventing Probable Cause: Target Selection in Proactive Investigations",  (1987) 43(3) Journal of Social Issues 87-94;

SHERRILL Jr., William C., "Notes.  The Defense of Entrapment: A Plea for Constitutional Standards", (1967) 20 University of Florida Law Review 63-83;

SILBERT, Earl, Entrapment in the United States, 1960, 50 p.; copy at Harvard University; document not consulted;

SKOLNICK, Jerome H., "Deception by Police"  in Frederick A. Elliston and Michael Feldberg, eds., Moral Issues in Police Work, Totowa (New Jersey):  Rowman and Allanheld, 1985 309 p., at pp. 75-98, ISBN: 0847671917 and 0847671925 (pbk.);

___________"The Risks of Covert Facilitation",  (1987) 43(3) Journal of Social Issues 79-85;

SMITH, Emily K., Case Note, "Sex, Lies, and Entrapment: United States v. Jacobson", (1991) 24 Creighton Law Review 1075-1096;

SMITH, K.J.M., "The Law Commission Working Paper No. 55 on Codification of the Criminal Law, Defenses of General Application: Official Instigation and Entrapment", [1975] Criminal Law Review 12-22;

SMITH, Kevin A., Note, "Psychology, Factfinding, and Entrapment", (2005) 103 Michigan Law Review 759-806;

SOUTH AFRICAN LAW COMMISSION, The application of the trapping system, [Pretoria] : The Commission, [1994], xvii, 77 p.,  (series; Working paper / South African Law Commission ; 52) (series;  Project/South African Law Commission; 84); ISBN: 062115959X;  text not consulted; information from the Harvard University catalogue on line (Hollis);

___________The application of the trapping system : report, [Pretoria] : The Commission, [1994], xvi, 115 p. (series; Project ; 84); NOTES: Cover title: Report on the application of the trapping system "October 1994.";  ISBN: 0621168963; text not consulted;  information from the Harvard University catalogue on line (Hollis);

SPENCER, Keith  and Orla Veale-Martin, "Fashioning an Irish entrapment doctrine based on international experience", (2005) 15(2) Irish Criminal Law Journal 2-8;

SQUIRES, Daniel, The Law of entrapment : problems in theory and practice and a suggestion for reform, Thesis (LL.M.), Harvard Law School, 1997; text not consulted;

STARRS, James, E., "Comment on Entrapment: Section 702" in Working Papers of the National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws,  vol.1, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970, xxv, 742 p., at pp. 303-350;

STAVSKY, Mark M., "The 'Sting' Reconsidered: Organized Crime, Corruption and Entrapment", (1984-85) 16 Rutgers Law Journal  937-989;

STEVENSON, Drury (Dru), "Entrapment and Terrorism" (March 30, 2007). Available at SSRN: (accessed on 4 April 2007);  (2008) 49 Boston College Law Review 125-215; available at (accessed on 16 December 2007);

___________"Enrapment and the problem of Deterring Police Misconduct", (2004) 37(1) Connecticut Law Review 67-153; with the same title at  Express O Preprint Series, 2004, paper 147, 95 p., available at (accessed on 15 July 2005);

_________"Entrapment by Numbers", (2005) 16 University of Florida Journal of Law and Public Policy 1-75;

STITT, B. Grant and Gene G. James, "Entrapment: An Ethical Analysis"  in Frederick A. Elliston and Michael Feldberg, eds., Moral Issues in Police Work, Totowa (New Jersey):  Rowman and Allanheld, 1985 309 p., at pp. 129-145, ISBN: 0847671917 and 0847671925 (pbk.);

___________"Entrapment and the Entrapment Defense: Dilemmas for a Democratic Society", (1984) 3 Law and Philosophy 111-131;

STOTLAND, Ezra, "Taking the Crime out of Covert Facilitation",  (1987) 43(3) Journal of Social Issues 95-100;

STRENG, Franz, "Sentencing in Germany – Basic Questions and New Developments", (1 February 2007) 8(2) German Law Journal; available at (accessed on 9 September 2007);

"Being seduced by an overzealous agent provocateur to commit a criminal act is accepted as a special case for mitigation. This mitigation is in some respect unrelated to both the offender’s guilt and utilitarian objectives. The guilt of the offender, who has been persuaded to commit the crime by a member of the prosecution services and has not been conspicuous before, is to be graded on a comparatively low level.  But the mitigation of the punishment is not only necessitated by the marginal guilt of the offender; the conduct of the prosecuting authorities requires the judiciary to reduce or even abandon punishment."

STRUTZ, William A., Notes, "Doctrine of Entrapment", (1959) 35 North Dakota Law Review 144-151;

SUGARMAN, Joseph, Notes and Comments, "CRIMINAL LAW -- ENTRAPMENT. Sorrells v. United States", 53 Sup. Ct. 210 (1932)", (1933) 13 Boston University Law Review 293-298;

SULLIVAN, J. Patrick, Case Note, "The Evolution of the Federal Law of Entrapment: A Need for a New Approach: Jacobson v. United States", (1993) 58 Missouri Law Review 403-426;

TAMAN, L., "Judicial Approaches to Entrapment: R. v. Sang", (1981) 23 Malaya Law Review 286-296;

TANFORD, J. Alexander, "Entrapment: Guidelines for Counsel and the Courts", (1977) 13 Criminal Law Bulletin 5-29;

TAWIL, David D., " 'Ready? Induce. Sting!'  Arguing for the Government's Burden of Proving Readiness in Entrapment Cases", (1999-2000) 98 Michigan Law Review 2371-2394;

TAYLOR, Steven L., "The Defense of Entrapment: Next Move -- Due Process?", [1971] Utah Law Review 266-274

TEMKIN, Jennifer, "Police Traps", (1974) 37 Modern Law Review 102-104;

TEMPLE, Ronald E., Notes, "Entrapped!  Jacobson v. United States: When the Qest to Convict Child Pornographers Goes Too Far", (1993) 38 South Dakota Law Review 147-172;

THAN, Claire De, "Entrapment Is No Defence: R. v. Shannon, The Times (11 October 2000)", (2001) 65 Journal of Criminal Law 124-126 ;

THOMAS, Mark, "Sentencing Entrapment: How Far Should the Federal Courts Go?", (1996-1997) 33 Idaho Law Review 147-183;

THOMSON III, Robert H., "Elevation of Entrapment to a Constitutional Defence", (1973-74) 7 University of Michigan Journal of Law Refom361-387;

TIFFANY, Lawrence P., Donald M. McIntyre, Jr., and Daniel L. Rotenberg;  and as editor, Frank J. Remington, Detection of Crime: Stopping and Questioning, Search and Seizure, Encouragement and Entrapment: The Report of the American Bar Foundation's Survey of the Administration of Criminal Justice in the United States,  Boston: Little, Brown, 1967, xxx, 286 p.;

TODD, Dana M., Notes, "In Defense of the Outrageous Government Conduct Defense in the Federal Courts", (1995-96) 84 Kentucky Law Journal 415-445;

TRECHSEL, Stefan, Human Rights in criminal proceedings, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, cx, 611 p., and see "Entrapment" at pp. 111-113, ISBN: 0198299362; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, KJE 9405 T74 2005; discusses, inter alia, Teixeira de Castro v. Portugal, 9 June 1998, Reports 1998-IV, 1451, (1999) 28 EHRR 101; 1999 EuGRZ 660; and Edwards and Lewis v. United Kingdom, nos. 39647/98 and 40461/98, 22 July 2003;

UNITED KINGDOM, The Associations of Chief Police Officers, Codes of Practice on Covert Law Enforcement, 1999, available on the internet  from the NCIS (National Criminal Intelligence Service)  web site;  it contains code 4: Undercover Operations Code of  Practice;

UNITED STATES, United States Attorney's Manual, Title 9, "Criminal", part 0-18.000,  Entrapment covers: "Elements", Criminal Resource Manual at 645; "Recent Entrapment Cases", Criminal Resource Manual at 646; "Proving Predisposition", Criminal Resource Manual at 647; "Outrageous Government Conduct", Criminal Resource Manual at 648; as seen at on 4 December 2000;

UNITED STATES, U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Investigative Division, Investigative Support Section, Undercover and Sensitive Operations Unit, Attorney General's Guidelines on FBI Undercover Operations Revised 11/13/92, 21 p.; research note: obtained from the Department of Justice Canada under Access to Information Act request A-2000-0085, pages 001114-001135;

UNITED STATES, Congress, Senate, Select Committee to Study Law Enforcement Undercover Activities of Components of the Dept. of Justice, Final report of the Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Department of Justice, to the U.S. Senate, Washington : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1983,  790 p. (series; Senate Report / 97th Congress, 2d session, Senate ; no. 97-682); book not consulted; information from Harvard on line catalogue (Hollis);

United States Supreme Court Decisions:
     Sorrells v. United States,   287 U.S. 435 (1932)
     Sherman v. United Staes,  356 U.S. 369 (1958)
     United States v. Russell,    411 U.S. 423 (1973)
     Hampton v. United States, 425 U.S. 484 (1976)
     Jacobson v. United States, 503 U.S. 540 (1992)

URBANSKY, Rachael, "Seducing the Target: Sexual Intercourse as Outrageous Government Conduct", (1999-2000) 50 Case Western Reserve Law Review 729-757;

VALKENEER, Christian de, La tromperie dans l'administration de la preuve pénale: analyse en droits belge et international complétée par des éléments
de droits français et néerlandais / Christian De Valkeneer ; préface de Henri-D. Bosly, Bruxelles : Larcier, 2000, 711 p., ISBN: 2804406806;
voir "La provocation au délit par un agent de l'autorité ou une personne agissant pour le compte de celle-ci", aux pp. 266-297;
voir la Table des matières et des extraits à
with+criminals+supergrasses+crown+witnesses+and+pentiti%22#PPA705,M1 et
+with+criminals+supergrasses+crown+witnesses+and+pentiti%22 (vérifiés le 5 janvier 2008);

VEILLEUX, Danny R., "Actions  by State Official Involving Defendant as Constituting 'Outrageous' Conduct Violating Due Process Guaranties", (1994) 18 American Law Reports, Annotated (5th) 1-186; see  at pp. 23-24 for a list of annotations published in the American Law Reports, Annotated;

VERCHER, Antonio, Terrorism in Europe.  An International Comparative Legal Analysis , Oxford: Clarendon Press and New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, xxiii, 454 p., and see "Informers and Agents Provocateurs", at pp. 295; ISBN: 0198254377; note: based on the author's Ph. D. thesis at University of Cambridge; copy at the University of Ottawa, KJC 8780 .V47 1992;

VERRONE, Patric M., Notes "The Abscam Investigation: Use and Abuse of Entrapment and Due Process Defenses", (1983-84) 25 Boston College Law Review 351-381;

VICTOR, Brian, Case Note, "The Citizen and the Serpent: State v. Rockholt and Entrapment in New Jersey", (1986) 38 Rutgers Law Review 589-617;

WAPNICK, Kenneth Jay, Notes, "New Statutory Defence of Entrapment", (1965-1966) 32 Brooklyn Law Review 353-386;

WEBSTER, Laura Gardner, "Building a Better Mousetrap: Reconstructing Federal Entrapment Theory from Sorrells to Mathews", (1990) 32 Arizona Law Review 605-644;

WELLS, Colin, "Entrapment - Colin Wells reports on two recent House of Lords cases relating to the admission of evidence based on police entrapment and incitement to commit crime", (30 November 2001), vol. 145, number 45, Solicitors Journal 1102-1103; R v Looseley and AG Reference (no 3 of 2000), [2001] UKHL 53;

WENDER, Lana, "Mathews v. United States: Simultaneous Denial of Crime and Claim of Entrapment - Should Inconsistency Preclude Availability of the Entrapment Defense?", (1988-89) 23 Georgia Law Review 257-274;

WEYAND, Erich, Comment, "Entrapment: From Sorrells to Jacobson - The Development Continues", (1993) 20 Ohio Northern University Law Review 293;

WHELAN, Maura F.J., "Lead Us Not Into (Unwarranted) Temptation: A Proposal to Replace the Entrapment Defense with a Reasonable-Suspicion Requirement", (1985) 133 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1193-1230;

WIGGINS, Elisabeth C. and Shannon R. Wheatman, "So What's a Concerned Psychologist to Do?  Translating the Research on Interrogation, Confessions, and Entrapment into Policy", in G. Daniel Lassiter, 1954-, ed., Interrogations, confessions, and entrapment, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, c2004, xix, 290 p., see Chapter 12, at pp. 265 to approx. 280 (series; Perspectives in law & psychology; volume 20), ISBN: 0306484706; title noted in my research but book not consulted yet; no copy of this book in the Ottawa area libraries covered by the AMICUS catalogue of Library and Archives Canada (verification of 20 November 2005);

WILLIAMS, John B., "Entrapment -- A Legal Limitation on Police Techniques", (1957-58) 48 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 343-348;

WILLIAMS, Paul W., "The Defense of Entrapment and Related Problems in Criminal Prosecution", (1959-60), 28 Fordham Law Review 399-418;

WINTER, Bill, "Probing the Probers; Does Abscam Go Too Far?", (1982) 68 American Bar Association Journal 1347-1350 (issue of November 1982);

WITKES, Neil, Notes, "Entrapment and Unwitting Intermediaries: Opposition to the Direct Inducement Requirement", (1982) 62 Boston University Law Review 929--963;

WORRALL, John L., "Entrapment as a Defense to Criminal Liability",  in Richard A. Wright and J. Mitchell Miller, eds., Encyclopedia of Criminology,  Scarborough : Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2004, vol. 1, at pp. 501-502; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, HV 61017 E53 2005 REF;

WITTEN, Todd E., "Sentence Entrapment and Manipulation: Government Manipulation of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines", (1995-96) 29 Akron Law Review 697-735;

WOLF, Troy A., "Criminal Law- Persisting Pays: Enforcement Efforts to Solicit Illegal Activity - United States v. Hinton, 908 F.2d 355 (8th Cir. 1990)",  (1991) 17 William Mitchell Law Review 913-943;

WOOD, W.H., "Entrapment by Public Officiers as a Defense Against Criminal Prosecution", (1933) 38 Dickenson Law Review 191-197;

YASUDA, Ted K., Notes, "Entrapment as a Due Process Defense: Developments After Hampton v. United States", (1981-82) 57 Indiana Law Journal 89-130;

YEO, Stanley, Case Comment, "Entrapment and the Perimeters of Criminal Liability: How Poh Sun v. P.P.", [1992] Singapore Journal of Legal Studies 202-209;

YOSHIBA, Michael F., Notes, "Postman, Please Don't Lead Us Into Temptation", (1993) 24 University of West Los Angeles Law Review 353-377;

YOUNG, George, Case Notes, "Criminal Law - Entrapment as a Defense", (1955-56) 8 Alabama Law Review 374-379;

ZABRISKIE, Michael O., "If the Postman Always 'Stings' Twice, Who Is the Next Target? - An Examination of the Entrapment Theory", (1993) 19 Journal of  Contemporary Law 217-249;

ZALE, Susan E., "People v. Juillet, The Entrapment Test: A Michigan Hybrid", (1992) Detroit College of Law Review 933-960;

ZIMMERMAN, Clifford S., "Toward a New Vision of informants: A History of Abuses and  Suggestions for Reform", (1994-1995) 22 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly: 81-178, and see "Informant Set-Ups and Entrapment", at pp. 116-121;

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