Canadian Military Law/
Droit militaire canadien

updated and corrections / mise à jour et corrections: 20 April 2017
By/par © François Lareau, 1998-, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada



Part I Court Martial Comprehensive Review -- 2016-2017

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Other sites on military law

-Part I -- Canadian Military Law -- Miscellaneous

Blog

- Somalia Inquiry & Government Reaction
      -  1995-1997: Somalia Inquiry
      - 
Departmental Reaction to Somalia Inquiry
      -  Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services
          January 1997 to July 1997
     
-  The Special Senate Committee on the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia (April 1997)
      - 
Report to the Prime Minister on the Leadership and Management of the Canadian Forces (March 1997)
        - 
Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change in the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces (October 1997 to 1999)
         -
Bill C-25--An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
        
(Royal Assent, 10 December 1998)
       -
2003 -- Five Year Review of Bill C-25
       - 2011 -- Second Five Year Review of Bill C-25    
         

Governments Bills 1999-2012 on National Defence Act

- Current Affairs -- Sexual Misconduct

- Court Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-2017

- JAG & DND Web Sites

- Laws, Regulations and Orders

-
Superseded Legislation

- Web Sites of Interest


Part II -- Canadian Military Law -- Bibliography
 A-B--C-D--E-G--H-L--M-R--S-Z

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Starting here:


Court Martial Comprehensive Review -- 2016-2017





Image source: http://ottawacitizen.com/author/leeberthiaume, accessed 26 September 2016
Lee Berthiaume
BERTHIAUME, Lee, "Une réforme du système judiciaire de l'armée canadienne s'amorce", La Presse.ca, publié le 9 octobre 2016; disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/national/201610/09/01-5028912-une-reforme-du-systeme-judiciaire-de-larmee-canadienne-samorce.php (vérifié 9 octobre 2016);


___________"Canadian Forces review of military justice system could see sexual assaults handled by civilian courts", The National Post 2016, 9 October 2016; available at (accessed 10 October 2016);


___________"Canadian military to consider leaving sex crimes with civilian courts", www.thestar.com, 9 October 2016, available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2016/10/09/canadian-military-to-consider-leaving-sex-crimes-with-civilian-courts.html (accessed 9 October 2016);






CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, Chief Of Military Personnel, Progress Report Addressing Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour,  August 30, 2016, Covering the period January through June 2016, Prepared for the Chief of the Defence Staff by the Chief of Military Personnel; available at  http://forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/about-report-pubs-op-honour/op-honour-progress-report-29-aug-2016.pdf and http://forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-op-honour/2016/second-progress-report.page (accessed 29 February 2016);
Court Martial Comprehensive Review

The Judge Advocate General has recently directed the completion of a comprehensive review of the court martial system. The purpose of the review is to conduct a legal and policy analysis of all aspects of the Canadian Armed Forces’ court martial system and, where appropriate, to develop and analyze options to enhance the effectiveness, efficiency, and legitimacy of that system and then assess whether changes to any features of the system are required or advisable in order to promote greater systemic effectiveness, efficiency, or legitimacy. In terms of harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour, the review will examine all offences of a sexual nature to determine whether there is a requirement to update or add any service offences to the existing legislation. It will also evaluate if current sentencing provisions are appropriate and if additional measures should be taken to protect the rights or interests of victims.

It is significant that all members of the Court Martial Comprehensive Review Team are intimately familiar with the External Review Authority report, including its ten seminal recommendations. They are also fully aware of the Chief of the Defence Staff's and the Judge Advocate General’s orders relating to Operation HONOUR. Additionally, the Judge Advocate General has required that any options considered by the team as a means of achieving greater effectiveness, efficiency, or legitimacy within the court martial system are to be consistent with efforts that are being undertaken by other authorities in support of Operation HONOUR.  The review team will deliver its final report to the Judge Advocate General no later than July 2017.




CANADIAN FORCES, JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, 2015-2016, Annual Report of the Judge Advocate General: A report to the Minister of National Defence on the Administration of Military Justice from 1 April 2015 to 31 March 2016, [Ottawa, 2016], [1], iv, 43 p., Cat. No. D1-16E-PDF, ISSN: ISSN 1497-7192; available at (accessed 28 July 2016); available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2015-16/index.page (accessed 28 July 2016);

Court Martial Comprehensive Review

The Court Martial Comprehensive Review Team, to be led by the Deputy JAG for Military Justice and additionally comprised of three legal officers, will be conducted in accordance with Terms of Reference issued by the JAG. The purpose of the comprehensive review is to conduct a legal and policy analysis of all aspects of the CAF’s court martial system and, where appropriate, to develop and analyse options to enhance the effectiveness, efficiency, and legitimacy of that system.

At the outset, the Court Martial Comprehensive Review Team will assess the current court martial system’s effectiveness, efficiency, and legitimacy and then will assess whether changes to any features of this system are required or advisable in order to promote greater systemic effectiveness, efficiency, or legitimacy. The Court Martial Comprehensive Review Team will consider the following subject matter areas:

  • The status and institutional structure of tribunals/courts with jurisdiction over service offences, including whether they ought to be: military or civilian in character; permanent or ad hoc entities; and, capable of deploying to austere or hostile environments inside and outside of Canada;
  • The status and institutional structure of a prosecution service with responsibility for prosecuting service offences, including whether this service ought to be military or civilian in character, and capable of deploying to austere or hostile environments inside and outside of Canada;
  • The mechanism through which defence counsel services are provided to persons accused of committing service offences, including whether such services ought to be: provided by military or civilian lawyers; provided in whole or in part at public expense; and, capable of being provided within austere or hostile environments inside and outside of Canada;
  • The substantive body of service offences, including full consideration of whether any current offences ought to be updated or repealed, and whether any additional offences ought to be added;
  • The punishments, sanctions, and sentencing laws that apply in respect of service offences, including full consideration of whether any current sentencing provisions ought to be updated or repealed, and whether any additional sentencing options ought to be added;
  • The laws of evidence that ought to apply at trials in respect of service offences;
  • The rights, grounds, and mechanisms of appeal that ought to exist for the Crown and for persons subject to the Code of Service Discipline; and,
  • The special needs of any particular groups who may interact with the military justice system, including victims, young persons, and aboriginal offenders.

The comprehensive review will commence no later than July 2016 and will produce a completed report deliverable to the JAG by July 2017. [Chapter 2, pp. 10-11]


COURT MARTIAL COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

Image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-court-martial-comprehensive-review/index.page, accessed 12 October 2016


      Terms of reference in pdf format at http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/court-martial-comprehensive-review.pdf (accessed 29 July 2016);

      . Consultation document at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-court-martial-comprehensive-review/index.page (accessed 12 October 2016)
      .  Document de consultation http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/a-propos-rapports-pubs-droit-militaire-revision-globale-cour-martiale/index.page (vérifié le 12 octobre 2016)


Michel Drapeau
DRAPEAU, Michel, "Aliens in their own land?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 April 2017, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/aliens-in-their-own-land.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 4 April 2017);


___________ "An independent and external review of the military justice system is absolutely required", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 October 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/10/an-independent-and-external-review-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 12 October 2016);



___________"A call to action for the Canadian Parliament", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 7 April 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/a-call-to-action-for-canadian-parliament.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 8 April 2017);
 


___________"Canadians expect, are entitled to and deserve a modern, equitable system of military justice", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 April 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/canadians-expect-are-entitled-to-and.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 12 April 2017);



__________''The Canadian JAG office is clearly behind the times", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 April 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/the-canadian-jag-office-is-clearly.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 12 April 2017);
 
 

___________ "CF Court Martial Comprehensive Review requires full transparency to gain credibility",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 15 July 2016, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/07/cf-court-martial-comprehensive-review_25.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 26 July 2015);



___________"Jack of all trades?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 April 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/jack-of-all-trades.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 20 April 2017);



___________"Démodé and passé!",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 18 April 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/demode-and-passe.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 19 April 2017);


___________"Thumbing its nose at the mock of the parliamentary process", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 5 April 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/thumbing-its-nose-at-mock-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 6 April 2017);


___________"Time for a full-scale parliamentary review of Canada's National Defence Act", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 6 April 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/time-for-full-scale-parliamentary.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 7 April 2017);


___________"Who should conduct Canada's review of its military justice system?",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 November 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/11/in-october-2015-judge-advocate-general.html  (accessed 15 November 2016);

It is Parliament NOT the military that needs to embark upon a review of the scope of jurisdiction of the Canadian penal military justice system and the resulting modus operandi of the court martial system. Therefore, they write, only soft reforms acceptable and compatible with the military mind and the views of the chain of command are likely to result from this in-house JAG self-initiated review of the military justice system. 

These in-house reforms would have no significant effect as they would permit the JAG to continue lording over this broken military justice system.  See Opinion Piece; "It's time for a civilian review of the military justice system" published today in Hill Times (the Parliamentary Precinct newspaper).


DRAPEAU, Michel, Gilles Létourneau, "Opinion: It’s time for a civilian review of the military justice system", The Hill Times, 15 November 2016;
Over the past decade or so, the JAG has been conferred a plenipotentiary mandate over the administration of the military penal and disciplinary justice system. The JAG has monopolistic authority for providing advice to all stakeholders in the system on practices, procedures, development, and reforms. (source: https://www.hilltimes.com/2016/11/14/civilian-review-military-justice-system-required/86788    , accessed 15 November 2016)

photo source: http://rusi.ca/military-matters, accessed on 9 November 2014
Tim Dunne
DUNNE, Tim, "OPINION: Military justice system in need of reform.  Sexual assault in the Canadian Armed Forces is a persistent problem stretching back decades", Herald Opinions, available at http://thechronicleherald.ca/opinion/1436157-opinion-military-justice-system-in-need-of-reform  (accessed 28 January 2017);


____________"OPINION: Putting military in charge of reviewing its own justice system is an impossible conflict", Herald Opinions, available at http://thechronicleherald.ca/opinion/1425143-opinion-putting-military-in-charge-of-reviewing-its-own-justice-system-is-an-impossi (accessed 17 December 2016);



Image source: feldesmantucker.com/professionals/eugene-r-fidell, accessed on 7 April 2014
Eugene R. Fidell
FIDELL, Eugene R., "The Canadian military justice review", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 17 December 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/12/the-canadian-military-justice-review.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 18 December 2016);



http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca
___________ "Is major change afoot in Canada?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 9 October 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/10/is-major-change-afoot-in-canada.html  (accessed 12 October 2016);




___________"New book on Canadian military justice", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 30 March 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/03/new-book-on-canadian-military-justice.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed 31 March 2017);
The book comes as the Office of the Judge Advocate General has been conducting a review of the Canadian military
justice system. In the authors' view, the terms of reference for that review are too narrow, and a more comprehensive
review is required. They hope that Behind the Times may inspire and assist in understanding the challenges the system
faces, and some areas in need of urgent reform.


__________"Public comments: Canadian comprehensive review", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 24 February 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/02/public-comments-canadian-comprehensive.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed 27 February 2017);



___________"Reform in Canada: curtain up!", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 October 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/10/reform-in-canada-curtain-up.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 12 October 2016);




LA HAYE, Dominique, "Consultations publiques sur les cours martiales.  De la «poudre aux yeux», selon Michel Drapeau", TVA Nouvelles, Agence QMI, 11 octobre 2016, disponible à http://www.tvanouvelles.ca/2016/10/11/de-la-poudre-aux-yeux-selon-michel-drapeau (visité 27 février 2017);



LÉTOURNEAU, Gilles, "Le principe du cordonnier mal chaussé", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 April 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/le-principe-du-cordonnier-mal-chausse.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed 4 April 2017);



___________"The CBA's answer to the Canadian JAG's Court Martial Review" Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 April 2017, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/04/the-cbas-answer-to-canadian-jags-court.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed 4 April 2017);


__________ "Principaux enjeux et défis du droit militaire canadien",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 30 March 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/03/principaux-enjeux-et-defis-du-droit.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed 31 March 2017);
Le droit militaire est en mal de réformes substantives nécessaires pour entrer dans l'ère de la modernité et corriger les injustices qu'il comporte.
Immédiatement il m'en vient à l'esprit.  Une dizaine que je désire porter à l’attention des lecteurs et développer dans une courte série de blogues.
Énumérons-les.





LÉTOURNEAU, Gilles, 1945- and Michel Drapeau, 1943-, Modernization of Canadian Military Criminal Justice: Behind the Times, 2017, 114 pages; available at http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Behind-The-Times.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017);  for more information, please contact: Michel Drapeau Law Office, 192 Somerset West • Ottawa, Ontario • K2P 0J4, Tel: 613-236-2657 • Fax: 613-236-747, info@mdlo.ca







Image source: , accessed 11 December 2016
Stéphane Parent
PARENT, Stéphane, "L’inclusion de civils dans le système judiciaire de l’armée canadienne est envisagé", RCI Radio-Canada, 10 octobre 2013; disponible à http://www.rcinet.ca/fr/2016/10/10/linclusion-de-civils-dans-le-systeme-judiciaire-de-larmee-canadienne-est-envisage/ (vérifié 17 octobre 2016);




PUGLIESE, David, "New book calls for reform of outdated Canadian military justice system", The Ottawa Citizen, 1 April 2017; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/new-book-calls-for-reform-of-outdated-canadian-military-justice-system (accessed 9 April 2017);




Marc-André Séguin
SÉGUIN, Marc-André, "Quelle portée pour le droit militaire?  Le système judiciaire des Forces armées canadiennes planche sur sa première réforme d'importance depuis les années 50, alors que l'état de la justice militaire du Canada accuse un retard important vis-à-vis ses alliés", (Décembre 2016 / janvier 2017), volume 48, numéro 10 Le Journal -- Barreau du Québec 24; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/fr/publications/journal/archives/volume-48/201610/#24/z (vérifié le 9 décembre 2016);