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updated and corrections / mises à jour et corrections: 18 August 2017

Canadian Military Law -- Part II
Bibliography E to G /

Droit militaire canadien -- Partie II
Bibliographie E à G



Other sites on military law

Part II -- Bibliography: A-B--C-D--E-G--H-L--M-R--S-Z

Part I  --  Canadian Military Law -- Miscellaneous

- Blog

- Somalia Inquiry & Government Reaction
      -  1995-1997: Somalia Inquiry
Departmental Reaction to Somalia Inquiry
      -  Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services
          January 1997 to July 1997
-  The Special Senate Committee on the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia (April 1997)
Report to the Prime Minister on the Leadership and Management of the Canadian Forces (March 1997)
Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change in the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces (October 1997 to 1999)
Bill C-25--An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
(Royal Assent, 10 December 1998)
2003 -- Five Year Review of Bill C-25
      - 2011 -- Second Five Year Review of Bill C-25

Governments Bills 1999-2012 on National Defence Act

- Current Affairs -- Sexual Misconduct

- Court Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-2017

- JAG & DND Web Sites

- Laws, Regulations and Orders

Superseded Legislation

- Web Sites of Interest


Starting here:

Bibliography E to G  /
Bibliographie E à G

Image source: http://www.thetelegram.com/?controllerName=photo&page=1&contextId=1207030
, accessed 16 April 2015
EASTLAKE, Darja, notes on;

Major Darja Eastlake is the Deputy Judge Advocate of CFB Gagetown. Her career in the Canadian Forces began in 1988
when she joined the Reserves. Much of her career in the Reserves focused on human intelligence and she was deployed
twice to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In 1993, Major Eastlake began her undergraduate studies in languages at the University of Toronto. Upon finishing her
degree, she became a Police Officer with the Halton Regional Police Service and later with the Toronto Police Service.

Major Eastlake began her studies in law at the University of Windsor in 2001. She articled with the Federal Department
of Justice, completing rotations in Civil Litigation, Tax, Aboriginal Law, and Prosecutions. She was called t o the Alberta
Bar in 2006. Upon moving to New Brunswick in 2007, she joined our provincial bar.

That same year, Major Eastlake became a member of the Regular Forces as a Legal Officer. In 2008, she was posted as
the Deputy Judge Advocate for the Combat Training Centre and later as the Deputy Judge Advocate for 3 ASG/CFB Gagetown
in July 2011. She returned to this position after deployment onboard the HMCS Vancouver for operations off the coast of Libya.
(source:  2012 Annual International Humanitarian Law Conference, www.unb.ca/fredericton/law/_resources/pdfs/news/2011/ilsconf.pdf; accessed 16 April 2015)

Image source: http://www.orielchambers.co.uk/barrister/harry-east, accessed 6 March 2016
Harry East
EAST, Harry, Permission to Die: An Examination of the Law and Morality of Batllefield Mercy Killing, Ph.D. thesis, Southampton University, c. 2013, [xii], 312 p. (thesis supervisor: Hazel Biggs); deals with Canadian law and Semrau; available at  http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/354406/3.hasCoversheetVersion/Final%20PhD%20thesis%20-%20Harry%20East%20%281%29.pdf (accessed on 10 August 2014);

EBERLE,  Donald C., Conscription Policy, Citizenship and Religious Conscientious Objectors in the United States and Canada during World War One, A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate College of Bowling Green State University in partial fulfillment of The requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, August 2013, viii, 499 p.; available at https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=bgsu1371657052&disposition=inline  (accessed 4 July 2016);

In democratic societies, governments often assume extraordinary powers during wartime, thus redefining, at least temporarily, the
relationship between citizens and the State. During the First World War, the democratic governments of the United States and
Canada conscripted their citizens to fight on the distant battlefields of Western Europe. Conscription created unique challenges for
both governments as a number of eligible men, in both Canada and the United States, refused to recognize their government's
authority to compel them to take up arms. Though the number of conscientious objectors was rather small, they were a remarkably
diverse group that was highly visible. This created challenges for policy makers. The war would not wait and these almost
unprecedented conscription policies was being made and revised even as they were being implemented.

The war years were a difficult time to oppose government policy as both Canada and the United States employed impassioned
rhetoric and expanded coercive powers to encourage all citizens, and resident aliens, to give the government their full cooperation.
The young men who would later become religious conscientious objectors were peaceful, industrious and law abiding. They were
generally considered to be highly valued members of society. The war, and specifically conscription, changed this positive perception.
Complicating matter even further was the fact that many conscientious objectors were German immigrants, or the descendents of
German immigrants. They frequently read and spoke German, often more fluently than they read or spoke English. These men, and
their co-religionists, were now viewed as unpatriotic, untrustworthy, ignorant and dangerous.

This dissertation examines the manner in which conscientious objectors challenged, either directly or indirectly, the basic authority
of the state. It explores how conscientious objectors were identified as a threat, and how the governments of Canada and the United
States tried to contain that threat. It also examines the ways in which citizenship was a contested and evolving concept in both Canada
and the United States during the war, and particularly during the period of conscription, especially for recent immigrants and their
descendants whose ethnic background and religious beliefs made them a highly visible minority and set them apart from the dominant culture.

Examining conscription policy, and how it applied to conscientious objectors, during this particular moment in history not only
sheds greater light upon the creation and implementation of conscription policies, but is crucial to answering larger questions about
cultural attitudes in the United States and Canada toward vulnerable and marginalized populations. These issues remain highly relevant
as both the United States and Canada become more diverse and continue to attract large numbers of immigrants.
(source: https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_10?0::NO:10:P10_ACCESSION_NUM:bgsu1371657052, accessed 3 October 2016)

Image source: http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/253551.Crime_And_Punishment_In_The_Royal_Navy_Of_The_Seven_Years_War_1755_1763, accessed 3 January 2016
EDER, Markus, 1967-,  Crime and punishment in the Royal Navy of the Seven Years' War, 1755-1763, Aldershot, Hampshire, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, c2004, vi, 200 p. ; 24 cm. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references (p. 187-194) and index. ISBN: 0754635074 (alk. paper); copy at the University of Ottawa, Brian Dickson Law Library FTX General  KD 6320 .E33 2004; noted but not consulted yet (3 January 2016);

EDMONTON JOURNAL, "Former generals want own lawyers at inquiry", Edmonton Journal, Feb 20, 1997, p.A. 3, available at http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=7&frbg=&indx=61&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Gilles%20Letourneau%20military&dstmp=1475776201511, accessed 6 October 2016;
The generals who were at the top of the military pyramid in 1992 now claim that the government cannot represent them at the Somalia inquiry because of conflict of interest. The officers, including John de Chastelain, retired general and former chief of the defence staff, have all been formally warned by the inquiry that its final report may find fault with them. But their requests to switch to civilian lawyers angered Gilles Letourneau, chair of the Somalia inquiry, who suggested Wednesday it's all a ploy to trip up the inquiry as the days tick down to a March 31 cut-off date.[Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved]

Arthur Eggleton: image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

EGGLETON, Arthur, "In defence of change", The Ottawa Citizen, Wednesday, 3 November, 1999, p. A19; the Hon. Eggleton is Minister of National Defence;

___________Testimony of the Minister of National Defence, Arthur Eggleton, on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs on 6 October 1998, Issue 34, see  minutes and  evidence;    

Source of image: http://www.lybrary.com/the-military-leadership-handbook-p-194730.html, accessed 3 October 2016

EDWARDS, Robert, "Discipline" in Colonel Bernd Horn and Dr. Robert W. Walker, The Military Leadership Handbook, Kingston, Ont.: Canadian Defence Academy Press, c2008. DESCRIPTION: 560 p. , at  pp. 228-243; available at http://books.google.ca/books?id=ImvM9L2pTrEC&pg=PA233&lpg=PA233&dq=%22Canadian+forces%22+%22law+of+armed+conflict%22&source=bl&ots=C5dbvrQyoq&sig=nR3k6PISyXUlItIbwAExEIKHOig&hl=en&sa=X&ei=B0VZVNWeL4a2yATKoYKgCw&ved=0CE4Q6AEwCDge#v=onepage&q=%22Canadian%20forces%22%20%22law%20of%20armed%20conflict%22&f=false (accessed on 4 November 2014); also available in French / aussi publié en français à https://books.google.ca/books?id=WDjd5abwNPMC&pg=PA258&lpg=PA258&dq=%22discipline+militaire%22+Canada&source=bl&ots=Ril8sXGSaY&sig=o-8jTOwEFS-bmnCgzzGaM8hLzBU&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=fV0YVaSuFIyUyASE4YH4BA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%22discipline%20militaire%22%20Canada&f=false (site visité le 29 mars 2015);

Randy Smith
EDWARDS, Victoria, "12339 LCol Randy Smith, Director, Office of the DND/CF Legal Advisor", e veritas, posted by rmcclub on March 11th, 2012; available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=72442 (accessed on  11 March 2012); also available at (accessed 12 March 2017);

12339 LCol Randy Smith: In 2006, I deployed to Afghanistan as Legal Advisor with the National Command Element at KAF. I was the advisor to BGen.
(Now MGen) David Fraser, who was the commander of the Multinational Brigade for Regional Command South in Afghanistan’s southern provinces in
2006. I was indeed fortunate to serve for MGen Fraser as his senior legal advisor on Canadian legal matters; he was a real leader and a gentleman. I later
presented a paper based on my experience on the Rule of Law in Afghanistan “Law, reality on the ground, and the “no-man’s land” in between” at the
Canadian Council on International Law 35th Annual Conference: Individuals, States and Organizations (Oct 26th, 2006).


12339 LCol Randy Smith: In 2000, I was posted to the Office of Military Legal Education or OMLE (now called the Canadian Forces Military Law
Centre (CFMLC)) at RMC Kingston., a joint effort of the Canadian Defence Academy and the Office of the JAG to provide innovative legal research,
education and training to the CF. Developing curriculum and teaching two 3-4th year courses at RMC took up 70% of my time. Within the broader
context of Public International Law, The Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) course POE488 considers LOAC`s two branches, the jus ad bellum (the
right to the use of force) and the jus in bello (the law applicable in conflict). POE486 Air and Space Law focuses on the international and national law
applicable to air operations and outer space activities, particularly of a military nature.


12339 LCol Randy Smith: As Director, Office of the DND/CF Legal Advisor/ Legal Advisory Services, I supervise a team of 5 Justice lawyers, 4 Military
lawyers, and 2 administrative assistants. The DND/CF LA provides legal services to the DND/CF in all areas of the law, except those related to military law,
military discipline, and the military justice system for which the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) is responsible. The DND/CF LA is organized
into four divisions: Litigation and Legal Advisory Services; Commercial Law Advisory Services; Public Law Advisory Services; and Support Services (e.g.
finance, human resources, information technology). The DND/CF LA provides legal services on issues relating to public law (e.g. human rights, Charter of
Rights, Aboriginal matters, access to information and privacy, labour and employment law, official languages), national security law, legal risk management,
contracting and procurement, environmental law, real property law, claims and civil litigation, intellectual property law, Defence Administration Orders and
Directives (DAOD) drafting, and legislative support.


12339 LCol Randy Smith: I started my career in JAG serving as defense counsel and prosecutor in both official languages.

As a legal advisor with Chief Military Personnel, I served as counsel on many cases related to the principal of “universality of service” within the larger context
of human rights. Universality of Service requires members to perform general military duties, such as maintaining physical fitness, in order to continue service
with the Canadian Forces.

I served as legal advisor to Canada Command from 2007-10, which is responsible for the day-to-day oversight of domestic and continental routine and
contingency Canadian Forces operations. The Command has a lead role in: Daily domestic and continental operations, including in the Arctic and through NORAD;
Support for major events held in Canada, such as the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games; Response to a terrorist attack; and Support for civilian authorities
during a domestic crisis such as a natural disaster. This posting was exciting, and involved very long hours, often in the middle of nights and on weekends.

__________"13789 Commander Darren Rich, RRMC Grad, Royal Military College of Canada COS", e veritas posted by rmcclub on 22 October 2008 2012, available  at  http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=2329 (accessed on 21 June 2015);

E-Veritas: Have you found yourself concerned with any facets of cadet discipline since coming to RMC?

darrenrichduo.jpgCdr Rich: As the Special Assistant to the Commandant for S133 Brigadier General (Ret’d) Jean Leclerc and E1607 Brigadier-General Jocelyn Lacroix (RMC 1999),
 I conducted summary trials over cadets. Generally, a Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel would conduct the summary trial as the Presiding Officer. Until recently, a cadet who
 was found guilty could only be fined up to a couple hundred dollars. Now, however we have more options, for example fines, extra work and drill and stoppage of leave to
 better suit the punishment to crime. With a view to maintain discipline, the goals are to encourage the cadet to think about and change his or her behaviour; deter others from
 repeating the same behaviour and rehabilitate the offending cadet. We encourage cadets who are struggling to seek support from their Squadron Commanders, peers, the Peer
Assistance Group, the Padres, staff, and medical personnel (such as the mental health experts on base, etc.). In the rare case where the police are involved, the issues are dealt
with either in civil court downtown or via the Court Martial system. The more serious cases stem almost invariably from the consequences of the misuse of alcohol.
When I was a cadet at RRMC, senior cadets conducted summary trials on junior cadets. The senior cadets were learning how to lead and mete out discipline and didn’t always
 get it right. The senior cadets had a few options, for example extra work and drill, inspections or denial of leave. I was once assigned extra duties for not showing up to referee
 a ball hockey game that I didn’t even know I’d been assigned to do. The punishments were designed to take away the cadets` free time. Cadets could be sentenced to run up to
 6 circles a day at Royal Roads (2 miles). Alternatively, they may be assigned inspections in the morning, lunch, evening, and before lights out. They could lose their [scant]
 leave privileges. They may have to wear white belt and white gaitors all day.

ELECTIONS NOVA SCOTIA, "Voting in Nova Scotia for Canadian Armed Forces Personnel", viewed on 28 July 2017, at http://electionsnovascotia.ca/content/canadian-armed-forces

During a provincial general election, Elections Nova Scotia will contact the Judge Advocate General’s office which
will send a message to all units of the Canadian Forces to inform them of the election, the eligibility requirements
for voting, and the process for applying to vote by write-in ballot.

FACEBOOK, 2e Division du Canada /2nd Canadian Divion, "Le lieutenant-colonel Jean-Michel Cambron explique le rôle du Juge-avocat général devant 90 invités d’Avocats sans frontières Canada et de l’Université Laval [...]", see https://www.facebook.com/2DivCA.2CanDiv/photos/a.166054080121277.42765.142806255779393/1192570610802947/?type=3&theater (accessed 5 October 2016);

Michael Gibson

___________"14435 Michael Gibson, Deputy JAG, Military Justice", e veritas, posted by rmcclub on March 4th, 2012, available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=71856 (accessed on 26 March 2012);

Maj Trevor McLeod, image source: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=76619

___________"16004 Major Trevor McLeod, Member ANA Legal School Training Advisor Team", posted by rmcclub on 13 May 2012, available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=76619  (accessed on 19 April 2015);

ELECTIONS CANADA, "Canadian Forces Electors Homepage", available at http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=vot&document=index&dir=reg/cfe&lang=e (accessed 5 May 2015);

Image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca, accessed on 15 November 2014

ELECTIONS CANADA AND OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, "Canadian Forces -- Deputy Returning Officers Briefing -- 2011 Federal General Election (Military Vote: 18 Apr 2011 to 23 Apr 2011), 72 p., available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/cf-deputy-returning-officer-briefing.pdf (accessed on 15 November 2014); also available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law/cf-deputy-returning-officer-briefing.page (accessed on 15 November 2014);

ELLIOTT,  Ian, "Kingston gets military law center", The Kingston Whig Standard, available at http://www.thewhig.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=799178&auth=Ian+Elliot&archive=true (accessed on 15 December 2011);

Claude Emanuelli, image source: http://www.bandbsa.be/contes/interview/emmanuelli-interview.htm, accessed on 1 May 2014

EMANUELLI, Claude, 1946-,  "Avant-propos [du numéro de la revue Études internationales portant le titre "Le droit international humanitaire (droit international des conflits armés)"], (1992) 23(4) Études internationales 717-721; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/revue/ei/1992/v23/n4/703081ar.pdf (site visité le 28 février 2012);

___________"Comments on the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law", (2006) 44 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 437-449;

___________Les actions militaires de l'ONU et le droit international  humanitaire, Montreal: Wilson & Lafleur, 1995, 112 p.; 23 cm.,  ISBN 2891273176  (Collection; La Collection Bleue; Faculté de droit Section de droit civil Université d'Ottawa);

source de l'image: droit.coop/fr/service.prt?svcid=CO_CATALOG17&page=productDetail.jsp&id=3761, site visité 27 juin 2017
___________Les conflits armés et le droit, Montréal: Wilson et Lafleur, 2017, xii, 306 p., 24 cm, 978-2-89689-358-4; voir la Table des matières;

Source de l'image: renaud-bray.com/books_product.aspx?id=1047110&def=International+humanitarian+law%2CEMANUELLI%2C+CLAUDE%2C9782896352333, visité 27 juin 2017
___________International Humanitarian Law, Cowansville: Éditions Yvon Blais, 2009, xxvii, 423 p., ISBN: 9782896352333;

Tom Endicott -- image source http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Tom-Endicott.jpg

ENDICOTT, Lieutenant-Colonel T. (Tom) M., "The Social Evolution of the Canadian Forces -- Post Somalia", CSC 28-018,  Master thesis, Canadian Forces College,  May 2002,  73 p., thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement  for the degree  of  Master of Defence Studies; available at http://wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc28/mds/endicott.pdf (accessed on 24 July 2008) and at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/288/286/endicott.pdf (accessed on 8 May 2014);

James Robichaud
ENGEL, Shirlee, "Former Canadian Forces private alleges abuse in military training", Global News -- Toronto, 4 November 2014, available at http://globalnews.ca/news/1614086/military-veteran-alleges-abuse-by-drill-sergeant/, accessed 13 March 2017; includes video; the victim's name is Pte James Robichaud; has retained lawyer Michel Drapeau;

Image source: queensu.ca/history/people/facultyinstructors/english-allan, accessed 20 April 2017
Allan English
ENGLISH, Allan, "Corruption in the Canadian military? Destroying trust in the chain of command", (2017) 23 Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 32-46; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (20 April 2017); for abstract and résumé, see http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/11926422.2016.1250654 (accessed 20 April 2017);

Corruption is often seen as being caused by internally motivated greed leading to prohibited acts in contravention of laws, rules and regulations.
However, corruption may also be defined as “dishonest action that destroys people’s trust.” Building on research conducted by scholars examining
this phenomenon in the United States military, this article explores questionable actions, which are externally motivated by systemic factors
embedded in the culture of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), by senior leaders in the CAF that can destroy trust in its chain of command. It
analyzes two case studies, the Deschamps report into sexual misconduct in the CAF and the Board of Inquiry into Afghan sexual assaults witnessed
by CAF members, to identify some key themes and areas for future research into how the lack of trust in the chain of command has impacted
negatively on the CAF’s professionalism and culture.


La corruption est souvent perçue comme un phénomène causé par la cupidité découlant de motivations internes qui conduit à des agissements prohibés,
en infraction aux lois, aux règles et aux réglementations. Mais la corruption peut également être définie comme « un agissement malhonnête qui mine la
confiance accordée par la population ». S’appuyant sur une recherche conduite par des universitaires qui ont examiné ce phénomène dans l’armée
américaine, cet article explore les agissements douteux, motivés par des facteurs systémiques externes qui, intégrés à la culture des Forces armées canadiennes
(FAC) par des cadres supérieurs de cette institution, peuvent miner la confiance en sa chaîne de commandement. Il analyse deux études de cas - le Rapport
Deschamps sur l’inconduite sexuelle dans l’Armée, et la Commission d’enquête sur les agressions sexuelles en Afghanistan, dont des membres de l’Armée ont
été les témoins - afin d’identifier certains thèmes clés et domaines pour de futures recherches sur la manière dont le manque de confiance dans la chaîne de
commandement a négativement impacté le professionnalisme et la culture de la FAC.

____________"Cultural dissonance: ethical considerations from Afghanistan", (Summer 2016) 22(2) Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 163-172; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (20 April 2017); for abstract/résumé source: see http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/11926422.2016.1176937 (accessed 20 April 2017);

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) includes ethical decision-making as part of its professional development program. However, the limitations of the CAF
professional development program in ethical decision-making become evident when CAF members must deal with coalition members whose ethical norms
differ significantly from those of the CAF. A number of recent cases in the Afghanistan mission highlight these limitations. This article examines the ethical
dilemmas faced by senior Canadian decision-makers in one such case. When confronted with numerous reports, starting as early as 2005, by members of the
CAF to the chain of command of incidents of sexual assault of boys by Afghan forces, senior decision-makers were faced with choices that could fall within
a continuum of actions. At one end of the continuum was to take immediate and forceful action based on Canadian values. At the other end was to take no
action since the attitude of most coalition partners was to do nothing because they accepted that this practice had been “common” in Afghanistan’s culture.
The article discusses the actions of senior Canadian decision-makers in this case and focuses on whether or not the CAF professional development program
adequately prepared them for their decision-making role in this type of ethical dilemma.


Les forces armées canadiennes (FAC) incluent la prise de décisions éthiques dans leur programme de développement professionnel. Cependant, les limites
de ce programme dans la prise de décisions éthiques deviennent évidentes lorsque les membres des FAC ont à faire à d'autres membres d'une coalition dont
les normes éthiques sont sensiblement différentes de celles des FAC. Certains exemples récents se rapportant à la mission en Afghanistan illustrent ces limites.
Cet article examine les dilemmes éthiques auxquels ont été confrontés des preneurs de décision de haut rang avec l'un de ces cas. Confrontés à de nombreux
rapports remontant jusqu'à 2005, transmis par des membres des FAC à leur commandement et concernant des abus sexuels de garçons par des militaires afghans,
les preneurs de décision de haut rang se sont retrouvés face à des choix qui pouvaient s'inscrire dans un continuum de mesures à prendre. À un bout du continuum,
il fallait une intervention immédiate et ferme, fondée sur les valeurs canadiennes. À l'opposé, aucune action ne devait être engagée, l'attitude de la plupart des
autres membres de la coalition étant de ne rien faire en raison de leur acceptation du caractère « courant » de ces pratiques dans la culture afghane. L'article discute
des actions engagées dans ce cas précis par les preneurs de décision de haut rang et s'interroge sur l'adéquation du programme de développement professionnel
des membres des FAC, en termes de préparation à leur prise de décision face à ce type de dilemme éthique.

ENGLISH, Allan, 1949-,  and Howard Coombs, eds., Effects-Based Approaches to Operations Canadian Perspectives, and see "Information Operations: Op Archer, Afghanistan, 2006" (p. 230), [Ottawa] : National Defence, c2008, v, 256 p., at p. 230 : ill. ; 25 cm.   NOTES: Distributed by the Government of Canada Depository Services Program.  Includes bibliographical references,  ISBN: 9781100106274, available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2008/forces/D2-233-2008E.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017);

ENGLISH, Jack, The Role of the Militia in Today's Canadian Forces, [Ottawa] : Canadian International Council; Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, 2011, 40 p. (series; Strategic Studies Working Group papers; 1925-4903); available at http://www.opencanada.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/SSWG-Paper-Jack-English-September-2011.pdf (accessed on 31 May 2012); also available at https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/cdfai/pages/95/attachments/original/1413683498/The_Role_of_the_Militia_in_Today_Canadian_Forces.pdf?1413683498  (13 March 2017);

Image source: amazon.com/Lament-army-Canadian-professionalism-Contemporary/dp/077252520X/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8, accessed 29 June 2017

ENGLISH, John A. (John Alan), Canadian Institute of International Affairs, Lament for an army: the decline of Canadian military professionalism / John A. English,
Concord, ON : Irwin, c1998, xiii, 110 p. : 1 ill. ; 23 cm. Series: Contemporary Affairs no. 3.  NOTES: Co-published by Canadian Institute of International Affairs. Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN: 077252520X.

EVERETT, Robert, "Parliament and Politics", in David Mutimer, ed., Canada Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs: 1997, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003 at p.11 and see "Somalia Inquiry" at pp. 49-51; these pages 49-51 are available at http://books.google.com/books?id=RyH-ouVcnrEC&pg=PA66&vq=somalia&dq=%22Dishonoured+Legacy%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_search_s&cad=5&sig=ACfU3U1p-BajAAgoQZRgU2ONa43K_j7ULg#PPA49,M1  and 
http://books.google.com/books?id=RyH-ouVcnrEC&vq=somalia&dq=%22Dishonoured+Legacy%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 16 July 2008);

EVERSON, Kristen, "Classified documents reveal crucial moments in response to 9/11-style attack:  Authorities would have just minutes to decide whether to shoot down a hijacked plane", CBC News/Politics, 1 March 2017, available at  http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/sept-11-classified-documents-airline-attacks-1.4011750 (accessed 17 March 2017);

The documents outline two scenarios. The first refers to an air attack from "a known terrorist group that we are in an armed conflict with."
The second was a later addition and refers to a scenario in which the military would assist law enforcement agencies such as the RCMP with
 "a more traditional hijacking scenario, where a disgruntled individual may want to take out his agressions on a company headquarters or
 specific person(s), or even the government."

Richard Evraire, image source: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=29812, accessed on 2 May 2014

EVRAIRE, Richard,  1938-, "Book Reviews -- Military Justice in Action: Annotated National Defence Legislation by Mr. Justice Gilles Létourneau and Professor Michel W. Drapeau", Canadian Military Journal, vol. 12, number 1, available at http://www.journal.dnd.ca/vol12/no1/72-evraire-eng.asp  (accessed on 23  January 2012);
EVRAIRE, Richard, "Critique de livres -- Military Justice in Action: Annotated National Defnce Legislation par l'honorable Gilles Létourneau et le professeur Michel W. Drapeau",  Revue militaire canadienne, vol. 12, numéro 1, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no1/72-evraire-fra.asp (vérifié le 23 janvier 2012);

EXEMPT STAFF -- as of 1 September 2012, see  http://www.admfincs.forces.gc.ca/apps/th-vh/total-eng.asp?PeriodID=35&startDate=2012-06-02&endDate=2012-09-01
Easy question -- how many French Canadians form part of this political organization at DND?

MacKay, Peter Gordon Minister of National Defence and Minister for the Atlantic Gateway

MacDonell, John MND Chief of Staff

Petric, Mike Policy Advisor

Fernet, Marian Director, Parliamentary Affairs 1
Throop, Paul Director of Operations

Paxton, Jay Director of Communications

Zanin, Josh Press Secretary

MacDonald, Andrea Communications Advisor - Atlantic

Melvin, Heather Foley Regional Affairs Director (Nova Scotia)

Domereckyj, Heather Senior Special Assistant

Currie, Andrew Special Assistant

MacDonald, Jordan Special Assistant

Wadden, Jennifer Special Asistant

Proctor, Janice Special Assistant

Leach, Jackie Special Assistant

Lyne, Maryn Special Assistant

Babb, Casey Special Assistant

Varner, Joe Director of Policy

Babcock, Brent           

 Alors --question facile-- devinez combien il y a de canadiens-français dans cette organisation au niveau politique?


Image source: http://books.google.ca
FARLEY, Kelly, Rick Walker, Harry Bondy, Dan Mendoza, "Freedom of Association and the Canadian Forces: Current Status and Future Trends", in Giuseppe Caforio, Gerhard Kümmel, ed., Military Missions and their Implications Reconsidered: The Aftermath of September 11th (Contributions to Conflict Management, Peace Economics and Development, Volume 2), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005, 594 p., at pp.497-517, ISBN: 0444519602, 9780444519603;

Unlike many militaries in Europe, the Canadian Forces (CF) have no union or representative association. Although two separate studies
 have shown that more than one-third of military members think positively about forming a union (Bradley & Charbonneau, 2004;
 Deneumoustier, 1971), there has traditionally been little movement towards any form of associationism within Canada's military.
 While there is no formal ‘contract’ between the CF and the government of Canada, an informal social contract has appeared to be
 successful in maintaining the status quo. Critics of the social contract argue the agreement is one-sided; that is, the responsibilities
 of the member to Canada are well defined in the National Defence Act and Queen's Regulations and Orders but there is “no such
 articulation of the responsibilities of the Government of Canada to the men and women of the CF” (Milner, 1998, p. 10). (source:
 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?chapterid=1784194&show=pdf, accessed on 11 August 2013);

FARNEY, James;  S. Bohdan, "The Predicament of Belonging: The Status of Enemy Aliens in Canada, 1914", (Winter 2005) 39(1) Journal of Canadian Studies 74-89;

Source of Image: (2005)1 Les actualités -- Newsletter at p. 55.
"Our 'honest brokers' in action Major Quiroz-Borrero and Major Moore in Afghanistan"

FARRELL, Jim, "Afghans' claims settled by 'honest broker' Canadian military lawyer says his form of justice works", The Edmonton Journal, Thursday, December 23, 2004; available at http://www.afghanistannewscenter.com/news/2004/december/dec232004.html, accessed 25 February 2015; about Capt. Felipe Quiroz-Borrero; also published in (2005)1 Les actualités -- Newsletter 55-56;

Maj Anthony Farris, left with MGen J. Pitzul (photo source: (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter at p. 10)
FARRIS, Anthony, "Course Syllabus  -- International Humanitarian Law", Dalhousie University, available at http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/law/Academic%20Information%20Syllabi%20Moots%20Regulations/Syllabi/LAWS%202205%20International%20Humanitarian%20Law%20-%202014%20Syllabus.pdf, accessed 27 February 2015;

Image source: omltjag.blogspot.ca/2007/07/my-name-is-anthony-farris-and-i-will.html, accessed 18 August 2017
__________http://omltjag.blogspot.ca/ (accessed 10 April 2015); multitude of blogs from Afghanistan;

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/fash-steven-r-431ba1b9, accessed 29 April 2017
Steven R. Fash
FASH, S.R. (Steven R.), "Military Justice by Summary Trial : at What Cost?", Canadian Forces Command and Staff College, 1995, 22 leaves, Exercise New Horizons, 28 cm., call number at Canadian Forces Military  College: #: 355.005 C3 1994-95 070;  Notes: CSC 21, 1994-95; "This paper argues that deficiencies exist in the summary trial process and that change is needed" (From the library catalogue); research note: "Chief of staff, Canadian Forces Morale and Welfare Services, 2010-present", see ca.linkedin.com/in/fash-steven-r-431ba1b9, accessed 29 April 2017;

FASTING, Kari and Trond Svela Sand, Gender and Military Issues -- A Categorized Research Bibliography, Oslo: The Norwegian Defence University College, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences/Defence institute, 2010, 207 p., ISSN: 1891-8751; available at http://www.nih.no/Documents/1_FI/Sekjson%20for%20milit%C3%A6r%20ferdighetsl%C3%A6re/01%20Gender%20and%20Military_nettdistribusjon.pdf (accessed 15 May 2015); research note: search the word "Canada" or "Canadian";

This bibliography gives an extensive interdisciplinary overview of studies on gender issues in a military context. It covers more than 2500 references
of international reviewed articles, reports, books, and theses from military and non- military institutions. The references have been categorized in
themes such as “Masculinities”, “Gender, Sexual Harassment and Abuse in a Military Context”, “Gender, Physical and Psychological Ability”,
and “Recruitment of Women”.  Hence, it represents an essential tool for military leaders and scholars interested in gender issues in a military
context. (backcover of the book)

James B. Fay, 2nd row, first on the right, image from McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, supra, at p. 93.

FAY,  James B. (Burbeck), 1930-2007, Canadian Military Criminal Law: An Examination of Military Justice, LL.M. thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1974, 303 p.; Canadian thesis on microfiche 22822; available at  http://www.lareau-law.ca/Fay.pdf (accessed on 15 December 2014);

___________"Canadian Military Criminal Law: An Examination of Military Justice [in Four Parts]",  (1975) 23 Chitty's Law Journal 120-138; 156-175; 195-216; and 228-252; this article is a copy of LCol Fay's LL.M. (Master of Laws) thesis,

Image source: en.maremagnum.com/rare-books/the-defence-team-military-and-civilian-partnership-in-the/144094677, accessed 11 August 2016
FEBBRARO, Angela R. (Angela Rosa), 1963-, editor, Irina Goldenberg, 1974-, editor, Waylon Dean, editor, Canadain Defence Academy issuing body, Canada. Canadian Armed Forces.  Wing, 17 issuing body, The defence team : military and civilian partnership in the Canadian Armed Forces and Department of National Defence / edited by Irina Goldenberg, Angela R. Febbraro, and Waylon H. Dean Military and civilian partnership in the Canadian Armed Forces and Department of National Defence, Kingston, Ontario : Canadian Defence Academy Press, [2014] ©2014, iii, 268 p., NOTES: Produced for the Canadian Defence Academy Press by 17 Wing Winnipeg Publishing Office. Includes bibliographical references and index. Available also on the Internet. Issued by: Canadian Defence Academy.  ISBN: 9781100253565 (pbk.) ISBN: 9781100253572 (bound); available at (accessed 11 August 2016);

source de l'image: http://chrs.uqam.ca/professeurs-chercheurs/jean-marie-fecteau, page visitée 26 septembre 2016
J.-M. Fecteau

FECTEAU, J.-M. (Jean-Marie), "Mesures d'exception et règle de droit: Les conditions d'application de la loi martiale au Québec lors des rébellions de 1837-1838", (1986-87) 32 Revue de droit de McGill / McGill Law Journal 465-495; disponible à http://lawjournal.mcgill.ca/userfiles/other/19030-Fecteau.pdf (vérifié 8 Septembre 2015);

image source: http://www.osgoode.yorku.ca/faculty-and-staff/hay-douglas-c/, accessed 11 February 2015
Douglas Hay

FECTEAU, Jean-Marie and Douglas Hay, " ‘Government by Will and Pleasure instead of Law’: Military Justice and the Legal System in Quebec, 1775-1783",  in Murray Greenwood, 1935-,  and Barry Wright, 1957-, eds., Canadian State Trials, Toronto: Osgoode Society, 1996, at pp. 129-171; title noted in my research but varticle not consulted yet (30 October 2015);

FEDERATION OF LAW SOCIETIES OF CANADA, 37th National criminal law program : substantive criminal law, advocacy & the administration of justice, [Ottawa:] Federation of Law Societies of Canada, 2010, 2 v. (various pagings) ; 28 cm. + 1 CD ROM; NOTES: "July 12 to 16, 2010, St. John's, Newfoundland".  Includes bibliographical references; see "Part X.  Military law  1. A primer on military law";

FEDIO, Chléo, "Ex-military members claim systemic racism in lawsuit.  Called 'porch monkey,' wife pelted with bananas, threatened to be burned, ex-members say", CBC News Ottawa, 22 December 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/canadian-military-systemic-racism-class-action-suit-1.3909258 (accessed 3 June 201&0;

Richard Feist
FEIST, Richard, Associate professor, program: Ethics / Philosophy, Saint Paul University, Ottawa; one of his courses taught is "EPE 6301/ECS 5120A Military and Peacekeeping Ethics", see http://ustpaul.ca/upload-files/humansciences/cours_2012_13/EPE_6301_ECS5120A_Syllabus_Feist.pdf, see his publications at http://ustpaul.ca/index.php?mod=employee&id=69&lang=en  (accessed 19 September 2016);

William J. Fenrick, photo source: http://alumni.dal.ca/dal-news/weldon-award-bill-fenrick/, accessed on 8 April 2014

FENRICK, William J. (William John), "The Application of the Geneva Conventions by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", (1999) vol. 81, number 834 International Review of the Red Cross 317-329;

___________ "Applying IHL Targeting Rules to Practical Situations Proportionality and Military Objectives" (2009) 27(2) Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 271; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1817740 (accessed on 11 February 2015);

Image source: http://djcil.law.duke.edu/, accessed 12 February 2015
___________ "Attacking the Enemy Civilian as a Punishable Offense”,  (1996-97) 7 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 539-569; available at http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?7+Duke+J.+Comp.+&+Int%27l+L.+539 (accessed on 11 December 2011);

___________"The Crime against humanity of persecution in the jurisprudence of the ICTY”, (2001) 32 Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 81-96;

___________"Crimes in combat: the relationship between crimes against humanity and war crimes", The Hague, 5 March 2004; Guest Lecture Series of the Office of the Prosecutor; Mr. Fenrick was the Senior Legal Adviser, ICTY-OTP; available at http://tamilnation.co/armed_conflict/crimes_in_combat_fenrick.pdf (accessed at, 11 February 2015);

___________Development in the Law of Naval Warfare since World War II: The Potential Emergence of a Law of Naval Warfare for Limited Conflicts, thesis, Faculty of the National Law Centre, George Washington University, 1983;

__________"The development of the law of armed conflict through the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", (1998) 3 Journal of Armed Conflict Law  197-232;

___________"The Exclusion Zone Device in the Law of Naval Warfare", (1986)  24 Canadian Year Book of International Law 91-126;

___________"‘ICRC Guidance on Direct Participation in Hostilities’ (2009) 12 Yearbook Of International Humanitarian Law 287;

___________"In the Field with UNCOE -- Investigating Atrocities in the Territory of Former Yugoslavia", (1995) 84 The Military Law and the Law of War Review 33-66;

Image source: link.springer.com, accessed 4 February 2015

___________"International Humanitarian Law and Combat Casualties", (2005) 21 European Journal of Population  167-186;

___________"International Legal Aspects of Canadian Forces Experience in the Recent Gulf Conflict", in Canadian Council on International Law. Conference. (20th: 1991: Ottawa, Ontario), Canada and the Americas : proceedings, XXth annual conference, October 17-19, 1991, Ottawa, Ontario = Le Canada et les Amériques : travaux, xxe congrès annuel, 17-19 octobre, 1991, Ottawa, Ontario, Ottawa (Ont.) : Canadian Council on International Law = Conseil canadien de droit international, [1991], vii, 242 p. at p. 11, ISBN: 0920157181; copy at the University of Ottawa; title noted in my research but article not consulted (2 August 2008);

___________"Interdictions et restrictions apportées à l'utilisation de certains moyens et méthodes de guerre", (1992) 23(4) Études internationales 819-832; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/revue/ei/1992/v23/n4/703086ar.pdf (site visté le 28 février 2012);

___________"International Humanitarian Law and Criminal Trials", (1997) 7(1) Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 23-44;

___________"International Humanitarian Law / Law of Armed Conflict --Laws 2205.03...--Course Syllabus, draft 3 Jan 09", available at http://law.dal.ca/Files/Course_outlines%200809/International_Humanitraian_Law.pdf (accessed on  22 May 2012);

____________"International Legal Aspects of Canadian Forces Experience in the Recent Gulf Conflict", (1991) Canadian Council on International Law 13;

___________"Introductory Report: Military Objectives in the Law of Naval Warfare", in Round-Table of Experts on International Humanitarian Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (1989 : Ruhr-Universität Bochum) and Wolff Heintschel V. Heinegg.ed., The military objective and the principle of distinction in the law of naval warfare : report, commentaries, and proceedings of the Round-Table of Experts on International Humanitarian Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 10-14 November 1989 / edited by Wolff Heintschel ,  Bochum : UVB-Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, 1991, vi, 177 p., at p. 4 (series;  Bochumer Schriften zur Friedenssicherung und zum humanitären Völkerrecht ; Bd. 7), ISBN: 3883399337;

___________Book Review, "Law and Conflict for the Contemporary Practitioner: Review of Kenneth Watkin: Fighting at the Legal Boundaries : Controlling the Use of Force in Contemporary Conflict (Oxford University Press, 2016)", 2 December 2016, available at https://lawfare.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/staging/2016/Fenrick%20Watkin%20Review%20Final.pdf and https://www.lawfareblog.com/law-and-conflict-contemporary-practitioner (accessed 13 December 2016);. 

___________"The Law of Armed Conflict: The Cushie Weapons Treaty", (1981) 11 Canadian Defence Quarterly 25-30;

____________ "The Law of War at Sea Today: Perspective from Canada", (1989) 3  Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General Journal 17-25;
____________ "Le droit de la guerre en mer de nos jours: Une perspective canadienne" (1989) 3 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 19-28;

___________"Legal Aspects of the Falklands Naval Conflict" (1985) 1 Canadian Forces  Judge Advocate General Journal 29-50;
___________"Les Aspects Juridiques de la Guerre Navale des Falklands" (1985) 1 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 31-53;

___________"Legal Limits on the Use of Force by Canadian Warships Engaged in Law Enforcement".(1980) 18 Canadian Yearbook of International Law (CYIL) 113-145; available in part at  https://books.google.ca/books?id=MwntRlhrmPIC&pg=PA115&lpg=PA115&dq=%22Canadian+Forces%22+%22legal+advisers%22&source=bl&ots=H3R0cXp-N6&sig=AOU2tyfziAOOq1k0_NsO3ssGT4M&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiQ8JKSqZjKAhXBlR4KHa-pDVE4ChDoAQg1MAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Canadian%20Forces%22%20%22legal%20advisers%22&f=false (accessed 7 January 2016);

___________"Leslie Claude Greeen: International Law Teacher", in Michael N. Schmitt, ed., International Law Across the Spectrum of Conflict: Essays in Honour of Professor L.C. Green On the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday, New Port, Rhode Island: Naval War College, 2000, at pp. xiii-xviii (series; International Law Series; vol. 75); available at http://www.usnwc.edu/Research---Gaming/International-Law/Studies-Series/documents/Naval-War-College-vol-75.aspx (accessed on 4 March 2012); also available at http://stockton.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1452&context=ils (accessed 26 December 2016);

__________"Legal aspects of use of force in peace time by CF maritime forces", Ottawa: Office of the Judge Advocate General, National Defence Headquarters, 1990 , 20 p.;

 Definition and status of warship. -- Domestic  law enforcement : jurisdiction : CF role : command and control : peace officer status : right of visit : use of force. -- Comment. -- Hot pursuit. -- Superior orders and liability. -- National Security. -- Selected comments on the Vincennes incident" (source: catalogue of the Canadian Forces College)

___________https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/william-fenrick/39/92/772, contains list of articles;

___________"The Merchant Vessel as Legitimate Target in the Law of Naval Warfare",  in Astrid J.M. Delissen and Gerard J. Tanja, eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead.  Essays in Honour of Frits Kalshoven, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1991, xxxiii, 668 p.at pp. 425-445, ISBN: 0792313356; notes: At head of title: T.M.C. Asser Instituut; available in part at http://books.google.ca/books?id=3dLjzfam03IC&pg=PA425&lpg=PA425&dq=william+j+fenrick&source=bl&ots=dyMwGzmSYL&sig=glJq2SZ_gCzWnFshkFUSuz_du48&hl=en&sa
(accessed on 8 March 2012);

Image source: www.routledge.com/Routledge-Handbook-of-the-Law-of-Armed-Conflict/Liivoja-McCormack/p/book/9780415640374, accessed 11 August 2016
___________"Methods of Land Warfare" in Rain Liivoja and Tim McCormack, eds., Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict, Oxon: Routledge, 2016 at p. 251 to approx. p. 263, ISBN:978-0-415-64037-4 (hbk) and 978-0-203-79836-2 (ebk);

___________"New Developments in the Law Concerning the Use of Conventional Weapons in Armed Conflict", (1981) 19 Canadian Yearbook of International Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international 229-256;

___________"The Prosecution of War Criminals in Canada", (1989-90) 12 Dalhousie Law Journal 256-297;

___________“Observations Concerning the Canadian Mission in Afghanistan and the Treatment of Detainees”, being Appendix 2 to Craig Scott, "Moral and Legal Responsibility with Respect to Alleged Mistreatment of Transferred Detainees in Afghanistan: Presentation to the House of Commons Special Committee on the Canadian Mission in Afganistan", Presentation to the House of Commons Special Committeeon the Canadian Mission in Afghanistan, finalized version 11 February 2010; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1552068 (accessed on 11 February 2014); also available at  http://nathanson.osgoode.yorku.ca/programs/conferences-workshops/2009-2010/special-forum-on-canadian-mission-afghanistan/commander-william-fenrick-observations/ (accessed 20 December 2015); IMPORTANT DOCUMENT

2. I retired from the CF in 1994. I have had access to no classified information concerning the mission and my friends and former colleagues in the CF have
 been particularly reticent concerning the detainee issue. I had an excellent understanding of how the CF implemented Canada’s International Humanitarian
 Law/Law of Armed Conflict (IHL/LOAC) obligations while I was a member of the CF. In particular: (i) I established the initial formal IHL/LOAC training
 program in the CF when I was Director of Legal Training and I was actively involved in such training throughout my career; (ii) I wrote an earlier draft of
 the current CF LOAC Manual; (iii) I was the senior IHL/LOAC adviser at National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) during the 1990-91 Gulf Conflict; and
 (iv) I was the first Director of Law for Operations from 1991 to 1994. I have had some peripheral involvement with IHL/LOAC training in the CF since my
 retirement and I believe I have a good understanding of how IHL/LOAC issues have been treated in the CF since my retirement.

3. The CF has as good an IHL/LOAC training program as any other country’s armed forces and a better program than the vast majority of armed forces. There
 are ample training materials available. The major materials are a Joint Doctrine Manual, Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, which
 is a basic legal text book, and a Collection of Documents on the Law of Armed Conflict which contains the texts of all relevant treaties and Canadian legislation.
 Both of these are accessible by the public. There is also a Code of Conduct for CF personnel which includes the following provisions: “4. Treat all civilians
 humanely and respect civilian property. 5. Do not attack those who surrender. Disarm and detain them. 6. Treat all detained persons humanely in accordance
 with the standard set by the Third Geneva Convention. Any form of abuse, including torture, is prohibited.” All members of the CF receive training in the Code
 of Conduct. It too is accessible to the public. As a well informed educated guess, I would think all members of the CF who are deployed on operations such as
 Afghanistan would receive additional training in IHL/LOAC, including the Code of Conduct.

4.  The CF also complies with Art 82 of Additional Protocol I (AP I) which requires that Canada “in time of armed conflict, shall ensure that legal advisers are
 available, when necessary, to advise military commanders at the appropriate level on the application of (IHL/LOAC) and on the appropriate instruction to be
 given to the armed forces on the subject.” All CF legal officers, beyond those at the most junior level, will have received one or more short courses on IHL/LOAC
 and, more recently, on Operations Law. Several legal officers at the intermediate and senior level have post graduate legal degrees in international law, including
IHL/LOAC. There are legal officers at the NDHQ level who work full time on international law issues, including IHL/LOAC, and who have a great deal of expertise
 in this area. In addition, legal officers are deployed on operations and some or all their time is devoted to advising on IHL/LOAC. Some legal officers in DFAIT also
 possess a high level of expertise in IHL/LOAC.

U.N. Commission of Experts' Final Meeting -- Mr. W. Fenrick seated, first on the right; image source: http://digital.case.edu/concern/images/ksl:mps17-photo-excomm0000001, accessed 14 March 2015 

___________"Professional Background" of William Fenrick, source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/william-fenrick/39/92/772, accessed 14 March 2015:

Professional background:

1. Professor of International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law, Dalhousie University, Schulich School of Law,
 Halifax Nova Scotia, 2005-2011

2. Senior Legal Adviser, Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (1994-2004).

3. Member United Nations Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 and Special Rapporteur
 for On-Site Investigations and for Legal Issues (part time only) (1992-94).

4. Member of Canadian Forces (1962-70, 1973-94) Retired with rank of Commander in Legal Branch.

5. Director of Law for Operations and Training, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1991-94.

6. Director of International Law, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1984-1991.

7. Director of Law for Training, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1983-1985.

8. Director of International Law, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1979-82.

9. Legal Officer, International Law Directorate, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1977-79.

10. Assistant Deputy Judge Advocate (primarily employed as prosecutor or defending officer at courts martial), Halifax,

11. Naval Officer, National Defence Headquarters and HMCS Skeena, 1967-70

Image source: http://www.amazon.com/The-Handbook-International-Military-Operations/dp/0199641218, accessed on 15 November 2014

___________"The Prosecution of International Crimes in Relation to the Conduct of Military Operations", in Terry Gill and Dieter Fleck, eds., Handbook of the International Law of Military Operations, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2011, xxviii, 657 p., at pp. 501-514, ISBN13: 9780199545896; ISBN10: 0199545898; copy at Université Laval, Bibliothèque des sciences humaines et sociales;  see also 2nd edition, 2015  as chapter 29, ISBN: 978-0-19-874462-7 and ebook ISBN: 978-0-19-106208-7;

___________"The Prosecution of Unlawful Attack Cases Before the ICTY",  (2004) 7 Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 153-189;

___________"Reflections on the Canadian Experience with Law of Armed Conflict Manuals", in Nobuo Hayashi, ed., National Military Manuals on the Law of Armed Conflict, Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, 2008, at pp. 88-95; available at  http://kms1.isn.ethz.ch/serviceengine/Files/ISN/97486/ipublicationdocument_singledocument/702080ed-faaf-4ff2-9990-bdc4f244bc88/en/National_Military_Manuals_on_the_Law_of_Armed_Conflict.pdf and  http://www.fichl.org/fileadmin/fichl/documents/Pre-TOAEP/National_Military_Manuals_on_the_Law_of_Armed_Conflict.pdf (accessed on 8 March 2012); research: there is also a 2nd edition with Fenrick's article at pp. 97-108; important contribution;

"The Sarajevo Op Justice Team.  Back row, from left: Maj Van Veen, Sgt Lamothe,
WO Murray-Ford, MCpl McCoomb, LCol Carter, PO Ross.  Front row: Maj Boutin,
Cdr Fenrick"  (text and image from McDONALD, R. Arthur McDonald, Canada's
Military Lawyers
, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at p. 169)
___________"Report of Sarajevo On-Site Investigation" to the Commission of Experts under United Nations Security Council Resolution 780, 25 August 1993, 12 p.; Mr. Fenrick was the Special Rapporteur for On-Site Investigations; available at http://digitalcase.case.edu:9000/fedora/get/ksl:mps17-LtrToComm1993082500/mps17-LtrToComm1993082500.pdf (accessed 5 March 2015);

image source: http://iclr.bclawreview.org/
___________"Riding the Rhino : Attempting to Develop Usable Legal Standards for Combat Activities", (2007) 30(1) Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 111-137; available at http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1090&context=iclr (accessed on 8 March 2012);

__________"The Rule of Proportionality and Protocol I in Conventional Warfare", (1982) 98 Military Law Review 91-127;

___________"Should Crimes Against Humanity Replace War Crimes?", (1999) 37 Columbia Journal of Transnational  Law 767-785;

___________"Should the Laws of War Apply to Terrorists, Proceedings", (1985)  79th Annual Meeting of ASIL 112-114;

___________"Specific methods of warfare" in  Elizabeth Wilmshurst and Susan Breau, eds.,  Perspectives on the ICRC study on customary international humanitarian law,  Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007, at p. 238;

Image source: www.esil.sedi.eu, accessed 5 February 2015
___________"Targetting and Proportionality during the NATO Bombing Campaign Against Yougoslavia", (2001) 12 European Journal of International Law 489-502; available at (accessed 22 January 2015);

___________“The Rule of Proportionality and Protocol I in Conventional Warfare”, (1982) 98  Military Law Review 91-127;

___________"The Targeted Killings Judgment  and the Scope of Direct Participation in Hostilities", (2007) 5(2) Journal of International Criminal Justice 332-338;

___________under the direction of, and prepared by Members of Canada's Contributed Personnel to the Commission of Experts (Canadian War Crimes Investigation Team), "Incident study report regarding mortar shelling Dobrinja, Sarajevo", United Nations, Security Council, S/1994/674/Add.2 (Vol. III), 28 December 1994, Annex VI.A of Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780 (1992), available at http://archive.li/RZi0b#selection-213.0-217.39  (accessed 17 July 2017);

___________"The United Nations Commission of Experts on War Crimes in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia: A Personal Assessment", published in Proceedings of 1994 Canadian Council of International Law Annual Meeting;

FENRICK, William J., Member and Rapporteur on On-Site Investigations, Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), and contributors: Major J. Holland, Canadian Armed Forces, Member of Canada's Contributed Personnel to the Commission of Experts; Major P. Olson, Canadian Armed Forces, Member of Canada's Contributed Personnel to the Commission of Experts, and others, Final Report of the United Nations Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), Annex X.B Mass Graves, Pakracka Poljana, Unpa Sector West,  Croatia, notes: S/1994/674/Annex X.B; available at http://digitalcase.case.edu:9000/fedora/get/ksl:mps17-FRAnnex10b000000000/mps17-FRAnnex10b000000000.pdf (accessed on 5 March 2015);

FENRICK, William J. and Major A.J. van Veen, The battle of Sarajevo and the law of armed conflict, Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780 (1992), S/1994/674/Add.2 (Vol. I),  28 December 1994; note: William J. Fenrick Member and Rapporteur on On-Site Investigations, Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992) and Major A.J. van Veen, Canadian Armed Forces; Member of Canada's Contributed Personnel to the Commission of Experts; available at http://www.phdn.org/archives/www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/comexpert/ANX/VI-B.htm  (accessed 3 Ocober 2015);


Allan Fenske,  photo reproduced from http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/ab-pc/cm-mc/fenske-eng.html (accessed on 5 August 2014)

FENSKE,  Allan F., Biographical notes on Allan Fenske:
Colonel (Retired) Allan Fenske has been appointed part-time member of the Military Grievances External Review Committee
for a three-year term, starting June 13, 2014.

Mr. Fenske brings to the Committee extensive experience in military law and security issues, as well as substantial knowledge of
the terms and conditions pertaining to military service.

From 1968 to 1975, Mr. Fenske served as air navigator and completed operational tours on the Argus maritime patrol aircraft, as
well as on Sea King ship-borne helicopters.

On completion of his legal training, in 1980, he joined the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG). As part of the JAG
organization, Mr. Fenske served, for 25 years, in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, in Canada and abroad.

His senior appointments included Deputy JAG Human Resources, Deputy JAG Advisory and Legislation, Team Leader of the National
Defence Act
Amendment Team and Advisor to the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice chaired by former Chief Justice of Canada, Brian Dickson.

As well, he served, from 1998 to 2000, as Deputy Legal Advisor and General Counsel in the Office of the Department of National Defence/Canadian Armed
 Forces Legal Advisor and, from 2003 to 2005, as Director General Canadian Forces Grievance Authority.

Mr. Fenske holds a Master’s Degree in Public Administration from Harvard University, a Diploma in Legislative Drafting from the University of Ottawa, a
 Bachelor of Laws from Dalhousie University and a Bachelor of Arts from Saint Mary’s University. He is a graduate of the NATO Defence College
 and the Rotman School of Management’s Advanced Program in Human Resource Management (source: http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/ab-pc/cm-mc/fenske-eng.html
(accessed on 5 August 2014)


Le colonel à la retraite Allan Fenske a été nommé membre à temps partiel du Comité externe d’examen des griefs militaires. Son mandat de trois ans a
 débuté le 13 juin 2014.

M. Fenske possède une vaste expérience dans le domaine du droit militaire et dans les questions de sécurité; il a aussi une excellente connaissance des
 termes et des conditions applicables au service militaire.

De 1968 à 1975, M. Fenske était navigateur aérien et a participé à des affectations opérationnelles à bord de l’avion de patrouille maritime Argus et des
 hélicoptères embarqués Sea King.

En 1980, après avoir complété ses études en droit, il s’est joint au cabinet du juge-avocat général (JAG) où il a travaillé pendant 25 ans occupant divers
 postes au Canada et à l’étranger et se voyant confier de plus en plus de responsabilités.

M. Fenske a occupé plusieurs postes supérieurs au bureau du JAG: JAG adjoint - Ressources humaines, JAG adjoint - Consultations et lois, chef d’équipe
 au sein de l’équipe chargée des modifications à la Loi sur la défense nationale et conseiller auprès du groupe consultatif spécial sur la justice militaire
 présidé par l’ancien juge en chef du Canada, Brian Dickson.

De plus, M. Fenske a travaillé de 1998 à 2000 comme conseiller juridique adjoint et comme avocat général au bureau du conseiller juridique du ministère
 de la Défense nationale et des Forces armées canadiennes, puis de 2003 à 2005 comme directeur général – Autorité des griefs des Forces canadiennes.

M. Fenske détient une maîtrise en administration publique de l’Université Harvard, un diplôme en rédaction législative de l’Université d’Ottawa, un
 baccalauréat en droit de l’Université de Dalhousie et un baccalauréat ès arts de la Saint Mary’s University. Il est diplômé du Collège de défense de
 l’OTAN et de la Rotman School of Management (programme avancé) en gestion des ressources humaines.
 (source: http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/ab-pc/cm-mc/fenske-fra.html, 5 aoû t 2014)

___________Biographical notes on Allan Fenske:

June 27, 2014

Mr. Allan Fenske has been appointed as part-time member of the Military Grievances External Review Committee. As such, Mr. Fenske will
 review grievances referred to the Committee by the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) and will issue findings and recommendations to the
 CDS and to the military member who submitted the grievance.

Mr. Fenske, a retired Colonel, has extensive legal expertise in military law and security issues. He held various positions within National
 Defence, particularly within the Judge Advocate General’s (JAG) organization, as Deputy JAG Advisory and Legislation and Deputy JAG
 Human Resources.  He also occupied the position of Director General Canadian Forces Grievance Authority and worked as legal advisor for
 other federal government departments. Mr. Fenske holds a Masters in Public Administration from Harvard University, a Bachelor of Laws
 and a Bachelor of Arts (Political Science) respectively from Dalhousie University and Saint Mary’s University.
(source: http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/mr-sm/wn-qn/2014/140627-eng.html, accessed 3 May 2015);

____________"Evolution of the Code of Service Discipline into the twenty-first Century: A Canadian Perspective", Address to the Canadian Bar Association, Commonwealth Association of Armed Forces Lawyers, 28 August 1996, unpublished paper,  mentioned in Jerry S.T. Pitzul, Brigadier-General,  and John C. Maguire, Commander, "A Perspective on Canada's Code of Service Discipline",  JAG Newsletter, Vol.IV: Oct-Dec 1999, pp. 6-16 at p. 12, note 44;


___________"The Law of War: Legal Limitations on the Use of  Weapons?" (1987) 2 Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General Journal 31-58;
___________"Le droit de la guerre: limitations juridiques sur l'utilisation des armes nucléaires?", (1987) 2 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 33-62;

___________"Military Justice: A Progress Report on Current Concerns and  Directions for Reform" "- Overheads", p. 14", MJ 031F,  mentioned in the Report of the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services, supra, p. 36,  note 22;

___________"Retirement Colonel Allan Fenske, OMM, CD, QC", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 6;
___________"Retraite du colonel Allan Fenske, O.M.M., CD, c.r.", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 6; 

___________Testimony of Col. A.F. Fenske, Office of the Judge Advocate General on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts

Before the Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs:
- Meeting number 49, 22 April 1998, see minutes and evidence;

"There are two aspects I would raise for you. The first one is that at the end of November 1997 regulations were issued with respect to
 summary trials. The summary trials process, as many of you know, in fact deals with about 90% of our discipline. A lot of change has
 been built into that already, and there's training ongoing for that now.

The second thing is that one of the recommendations—and this was made in different ways, but both from the commission and the
 Dickson review group—was that there be more training with respect to military justice responsibilities. This is a big job, but we're
 working on it now."

- Meeting number 61, 11 May 1998, see minutes and evidence;

- Meeting number 65, 14 May 1998, see  minutes and evidence;

- concerning Bill C-42, the Public Safety Act, 6 December 2001; Col McAlea also testified with Col. Fenske; available at
 http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=e&Mode=1&Parl=37&Ses=1&DocId=1041247 (accessed 27 February 2017);

Before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs:

- Issue number 33, 1 October 1998, see minutes and evidence;
- Issue number 39, 29 October 1998, see minutes and evidence;
- Issue number 40, 4 November 1998, see minutes and evidence;
- Issue number 41, 5 November 1998, see minutes and evidence;

Warren Fenson, photo source: JAG Newsletter / Les actualités, vol. 1, 2003 at p. 53

FENSON, Major Warren, "Afghanistan: A JAG Officers Field Primer" (2003) vol. 1 JAG Newswletter 71-75;

___________ "Claim procedure and natural justice in the Balkans" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1-2; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
___________ "Précis : La résolution des conflits et la justice naturelle dans les Balkans" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1; disponible http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (site visité le 18 avril 2012);

___________"Identification of combatants: Tactical problems in Afghanistan" (February/Février 2003) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1, 5 and 6; available at  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125062546/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaledec2002.pdf (accessed on 19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : L'identification des combattants : problèmes tactiques en Afghanistan" (February/Février 2003) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1 et 5; disponible à  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125062546/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaledec2002.pdf (site visité le 19 avril  2012);

Image source: (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter at p. 83.
___________"JAGuars Hit the Ice / Les JAGuars prennent la glace", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 82-83; article in English and French; article en français et en anglais;

___________"Legal Aspects of Piracy", power point presentation, 24 slides; available http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&ved=0CEIQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.navy.forces.gc.ca%2Fnavy_images%
(accessed on 29 March 2012);  Major Fenson, at the time of the making of the undated document, was Deputy Judge Advocate at Esquimalt, B.C., Office of the Judge Advocate General;

___________Linked in at https://ca.linkedin.com/in/warren-fensom-0901812b (accessed 6 April 2017);

___________"Military Justice: Reflections from Past JAG Newsletters", (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 53-55;

Major Warren Fenson in Afghanistan, see image source: http://web.archive.org/web/20050408045600/http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/Feature_Story/2003/may03/05_f_e.asp
___________Notes on Warren Fenson, available at http://www.aach.net/bio.php  (accessed on 31 May 2012); other notes on Warren Fenson available at  https://www.linkedin.com/pub/warren-fensom/2b/181/90?trk=pub-pbmap (accessed on 30 April 2015);

Legal Advisor
HMCS Winnipeg, NATO
(3 months)

for Counter Piracy Deployed on short notice as on board legal advisor to the Commander including over 60 days uninterrupted sea-time in the Gulf of Aden and off the Coast of
Somalia. This Anti-Piracy mission was the first time that the Royal Canadian Navy was directly focused on such a task. Provided legal advice concerning the law of piracy and the
 use of force including advice to the Commander while on the bridge during active encounters with pirates.

2007 to 2011 Deputy Judge Advocate: Esquimalt British Columbia When not otherwise deployed, provided legal advice on all matters of military issues including boards of
 inquiry, discipline and operational issues. - In 2010 deployed aboard HMCS Vancouver for a 5 day domestic operation to support the RCMP with the interception and seizure
 of an illegal immigrate vessel.

2006 to 2007 Legal Advisor to Administrative Support Investigation Centre (ASIC; Was the first full time legal officer dedicated to ASIC to support their aim of improving
 boards of inquiries and other administrative investigations for the Canadian Forces. - In that capacity, was the officer responsible for the development of a Administrative
 Law Boards of Inquiry Course for the Office of the Judge Advocate General.

2005 to 2006 Language Training Ottawa: - French language.

2002 to 2005 Directorate of Training: Ottawa was the officer responsible for the development of Law of Armed Conflict Training for the Canadian Forces. Was the lead
 officer for many LOAC courses delivered across Canada for 3 years. Lead a team to Jamaica three times to provide the LOAC course to the Jamaican Defence Force and
 forces from other Caribbean Nations. Presented on the topic of the Canadian Forces system in development of LOAC in Geneva. In 2004, deployed for 30 days. [Excerpt,
 https://ca.linkedin.com/in/warren-fensom-0901812b, accessed 13 January 2016]

___________"Op Apollo--Six Weeks in Adfhanistan", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 62-63;
___________ "Op Apollo -- Six semaines en Afghanistan",  (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 64-65;

___________"Rules of Engagement Training -- A JAG's Perspective" in Army Lessons Learned Center, Dispatches, Lessons Learned for Soldiers -- Rules of Engagement, Vol. 7, No. 1, October 2000 (Kingston, ON: Canada Communications Group, 2000).; available at http://web.mac.com/dmlast/DavidMLast/Mongolia_files/vol7no1-ROE-_e.pdf (accessed on 29 March 2012); ce document est aussi disponible en français dans la publication Dépêches, volume 7, numéro 1, octobre 2000; publiée par le Centre des Leçons Retenues de L'armée est situé à Kingston, Ontario;

Francesca Ferguson

FERGUSON, Francesca, "From Reservist to Full-time Professional in the Forces", Get to Know Your Forces, available at http://www.forces.ca/en/profile/gettoknowyourforces-213?pedisable=true (accessed 8 August 2016);

Francesca Ferguson                                                                                                 Image source for the above: https://twitter.com/forcesjobs/status/770966076096217088, accessed 3 June 2017

___________Francesca Ferguson, a JAG officer in a 2016 Canadian Forces recruiting video for military lawyers, available at http://media.forces.ca/_VIDEOS2010/00204_legalofficer_en.mp4 (accessed 25 December 2016); 

                                                                                                                                      Stéphanie von Hlatky                                                Viviana Fernandez
Source of images: www.wiiscanada.org/  (accessed 16 September 2016)

FERNANDEZ, Viviana, Stéphanie von Hlatky, Women in International Security Canada, Gender Mainstreaming in the Canadian Armed Forces : Benchmarking with NATO Allies and Partners, Executive Summary from the Workshop: Gender and the Armed Forces, Women in International Security Canada, 23 November 2015, 3 p.; available at http://www.wiiscanada.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/WIISLogoExecutive-Summary-SVH-Fernandez_SvH.pdf (accessed 16 September 2016); note:"The workshop was sponsored by the Centre for International and Defence Policy, the Defence Engagement Program and the Conference on Defence Associations Institute";


FERNE, Harry, 1918-2003, former JAG officer, 1952-1972, see obituary at http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=harry-ferne&pid=157402693, appeared in The Ottawa Citizen, 21 May 2003 (accessed 13 December 2015);

He joined the Royal Canadian Navy September 1940 and served at sea for theduration of the Second World War. Harry received his law degree from the University of British Columbia in 1950 and was accepted to the Law Society of British Columbia. In 1952 he returned to the Armed Forces as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Branch, retiring from the Armed Forces in 1972. He became a Commissioner with the Canadian Pension Commission in Ottawa until 1974. Harry then returned to British Columbia as a solicitor with the AttorneyGeneral's Department, until 1982.

Image source: , accessed 2 June 2017
James Ferrabe
FERRABE, James, Southam News, "[ A Canadian military judge ruled Tuesday that... ]", CanWest News, Mar 7, 1989, p.1; note: court martial held in Lahr, Federal Republic of Germany; pleaded guilty to manslaughter; LCol Alain Ménard, defending officer;

Description: Although the defence has argued it was a civilian crime, [Pierre Boutet] said because [Christian Pepin] was a member of the military serving overseas
and because there is a genuine and intense interest of the military community in it, "the court concludes there exists a military nexus sufficiently strong" for the
court-martial to hear the case. Pepin and [Antonnette Charest] travelled to Vasarosnameny, Hungary, in Pepin's car and checked into a hotel June 2. Charest was
found dead in the hotel room the next morning by the hotel staff. Pepin was arrested by Hungarian police the next day in Nyiregyhaza, a town about 40 kilometers away.
Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved

Stew Fettes

FETTES, Stew, "Civilian courts should handle military accused of crime", Regina Reader Post, 14 October 2016; available at  (accessed 25 October 2016); Mr. Fettes is President of the Regina Civil Liberties Association;

The Canadian Forces is pondering the idea of those accused of military sex crimes being tried in civilian courts rather than in a court martial.

What that means is those accused of atrocious acts will go to a public trial. If convicted, they will feel the wrath of Canadians, the embarrassment that goes along with it, fines, jail time and other penalties.

The old paramilitary organization we call the RCMP should also switch to a civilian process.


FERNE, Harry Curtis Colonel CD (Ret'd) Born January 26, 1918 in Fort MacLeod, Alberta, passed away on May 17, 2003 at Victoria General Hospital with his loving family by his side. Predeceased by his parents Ernest and Doris, his twin brother Ernest and his beloved wife Jessie. Harry is survived by his devoted children, Ernie (Jill), Don (Judi), Doug (Ruth), Barbara (Chris) Valentine; his grandchildren Sandra, Tracy, Andrew, Jessie, Jillian, Kim (Peter), Katie (Dave), Mark (Tammie), Kevin (Darcie), Mandy, Curtis and great-grandson Owen. Also survived by his brother Dave (Joy) and their families. Harry received his teacher's certificate in 1940. He joined the Royal Canadian Navy in September 1940 and served at sea for the duration of the Second World War. Harry received his law degree from the University of British Columbia in 1950 and was accepted to the Law Society of British Columbia. In 1952 he returned to the Armed Forces as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Branch, retiring from the Armed Forces in 1972. He became a Commissioner with the Canadian Pension Commission in Ottawa until 1974. Harry then returned to British Columbia as a solicitor with the Attorney General's Department, until 1982. During his retirement years, Harry served on the Board of the Victoria College Craigdarroch Alumni Association as Vice-President. He began writing poetry and has been published by the International Poet's Society. The cornerstone of Harry's life was his family. He embraced the concept of family and the strength of the family unit. In his words "the family is my joy forever". Funeral Service will be held Thursday, May 22nd, at 1:00 p.m. at McCall Bros. Floral Chapel, 1400 Vancouver Street, Victoria, B.C. A memorial service will be held in Ottawa at a later date. If desired, donations may be made in memory of Harry Ferne to the Craigdarroch Castle Historical Society, 1050 Joan Crescent, Victoria, B.C. V8S 3L5 McCall Bros. of Victoria 250-385-4465

Published in The Ottawa Citizen on May 21, 2003
- See more at: http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=harry-ferne&pid=157402693#sthash.KxIC9UC3.dpuf


FERNE, Harry Curtis Colonel CD (Ret'd) Born January 26, 1918 in Fort MacLeod, Alberta, passed away on May 17, 2003 at Victoria General Hospital with his loving family by his side. Predeceased by his parents Ernest and Doris, his twin brother Ernest and his beloved wife Jessie. Harry is survived by his devoted children, Ernie (Jill), Don (Judi), Doug (Ruth), Barbara (Chris) Valentine; his grandchildren Sandra, Tracy, Andrew, Jessie, Jillian, Kim (Peter), Katie (Dave), Mark (Tammie), Kevin (Darcie), Mandy, Curtis and great-grandson Owen. Also survived by his brother Dave (Joy) and their families. Harry received his teacher's certificate in 1940. He joined the Royal Canadian Navy in September 1940 and served at sea for the duration of the Second World War. Harry received his law degree from the University of British Columbia in 1950 and was accepted to the Law Society of British Columbia. In 1952 he returned to the Armed Forces as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Branch, retiring from the Armed Forces in 1972. He became a Commissioner with the Canadian Pension Commission in Ottawa until 1974. Harry then returned to British Columbia as a solicitor with the Attorney General's Department, until 1982. During his retirement years, Harry served on the Board of the Victoria College Craigdarroch Alumni Association as Vice-President. He began writing poetry and has been published by the International Poet's Society. The cornerstone of Harry's life was his family. He embraced the concept of family and the strength of the family unit. In his words "the family is my joy forever". Funeral Service will be held Thursday, May 22nd, at 1:00 p.m. at McCall Bros. Floral Chapel, 1400 Vancouver Street, Victoria, B.C. A memorial service will be held in Ottawa at a later date. If desired, donations may be made in memory of Harry Ferne to the Craigdarroch Castle Historical Society, 1050 Joan Crescent, Victoria, B.C. V8S 3L5 McCall Bros. of Victoria 250-385-4465

Published in The Ottawa Citizen on May 21, 2003
- See more at: http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=harry-ferne&pid=157402693#sthash.1AQfNvgX.dpuf

Eugene R. Fidell, photo source: http://www.feldesmantucker.com/professionals/eugene-r-fidell, accessed on 7 April 2014

FIDELL, Eugene R., "A case of the slows", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 April 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/04/a-case-of-slows.html  (accessed on 15 April 2016); replies by Michel Drapeau and Pascal Lévesque;

The Star has this powerful editorial about the Canadian Forces investigation into inaction
in the face of the sexual abuse of children by Afghan forces.

_____________ "A Night to Remember", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 March 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/03/a-night-to-remember.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 19 March 2016); court martial acquittal of ex warrant officer Wade Pear;

____________ "Book Review --Gilles Létourneau & Michel Drapeau, Military Justice in Action: Annotated National Defence Legislation", the Federal Lawyer, July 2012, vol. 59, number 6, at pp. 74-75, available at http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Book-review-of-Military-justice-in-action-by-Mr.-Fidell.pdf (accessed on 29 April 2014);

___________"A case of the slows", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 31 January 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/01/a-case-of-slows.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 17 March 2015);

The Ontario Superior Court, per Judge Martin James, has granted a stay of proceedings in a case that began as a military justice matter. The reason:
 unreasonable delay by the Canadian Armed Forces, in violation of s. 11(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The decision is R. v. Ward,
2015 ONSC 83, available here. The Daily Observer has the story

___________Blog comment on Mr. Justice Létourneau's own blog comments on MGen Blaise Cathcart, Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 May 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/05/toute-bonne-chose-une-fin.html  (accessed on 13 May 2017);

Justice Letourneau's comments are more personal in tone than I would have preferred. As editor, as well as someone who has followed CF military justice as closely
as an observer can from a distance, I would like to offer a different perspective. There have been major developments in Canadian military law over the last several
 years, and it is undeniable that the Canadian Forces' position has been sustained in several major cases in the Supreme Court of Canada. To the extent that some or
all of those cases should have come out differently, Parliament could enact corrective legislation (I can think of at least one example where it ought to do so).
Reference should also be made to the laudable efforts at outreach under Gen. Cathcart's leadership with respect to potential areas of reform.

___________"Canadian Federal Court decision on grievances and time limits", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 20 July 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/07/canadian-federal-court-decision-on.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 27 July 2016); deals with the of  Simms v. Attorney General, 2016 FC 770.

___________"Canadian military justice system in the news", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 6 June 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/06/canadian-military-justice-system-in-news.html  (accessed on 7 June 2016);

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/patrice-germain-83186183, accessed 4 August 2017
Captain Patrice Germain (photo above), appeared with Major Dylan for the appellant in Golzari; and
Lientenant-Colonel Jean-Bruno Cloutier and Lieutenant-Commander Mark Létourneau appeared for the respondent
___________"Conduct to the prejudice: need there be proof of actual prejudice?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 August 2017, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/08/conduct-to-prejudice-need-there-be.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 4 August 2017);

In an interesting decision, the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada, on an appeal by the government, has held that the prosecution need not prove actual prejudice
where the offense is conduct to the prejudice of good order and discipline. The case is R. v. Golzari, 2017 CMAC 3. Justice Richard Mosley wrote for a unanimous court: ...


___________"Court-martial of ex-soldier for a 5-minute AWOL", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 January 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/01/court-martial-of-ex-soldier-for-5.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 17 March 2015); 

___________"Crossed sabres in Ottawa", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 13 March 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/03/crossed-sabres-in-ottawa.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 15 February 2014);

Documents made available on the web by Global News reveal a 2011 effort by the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Armed Forces to call into question public remarks by now-retired Justice Gilles Létourneau. Justice Létourneau, who served on the Federal Court of Appeal and the Court Martial Appeal Court, has been an articulate, respected voice for military justice reform, and responded firmly to a letter the JAG sent to the late Edmond P. Blanchard, who was at the time Chief Justice of the Court Martial Appeal Court.

___________"The European Court of Human Rights and Military Justice", in Michel Drapeau Law Office, ed.,  Winds of Change: Conference and Debate on Canadian Military Law, [Ottawa:] Michel Drapeau Law Office, 2016, 102 p., at pp. 35-43, NOTES: Conference held at the University of Ottawa, 13 November 2015; "For the first time an international academic conference on military law was held in Canada at the University of Ottawa with the focus on reform and comparative law" (Gilles Létourneau, Preface, p. 7);  "(Organizing Committee for the Conference: Michel W. Drapeau, Joshua M. Juneau, Walter Semianiw and Sylvie Corbin)";  "Speech transcribed by Joshua M. Juneau, p. 31; available at mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2015-Conference-Proceedings.pdf (accessed 20 January 2016);

___________"Federal Court of Canada remands grievance case to CDS", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 27 October 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/10/federal-court-of-canada-remands.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed 28 October 2015); on the case Ouellette v. Canada (Attorney General) 2015 FC 1185, File number T-677-14; redress of grievance case, available at http://decisions.fct-cf.gc.ca/fc-cf/decisions/en/item/120584/index.do (accessed 28 October 2015);

Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/umjanedoan/497353227/, accessed 11 February 2015
___________"International Developments in Military Law", (2013) 17 Canadian Criminal Law Review 83- 90; available at http://www.law.yale.edu/documents/pdf/conference/Fidell_InternationalDevelopments.pdf (accessed on 12 December 2013); Notes: "This article is based on remarks presented in Ottawa on June 14, 2012 Education Conference on Canadian Military Law sponsored by the Court Martial Appeal Courtm of Canada"; also available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/Public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/academic-panel/Fidell/Fidell_International_Developments_in_Military_Law.pdf (accessed 26 April 2015);

__________"Is subsection 129(2) of the Canadian National Defence Act valid?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 24 March 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/03/is-subsection-1292-of-canadian-national.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 30 March 2016); about R. v. Karolyk, 2016 CM 1002 (General Court Martial Feb. 22, 2016), available at http://decisia.jmc-cmj.forces.gc.ca/jmc-cmj/cm/en/120532/1/document.do

___________"Keeping Up with the Common Law O'Sullivans? The Limits of Comparative Law in Context of Military Justice Law Reforms", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 February 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/search?updated-max=2014-02-05T09:51:00-05:00&max-results=7&start=14&by-date=false (accessed on 15 February 2014);

Mike Madden of the Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces has a thought-provoking article on military justice reform in the latest issue of the Alberta Law Review.

___________"Lawyers' Rights Watch Canada study on trials of civilians by military tribunals", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 27 April 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/04/lawyers-rights-watch-canada-study-on.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 28 April 2015);

___________"Lawyer's Weekly reports on R. v. Moriarity", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 30 November 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/11/lawyers-weekly-reports-on-r-v-moriarity.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 1 December 2015);

___________"Mark your calendar again", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 12 February 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/02/mark-your-calendar-again.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 13 February 2016); comments by Pascal Lévesque giving precised details on the case of H.M. The Queen v. Cawthorne, that will be heard by the Supreme Court of Canada on 25 April 2016;

___________"Memo to Parliament", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 June 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/06/memo-to-parliament.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 5 June 2017); on R v. Déry;

Image source: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/military-justice-9780199303496?cc=us&lang=en&, accessed 18 June 2016
___________Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, FORTHCOMING BOOK -- SEPTEMBER 2016

___________"Military nexus again under the Canadian microscope", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 June 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/06/on-may-19-2017-court-martial-appeal.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 5 June 2017); about R v. Déry, 2017 CMAC, 19 May 2017;

___________"New UN website on legal frameworks for deployed contingents", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 22 December 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/12/new-un-website-on-legal-frameworks-for.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 23 December 2016);

___________"Prosecutorial independence at issue in Canadian court-martial appeals", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 13 March 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/03/prosecutorial-independence-at-issue-in.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29(accessed on 15 February 2014);
An issue of prosecutorial independence has been raised in two cases pending before the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada, Thibault
(CMAC-581) and Gagnon (CMAC-577). The thrust of the argument in each case is that the provisions of the National Defence Act and
 the Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Forces that authorize the Minister of National Defence to appeal are invalid under
 s. 52(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982. In a nutshell, these parties contend that the Minister is not independent, as a prosecutor must be,
 and as a consequence his notices of appeal in the two cases must be quashed. An unsuspended declaration of invalidity is sought. The
 core question is stated as follows:
Would a reasonable person who is aware of the relationship that exists between the Executive and the prosecutor conclude that the
 prosecutor is free from pressure by the Executive?

___________"Prosecutorial independence comes to stage center in Canada [H.M. The Queen v. Gagnon, 2015 CACM 2], Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 22 December 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/12/prosecutorial-independence-comes-to.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 23 December 2015);

__________" 'Proud boys' and free speech",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 6 July 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/07/proud-boys-and-free-speech.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 7 July 2017);

___________"Recent Revisions of Military Justice Systems", New Haven, USA, 11 September 2011; available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/Public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/academic-panel/fidell/Fidell_Recent_Revisions_of_Military_Justice_Systems.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

___________"Sexual assault in Afghanistan: the bystander's duty", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 12 April 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/04/sexual-assault-in-afghanistan.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 13 April 2016);


___________"SCC decides Moriarity and companion cases", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 November 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/11/scc-decides-moriarity.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 20 November 2015); with reply comments by Pascal Lévesque and Michel Drapeau;

___________"Standards for appellate review of sentences", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 August 2017, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/08/standards-for-appellate-review-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 5 August 2017); see first level decision rendered by Lieutenant-Colonel L.-V. d’Auteuil, M.J. at http://www.canlii.org/en/ca/cm/doc/2016/2016cm3010/2016cm3010.html?autocompleteStr=Hoeks&autocompletePos=1;
The Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada has handed down its ruling in R. v. Hoekstra, 2017 CMAC 5, an appeal by the government on
the ground that the sentence was too lenient. The unanimous decision, written by Justice Patrick Gleeson, usefully articulates the governing
principles -- and increases the sentence from 60 days to 14 months' confinement, while staying the unserved portion

___________"Then there's the Mounties", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 24 October 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/10/then-theres-mounties.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 25 Otober 2016);

___________"United States v. Khadr -- Canada to pay, but who will collect?",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 5 July 2017, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/07/united-states-v-khadr-canada-to-pay-but.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 6 July 2017);

___________"Up next at the Supreme Court of Canada: prosecutorial independence", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 April 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/04/up-next-at-supreme-court-of-canada.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 12 April 2015);  

___________"Victim's rights in the Canadian Forces",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 September 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/09/victims-rights-in-canadian-forces.html (accessed on 15 February 2014);

__________"A World-Wide Perspective on Change in Military Justice", (2000) 48 Air Force Law Review 195-209; available at http://www.afjag.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-081204-031.pdf (accessed on 14 December 2013);

___________"Writing Competition (Bill C-???)",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 23 November 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/11/writing-competition-bill-c.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29
 (accessed on 24 November 2015);

FIDELL, Eugene R., Dwight Hall Sullivan, Elizabeth Lutes Hillman, Military justice: cases and materials, 2nd ed., New Providence, NJ : LexisNexis, c2012, xxxiii, 1327, [16] p. : ill. ; 27 cm;

Robert Fife, image source:                                                    Steven Chase, image source:
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/robert-fife           http://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/steven-chase

FIFE, Robert and Steven Chase, "Judge lifts publication ban on RCMP case against Vice-Admiral Norman", The Globe and Mail, 21 April 2017; available at theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/judge-lifts-publication-ban-on-rcmp-case-against-vice-admiral-norman/article34791139/ (accessed 22 April 2017);

An Ontario Superior Court justice has issued a ruling to lift a publication ban and unseal large sections of a redacted RCMP affidavit concerning
the criminal investigation of Vice-Admiral Mark Norman for alleged breach of trust in leaking government secrets.


In a ruling released late on Friday, Justice Kevin Phillips said the RCMP affidavit can be released, although details involving cabinet secrets
will remain redacted.

Image source: cbc.ca/news/politics/norman-military-relieved-1.3937401, accessed 25 April 2017
Vice Admiral Mark Norman, December 2015 (CBC)

___________"Trudeau sought RCMP probe of cabinet leaks on navy supply ship", The Globe and Mail, 24 April 2017; available
                       at  theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/trudeau-sought-rcmp-probe-of-cabinet-leaks-on-navy-supply-ship/article34802910/ (accessed 25 April 2017);

___________"Vice-Adm. Norman leaked cabinet secrets, helped press Liberals in navy contract: RCMP affidavit", The Globe and Mail, 26 April 2017, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/vice-admiral-norman-leaked-cabinet-secrets-helped-press-liberals-in-navy-contract-rcmp-affidavit/article34816333/ (accessed 27 April 2017);

Image source: http://www.navy-marine.forces.gc.ca/en/deployed-ships/artemis-2013/reg/reg-news-view.page?doc=army-lawyer-lays-down-the-law-during-op-artemis/hunsgg9u
Commander Dan Charlebois, left with major Adam van der Linde, 8 February 2014,
Photo: Cpl Michael Bastien, MARPAC Imaging Services, ET2014-7031-01, see combatcamera.forces.gc.ca/gallery/cc_photos/detail/?filename=ET2014-7031-01&assetId=39347

FIFIELD, Lieutenant (Navy) Mark, "Army lawyer lays down the law during Op Artemis", HMCS Regina - OP ARTEMIS / May 1, 2014, Royal Canadian Navy, Government of Canada; available at http://www.navy-marine.forces.gc.ca/en/deployed-ships/artemis-2013/reg/reg-news-view.page?doc=army-lawyer-lays-down-the-law-during-op-artemis/hunsgg9u (accessed on 22 January 2015); also published in LookOut, MARPAC News, 5 May 2014 at p. 20, available at http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/59/2014-05-05-18.pdf (accessed 6 September 2016); aussi disponible en français, "L'avocat de l'armée de terre établit la loi lors de l'op Artémis" à http://www.navy-marine.forces.gc.ca/fr/navires-deployes/artemis-2013/reg/reg-nouvelles-voir.page?doc=l-avocat-de-l-armee-de-terre-etablit-la-loi-lors-de-l-op-artemis/hunsgg9u (visité 14 novembre 2015);

What is an army legal officer from the Office of the Judge Advocate General doing on a Canadian warship at sea during an overseas deployment
in the Indian Ocean?

That was the question on many sailors’ minds when they found out that Major Adam van der Linde was going to be on board HMCS Regina for
 six to eight months during Operation Artemis.

Op Artemis demonstrates the Canadian Armed Forces’ commitment to peace and stability in the Indian Ocean/Arabian Sea by maintaining a
 credible and enduring presence as directed by the Government of Canada. Regina is doing its part to support our allies and security partners
 in the region by operating within a responsive international force known as Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150).

In accordance with CTF-150’s mandate and international law, Regina has the legal authority to approach, board and search vessels of interest
 to deter and deny the use of the maritime environment for terrorism or the facilitation of terrorist activities. However, there are many considerations
 that must be satisfied before this can be done.

“We need to establish the legal basis to board and search vessels in the Op Artemis Joint Operations Area and having legal advice on the ship is key
 to making that happen in a timely fashion,” said Commander Dan Charlebois, Regina’s commanding officer. “This allows Regina to search these
 vessels for illicit narcotics or other contraband used to fund terrorism as part of our maritime security and counter-terrorism mission.”

Maj van der Linde’s responsibilities on board Regina include advising the chain of command on all legal issues such as applying the laws of armed
 conflict during real time operations at sea, determining sovereign territorial waters from international waters, and the application of internal discipline.
 A major part of his job during this deployment is to interpret and apply laws such as the United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea.

“This deployment has been one of the most memorable in my career so far, as well as a great life experience as I’ve never been to sea with the Royal
 Canadian Navy before,” said Maj van der Linde. “I love the fact that I am an army officer practising law on board a Canadian warship during an
 operational deployment as I never know what new challenges and novel legal situations each day will bring.”

Findlay v. United Kingdom, (1997) 24 E.H.R.R. 22; available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/Public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/academic-panel/additional/Findlay_v_UK_decision.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

John R. Fisher, image source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/john-r-fisher/47/934/97b, accessed on 9 November 2014

FISHER, John R., Major, Bail or Jail, Release or Retention Pending Trial under Military Justice in Canada, Canadian Forces College, 2010, 90, [8] p., JCSP 35 DL, Master of Defence Studies Research Project, C/PR-500/IRP/RP-02; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc35/mds/fisher.pdf (accessed on 4 April 2011);

In 1982, enshrining the Charter of Rights and Freedoms into the new Canadian Constitution created supreme law by imposing consistency
and full judicial review upon all legislation across the country and recognizing military law as a distinct division of law. Since then, the
military justice system has undergone a major evolution that is still underway to meet changes resulting from constitutional challenges
under the Charter. Within military justice procedures, provisions for pre-trial custody and release considerations have recently been part
of this evolution and reflect ongoing developments in the law of bail, driven primarily by criminal cases decided by the Supreme Court
of Canada. In examining the evolution of military bail, this paper provides an historical treatment of the law of bail in Canada as it
pertains to the military justice system, explores the present legislative framework and finally compares the military and criminal justice
systems in certain key areas. The long held quasi-judicial role of commissioned officers within the armed forces provides the foundation
for the duties and responsibilities of Custody Review Officers (CRO) within the legislative framework of military bail. Has the military
justice system kept pace with the criminal justice system in meeting the demands of the Charter, or is it lagging, thus risking a perception
of inequality of justice for those in custody awaiting trial for service and civil offences tried before military courts? In actual fact, criminal
law has a natural lead role in the evolution of the law of bail and military law is on a consistent course and keeping pace with it. The
combined efforts of Parliament and the Department of National Defence through the Office of the Judge Advocate General, as well as
through the decisions of military judges, continue to ensure that Canada’s military justice system is responsive to the demands of a free
and democratic society. - Author's abstract  [Source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch,
accessed on 1 January 2012]

___________Military justice training [videorecording]: CFC Toronto, 16 dec 99,  Toronto, Ont. :Canadian Forces College, 1999,  1 videocassette (ca. 1 hr. 38 min.);

In this lecture, John Fisher covers basic summary trial proceedings, as well as Canadian Forces personnel’s entitlements under the system of Canadian military justice. The programme consists of a lecture and Powerpoint presentation. Such topics as the purpose of military justice, the legal basis for military justice in terms of national and international legislation, members’ rights under the Code of Service Discipline, procedure under the CSD, the difference between summary trials and court-martial, punishment, and the provision of legal advice, are discussed.  [Source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 January 2011]

___________“The Right to Legal Counsel at Summary Trial” a paper solicited by the Office of the Judge Advocate General concerning Recommendation No. 7 to the Prime Minister by the Special Advisory Committee on Military Justice and Military
Police Investigation Services. Barrie, 1997; title noted in my research but document not consulted (18 December 2011);

___________“Worst Case Scenario, a Brief to the Special Advisory Committee on Military Justice and Policing.” Barrie, 1997, 13, 2, 8 p. [Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, Dept. of National Defence, 1997];

The aim of this brief is to provide the members of the Special Advisory Group with some insight into the perceptions of military justice and policing from a personal perspective gained “in the trenches” of both the military and civilian justice systems. The Canadian Armed Forces, including its justice and policing systems, are presently in a state of crisis, causing concerns in public confidence. The problems appear to stem from a decline in moral integrity related to the military principles of loyalty, duty and honour. These are issues of professional attitude, leadership and accountability. The public has been inundated with allegations of bizarre behaviour, criminal acts and breaches of trust. What is required is a long-term, well-thought-through solution, and not a quick-fix for the sake of expediency in meeting short-term political exigencies. A long-term solution is proposed through formal education and training within the military system, to create and ensure that a military justice system, to create and ensure that a military justice system is in place and capable of functioning in the worst case scenario. In the short term, immediate steps should be taken to create a system of credible and tangible checks and balances, including a proper judicial bench within the federal courts system for military judges and an autonomous military police organization under the aegis of the Minister of Justice and the Solicitor General, respectively. Additionally, military police should undergo training at civilian police colleges to augment their military training. - Executive Summary  [source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 January 2012]

FISHER, Luke, “Armed and Gay: Homosexuals in the Military Face an Uneasy Welcome.”,   Maclean’s [Toronto ed.], May 24, 1993, pp. 14-15;
Canada lifted the ban on gays serving in the military in Oct. 1992 after a lesbian lieutenant sued the military for discrimination.  She won her case
and the armed forces were quietly integrated.  There has been little public outcry, but gays say social stigma makes it hard to be open” – summary in
Expanded Academic ASAP electronic index.  Includes brief comparisons with policies of six other countries. (source: http://library2.usask.ca/srsd/gaycanada/misc/MILITARY.htm, accessed 18 August 2016)

FISHER, Luke and Anthony Wilson-Smith, "On the defence", Maclean's, Jul 26, 1993, Vol.106(30), pp.16-17, "The controvery over the killing of a Somali prisoner in Canadian custody continues to stir. Two of the Canadian peacekeepers are accused of second-degree murder." (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=21&frbg=&indx=201&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&, accessed 8 July 2016); 

Image source: https://www.cigionline.org/person/oonagh-fitzgerald, accessed 8 February 2016
Oonagh Fitzgerald
__________ "Oonagh Fitzgerald, Background", available at http://www.cigionline.org/person/oonagh-fitzgerald, accessed on 24 November 2014;

Oonagh Fitzgerald is director of CIGI’s International Law Research Program, effective April 2014. She oversees the research direction of the program and related activities.

Oonagh has extensive experience as a senior executive of various departments of the federal government. In October 2011, she was appointed national security coordinator for the Department of Justice Canada. In this role she ensured strategic leadership and integration of the department’s policy, advisory and litigation work in relation to national security.

From 2007–2011, Oonagh served as the Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces legal adviser, leading a large corporate counsel team of civilian Department of Justice lawyers, military lawyers and Department of National Defence administrative professionals. Prior to this she served as acting chief legal counsel for the Public Law Sector of the Department of Justice (2004-2005), and before that was special adviser for international law (2003). From 2000 to 2002, she was assistant secretary to Cabinet, Legislation and House Planning/Counsel, Privy Council Office, Canada. Oonagh has held a number of other positions in the Department of Justice: senior general counsel and director general, Human Resources Development Canada Legal Services Unit (1998–2000); general counsel and director, International Law and Activities Section (1997-1998); senior counsel for Regulatory Reform (1994-1996); and legal adviser, Human Rights Law Section (1987–1994). She began her career in the federal government as a consultant at the Law Reform Commission of Canada; then as a commerce officer, Marketing Practices Branch, Bureau of Competition Policy; and legal adviser at the Immigration Appeal Board. (emphasis in bold added; source: http://www.cigionline.org/person/oonagh-fitzgerald, accessed on 24 November 2014).

___________Oonagh Fitgerald, Linkedin information, at https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/oonagh-fitzgerald/b/872/843 (accessed 9 April 2015):

Senior General Counsel, DND CF Legal Advisor

Department of Justice and Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces, Government of Canada
(4 years 7 months)

I provided legal leadership to the Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces, a client with significant land, infrastructure, materiel and equipment holdings and an annual budget of over $20 Billion. I led a staff of 108 comprised of Department of Justice lawyers, DND civilians and CF JAG military lawyers providing public law, compliance and governance, procurement, contract, intellectual property, real property, oil & gas, environmental, labour, human rights and national security law advisory services, claims and litigation support, and legislative and regulatory drafting services.

FITZGERALD, Oonagh, principal consultant, Law Reform Commission of Canada, et al., Crimes against the State, Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1986, [viii], 72 p., (series; Working Paper; 49), ISBN: 066254241X; pdf conversion finished on 10 November 2006; information on the French version/informations sur la version française, FITZGERALD, Oonagh, conseillière principale, Commission de réforme du droit du Canada, et al., Les crimes contre l'État, Ottawa: Commission de réforme du droit du Canada, 1986, [viii], 76 p., (Collection; Document de travail; 49), ISBN: 066254241X;
PDF ENGLISH VERSION (Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2006)

- Table of Contents;
- [i-viii] and 1-72;

PDF VERSION FRANÇAISE ( Reproduit avec la  permission du ministre des Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada, 2010)
- Table des matières;
- [i-viii] et 1-76;

___________DND/CF LA Level 1 Business Plan 2009-2010, 38 p.; available at http://lareau-legal.ca/A-2015-00726.pdf (posted 6 October 2015); Oonagh Fitzgerald was then the Legal Advisor to the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces; François Lareau obtained this document after an Access to Information request, see http://www.lareau-law.ca/Access1Oct15.pdf;

FITZGERALD, Thomas E.K., Canadian Military Sentencing Digest, 2016, Carswell, 2016, approx. 180 pages, ISBN: 978-0-7798-7199-5l; see http://www.carswell.com/product-detail/canadian-military-sentencing-digest-2016/, accessed 29 June 2016;
The Canadian Military Sentencing Digest, 2016 provides a comprehensive digest service on sentencing in the Canadian Military.
The book provides an up to date collection of Canadian military sentences at the Court Martial Court of Canada (CMC) and
Canadian Military Court of Appeal (CMAC) levels as they arise. Semi-annual updates of current decisions from the Court
Martial Court, the Court Martial Appeal Court, the Federal Court and Supreme Court of Canada will also be provided. The
Canadian Military Sentencing Digest, 2016 will not only provide a systematic listing of court decisions by military offence
but will set out military sentencing principles and other useful information.


Major (Ret) Thomas E.K Fitzgerald, M.A., LL.B has a distinguished career as a Prosecutor, both in the Ontario Public Service
and in the Office of the Judge Advocate General (OJAG). He graduated with a Master of Laws from Queen's University (Kingston)
and a Bachelor of Laws from the same university. He was written numerous articles on criminal law, constitutional law and military
history. In 2012, he was appointed Senior Counsel with the Ministry of the Attorney General. In 2015 he received the Courage and
Perseverance Award from the Federal, Provincial and Territorial Heads of Prosecution.

___________obituary, FITZGERALD, Thomas Ernest Keith (Tom), 6 March 1956-14 July 2017, former JAG officer;

We are deeply saddened to announce the passing of Tom Fitzgerald, affectionately known as Tommy, Major Tom or simply Fitz.


After articling at the Ministry of the Attorney General, Crown Law Criminal, he became an Assistant Crown Attorney in Durham
Region in 1985 and in 1993 he was appointed as the Crown Attorney in North Bay and later the Director of Crown Operations in
the North Region where he mentored junior lawyers and was a respected member of the legal community.


Tom was born into a military family. He joined the Canadian Forces himself at the tenderage of 50 where he completed basic
training as a member of the 2nd Battalion of the Irish Regiment alongside soldiers who were half his age.

Tom was commissioned an officer and seconded to the Judge Advocate General’s staff in Ottawa for several years.

His legal experience made him an enormous assetin assisting with the prosecution of a widely-watched homicide case in Kandahar.
Later, Tom deployed for nine months to the NATO Training Mission Afghanistan, Kabul Military Training Centre Advisory Group, Camp
Alamo Afghanistan where he helped develop local legal structures and procedures.

On returning to the Crown Attorney’s office, Tom was appointed General Counsel for Central East and worked out of the Durham
Region office where he renewed many personal and professional relationships. After a reluctant early retirement and despite his
illness, Tom continued his teaching efforts by authoring the first book-length treatment of sentencing guidelines for offenders in the
military justice system. (source: http://www.canadianobituaries.com/durham/67405-thomas-fitzgerald-july-14-2017, accessed 18 July 2017)

FITZ-JAMES, D. Michael, Editor's Desk, "Rejigging the JAG" (February 2001) Canadian Lawyer 4;

Image source: cbc.ca/mediacentre/bio/meagan-fitzpatrick, accessed 27 April 2017
Meegan Fitzpatrick
FITZPATRICK, Meegan, "Military justice system faces shakeup; Defendants should choose type of court martial", 25 April 2008 Edmonton Journal  p. A.9; title noted in my research but article not consulted;

Image source: https://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Law-Visiting-Forces/dp/0198268947, accessed 26 September 2016
FLECK, Dieter, ed., The handbook of the law of visiting forces / edited by Dieter Fleck ; in collaboration with Stuart Addy ... [et al.], Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001, xxxv, 625 p. ; 24 cm, ISBN: 0198268947;

FLEMING, Stephan B. (Stephan Bernard), 1961-, The civilianization theory of civil-military relations [microform] : they have met the enemy and he is us,  thesis sunmitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University, May 1989, iv, 149 leaves; available at https://curve.carleton.ca/c9ce89fe-7c66-4a10-bd6c-98ac42145235 (accessed 5 October 2016);
This study critiques assumptions of the dominant paradigm in North American civil-military relations theory. The civilianization model portrays historical change in civil- military relations as encompassing the decline of military institutional traditions by the penetration of civilian administration, and the erosion of military professionalism as soldiers adopt the materialistic ethos.

War and society theory was employed in the conduct of three critical research strategies. The first examined the underestimated impact of military forces in the emergence of the nation-state, bureaucracy, and capitalism. The second considered documentary data, arguing that the prediction of the imminent collapse of the martial spirit reflects an enduring moral panic blaming the victim, the soldier. Finally, the belief that remunerative and normative techniques have limited reliance on coercion in disciplining Canadian troops was tested with using post-Korean War period data. The study concludes that military decline has been greatly exaggerated.


Jean-Guy Fleury, image source: http://www.5ralc.ca/historique/detail_anciens_cmdt.php?id=7, accessed on 23 January 2014

FLEURY, J.G. (Jean-Guy), The Canadian Soldier And The State: The Chief Of Defense Staff And The National Security Policy The Need For A More Formal Relationship, Canadian Forces College NSSC 4, March 2002, 30 p.,; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/281/274/fleury.pdf (accessed 28 December 2016);

___________ Jus in bello and military necessity, Toronto: Advanced Military Studies Course, Canadian Forces College, 17 November 1998, 35 p., Call #: 355.005 A5 1998 no.31; available at http://wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/en/cfcpapers/index.php?search_where=author&keywords=fleury&programLimit=all&yearLimit=all&submit=Search (accessed on 1 August 2008); also available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/261/fleury2.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2012);

___________"The plea of ignorance", Toronto: Canadian Forces College, 1998, Call #: 355.005 A5 1998 no.27; available at http://wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/en/cfcpapers/index.php?search_where=author&keywords=fleury&programLimit=all&yearLimit=all&submit=Search (accessed on 1 August 2008); also available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/261/fleury1.pdf (accessed on 14 December 2013);

--------------------------Image source: http://news.uoguelph.ca//2014/01/lawyers-career-follows-military-path/
Image source: http://www.slideshare.net/esquimaltmfrc/hmcs-                       Heather Fogo onboard HMCS Regina
regina-pre-deployment-briefing-2012, accessed 14 December 2015

FOGO, Heather, "Personal Legal Issues", part of the HMCS Regina Pre-Deployment Briefing 2012, slide 1/81 to 16/81, available at http://www.slideshare.net/esquimaltmfrc/hmcs-regina-pre-deployment-briefing-2012 (accessed 14 December 2015);

Image source: anglicanjournal.com/bios/Tali%20Folkins, accessed 27 April 2017
Tali Folkins
FOLKINS, Tali, "Should CEO of CBA take honorary military role?", Law Times, 20 July 2015, available at http://lawtimesnews.com/201507204824/headline-news/should-ceo-of-cba-take-honorary-military-role (accessed 23 July 2015);

Souce de l'image: http://www.quebechebdo.com/Actualites/2011-10-07/article-2769928/Tragedie-de-l%26rsquo
                                           %3Bete-1974-a-Valcartier%3A-Des-cadets-confient-leur-traumatisme-/1 (site visité 8 septembre 2015)

FONTAINE, Hugo, La grenade verte. Valcartier 1974 : les oubliés de la compagnie D, Montréal, Éditions La Presse, 2011, 199 pages;

Capitaine de corvette Marc-André Vary                                                      Major Nadine Déry

FORCES ARMÉES CANADIENNES, Avocat/Avocate, You Tube, publié le 29 juin 2016, disponible à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rtReBSylNZQ (accessed 8 August 2016); figurant le Capitaine de corvette Marc-André Vary et le major Nadine Déry;

"Forces Agree to End Anti-Gay Policies: Ottawa Pays Former Officer $100,000  to Settle Rights Suit”, The Globe and Mail, 28 October 1992, pp. A1, A8 (source: http://library2.usask.ca/srsd/gaycanada/misc/MILITARY.htm, accessed 10 May 2017); about lesbian lieutenant's case that ended the interdiction of homosexuality in the CF; Federal Court decision of 27 October 1992, by Justice William A. MacKay;  

Craig Forcese, photo source: http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/, accessed on 7 April 2014

FORCESE, Craig, "10 Minute Primer: Assessment of National Security and Intelligence Committee of Parliamentarians Functions", June 2016, available at https://vimeo.com/172601622 (accessed on 21 August 2016);

___________ "Armies Without Borders", 25 January 2012, available at  http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/national-security-law-blog/?currentPage=11 (accessed on 16 December 2013);

___________“Balancing the Right to Full Answer and Defence with need to Protect Sensitive Information, in the Context of National Security Proceedings”,  Annual Conference of the Judge Advocate General, Canada (Ottawa), October 2007;

___________Books, Articles and Presentations by Craig Forcese, available at http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/en/2014031411254/publications-and-scholarship/publications/books-articles-and-presentations-forcese.html  (accessed on 24 June 2014);

__________"Canada's Security & Intelligence Community after 9/11: Key Challenges and Conundrums" (September 15, 2016). Ottawa Faculty of Law Working Paper No. 2016-35. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2839622 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2839622;

___________"The Executive, the Royal Prerogative and the Constitution", January 2017, University of Ottawa Working Paper WP 2017-01; available at https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=110099072074091023015075077089082070021078038028040067091087014081115024103001006087041045016000015111098003001122118115119091026059004029003115085103010080006081089070036030114000075071092114099094083077067067098076086095121090110080086103107094100027&EXT=pdf (accessed 27 January 2017);

__________"Extraterritorial Application of the Charter to Canadian Forces", 14 March 2008, available at http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/national-security-law-blog/?currentPage=34 (accessed on 16 December 2013);

___________“National Security Law”, Annual Conference of the Judge Advocate General, Canada (Ottawa), October 2006;

___________National Security Law : Canadian Practice in International Perspective, Toronto: Irwin Law, 2007, xxix, 655 p.;

___________"Nutshell Primer: National Security Accountability Review in Canada", June 2016, available at https://vimeo.com/171962586 (accessed on 21 August 2016);

___________"Parliament, Creeping Constitutionalism, and the Deployment of Canadian Forces?", 5 January 2011, available at  http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/national-security-law-blog/?currentPage=18 (accessed on 16 December 2013);

___________Research Report: Assessment of Complainants’ Legal Claims [concerning international law and the actions of Canadian Forces in relation to Afghan detainees], Prepared for the
Military Police Complaints Commission in relation to MPCC 2008-042, 2010; available at http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/national-security-law-blog/?currentPage=24 (accessed on 16 December 2013);

___________Scholarly Papers (49) available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=1173239 (accessed 28 February 2017);

FORCESE, Craig, Leah West Sherriff, "Killing Citizens: Core Legal Dilemmas in the Targeted Killing of Canadian Foreign Terrorist Fighters (August 26, 2016)" 2017 Canadian Yearbook of International Law, 61 p., Forthcoming, available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2830602;


For the first time since the introduction of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Canada is an armed conflict with an insurgency that has actively recruited Canadians
and directed them to use or promote violence against Canada. In the result, the Canadian government may ask its soldiers to target and kill fellow Canadians, or to assist allies
in doing so. This situation raises a host of novel legal issues, including the question of “targeted killing” confronted by the United Kingdom in 2015 when it directed military force
against several Britons believed to plotting a terrorist attack. That incident sparked a report from the British Parliament highlighting legal dilemmas. This article does the same for
Canada by focusing on the legal implications surrounding a targeted killing by the Canadian government of a Canadian citizen. It examines how a Canadian policy of targeted
killing would oblige Canada to make choices on many weighty legal matters. First, it discusses the Canadian public law rules that apply when the Canadian Armed Forces deploy
in armed conflicts overseas. It then analyzes the international laws governing military force, scrutinized from the perspective of use of force (jus ad bellum) and the law of armed
conflict (jus in bello). It also examines an alternative body of international law: that governing peacetime uses of lethal force. The article concludes by weaving together these areas of law into a single set of legal questions that would necessarily need to be addressed prior to a targeted killing of a Canadian.

FORCESE, Craig, Kent Roach, "Bridging the National Security Accountability Gap: A Three-Part System to Modernize Canada’s Inadequate Review of National Security,”  Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society, April 2016; series: TSAS Working Paper No. 16-04; available at http://tsas.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/TSASWP16-04_Forcese-Roach.pdf   (accessed 21 August 2016); excellent bibliography on the topic;

___________False Security: The Radicalization of Canadian Anti-terrorism, Toronto [Ontario] : Irwin Law, 2015;

___________ "Stumbling toward Total Information Awareness: The Security of Canada Information Sharing Act", (June 2015) 12(7) Canadian Privacy Law Review  65-76; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Papers.cfm?abstract_id=2622703 (accessed on 11 August 2016); 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE CANADA, "Canada's Response to the Questionnaire on the Follow-up to the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent", available at http://www.international.gc.ca/humanitarian-humanitaire/conference_27.aspx?lang=eng&view=d (accessed on  22 May 2012);
AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES ET COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL CANADA, "Rapport canadien en réponse au questionnaire sur le suivi de la XXVIIe Conférence internationale de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge", disponible à http://www.international.gc.ca/humanitarian-humanitaire/conference_27.aspx?lang=fra&view=d (visité le 22 mai 2012);

Video still (made 23 August 2016)
On the far right, representing Canada, Colonel Rob Holman

Foro Interamericano sobre Justicia Militar, "Video de introduccion del II Foro Interamerican sobre Justicia Militar", August 2014, You Tube video, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHe9GqigQBc (accessed 23 August 2016);

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/keith-reichert-94227537, accessed 5 November 2016
Major Keith Reichert, one of the
speakers at the conference

FOREIGN AFFAIRS PUBLISHER (New Zealand), "1st International Conference on Military Law in South Africa", 5 November 2016; available at http://foreignaffairs.co.nz/2016/11/05/1st-international-conference-on-military-law-in-south-africa/ (accessed 5 November 2016);

The 1st International Conference on Military Law in South Africa, hosted by the South African National Defence Force and the Defence
 Legal Services Division over the period 31 October to 4 November 2016 at the CSIR International Convention Centre in Pretoria, has concluded.

The conference theme (“Contemporary Military Law”) was explored with sub-themes relating to International Military Law, Human Rights Law,
Operational Law and the Administration of Military Justice. The objectives of the conference – to raise public awareness of the importance of
Military Law in a democracy and to stimulate interest in academic research in this specialised field of Public Law to strengthen the development
of South African Military Law – were successfully met with a number of international and local academics and military professionals presenting
research papers regarding the conference theme.

With delegates and presenters arriving for accreditation on Monday, 31 October 2016, the conference was officially opened on Tuesday, 1 November
2016 by Gen Solly Shoke (the Chief of the South African National Defence Force), who in his address welcomed the opportunity provided by the
conference for South African military lawyers to benchmark local approaches with that of other armed forces, and expressing the wish that the
conference would also provide a basis for evaluating whether any amendments to military- and other legislation may be necessary to empower
commanders to instil and maintain military discipline.


The Administration of Military Justice sub-them [sic] commenced with a presentation by Major General Blaise Cathcart, the Judge Advocate General
of the Canadian Armed Forces wherein he outlined the features of the Canadian military justice system, where after Major Keith Reichert, the
Assistant Chief of Staff (Strategic) on Major General Cathcart’s staff, reported on the Court Martial Comprehensive Review process presently being
conducted to evaluate whether any revision of the Canadian military justice system is required to enhance its effectiveness or legality.

Image source: forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=operation-impact-technical-briefing/i520ieam, accessed 11 April 2017
Paul W. Forget

FORGET, Paul W., "Enforcement Detachments and the Canadian Navy: A New Counter-Drug Capability", (Summer 2011) 7(2) Canadian Naval Review 4-9; available at www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=operation-impact-technical-briefing/i520ieam (accessed 11 April 2017);

FORSTER, S.H. (Scott), former JAG officer with the rank of Colonel; subsequently worked with the Veterans Review & Appeal Board, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island; 

Nadine Fortin, source de l'image: Google Image, site visité le 18 Mai 2014

FORTIN, Nadine, "POF 488, Le droit des conflits armés, syllabus Automne 2010", RMC -- CMR, Département de politique et d'économie, disponible à http://www.davidmlast.org/Politics_Review/Politics_Courses_files/POF%20488%20-%20FORTIN.pdf (vérifié le 30 juin 2015);

Source de l'image: www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2010-11/ch-3-military-justice-system.page, visité 11 mai 2016
Nadine Fortin avec un client

__________notes biographiques http://www.cdp-hrc.uottawa.ca/uploads/BIOGRAPHIE_Fortin.pdf, site visité le 10 avril 2014;

Source de l'image: commonlaw.uottawa.ca/15/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9485&Itemid=78&lang=fr, visité 21 mai 2016
Major M.S. Nadine Fortin, Forces canadiennes et Collège militaire royal de Kingston

___________web site of Nadine Fortin -- http://nadinefortin.com/, accessed on 29 avril 2014;

FORTIN, Steve, "JAG : A Century of Service" (9 November 2011) 14(29) The Maple Leaf, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/commun/ml-fe/article-eng.asp?id=7188#cn-tphp (accessed on 30 November 2011);
FORTIN, Steve, "Le JAG : un siècle de service" (9 November 2011) 14(29) La feuille d'érable 13;  disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/tml/_pdf/2011/11-fra.pdf (vérifié le 25 avril 2012);

"Le lieutenant-colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay, une avocate militai-     "Le lieutenant-colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay, avocate militaire,              "Le lieutenant-colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay, avocate militaire,
re de l’Armée canadienne, explique que sa participation à une          a vécu ses premières expériences militaires à titre de cadette de             a fait du mentorat auprès de procureurs militaires en République                                                                                                                                      
mission en République démocratique du Congo au début de sa         l’Armée. Plus tard, elle a décidé de réunir sa passion pour le                  démocratique du Congo. Elle explique que cette expérience lui
carrière est un témoignage éloquent des expériences stimulantes      droit et son amour de la vie militaire en s’enrôlant dans l’Armée            a permis de réaliser son rêve de contribuer à améliorer les choses 
qu’offre une carrière en droit militaire. Photo : Lieutenant-colonel    canadienne. Photo : Lieutenant-colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay"               dans des parties du monde où la vie est plus difficile. Photo:
Marie-Ève Tremblay."                                                                                                                                                                                            Lieutenant-colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay"

FOUCHARD, Steven, Armée canadienne, Affaires publiques de l'armée, "Avocat militaire : une expérience professionnelle « dynamique » ", Article / Le 19 janvier 2017 / Numéro de projet : 16-0114, disponible à  http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/fr/nouvelles-publications/nationaux-nouvelles-details.page?doc=avocat-militaire-une-experience-professionnelle-dynamique/ix1xwnsk(vérifié le 20 janvier 2017); article sur deux officiers du JAG: Captaine Francesca Ferguson et le  Lieutenant-Colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay;

"Canadian Armed Forces legal officer Captain Francesca Ferguson                     "Canadian Armed Forces legal officer Captain Francesca Ferguson during her                
during her training at Canadian Forces Military Law Centre in Kingston,            training at Canadian Forces Military Law Centre in Kingston, Ontario. Capt
Ontario. Capt Ferguson, who completed her schooling while working                 Ferguson, who completed her schooling while working as an Army Reservist,
 as an Army Reservist, says her work offers a wide variety of experiences          says her work offers a wide variety of experiences and a high degree of
 and a high degree of independence. Photo by Adam Dargavel, ©2015               independence. Photo by Adam Dargavel, ©2015 DND/MDN Canada."
DND/MDN Canada."
___________ Canadian Army, Army Public Affairs, "Legal Officer: a ‘dynamic’ career experience",  Article / January 19, 2017 / Project number: 16-0114; available at http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/en/news-publications/national-news-details-no-menu.page?doc=legal-officer-a-dynamic-career-experience/ix1xwnsk, accessed 20 January 2017; article about two JAG legal officers: Captain Francesca Ferguson and Lieutenant-Colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay; also published in the Western Sentinel, 2 February 2017, at p. 10, available at http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/edmonton-sun-western-sentinel/edmonton_western_sentinel-0202/2017013101/10.html#10 (accessed 12 March 2017);

Major Samson Young and Sean Allen pictured with Colonel
Vihar Joshi (second from left)

___________"Visible Minorities Advisory Group having a positive impact", Article / October 27, 2016 / Project number: 16-0300, available at http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/en/news-publications/central-news-details-page-secondary-menu.page?doc=visible-minorities-advisory-group-having-a-positive-impact/iumux42j (accessed 22 March 2017);
Ottawa, Ontario — The former co-chairs of a committee mandated to advise the Department of National Defence (DND) on issues affecting
visible minorities say the organization itself is steadily becoming more culturally diverse.

Major Samson Young and Mr. Sean Allen recently stepped down from their roles as, respectively, military and civilian co-chair of the Defence
Visible Minorities Advisory Group (DVMAG) for the National Capital Region after two years. Both say they plan to remain active with the group
in other capacities.

FOURNIER, Michèle, 1976-, Homosexualité, armée et police: État de la question et expériences vécues par les militaires, policiers et policières gais selon leur propre point de vue, Ph.D. thesis in criminology, Université de Montréal, 2006; directeurs: Jean-Paul Brodeur et Marie-Marthe Cousineau;

Abstract (summary)

With regards to employment, certain working environments are accessible to sexual diversity, whereas others are still closed or hostile
towards those who choose to live openly with their homosexuality. Amongst the latter, it is considered that with respect to employment,
which traditionally requires male oriented skills wherein virility is valued, such as in the military or police corps, although differing on
certain points, they do share common characteristics which are often cited as obstacles to the integration of homosexuals.

This thesis delves into the question of the homosexuality in the military as well as various police forces. The objective herein would be
to acknowledge the fact that within the army and police forces in various countries where homosexuality is evident, it is imperative that
we consider the thought pattern of gay soldiers, and gay police officers in Quebec, according to their own particular point of view.

Current listed research indicates that the armed forces as well as police forces of several western countries permit the individual recruitment
and hiring of homosexuals, and that more recently, they are granting the same rights to these groups that they allocate to their heterosexual
personnel. The experience of the gay military and police personnel of these countries however, is marked by episodes of homophobia, and
although their presence does not harm the effectiveness of said services, they are still far from being completely accepted within these

In Quebec, twenty-one interviews realized with homosexuals stemming from military and police circles has given us a greater understanding
 of their lives and the way they deal with their working environment. The qualitative analysis arrives at conclusions pertaining to their experiences:
 As the homosexuality aspect has been condemned for decades within these environments and as such, it being unthinkable to publicly
 display homosexuality, it would appear that the military and police institutions have since made considerable progress in the acceptance of
 homosexuality within their ranks.

The organizational culture, and more particularly the male chauvinism which reigns within the army, restricts the integration of gay servicemen
 and women. It is considered however, that their situation continues to improve and that it is believed that in future years, homosexuality within
 the Armed forces will be more generally accepted. Insofar as the gay policemen and women are concerned, those groups describe their
 experience in the forces as positive, while underlining the openness of their organization enabling them, although in a limited fashion, display
 their homosexuality in their work environment. Quite like gay military personnel, they believe that relations between the police and the gay
 community have greatly improved over recent years and that the Montreal police organization is striving for even closer relationships with
 the diverse communities it serves.

The difficulties faced by some gay policemen and women and specifically some gay servicemen and women, however, cannot be ignored. It is
 understood that their situation has largely improved and that irrespective of the pitfalls, it is now possible for homosexuals to have a careen in
 these working environments, wherein such a career choice would have been unavailable to them a short time ago.
(source: http://search.proquest.com/docview/304922941, accessed 23 August 2016)

FOURNIER, Nicolas, Punir la désertion en Nouvelle-France: justice, pouvoir et institution militaire de 1742 à 1761, mémoire présenté comme exigence partielle de la maitrise en histoire, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2013; disponible à http://www.archipel.uqam.ca/5900/1/M13113.pdf (vérifié le 25 mai 2015);

Cette recherche porte sur la question des déserteurs en Nouvelle-France durant les vingt dernières années du régime français. Il n'y a aucun ouvrage
complet sur ce thème, tandis que les études existantes se limitent souvent à l'analyse des causes ou des lieux de la fuite. L'historiographie ne s'est
pas intéressée à l'importance et à la complexité de la désertion pour les soldats ni pour les élites militaires. Nous avons donc analysé la situation des
déserteurs en Nouvelle-France en utilisant les procès pour désertion et les journaux militaires. En plus d'étudier ce comportement, nous voulions
étudier sa prise en charge par la discipline militaire et par le Conseil de guerre pour réduire son ampleur, mais surtout pour construire le pouvoir de
l'armée. Ainsi, la désertion est un phénomène commun dans les armées européennes de l'époque. Toutefois, la fuite des soldats en Nouvelle-France
est caractérisée par les particularités propres à la situation coloniale. En plus de causes généralisées, telles que la guerre ou l'alcool, l'Amérique
impose des conditions de vie particulières au soldat, par exemple les conditions météorologiques, la géographie et les Amérindiens. Par ailleurs, la
désertion est un phénomène qui comporte des particularités qui ne peuvent être généralisées pour l'ensemble de la Nouvelle-France. La façon de
déserter et la signification de la désertion sont modulées grandement selon le lieu, le moment et les circonstances de la fuite du soldat. De plus, les
impacts de la désertion sont nombreux sur l'armée, ce qui explique l'importance de ce phénomène. Les élites dénoncent officiellement la désertion,
cependant les mesures instaurées pour la contrer sont insuffisantes ou mal gérées. Bien que difficile à analyser, la discipline militaire demeure la
principale méthode pour gérer les soldats. Puis, la justice militaire intervient dans un certain nombre de cas. Le Conseil de guerre juge surtout par
contumace, cependant les déserteurs présents durant notre période semblent plus sévèrement punis qu'en Europe. Enfin, la grâce permet de réintégrer
quelques déserteurs dans les rangs, alors que les déserteurs intégrés à la colonie semblent éviter plus facilement la répression. Au-delà du contrôle de
la désertion, la justice militaire et l'octroi de la grâce contribuent à la construction du pouvoir. La dynamique de la prise en charge de la désertion
permet aux élites militaires de gagner une certaine autonomie par rapport à la métropole, tout en se distinguant du pouvoir « civil ». Puis, les élites
militaires confirment leur pouvoir sur l'armée. Toutefois, la justice militaire est aussi utilisée par un groupe restreint d'officiers de l'élite militaire
pour construire leur pouvoir personnel. Le rituel judiciaire contribue ainsi à la formation des réseaux de contacts, permettant à certains d'obtenir des
postes, des distinctions et des grades.(source du résumé: http://www.archipel.uqam.ca/5900/, vérification 3 février 2015;

Sylvain Fournier, source de la photo http://www.usherbrooke.ca/politique-appliquee/nous-joindre/personnel-enseignant/fournier-sylvain/, site visité le 10 avril 2014

FOURNIER, Sylvain, 1962-, "Le droit opérationel  au Timor oriental", (July/Juillet 2000) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 5; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519184345/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+00-07.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);

Image source: In the article "Ici au Timor Oriental -- Here in East Timor"
___________"Ici au Timor Oriental -- Here in East Timor", JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités, volume III -- 1999 at pp. 47-52;

____________"Introduction to the LOAC and the Rules of Engagement", NATO LEGAL Deskbook, Partie XII: 2ième Edition 2010, p. 245; available at https://info.publicintelligence.net/NATO-LegalDeskbook.pdf
 (accessed 8 July 2017);

___________Le processus de redressement de grief des forces armées canadiennes : mise en contexte et critique,  thèse pour le grade LL.M., McGill University. Institute of Comparative Law, 1997,  x, 132 leaves, 1997, Morissette, Yves-Marie (advisor), disponible à  http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/-?func=dbin-jump-full&current_base=GEN01&object_id=20531, vérifié le 6 janvier 2012;

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the procedure for the redress of grievances in the Canadian Armed Forces. A comparative
 study of the parallel system under the American law will be undertaken. The author's wish is to highlight deficiencies in the
 Canadian grievance procedure and to suggest changes which would improve the procedure. The military context is reviewed in
 the first two parts of the thesis, it being the view of the author that the grievance procedure evolves in a work environment and
 as part of an institution which are unique. In the following parts, the thesis will situate the military personnel within the legal
 framework in which it operates and will trace the origins of the grievance procedure. A detailed examination of the procedure
 will then be presented. The last two parts of the thesis deal with judicial review of decision made in the grievance process and
 with a critical appraisal of the process. An overview of criticisms which may be leveled at this process in the Canadian Armed
 Forces will be followed by observations on the advantages of a system integrating positive features of the Canadian and American
 systems. (source:, accessed on 6 January 2012);

___________"NATO Military Interventions Abroad: How Roe are Adopted and Jurisdictional Rights Negotiated", Paper presented at the  XVth  International Congress  of Social Defence  entitled:  "Criminal Law between war and peace: Justice and cooperation in criminal matters in international military interventions", Toledo, Spain,  September  2007; available at http://www.defensesociale.org/xvcongreso/ponencias/SylvainFournier.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2012); see also http://books.google.ca/books?id=xw8me9GgngcC&pg=PA113&lpg=PA113&dq=%22NATO+Military+Interventions+Abroad%22&source=bl&ots=eFzPPLY8L3&sig=4q1yLEbVmhNcC5SM19p6tIWzZ5U&hl=
(accessed on 1 March 2012); now published in In Criminal Law between War and Peace: Justice and Cooperation , Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 2009,  p. 113;

__________Notes biographiques (non nécessairement écrites par monsieur Fournier):

[Member of the editorial board, The Military Law and the Law of War Review / La revue de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre]

Sylvain Fournier LL.M. is member of the Quebec Bar presently working as a consultant in Belgium. During the last few years he
 provided IHL and NATO legal training for different organizations including the International Committee of Military Medicine (ICMM),
 HPCR International, the NATO School and the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS). Currently he is developing an
 experimental web Portal for the NATO legal community under the direction of NATO Allied Command Transformation. For 22 years
 he served as a military officer in the Office of the Judge Advocate General in the Canadian Forces (CF), occupying different legal
 positions and serving on operational deployments in Macedonia, East Timor and Bosnia Herzegovina. Assigned in Germany for 8
 years he became senior legal counsel for the CF in Europe and Canada Head-of-Mission to Sending States. His last military assignment
 was at NATO HQ in Brussels where he served as legal advisor to the Chairman of the Military Committee and the Director of International
 Military Staff. He is member of the Advisory Board of the Reference Centre of Excellence on IHL and Military Ethics and of the ISMLLW
 where he presided the Committee on IHL from 2003 to 2007. (source: http://www.mllwr.org/editorial-board/, accessed on 20 February 2015) 

Sylvain Fournier
___________biographical notes on Mr. Fournier:

Sylvain Fournier is a Lecturer in Law and Politics at University of Sherbrooke where he studied law (LL.B.). Member of the Quebec Bar he
holds an LL.M. from McGill University. For 22 years Sylvain served as military officer in the Office of the Judge Advocate General in the
Canadian Forces (CF) occupying different legal positions and serving on operational deployments in Macedonia, East-Timor and Bosnia
Herzegovina. Assigned in Germany for 8 years he became Senior Legal Counsel for the CF in Europe. His last military duty was at NATO
HQ in Brussels where he served as Legal Advisor to the Chairman of the Military Committee. After retirement Sylvain worked as a Consultant
in Belgium for HPCR International (Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research), DILLS (Defense Institute of International Legal Studies) and
NATO Allied Command Transformation where he developed the web legal portal CLOVIS. Since 2000 he provides for the ICMM (International
Committee of Military Medicine) IHL training to military doctors in Africa, Arabia, Asia and Europe. (source: http://www.ismllw.org/REVIEW/mllwr%20EB.php,
vérifié le 4 août 2017)

___________ page web --  http://www.usherbrooke.ca/politique-appliquee/nous-joindre/personnel-enseignant/fournier-sylvain/  (visitée le 8 novembre 2013)

[quelques notes sur l'expérience militaire:]

2005-2008 Conseiller juridique principal / Président du Comité Militaire de l’OTAN (Bruxelles)
. Agit comme conseiller juridique du président sur tous les aspects de la mission militaire de l'OTAN
. Rédige, négocie et passe en revue divers contrats / accords internationaux. (Statut des Forces, ROE)
. Prodigue des conseils ciblés pour atteindre les objectifs politiques et militaires stratégiques.
. Membre de différents comités de travail au sein de l’état major international à l’OTAN.
. Rédige un document de travail sur les applications pratiques de la Convention des Nations Unis sur le droit de la mer aux opérations
 militaires de l'OTAN.

2001-2005 Conseiller Juridique Principal / Forces Canadiennes en Europe (CFE) (Allemagne)
. Responsable de toutes les questions juridiques (Statut des forces et des personnes à charge, réclamations, fiscalité, emploi, discipline,
 télécommunications) des Forces canadiennes stationnées en Europe.
. Chef de Mission du Canada auprès des États d’Origines (BEL, FRA, NLD, GBR, USA) en Allemagne.
. Assure le bon fonctionnement d'une équipe de six juristes, deux consultants et un agent de liaison.
. Supervise la mise en œuvre de contrats de services de plusieurs firmes de génie conseil.
. Renégocie un accord international sur la présence des FCE avec les autorités allemandes.
. Préside un groupe de travail international sur les problématiques environnementales communes.
. Agit comme conseiller juridique au Quartier Général de la SFOR à Sarajevo (BiH) et responsable de toutes les questions liées à la
 mission de l'OTAN. (6 mois)

Image source: http://www.natolibguides.info/c.php?g=48607&p=711652, accessed on 12 February 2015

FOURNIER, Sylvain, 1962 and S.L. Bumgardner,  "Article 5 North Atlantic Treaty: The Cornerstone of the Alliance",  (July 2014) 34 Nato Legal Gazette 17-38; available at http://www.ismllw.org/NATO%20LEGAL%20GAZETTE/Legal%20GazetteIssueNo%2034.pdf (accessed 12 February 2015);

Rory Fowler, image source: http://live.ottawacitizen.com/Event/Live_blog_Military_complaints_commission_hearing_Tuesday_May_22?Page=0, accessed 16 April 2015

FOWLER, Rory G., "The Canadian Forces Grievance Process: How Adequate an alternative is it?", (October 2014) 27(3) Canadian Journal of Administrative Law and Practice/Revue canadienne de droit administratif et de pratique 277-307;

LCol Fowler’s retirement announcement/ Retraite du lieutenant-colonel Rory G. Fowler,  received by me on 18 November 2016:

                          1.Lieutenant-Colonel Rory Fowler will retire on 25 January 2017 after more than
                          27 years of loyal and dedicated service to Canada and to the Canadian Armed Forces.
                          His last day of work will be on Friday, 2 December 2016.

2.         Lieutenant-Colonel Fowler joined the Canadian Armed Forces in 1989 under
the Regular Officer Training Plan while attending Queen’s University in Kingston.
Since then, he has been engaged in a unilateral commitment with the Crown in return
for which the Queen has assumed no obligations.  Commissioned in 1991, following
Basic Infantry Officer Training, he joined 1 PPCLI in Calgary, where he served as a
rifle platoon and reconnaissance platoon commander.  He deployed with the 1 PPCLI
Battle Group on Op HARMONY in Croatia in 1994.  In 1996, he was posted to 2 R22eR
as the PPCLI Exchange Officer, serving as the Assistant Operations Officer and a rifle
company second-in-command.  He deployed on Op CONSTABLE in Haiti in 1997 and
participated in Op ASSISTANCE in Manitoba in 1997 and Op RECUPERATION in
Quebec in 1998.  Posted to the Land Force Western Area Training Centre in 1999, (then)
Captain Fowler served as a Militia Training Support Team Leader – Infantry, Second-
in-Command Basic Training Company, Training Co-ordination Officer and Technical
Adjutant.  In 2001, he was selected for the Military Legal Training Plan and attended
the University of Western Ontario Law School.


3.         Graduating in 2004, Captain Fowler was selected for the Dean Ivan C. Rand
Honour Society based upon meritorious academic standing throughout his undergraduate
studies in law and his outstanding contributions in the service of the students of the Faculty
of Law.  Captain Fowler articled with the Middlesex County Crown Attorney and, upon
Call to the Bar of Ontario in 2005, was posted to the Directorate of Law – Administrative
Law in Ottawa, where he advised Director General Canadian Forces Grievance Authority
on matters arising in the context of CF grievances and on judicial review of decisions by
the final authority in the grievance process.  He was promoted to major in 2006 and, in
2007, was posted to the Directorate of Law – Compensation, Benefits, Pensions and
Estates and was appointed Acting Director in September of that year.  He served in this
capacity until July 2010, interrupted by a deployment to Afghanistan from September
2008 to April 2009 where he served as the legal mentor to 205 Corps of the Afghan
National Army.


4.         In July 2010, (then) Major Fowler was posted to CFB Kingston as the Base
Deputy Judge Advocate.  In particular, upon its ‘stand up’, he advised 1st Canadian
Division Headquarters, principally on matters of operational law and also supported
training at the Canadian Army Command and Staff College, including mentoring junior
legal officers in the context of operational exercises held at the Staff College.  He also
advised on myriad disciplinary and administrative legal matters arising on this diverse
Base.  From July to October 2011, Major Fowler deployed as the Task Force Legal
Advisor for Task Force Libeccio, the Air Component to Operation MOBILE, Canada’s
effort to protect civilians in Libya pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1973.


5.         In 2012, Major Fowler was selected for post graduate education and completed
an LLM (with Merit) at University College London, where his studies focused on Public
and Administrative Law.  In 2013, he was posted to the Canadian Forces Military Law
Centre as Standards Officer, where he co-ordinated the development of the new Legal
Officer Qualification Standard and the inaugural Legal Officer Qualification course.
In 2014, Lieutenant-Colonel Fowler was promoted to his current rank and posted to
Ottawa as the Director of Law – Administrative Law.  Upon retiring, Lieutenant-Colonel
Fowler and his wife Erin (née Olizar) will reside in Kingston, Ontario, where Lieutenant-
Colonel Fowler will continue practising public and administrative law. ....


1.         Le lieutenant-colonel Rory Fowler prendra sa retraite le 25 janvier 2017 après
plus de 27 années de service loyal et dévoué au Canada et aux forces armées canadiennes.
Le 2 décembre 2016 sera sa dernière journée au travail.


2.         Le lieutenant-colonel Fowler s’est enrôlé dans les Forces canadiennes en 1989 dans
le cadre du Programme de formation des officiers de la Force régulière à  l'Université Queen’s
de Kingston.  Depuis, il a servi dans un engagement unilatéral avec la Couronne en échange de
quoi la Reine n’a assumé aucune obligation.  Suite à sa formation initiale d'officier d'infanterie,
il reçoit sa commission d’officier avant d’être affecté au 1er  PPCLI à Calgary, où il servira
d’abord comme commandant de peloton de fusiliers et de peloton de reconnaissance.  Il a été
déployé avec le groupement tactique du 1er  PPCLI sur l’Op HARMONY en Croatie en 1994.
En 1996, il a été muté au 2e  R22eR comme officier d'échange du PPCLI, servant d’abord
comme officier adjoint des opérations, puis en tant que commandant en second d’une
compagnie de fusiliers.  Il est déployé sur l'Op CONSTABLE en Haïti en 1997 et a participé à
l'Op ASSISTANCE au Manitoba en 1997 et Op RECUPERATION au Québec en 1998.  Muté
au Centre de formation de la Force terrestre du Secteur de l'Ouest en 1999, le capitaine Fowler
(tel qu’il était alors) a servi à titre de chef d’équipe pour le soutien à l’entraînement de la Milice
(infanterie), en tant que commandant en second de la compagnie de formation élémentaire,
officier de coordination de la formation et en tant que capitaine-adjudant technique.  En 2001,
il a été choisi pour le Programme militaire d’études en droit et a fréquenté l'Université Western
Ontario Law School.


3.         Diplômé en 2004, le capitaine Fowler a reçu le prix de la Société honorifique du doyen
Ivan C. Rand en reconnaissance de ses résultats scolaires méritoires tout au long de ses études
de premier cycle en droit et ses contributions exceptionnelles au service des étudiants de la
Faculté de droit.  Le capitaine Fowler a complété son stage en droit avec le procureur de la
Couronne du comté de Middlesex et, suite à son assermentation au Barreau de l'Ontario en
2005, il est affecté à la Direction juridique - droit administratif à Ottawa, où il a conseillé le
Directeur général - Autorité des griefs des Forces canadiennes sur les questions soulevées
dans le cadre des griefs des FC ainsi que préparer la défense de décisions prises par l'autorité
de dernière instance dans le processus de règlement des griefs soumises à un contrôle judiciaire
en Cour fédérale.  En 2006, il est promu au grade de major.  En 2007, il est affecté à la
Direction juridique - rémunération, avantages sociaux, pensions et successions et a été
nommé directeur par intérim en septembre de cette année.  Il occupera ces fonctions jusqu'à
juillet 2010, prenant seulement une pause pour un déploiement en Afghanistan de septembre
2008 à avril 2009, où il a servi comme mentor juridique auprès du 205e Corps de l’armée
nationale afghane.


4.         En juillet 2010, le ​​major Fowler a été affecté à la BFC Kingston comme juge-avocat
adjoint, où il conseillera notamment la 1ère Division du Canada, suite à sa constitution,
principalement sur les questions de droit opérationnel, en plus de soutenir le Collège d’état-
major et de commandement de l'Armée canadienne, y compris le mentorat des avocats militaires
subalternes dans le cadre d'exercices opérationnels tenus au Collège d’état-major.  Il a également
fourni des avis juridiques sur une pléthore de questions disciplinaires et administratives.  De juillet
à octobre 2011, le major Fowler fut déployé en tant que conseiller juridique auprès de la Force
opérationnelle Libeccio, la composante aérienne de l'Op MOBILE, soit la contribution canadienne
pour protéger les civils en Libye, conformément à la Résolution 1973 du Conseil de sécurité de


5.         En 2012, le major Fowler a été choisi pour le programme d’études supérieures et il
obtiendra une maîtrise en droit (avec mention) à l'University College London, où ses études
ont porté sur le droit public et administratif.  En 2013, il est affecté au Centre de droit militaire
des Forces canadiennes en tant qu’officier des normes, où il a coordonné le développement de
la nouvelle norme de qualification d’avocat militaire, ainsi que le premier cours de la qualification
d’avocat militaire.  En 2014, le lieutenant-colonel Fowler a été promu à son grade actuel et affecté
à Ottawa en tant que Directeur juridique - Droit administratif.  À sa retraite, le lieutenant-colonel
Fowler et son épouse Erin (née Olizar) retourneront à Kingston, où il continuera sa pratique en
droit public et administratif. [...]

___________"Military Administrative Law", 8 February 2017, available at http://cswan.com/military-administrative-law/ (accessed 4 May 2017);

Potential pitfalls for members of the Canadian Forces when engaging legal counsel", http://cswan.com/wp-content/uploads/potential-pitfalls-for-members-of-the-canadian-forces-when-engaging-legal-counsel-blog-98-rory-fowler.pdf (accessed 4 May 2017);

Image source: cswan.com/organization-of-the-canadian-forces-canadian-forces-vs-canadian-armed-forces-and-the-report-of-the-special-staff-assistance-visit/, accessed 4 May 2017
Rory Fowler
___________"Select Comments Regarding the RMCC SSAV Report", available at  http://cswan.com/wp-content/uploads/Blog-102-Rory-Fowler-April-19-2017-3RD-LINK.pdf (accessed 4 May 2017);

___________Testimony of Major Rory Fowler before the Military Police Complaints Commission, Fynes Public Interest Hearings, Transcript of Proceedings, Ottawa, 22 May 2012, volume 25, at pp. 16 to 111; available at http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/2012-05-22-Maj-Fowler-LCol-King.doc (accessed 20 August 2017);

___________"Why was a ‘Special Staff Assistance Visit’ used at Royal Military College of Canada, rather than a Board of Inquiry?", available at http://cswan.com/wp-content/uploads/Blog-102-Rory-Fowler-April-19-2017-2ND-LINK.pdf (accessed 4 May 2017);

__________from the law firm of Cunningham Swan Lawyers, web site, available at http://cswan.com/lawyers/rory-fowler/ (accessed 4 May 2017);

Image source: www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/58/2013-05-21-20.pdf, accessed28 August 2016
On the photo, Cdr Sheila Archer with Lt(N) Mike Baker.

FOWLER, Roy G. and Baker Mike, lecturers, "Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Political and Economic Science POE 488A--Law of Armed Conflict, Winter 2013-14 Syllabus", version: 12 Jan 2015, 9 pages; obtained under Access to Information Act reply to request file A-2015-00669, 22 July 2015, available at http://www.lareau-legal.ca/A-2015-00669.pdf (accessed 29 July 2015);

FOX, Brent, "Lessons in Afghan law -- Kentville native mentoring military lawyers through changing Afghan life", Kings County Register, 14 February 2008, available at  http://www.kingscountynews.ca/Living/2008-02-14/article-588661/Lessons-in-Afghan-law/1, accessed on 8 April 2015; article about Anthony Farris;

Farris notes the Afghan army is in operations, and it’s important to introduce these legal concepts so it conducts its actions in accordance with international law.

A slow process

Farris acknowledges “mentoring is a slow process.”

Many concepts are foreign to the hosts and require a large measure of explanation and discussion. Experience and the language barrier can also be issues.

But, Farris points out, it has been very rewarding. “I have witnessed progress. “I have provided the military lawyers with a basic understanding of how their system works.
I have worked with key players in the court martial process to have those soldiers accused of serious offenses to be tried in accordance with procedural safeguards recognized
by international law. And, I have taught soldiers at the basic level some of the simple rules related to military operations.”

James Foy, image source: http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-enews/2013/07.aspx, accessed 23 January 2015

FOY, James, Autonomous Weapons Systems: Taking the Human out of International Humanitarian Law,  2013,  Canadian Bar Association's (CBA) National Military Law Section Law School Sword and Scale Essay Prize/Lauréat du Concours de dissertation 2013 du Salut militaire; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2290995 and http://www.cba.org/CBA/sections_military/pdf/2014-essay.pdf (accessed on 26 July 2014);

FRANCE, "Meeting between the French Defence General Inspection Board, and the Judge Advocate General (JAG); available at http://www.ambafrance-ca.org/Meeting-between-the-French-Defence (accessed 16 March 2017)

A delegation from the French Defence General Inspection Board met the Canadian Forces Judge
Advocate General in Ottawa on 15 and 16 January 2007.

The purpose of the meeting was to study the way the Canadian Forces include juridical aspects into
the conduct of operational and administrative responsibilities

David Fraser, image source: https://www.google.com accessed on 14 November 2014

FRASER, Colonel David, "The Perception of War Versus the Reality of Law", AMSC 5 (Advanced Military Studies Course 5), Canadian Forces College, 30 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/265/275.pdf  (accessed on 19 June 2012);

Robert Fricke, image source: https://www.linkedin.com/pub/robert-fricke/45/1aa/586, accessed on 14 November 2014
FRICKE, Major Robert K., United States Marine Corps, "I'll Decide What Cases to Prosecute and You Decide What Infantry Tactics to Employ"   A Proposal to Eliminate the Commander's Power to  Refer Charges to Trial  by Court Martial  -- Another Step Toward Dissociating  the Word "Military" from Justice,  thesis for the LL.M. degree in military law, The Judge Advocate General's School, 47th Judge Advocate Officer Graduate Course, April 1999, 144 p., Appendix A and B; available at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA439860 (accessed on 7 March 2012);  on the subject of reform in other countries, see "Canada & The Somalia Experience", at pp. 85-103;

Martin L. Friedland, photo source: https://www.fd.ulaval.ca/faculte/personnel/40, accessed on 8 April 2014

FRIEDLAND, Martin L., 1932-, "Military Justice and the Somalia Affair", (1997) 40 The Criminal Law Quarterly 360-399; see also the work of Mr. Friedland for the Somalia Commission of Inquiry;

Image source: http://www.amazon.ca
___________My Life in Crime and Other Academic Adventures, Toronto : Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press,  c2007, xii, 513 p., and see "Controlling Misconduct in the Military", at pp. 402-418, ISBN: 9780802097903;
 available at http://books.google.com/books?id=FkFOTMBAHGcC&printsec=titlepage&dq=codification+%22law+reform+commission+of+canada%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_toc_s&cad=1 and
 http://books.google.com/books?id=FkFOTMBAHGcC&dq=codification+%22law+reform+commission+of+canada%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 10 April 2008);

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/deborah-friedman-ll-b-b4a27133, accessed 11 August 2017
Deborah Friedman

FRIEDMAN, Deborah, General Counsel and Deputy Legal Advisor, Office of the Legal Advisor to DND and the CF

General Counsel and Deputy Legal Advisor

Deborah Friedman is the General Counsel and Deputy Legal Advisor to the Department of National Defence and the
Canadian Armed Forces where she is responsible for overseeing the delivery of high quality legal services on a wide
range of areas of law including, civil liability (tort and contract law), contracting, procurement, real property and
intellectual property, legislative and regulatory drafting support, administrative and Charter law, as well as matters
of national security.  ...

[source: www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/dnd-cf-deputy-legal-advisor-bio.page, accessed 11 August 2017]

Michael Friscolanti, photo source: http://www.macleans.ca/author/mfriscolanti/, accessed on 3 August 2014

FRISCOLANTI, Michael, "Behind Robert Semrau’s dismissal.  His removal from the Canadian Forces sends a clear message through the ranks", Maclean’s, 5 October 2010, p. 1, available at http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/no-mercy/ (accessed 15 April 2017);

___________ "Capt. Robert Semrau Dismissed from the Forces. Canadian soldier avoids jail time for shooting a wounded insurgent in Afghanistan (Updated)",  Maclean’s, 5 October 2010, p. 1, available at macleans.ca/news/canada/capt-robert-semrau-dismissed-from-the-forces/ (accessed 15 April 2017);

___________ "Serial killer Russell Williams could lose his military pension after all -- Legal battle over ex-colonel's retirement benefits now before Ontario's highest court", MacLean's, 1 August 2014; available at macleans.ca/news/canada/serial-killer-russell-williams-could-lose-his-military-pension-after-all/ (accessed 3 August 2014);

___________"What's a life worth?  Canadian military payments for death and destruction in Afghanistan have tripled", MacLean's, 10 January 2011; available at macleans.ca/news/canada/whats-a-life-worth/ (accessed 12 February 2015);

FRIESEN, David D., Exemption of the Mennonites from military service in Canada, [Winnipeg]: Faculty of law, [University of Manitoba, 1939], [24] leaves. NOTES: Thesis (LL.B.) -- University of Manitoba; not consulted yet (3 January 2016);

-------Image detail: www.combatcamera.forces.gc.ca/gallery/cc_photos/detail/?filename=AR2005-A01-356&assetId=2952
Paul Frost, legal officer, 5 Dec. 2005, PRT Site Kandahar, Afghanistan, 

FROST, Paul, JAG officer; the above image appeared in the following article: Major Brad Coates, "Alternate Dispute Resolution and the Canadian Forces", Canadian Military Journal, volume 7, number 2, available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo7/no2/coates-eng.asp (accessed 15 January 2017);

Photo by Sgt Jerry Kean/DND, AR2005-A01-378a
Major Paul Frost, left, legal advisor,  PRT Site Kandahar, Afghanistan,
17 December 2005

___________Paul Frost, JAG officer, photo, Canadian Forces Imagery Gallery, available at http://www.combatcamera.forces.gc.ca/gallery/cc_photos/detail/?filename=AR2005-A01-378&assetId=2962 (accessed 1 June 2017);

Major Paul Frost, the legal advisor to the Provincial Reconstruction Team, counts out Afghani currency for settling
an Afghan’s claim for reimbursement as a result of damage to his vehicle by Canadian soldiers. The Canadian Forces
provides monetary compensation to Afghan locals where it is demonstrated that the actions of Canadian soldiers have
caused damage to personnel or property.


Le Major Paul Frost, conseiller juridique de l’Équipe provinciale de reconstruction, compte des devises afghanes
pourégler la demande de remboursement d’un Afghan pour les dommages causés à son véhicule par des soldats canadiens.
Les Forces canadiennes versent une compensation monétaire aux Afghans lorsqu’il est prouvé que les gestes de soldats
canadiens ont causé des dommages aux personnes et aux biens.

FULLERTON, Colonel D.K.                                                           Colonel Fullerton, in the middle, between Capt Semrau and his wife Amélie; on the right is
image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-                     Capt David Hodson who was also part of the defence team (2010).
structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page^                         [image source: www.ottawacitizen.com/news/disastrous+week+leaves+military+vets+wondering+they+there/3640828/story.html]
(accessed 1 July 2017)
FULLERTON, Colonel D. (Delano) K., Director of Counsel Services,

Defence Counsel Services

Our Mission

To provide the legal services prescribed at Queen's Regulations and Orders (QR&O) article 101.20(2) to persons subject to the Code of Service Discipline charged or liable to be charged under that Code. Those services include:

  • Provision of legal advice to a person arrested or detained in respect of a service offence
  • Provision of legal counsel to an accused person where there is reasonable grounds to believe the accused person is unfit to stand trial
  • Provision of legal advice of a general nature to an assisting officer or accused person on matters relating to summary trials
  • Provision of legal advice with respect to the making of an election to be tried by court martial
  • Provision of legal counsel in respect of a bail hearing before a military judge
  • Provision of legal counsel to an accused person which includes
    • representation at a court martial
    • representation for release pending appeal
    • representation at a hearing as to the sufficiency of evidence to put an accused person on trial where a finding of unfit to stand trial has been made
    • representation in respect of an application to a referral authority made in accordance with Queen's Regulations and Orders article 109.03
  • Provision of counsel, where the Minister of National Defence appeals the legality of a finding or sentence or the severity of a sentence awarded by a court martial
  • Provision of legal counsel to a person on an appeal or an application for leave to appeal under sections 230 or 245 of the National Defence Act with the approval of the Appeal Committee established under article 101.21 of the Queen's Regulations and Orders
  • Provision of legal advice to a person who is the subject of an investigation under the Code of Service Discipline, a summary investigation or a board of inquiry.

Our Lawyers

DDCS is comprised of the Director and other legal officers performing defence counsel services. When a person subject to the Code of Service Discipline has the right to be represented in the manner prescribed in regulations made by the Governor in Council he or she may request to have a particular legal officer assisting the Director to act as legal counsel or any legal officer assisting the Director. If available the Director shall appoint him/her a legal officer of his/her choice, if not, the Director shall insure ensure that another legal officer assisting the Director is made available.

Our Approach

Our services are provided in the official language of the client's choice and in a manner that allows the client to clearly understand the disciplinary process. There are many points during the disciplinary process when clients must make certain choices and give instructions to their lawyer on how their defence should be conducted. Our objective as defence counsel is to ensure that these choices are informed choices.

Request for Counsel

Under current regulations you are entitled to full representation by a military defence lawyer once the charges are sent to a Referral Authority. Prepare a memorandum to your commanding officer requesting military defence counsel and it will be forwarded to our office. A lawyer will normally, be appointed to act on your behalf once the request and the Record of Disciplinary Proceedings, including election of language of trial have been received. The Director of Defence Counsel Services shall, always, endeavor to appoint counsel in a timely fashion so as not to compromise the right of an accused person to a full answer and defence.

Points To Remember

"If you are the subject of an investigation or suspected of an offence, you are not, under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, obliged to provide a statement to the police or other military authorities.

When you are suspected of having committed an offence, the military police should, according to law, offer you an opportunity to speak to counsel before proceeding with the interview. Your right to counsel is very important, and you should call the duty counsel or counsel of your choice before speaking to the military police."

You may be asked by the police to take a polygraph, commonly known as a "lie detector" test. Remember that you are not obliged to submit to this test, and that the results are not admissible in court to prove either your guilt or your innocence. However, the polygraph procedure includes interviews before and after the test itself. What you say to the examiner during these interviews may be used as evidence against you at the trial.

Information for Persons Charged with a Service Offence or Being Investigated for Service Offences

Entitlement to Counsel

As a rule, Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members charged with an offence under the Code of Service Discipline are entitled under QR&O 109.04 to a military lawyer to represent them, when a charge is forwarded to a Referral Authority for disposal by court martial. In exceptional circumstances, a lawyer may be appointed at an earlier time. The services of a defence lawyer are provided without cost to the Canadian Armed Forces member.

Information: Duty Telephone Numbers

For legal advice on your right to counsel on arrest or interrogation by the police:

For legal advice on summary trials and elections:
1-888-715-9636, or in Ottawa: (613) 997-8985
[Source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/defence-counsel-services.page, accessed 1 July 2017]

Image source: www.gordon.army.mil/osja/history.htm, accessed 8 July 2017
FULTON, William S., Jr., 1925-2015, Command Authority in Selected Aspects of the Court-Martial Process, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA 1971, Identifier: Accession Number: AD0772292, source: United States Defense Technical Information Center; document not consulted but noted 3 July 2016;

Description: Descriptive note: Individual research rept..
In the aftermath of recent amendments to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, still more have been proposed. Their purpose is to reduce further the decision-making functions of commanders in the court-martial process. The question is whether those powers are necessary to promote order and discipline in the Army. Through literature research, this question is brought to focus on three constitutional rights not directly applicable to military trials; namely, the rights to bail, indictment by grand jury, and trail by jury. The functions of commanders with respect to the comparable military judicial processes are compared with civilian practices in the United States and military practices in Great Britain, Canada, France, and West Germany. (Modified author abstract)
(source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=TN_dtic_techAD0772292&indx=68&recIds=TN_dtic_techAD0772292&recIdxs=7&elementId=7&renderMode=poppedOut&displayMode=full&frbrVersion=2&frbg=&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=%22military%20law%22%20canada&dstmp=1467538859745&gathStatIcon=true)

RESEARCH NOTE: site accessed 3 July 2016 -- "PRIMO CENTRAL -- Access provided by the Library of Congress Research Service & Library Services Divisions"  ***EXECELLENT SITE!!!

Photo of Cpl Stuart Langridge, photographer: Adrian Wyld (image source: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/military-needs-to-be-transparent, accessed 7 March 2015)

FYNES, Shaun, "Shaun  Fynes: The military must be transparent to respect the memory of Stuart Langridge", The Ottawa Citizen, 7 March 2015; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/military-needs-to-be-transparent, accessed 7 March 2015;

Absolute power apparently does corrupt and that is at the root of the problem. Soldiers are subjected to a closed military justice system which in our experience protects the chain of command and political masters and is impermeable to civilian oversight. As a result the military is not answerable or open in their actions. It is unclear if they are simply rogue or falling on their sword when their conduct has become arrogant and egregious. The non-combat death of our son should have been investigated by the police of local jurisdiction not by the military followed by a coroner’s inquest. (source: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/military-needs-to-be-transparent, accessed 7 March 2015)

Source of image: http://www.riverwashbooks.com/?page=shop/flypage&product_id=18775, accessed on 9 November 2014

GABRIEL, Richard A., The Warrior's Way: A Treatise on Military Ethics, Kingston: Canadian Defence Academy Press, 2007; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2012/dn-nd/D2-206-2-2007-eng.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2014); aussi publié en français à http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/344878/publication.html (vérifié le 29 mars 015);

GAGNON, Charles, capitaine, Discipline, loi et devoirs militaires : précis élémentaire, [Lévis, Québec? : s.n., 1941?] (Lévis [Québec] : Le  Quotidien), 30 p., 19 cm.; copie à Bibliothèque et Archives Canada; voir aussi le catalogue CUBIQ;

Andrew Gale (midle) Clackamas County Sheriff's Office
policy analyst, image source: http://www.oregonlive.com/clackamascounty/index.ssf/2014/05/clackamas_county_sheriffs_offi_14.html, accessed 23 January 2015

GALE, A.N. (Andrew N.), Governance of the Canadian Forces Military Police, Toronto: Canadian Forces College, CSC 28, Exercise New Horizons, MDS Thesis, 6 May 2002, 68 p.; available at wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc28/mds/gale.doc (accessed on 11 July 2008);

"This paper examines the governance of the Canadian Forces Military Police demonstrating that the preferred governance of military police is vested in the Canadian Forces Provost Marshal and not the established chain of command. Indeed, this change in governance is required for the military police to evolve into a professional policing service necessary to support a Constitutionally compliant and modern military force. Reviewing the concept of police independence in Canadian society furthers this position. The significance of this concept is pertinent to the evolution of policing in Canada and is a benchmark for future discussion on military police governance. Following a brief review of the evolution of military policing, the paper presents recent developments in Canadian military justice, military police powers, and core military police functions. Finally, the paper concludes with recommendations to strengthen military police service to the Canadian Forces under the new governance relationship."- Abstract, p. 2.  [Source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 December 2011]

Ed Gallagher

GALLAGHER, Ed, former JAG officer, web site at http://patriotlaw.com/our-people/ (accessed 2 June 2016);

Image source: theglobeandmail.com/authors/gloria-galloway, accessed 11 April 2017
Gloria Galloway

GALLOWAY, Gloria, "Former Canadian soldier wants to be a reservist despite PTSD, The Globe and Mail, 10 April 2017"; available at theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/former-canadian-soldier-wants-to-be-a-reservist-despite-ptsd/article34661133/ (11 April 2017); the name of the former service member is Joshua Dorais;

Mr. Dorais, 43, has filed a complaint with the Canadian Human Rights Commission alleging that the Canadian
Armed Forces is discriminating against him on the basis of a disability by refusing to allow him to return to the reserves.

The military says his PTSD prevents him from being deployed anywhere at any time – the universality of service rule that
sees many permanently disabled soldiers handed their discharge papers. But Mr. Dorais says that is not true, that he has the
 condition under control and that his PTSD would not impede his performance as a nursing officer.


A few weeks later, he received a form letter from a recruitment medical evaluator confirming that he was being rejected as
a result of the rules around universality of service. Because of his medical history, Mr. Dorais was told that he remains “at
increased risk for a recurrence of symptoms, especially if again subject to the stress of a military environment.”

So, last week, Mr. Dorais appealed to the Human Rights Commission, saying that the Forces can no more predict the behaviour
 risk associated with his mental-health history than it can predict that a soldier will be maimed or mortally wounded during military

Image source: kmlaw.ca/lawyers/jody-brown/, accessed 6 July 2017
Jody Brown, counsel in the case
___________"Veteran sues Ottawa over pension-payment delays", The Globe and Mail, 4 July 2017, available at theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/veteran-sues-ottawa-over-pension-payment-delays/article35550905/ (accessed 6 July 2017); note: the veteran is Doug Jost, a former lieutenant;

A veteran who was forced to wait more than six months for his first pension cheque is the lead plaintiff in a proposed class-action
lawsuit that accuses the federal government of breaching its obligations to former soldiers, sailors and aviators by being slow to
deliver their retirement benefits.

The suit asks for interest on money that was delayed and other costs as well as compensation for pain and suffering. Mr. Jost’s lawyer,
Jody Brown of Koskie Minsky LLP, said more information will be needed from the government to calculate the total amount of the

Source de l'image: https://www.google.com/ (google image, 11 mars 2017)
"La présidence d'honneur du
 Major Marie-Ève Tremblay, L.L.B.,
juge-avocat adjoint, Garnison Saint-Jean et Collège militaire Royal Saint-Jean.

GAGNON, Hélène, "Découvrez les cadets", LÉtoile du Lac, site web, 8 mai 2009; disponible à http://www.letoiledulac.com/communaute/2010/7/26/decouvrez-les-cadets-1612167.html (vérifié le 11 mars 2017);

Cet événement se déroule sous la présidence d'honneur du Major Marie-Ève Tremblay, L.L.B., juge-avocat adjoint, Garnison Saint-Jean et Collège militaire
Royal Saint-Jean : « Mme Tremblay est originaire de la MRC du Domaine-du-Roy. Je suis donc heureux de pouvoir présenter aux cadets une ancienne membre
du corps de cadet, qui a maintenant une carrière comme avocate dans les forces canadiennes. C’est un exemple de réussite et une motivation pour nos jeunes »,
souligne le capitaine Lebrun [capitaine Gaétan Lebrun, CD, commandant du corps de cadets].


Image source:  http://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/gloria-galloway, accessed 26 May 2016
Gloria Galloway

GALLOWAY, Gloria, "Dallaire testifies mefloquine drug impaired thought process in Rwanda", The Globe and Mail, 7 March 2017, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/dallaire-testifies-mefloquine-drug-impaired-his-thought-process/article34235648/ (accessed 11 March 2017); re testimony of Dallaire before the House of Commons Committee on Veterans Affairs;

___________ "Malaria drug’s effect on troops should be examined: Somalia inquiry head", The Globe and Mail, 17 November 2016; available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/malaria-drugs-effect-on-troops-should-be-examined-somalia-inquiry-head-says/article32881571/ (accessed 17 November 2016);

____________"Over 400 disabled veterans waiting on priority list for public-service jobs", Ottawa: The Globe and Mail, 25 May 2016, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/hundreds-of-disabled-veterans-waiting-on-priority-list-for-public-service-jobs/article30169629/ (accessed 26 May 2016);

Successive federal governments have said they would help disabled veterans get public-service jobs, but a long-time advocate says the civil
service is not co-operative and he questions whether anyone ensures that discharged military personnel are considered when openings arise.
The former Conservative government brought in the Veterans Hiring Act on Canada Day of last year that said veterans who were released
for medical reasons were to be first in line for any civil-service job, and that all veterans would get “priority entitlement” to advertised
government vacancies.

GANS, Arthur E. (Major), "Vocation or Job: A Warrior's Place in a Rights Place in a Rights-Driven Society", (Winter 1994) 24(2) Canadian Defence Quarterly 10-13;

Dan Gardner, image source: http://www.actuaires.ca/meetings/annual/2011/speaker_e.asp, accessed on 23 April 2014

GARDNER, Dan, "Semrau verdict exposes flawed law", The Ottawa Citizen, Friday, July 30, 2010 at p. A13;

    As these cases have shown repeatedly, most people see a profound moral distinction between mercy killing and murder.  But the law recognizes no such distinction.

    It is not people's moral sense that is flawed.  It is the law.  How the law should be changed is debatable.  I would prefer that someone like Semrau be praised, not convicted,
    but a reasonable case can be made for the creation of a lesser charge of  "compassionate homicide."

    What is not debatable is that the law as it stands is unacceptable.  And verdicts like that rendered against Capt. Robert Semrau are dishonest and indefensible.

Source of image and text: http://journalservir.com/nouvelle.php?id=895, visité 14 décembre 2015
De gauche à droite: lcol Richard Garon, commandant sortant du 2 RAC,
col Dan Chafaï, commandant du 34 GBC et lcol Sylvie Pelletier, commandant
entrant du 2 RAC. (Photo: bdrc Ferreira, 2nd Fd Regt)

GARON, Richard, Lieutenant-Colonel, "L'évaluation du leadership au sein des Forces canadiennes et les leçons tirées des événements en Somalie", 2012?, disponible à http://www.cmrsj-rmcsj.forces.gc.ca/cb-bk/art-art/2012/art-art-2012-5-fra.asp  (visité 14 décembre 2015);

Cet article vise à déterminer les principaux facteurs des défaillances des Forces canadiennes (FC) en matière de leadership lors de leur intervention de 1993 en Somalie.
L'auteur s'appuie sur l'hypothèse que les FC ne disposaient pas des outils conceptuels nécessaires pour mesurer les compétences de leurs chefs.
[source: http://www.cmrsj-rmcsj.forces.gc.ca/cb-bk/art-art/2012/art-art-fra.asp, visité le 4 décembre 2015]

Micheline Montreuil (photo Steve Deschênes,
Le Soleil)

GAUDREAU, Valérie, "Micheline Montreuil n'a pas été victime de discrimination, tranche le Tribunal", Le Soleil, 9 septembre 2009; disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/le-soleil/actualites/justice-et-faits-divers/200909/08/01-899838-micheline-montreuil-na-pas-ete-victime-de-discrimination-tranche-le-tribunal.php (vérifié 24 octobre 2015); voir WIPEDIA;  voir aussi les décisions de la Cour fédérale à  http://decisions.fct-cf.gc.ca/fc-cf/fr/d/s/index.do?cont=&ref=&d1=&d2=&p=montreuil&col=54  (visité 14 décembre 2015);

Image source: , accessed 17 January 2016
Alain Gauthier
GAUTHIER, Alain, testimony of Alain Gauthier, director general of operations, Office of the ombudsman, National Defence and Canadian Forces Ombusman, on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act, before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 63, 4 February 2013, minutes and evidence;

Image source: www.nauticapedia.ca/dbase/Query/Biolist3.php?&name=Gauvin%2C%20Jacques%20J.&id=5290&Page=8&input=1, accessed 26 May 2016
Jacques J. Gauvin
GAUVIN, Jacques J., Captain (N), The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Canadian Forces : social experimentation or a revival of the Canadian military ethos?, Toronto: Canadian Forces College, National Security Studies Course Paper, 2000, 27 p. (series; NSSC paper; NSSC 2, 2000);

 "The thesis to be examined proposed that the equality rights provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms have positively contributed to the revitalization of the Canadian military ethos and that the gulf between the Canadian society and its military is in fact closing" [source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 8 December 2011]

GEIGER-WOLF, Michele, "Roma Stevenson -- 35 Years of Outstanding service", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 2; Commander Geiger-Wolf is a JAG officer since 1996, see https://ca.linkedin.com/in/michele-geiger-wolf-288a402b);
GEIGER-WOLF, Michele, "Roma Stevenson -- 35 ans de service exemplaire", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 3;

Mark Gendron, image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page, accessed 1 August 2015
GENDRON, Mark, on https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/mark-gendron/88/976/22b (accessed 1 August 2015);

Image source: https://ipolitics.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Nov.40171.jpg, accessed 2 October 2016
Colonel Mark Gendron, left, with Major-General Michael Hood

_____________The legal and strategic paradigms of the United Nations' intervention in Somalia, Thesis, Master of Arts in War Studies, Royal Military College of Canada, 1994, iv, 198 leaves; Includes bibliographical references; thesis advisor: Joel Sokolsky; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp04/mq22766.pdf (accessed 8 July 2016);

Source de l'image: http://montrealcampus.ca/2015/04/militant-insoumis/, vérifié le 29 avril 2017
Alain Gerbier
GERBIER,  Alain, "La débacle morale de l'armée canadienne Des Casques bleus tortionnaires, des initiations tournant mal...les scandales abondent",  31 janvier 1997; disponible à http://www.liberation.fr/planete/1997/01/31/la-debacle-morale-de-l-armee-canadiennedes-casques-bleus-tortionnaires-des-initiations-tournant-mall_192483 (vérifié le 29 avril 2017);

Jane Gerster, image source: http://www.thestar.com/authors.gerster_jane.html, 23 January 2015

GERSTER, Jane,  "20 Years after Somalia affair of tortured teen", Metro News, 16 March 2013, available at http://metronews.ca/news/canada/597698/saturday-marks-anniversary-of-somalia-affair/ (accessed on 2 September 2013);

Walter Dorn, a professor at the Canadian Forces College in Toronto, said he agrees some of the progress made after Somalia is being allowed to languish, particularly since Canada no longer seems to embrace its traditional role as a peacekeeper.

“It means that Canadian soldiers are less experienced and less knowledgeable and less well-prepared for peacekeeping and our peace operations in general,” said Dorn, noting that he doesn’t think Canada suffers from the same institutional failings that enabled Arone’s torture and death.

The federal government’s forthcoming Bill C-15, which proposes changes to the military justice system, could pose just such a risk, warned Peter Tinsley, the chief prosecutor for the Somalia cases in the 1990s.

The bill — which seeks to balance military police independence against the ability of commanders to hold them to account — files in the face of two decades of effort spent making military police more independent, Tinsley said.

“None of (the prosecutors) were proud of the events that took place,” he said. “But we did our jobs.”

Last month, Glenn Stannard, chairman of the Military Police Complaints Commission,told a Commons committee the bill would curtail guidelines that have been in place “since the period following the troubled Somalia deployment,which specifically sought to safeguard MP investigations from interference by the chain of command.”

The bill “doesn’t bode well and doesn’t recognize the lessons that should have been learned in Somalia,” Tinsley said.

___________"Experts wonder if military remembers lessons from Somalia affair", The Canadian Press, 16 March 2013; available at http://news.yahoo.com/experts-wonder-military-remembers-lessons-somalia-affair-110655122.html (accessed 12 May 2015);


Photo of Michael Gibson, reproduced from http://www.45enord.ca/2013/10/premiere-nomination-a-ce-poste
(accessed on 1 April 2014)

GIBSON,  Michael R., "Armed forces abroad, peacekeeping operations and military tribunals", Internal Commission of Jurists, Human Rights and the Administration of Justice Through Military Tribunals, Geneva, 26-28 January 2004, 7 p.; available at http://www.icj.org/IMG/pdf/28_January_2004.pdf (accessed on 27 July 2008); "Colonel Gibson is a graduate of the Royal Military College of Canada (Honours B.A. Political Science and History), the University of Toronto Faculty of Law (LLB) and the London School of Economics and Political Science (M.Sc. International Relations, and LLM Public International Law)", see  http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dsa-dns/sa-ns/ab/sobv-vbos-eng.asp?mAction=View&mBiographyID=1015 (accessed on 16 January 2012); he is a member of the Ontario Bar; his LL.M. would be circa 2006;

___________Biographical notes (not necessarily written by Michael Gibson) / notes biographiques (pas n/cessairement composées par Michael Gibson):

Originally from Strathroy, Ontario, Colonel Michael Gibson joined the Canadian Forces in 1980. He initially flew as an Air Navigator in the Air Force doing passenger, cargo, VIP and air-to-air refuelling missions on the CC-130 Hercules and Boeing 707 aircraft. He also served as a strategic airlift operations planner at Air Transport Group Headquarters Trenton, and as a Platoon Officer training officer candidates on the Basic Officer Training Course.

After becoming a Legal Officer, Colonel Gibson served in a variety of positions, including Deputy Judge Advocate Trenton, Director of Military Justice Policy and Research, and Director of International and Operational Law. He has been prosecution, defence and appellate counsel, and has had significant involvement in recent legislation affecting the military justice system as policy architect, instructing counsel for the drafting of legislation, and as a witness before Parliamentary committees. He has also published several articles on international human rights law and the administration of justice by military tribunals, and was formerly the President of the Canadian National Group of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War. Immediately prior to his appointment as a Military Judge, Colonel Gibson was the Deputy Judge Advocate General Military Justice, responsible for military justice policy, legislative reform and strategic initiatives concerning the Canadian military justice system.

Colonel Gibson’s service as an officer in the Canadian Forces has taken him to over 60 countries around the world. His operational deployments abroad included Legal Advisor to the Canadian Contingent of the NATO Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Legal Advisor to the Disaster Assistance Response Team on its deployment to assist victims of an earthquake in Turkey, Deputy Legal Advisor at the NATO SFOR Headquarters in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Senior Military Law Advisor for the Rule of Law Unit of MONUC, the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Colonel Gibson is a graduate of the Royal Military College of Canada (Honours B.A. Political Science and History), the University of Toronto Faculty of Law (LLB) and the London School of Economics and Political Science (M.Sc. International Relations, and LLM Public International Law).

The Governor in Council appointed Colonel Gibson as a Military Judge on 1 October 2013. (source: http://www.jmc-cmj.forces.gc.ca/en/biographies-gibson.page, accessed on 8 January 2015)


Né à Strathroy, Ontario, le colonel Michael Gibson s’est enrôlé dans les Forces canadiennes en 1980. Il a d’abord servi comme navigateur aérien au sein de la Force aérienne effectuant des missions de transport de passagers, de fret et de dignitaires ainsi que de ravitaillement air-air à bord d’aéronefs CC130 Hercules et Boeing 707. Il a également servi comme planificateur des opérations de transport aérien stratégique au Quartier général du Groupe Transport aérien, à Trenton, ainsi qu’à titre d’officier de peloton donnant de la formation aux aspirants-officiers dans le cadre du Cours élémentaire d’officier.

Devenu avocat militaire, le colonel Gibson a occupé différents postes, dont ceux de juge-avocat adjoint à Trenton, de directeur – Justice militaire, politique et recherche, et de directeur du Droit international et opérationnel. Il a été avocat de la poursuite, de la défense et d’appel, et il a participé activement à l’élaboration de textes de loi récents touchant au système de justice militaire en tant qu’architecte de politique, qu’avocat-conseil dans le cadre de la rédaction de textes législatifs, et il a aussi agi comme témoin de comités parlementaires. Il a également publié de nombreux articles concernant le droit international des droits de la personne et l’administration des tribunaux militaires, en plus d’avoir occupé le poste de président du groupe national canadien au sein de la Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre. Immédiatement avant sa nomination en tant que juge militaire, le colonel était Juge-avocat général adjoint/Justice militaire responsable de la politique en matière de justice militaire, de la réforme législative et des initiatives stratégiques concernant le système canadien de justice militaire.

Le service du Colonel Gibson en tant qu’officier dans les Forces canadiennes l’a mené dans plus de soixante pays dans le monde. Ses missions à l’étranger comprennent celles de conseiller juridique du contingent canadien de la Force de stabilisation de l’OTAN (SFOR) en Bosnie-Herzégovine, de conseiller juridique de l’Équipe d’intervention en cas de catastrophe lors de son déploiement pour venir en aide aux victimes d’un séisme en Turquie,  de conseiller juridique adjoint au quartier général de la SFOR de l’OTAN à Sarajevo, Bosnie-Herzégovine, et de conseiller juridique militaire principal de l’unité de la primauté du droit de la MONUC, la Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies en République démocratique du Congo.

Le colonel Gibson est diplômé du Collège militaire royal du Canada (baccalauréat ès art en politique et histoire, avec distinctions), de la Faculté de droit (LLB) de l’Université de Toronto et de la London School of Economics and Political Science (M. SC. en relations internationales et LL.M. en droit international public).

Le gouverneur en conseil a nommé le colonel Gibson comme juge militaire le 1er octobre 2013. (source: http://www.jmc-cmj.forces.gc.ca/fr/biographies-gibson.page, site visité le 8 janvier 2015)

Image source: www.hoover.org/news/order-discipline-and-accountability-armed-forces, accessed 31 May 2016
Colonel Michael Gibson, 2012, image credit:
 Janet Chang

___________Biographical Notes (not necessarily written by Michael Gibson) / notes biographiques (pas n/cessairement composées par Michael Gibson):

OTTAWA, February 6, 2015 – The Honourable Peter MacKay, P.C., Q.C., M.P. for Central Nova, Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, today announced the following appointments: ....

The Honourable Michael R. Gibson, a military judge in Ottawa, is appointed a judge of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice to replace Mr. Justice J.C. Murray (Milton), who resigned effective December 31, 2014.

Mr. Justice Gibson received a Bachelor of Laws from the University of Toronto in 1994 and a Master of Laws, Public International Law, from the London School of Economics and Political Science in 2007. He was admitted to the Bar of Ontario in 1996.

Mr. Justice Gibson was appointed a military judge in 2013. Prior to that, he had been legal counsel with the Judge Advocate General (JAG) office in Ottawa since 2003. He was defence counsel, JAG Directorate of Defence Counsel Services in Hull (2000-02) and Deputy Judge Advocate at the Canadian Forces Base in Trenton (1996-2000). His main areas of practice were criminal prosecutions, immigration and real property, and international law. (source: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/news-nouv/ja-nj/2015/doc_33094.html, accessed 8 February 2015)


OTTAWA, le 6 février 2015 – L'honorable Peter MacKay, C.P., c.r., député de Nova-Centre, ministre de la Justice et procureur général du Canada, a annoncé les nominations suivantes : [...]

L'honorable Michael R. Gibson, juge militaire à Ottawa, est nommé juge de la Cour supérieure de justice de l'Ontario. Il remplace monsieur le juge J.C. Murray (Milton), qui a démissionné le 31 décembre 2014.

Monsieur le juge Gibson a obtenu un baccalauréat en droit de l'Université de Toronto en 1994 et une maîtrise en droit, droit international public, de la London School of Economics and Political Science en 2007. Il a été reçu au Barreau de l'Ontario en 1996.

Monsieur le juge Gibson a été nommé juge militaire en 2013. Avant sa nomination, il était conseiller juridique au sein du Bureau du juge-avocat général (JAG) à Ottawa depuis 2003. Il a également été avocat de la défense pour la Direction du service d'avocats de la défense (JAG) à Hull (2000-2002) et juge-avocat adjoint à la Base des Forces armées canadiennes à Trenton (1996-2000). Ses principaux domaines de pratique étaient les poursuites pénales, l'immigration et le droit immobilier, et le droit international. (source: http://www.justice.gc.ca/fra/nouv-news/nj-ja/2015/doc_33094.html, visité le 8 février 2015).

___________ "Canada has one of the best military justice systems in the world -- The Office of the Judge Advocate General which is responsible for military justice policy, is continually  engaged in a rigorous and transparent examination of all aspects of the military  justice system and is the leading proponent for its continuous improvement", The Hill Times online, 31 October 2011; available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/allied-forces-mil-justice/canada-mj-sys/08_Col_Gibson_Hill_Times_Best_System.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

___________"Canada's Military Justice System", (Spring 2012) 12(2) Canadian Military Journal  61-64; available at  http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no2/61-gibson-eng.asp (accessed on 25 March 2012);
___________"Le système de justice militaire au Canada" (printemps 2012) 12(2) Revue militaire canadienne 61-64; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no2/61-gibson-fra.asp (vérifié le 25 mars 2012);

___________"International Human Rights Law and the Administration of Justice through Military Tribunals Preserving Utility while Precluding Impunity", (Winter 2008) 4(1) Journal of International Law and International Relations 1-48; available at http://www.law.yale.edu/JILIR_International_Tribunals.pdf (accessed on 26 February 2012); also available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/allied-forces-mil-justice/canada-mj-sys/11_Col_Gibson_Intl_Human_Rghts_Law_4JIntlLIntlRel1.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

__________interview with 14435 Michael Gibson, Deputy JAG, Military Justice, eVERITAS, available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=71856 (accessed on 16 November 2014);

e-veritas: What is the purpose of the Canadian military justice system?

14435 Col Michael Gibson: The Canadian military justice system has two fundamental purposes: to promote the operational effectiveness of the Canadian Forces by contributing to the maintenance of discipline, efficiency and morale; and, to contribute to respect for the law and the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society. It thus serves the ends of both discipline and justice. 

___________"JAG leads proactive military justice oversight, responsible development and positive change -- Michel Drapeau says the Judge Advocate General Office should be broken up, and rebranded.  But his argument does not withstand objective scrutiny",  The Hill Times, 18 March 2013; available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/allied-forces-mil-justice/canada-mj-sys/09_Col_Gibson_Hill_Times_JAG_Proactive.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

___________Letter to the editor of the Canadian Military Journal on "the creation of a Canadian National Group of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War (ISMLLW), and to share some information with your readers regarding this organization.creation",  Military Law Journal, vol. 12, number 4, p. 7; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no4/page7-eng.asp  (accessed on 8 January 2015); also published in French -- aussi publié en français à  http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no4/page7-fra.asp;  

--------- (source: www.amazon.ca/Military-Justice-Modern-Alison-Duxbury/dp/1107042372, accessed 27 July 2016)
___________"Military Justice in operational settings, in peacekeeping and in situations of transitional justice", Text of Speaker, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, 19th Congress, Quebec City, 2012, available at http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_texts%20of%20speakers.php and http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_textes%20des%20orateurs/02%20Colonel%20Gibson.pdf (accessed on 24 August 2013); also published in Alison Duxbury, Matthew Groves, eds.,  Military Justice in the Modern Age, Cambridge University Press, 2016, 446 p., at chapter 19 at aprox. pp. 381-396, ISBN: 9781107042377;

35A striking Canadian example is the Statement of Defence Ethics, which applies to employees of the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND)
and the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF).  Clause 3.1 provides that 'At all time and in all places, DND employees and CAF members shall uphold Canada's
parliamentary democracy and its institutions by respecting the rule of law'.  See www.forces.gc.ca/en/about/statement-of-defence-ethics.page.
(source footnote 35 at https://books.google.ca/books?id=RFCeDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA384&lpg=PA384&dq=%22military+justice%22+Canada&source=bl&ots=O-dJqRhUPi&sig=hDM_tZdMLRYmr7Qyt0M5WHmVzn8&hl
, at p. 391, accessed 2 October 2016) 

Image source: lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/470321/1/2012-2013+Recueil+Qu%C3%A9bec+Textes+Naert.pdf, accessed 5 June 2016
___________"Military Justice Systems" in Stanislas Horvat and Marco Benatar, eds., L'interopérabilité juridique et la garantie du respect du droit applicable dans le cadre des déploiements multinationaux, Texte du Congrès / Legal Interoperability and Ensuring Observance of the Law Applicable in Multinational Deployments,  Bruxelles: Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre, 2013 (collection; Recueils de la Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre; 19) at pp. 280 to approx. 284; notes:19e Congrès international 19th International Congress ,         s       sQ  UÉBEC   (Canada)     1 - 5 mai/May 2012; available at http://www.academia.edu/3656564/LInteroperabilite_juridique_et_la_garantie_du_respect_du_droit_applicable_dans_le_cadre_des_deploiements_multinationaux_Legal_Interoperability_and_Ensuring_Observance_of_the_Law_Applicable_in_Multinational_Deployments (accessed on 28 February 2014);

Image source: www.mpfpr.de/publications/max-planck-encyclopedia-of-public-international-law/, accessed 5 June 2016
___________"Military Tribunals" in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, volume 7, New York: Oxford University Press, 2013-, online edition; see http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e336?rskey=e5pof5&result=1&q=&prd=EPIL%20%28 (accessed on 27 December 2013);

___________ Speakers Corner, "Military legal counsel - There's no life like it", (18-24 October 1999) 10(35) Law Times 6-7; also published in (January-March 2000) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités 8-10;

___________Testimony of Colonel Michael R. Gibson, Deputy Judge Advocate General, Military Justice, on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act,

-- before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 66, 13 February 2013, minutes and evidence;
before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 67, 25 February 2013, minutes and  evidence;
before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 68, 27 February 2013, minutes and  evidence;
before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 69, 4 March 2013minutes  and  evidence;


___________Testimony of Col. Michael R. Gibson, Deputy Judge Advocate General of Military Justice,  on Bill C-16, An Act to amend the National Defence Act (military judges)Bill C-16, a Bill in response "to the recent judgment of the Court Martial Appeal Court in the case of R. v. LeBlanc regarding the constitutionality of the appointment and tenure of military judges";

- before the House of Commons Standing Committee  on National Defence, meeting number 12, 15 November 2011, minutes and evidence;

- before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, issue number 6, 23 November 2011, minutes  and  evidence;

Jacyln Giffen, image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

GIFFEN, Jacyln, "Pathways to International Law Careers", CCLI Review, 2011/12/16; see Part 2: Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces; available at  http://www.ccil-ccdi.ca/revue-review/2011/12/16/pathways-to-international-law-careers.html (accessed on 18 March 2012);

The process to become a Regular Force (full-time) legal officer is a competitive one.  Each year the legal branch, like other military occupations, is only authorized to enrol a limited number of applicants.  This is meant to account for attrition, and/or achieve modest growth depending on the manning priorities of the Canadian Forces.  Recent years have seen an average of five (5) positions made available, but this will vary from one year to the next.  Applications submitted to recruiting centres are processed and screened on a rolling basis throughout the year, and interview/selection boards are typically held in the spring and fall (if required).

Successful applicants who receive, and accept, an offer of enrolment in the Canadian Forces will then proceed to a 14-week basic training course -- known as Basic Military Officer Qualification (BMOQ) -- at the Canadian Forces Leadership and Recruit School in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. During this course, candidates cover topics including general military knowledge, principles of leadership, regulations and customs of the Canadian Forces, basic weapons handling, and first aid. As regular force officers, candidates will also be required to complete a rigorous physical fitness program. Included in the basic training will be training exercises to apply newly acquired military skills, such as force protection, field training, navigation and leadership. Successful completion of all components of the BMOQ is required in order to continue on the road to becoming a CF legal officer.  Following basic training, candidates may be assigned to second language training, depending on individual levels of proficiency.  Second language training can last anywhere from two to nine months.

Once this initial training period is completed, new legal officers join the Office of the JAG for their first posting. 

Chief disciplinarian, MWO Robert Gagnon                 "The discipline side of the program at CFDPDB includes detailed kit maintennce
                                                                                       and layout each day.  Inmate cells ans kit are inspected and points received based on performance."               
GILES, Mark, "CF prison has clear objectives", (April 21 avril 2004) The Maple Leaf--La Feuille d'érable 17; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2015/mdn-dnd/D12-7-7-14.pdf (accessed 15 August 2016); aussi publié en français à la meme page sous le titre "Objectifs clairs au prison des FC";

Image source: www.cprs.ca/saintjohn2011/Mark_Giles.aspx, accessed 26 May 2016
Mark Giles
___________"Military Police Unit Provides Specialized Support  -- National  Defence's major-crimes unit sends clear message", Nov/Dec 2005/ www.frontline-canada.com, at pp. 22-23, available at http://www.frontline-canada.com/Defence/pdfs/05_6_Giles.pdf (accessed on 27 November 2011); about the CFNIS = Canadian Forces National Investigation Service established in 1997;

Ritu Gill, image source: https://ca.
accessed on 16 November 2014

GILL, Ritu and Angela Febbraro, "Experiences and Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Forces Combat Arms", (1 February 2013) 19(2) Violence Against Women 269-287;

Recent studies examining sexual harassment in the military indicate a decrease in reports of harassment, which may be attributed to several factors, including zero-tolerance policies or anti-harassment programs. However, the decrease may also be attributed to fears of losing one’s job or of being derogated by colleagues if harassment is reported. This qualitative study of women employed in the Canadian combat arms examined spontaneously shared perceptions and experiences of sexual harassment. Six of the 26 women interviewed shared their experiences or perceptions of harassment, including concerns about potential repercussions of reporting. Implications for gender integration in military organizations are discussed.(source: http://vaw.sagepub.com/content/19/2/269.short, accessed on 6 November 2014);

Richard H. Gimblett, image source:  Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

GIMBLETT, Richard H., "The Post-war 'incidents' in the Royal Canadian Navy" in Christopher M. Bell and Bruce A. Elleman, eds., Naval mutinies of the twentieth century: an international perspective, London: Portand or Fred Cass., 2003, xii, 288 p., ISBN: 0714654604 (cloth); title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (1 January 2012);

___________"What the Mainguy Report Never Told Us : The Tradition of 'Mutiny' in the Royal Canadian Navy Before 1949", (Summer 2000) 1 Canadian Military Journal  87-94;

Marc Gionet, image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

GIONET, Marc, "Canada the Failed Protector : Transfer of Canadian Captured Detainees to Third Parties in Afghanistan", available at http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/JCS/article/view/15229/20291 (accessed on  22 May 2012); Mr. Gionet is the Director of the Atlantic Human Rights Centre at Saint Thomas University in Fredericton, New Brunswick; now published at (2009) 29 Journal of Conflict Studies 1-14,  available at https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/JCS/article/view/15229/20799 (accessed 24 June 2015); available at https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/jcs/article/view/15229/20291#no53 (accessed 3 April 2017);

Capc Nicole Girard                                    From the right: Margaret-Ann MacDonald,
Source de l'image: (2006)                          Nicole Girard, and Mrs. Mitchell, Lahr, Federal Republic of Germany,
1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 26       circa 1981-1982 (photo: François Lareau)

GIRARD, Nicole et Nadine Fortin, "Oui, votre honneur!", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 26; notes: also published in Le Valeureux, Journal de l'exercice Pèlerin Valeureux 2005;
GIRARD, Nicole et Nadine Fortin, "Yes, Your Honour!", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 26; notes: également publié dans Le Valeureux, Journal de l'exercice Pèlerin Valeureux 2005;

Image source: https://books.google.ca

GIRARD, Philip, Bora Laskin: Bringing Law to Life, Toronto : Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press, 2005, xvi, 646 p., [24] p. of plates : ill., ports. ; 24 cm. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references and index, ISBN: 0802090443 (bound), 9780802090447 (bound), 9781442626188 (pbk.); see at pp 478-480 about Laskin's dissenting judgment in MacKay v. The Queen; available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=7wvRKd9uR50C&pg=PA479&dq=Canada+%22Judge+advocate+General%22&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=hfcYVe-OHIH2yQSW_4C4BQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Canada%20%22Judge%20advocate%20General%22&f=false (accessed on 30 March 2015);

Brad Gladman, image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014 

GLADMAN, Brad W. (Brad William), Enabling Appropriate Freedom of Action at the Operational Level: The Legal Authorities for the Conduct of Domestic Operations, Technical Memorandum 2006-17 (Ottawa: Centre for Operational Research and Analysis, Defence Research and Development Canada, 2006);

Image source: https://twitter.com/westdef1/status/486540306465058817, accessed 22 July 2017
___________recent projects of Dr. Brad Gladman, Strategic Analyst,  Cdn Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre (CFAWCRFI@forces.gc.ca):

His recent projects include an analysis of the Use of Force in CF Operations, and the Rules of Engagement framework;
an analysis of the legal authorities for the conduct of domestic operations; and most recently, an analysis of means to
ensure the operational level commands have appropriate inputs into the force development process.
(source: http://jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/112/123, accessed 22 July 2017)

___________"Strenthening the Relationship : NATO Expansion and Canada Command", (Winter 2006-2007) 9(2) Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 1-20; available at http://jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/112/123 (accessed 22 July 2017);

Patrick K. Gleeson, source of photo: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page --accessed 21 March 2014

GLEESON, Patrick K. (Patrick Kevin) (Pat), Biographical Notes on /Notes biographiques sur:

Colonel Patrick Gleeson

Deputy Judge Advocate General/Operations, Canadian Armed Forces Office of the Judge Advocate General
Colonel Gleeson was born in Saint John, New Brunswick. His involvement through secondary school with Air Cadets sparked his interest in a military career, and upon graduation from high school in 1980 he was accepted into the Regular Officer Training Plan. He attended le Collège Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean, graduating with a degree in Business Administration in 1985. After graduation he served in Shearwater, Nova Scotia, and Kingston, Ontario, as an administration officer before entering law school under the Military Legal Training Plan in 1990. He received his LL.B. from the University of New Brunswick in 1993. Colonel Gleeson completed his articles in Fredericton with the law firm of Hanson and Hashey and was admitted to the Law Society of New Brunswick in 1994. After spending two years in Halifax, as an assistant Deputy Judge Advocate and prosecutor, Colonel Gleeson was promoted to Major and posted to Ottawa in 1996, where he gained experience in the fields of administrative and operational law. He also served as a member of the National Defence Act Amendment Team, developing and implementing significant reforms to the National Defence Act. In 2000, Colonel Gleeson was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel and assumed the position of Director of Law Military Justice Policy and Research. He also served as the Special Assistant to the Judge Advocate General prior to being posted to Montreal as the Assistant Judge Advocate General Eastern Region in 2003. Colonel Gleeson returned to academic studies again in 2004, attending the McGill Institute of Air and Space Law. He completed his LL.M and on his return to Ottawa in 2005, he was promoted to Colonel. He has since served in a variety of senior leadership positions within the Office of the Judge Advocate General. He was also seconded to the Department of Justice for an 18 month period, coordinating the legal aspects of a variety of national security related matters on behalf of the Assistant Deputy Attorney General Public Safety, Defence and Immigration. Colonel Gleeson has had significant involvement in the development of military justice legislation, leading policy development, instructing on the drafting of legislation and assisting Parliamentarians in their consideration of legislative reforms in numerous forums, including as a witness before Parliamentary committees. In 2012, Colonel Gleeson was posted to his current position, Deputy Judge Advocate General/ Operations, where he is responsible for the delivery of operational legal advice to the CAF at the tactical, operational and Strategic levels. Colonel Gleeson’s operational experience includes deployments to Haiti, and to Europe where he provided legal advice in support of Royal Canadian Air Force combat operations over the Balkans. He has also acted as the legal advisor to Joint Task Force 2, the Canadian Forces Counter-Terrorism/Special Operations unit. (source: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/news-nouv/nr-cp/2013/bio.html, accessed on 8 May 2014)

Colonel Patrick Gleeson
Juge-avocat général adjoint/Opérations, Forces armées canadiennes Cabinet du Juge-avocat général
Le Colonel Gleeson est né à Saint John, Nouveau-Brunswick. Sa participation avec les Cadets de l’air durant sa jeunesse lui a fait découvrir le milieu militaire et à la fin de son secondaire en 1980, il a été accepté au Programme de formation des officiers de la Force régulière. Il a obtenu son diplôme en administration des affaires au Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean en 1985. Après avoir gradué, il a occupé le poste d’officier d’administration du personnel dans les unités et les bases de Shearwater (Nouvelle-Écosse) et de Kingston (Ontario) avant d’être admis en 1990 à la faculté de droit dans le cadre du Programme militaire d’études en droit. Il a reçu son diplôme de l’Université du Nouveau-Brunswick en 1993. Le Colonel Gleeson a effectué son stage au cabinet d’avocats Hanson and Hashey à Fredericton et a été admis au Barreau du Nouveau-Brunswick en 1994. Au cours des deux années qui ont suivi, il a travaillé en tant que juge-avocat adjoint et procureur à Halifax. En 1996, le Colonel Gleeson a obtenu le grade de major et il a été transféré à Ottawa. Cela lui a permis d’acquérir de l’expérience en droit administratif et des opérations. Il a également fait partie de l’équipe de révision de la Loi sur la défense nationale chargée d’élaborer et de mettre en place d’importantes modifications à la Loi sur la défense nationale. En 2000, le Colonel Gleeson a été promu au grade de lieutenant-colonel et nommé directeur juridique – Justice militaire, politique et recherche. Il était également l’adjoint spécial du Juge-avocat général avant d’être muté à Montréal, en 2003, afin d’occuper le poste de juge-avocat général adjoint de la région de l’Est. En 2004, le Colonel Gleeson est retourné à nouveau aux études à l’Institut de droit aérien et spatial de l’Université McGill. Il a terminé sa maîtrise en droit l’année suivante. Il est revenu à Ottawa en 2005 où il a alors obtenu le grade de colonel. Depuis, il a occupé divers postes de direction supérieure au Cabinet du Juge-avocat général. Il a également travailler au ministère de la Justice durant 18 mois afin de coordonner les aspects juridiques de diverses questions liées à la sécurité nationale, au nom de l’assistant du juge-avocat général de la Sécurité publique, de la Défense et de l’Immigration. Le Colonel Gleeson a grandement contribué à l’élaboration de la législation du droit militaire, en plus de diriger l’établissement de la politique principale, d’informer sur la rédaction des lois et des règlements, d’aider les parlementaires dans leur prise en considération des réformes législatives lors de divers forums de discussion et d’agir en tant que témoin devant les commissions parlementaires.  En 2012, le colonel Gleeson a été muté au poste de Juge-avocat général adjoint/Opérations. À ce titre, le colonel Gleeson est responsable de l'offre des avis juridiques sur les opérations aux FAC, aux niveaux tactiques, opérationnels et stratégiques. L’expérience opérationnelle du Colonel Gleeson inclut des missions en Haïti et en Europe. Il donnait des conseils juridiques en appui aux opérations de combat de l’Aviation royale canadienne au dessus des Balkans. Il a également été conseiller juridique de la Force opérationnelle interarmées 2, l’unité des opérations spéciales et anti-terroristes des Forces canadienne. (source: http://www.justice.gc.ca/fra/nouv-news/cp-nr/2013/bio.html, site visité le 8 mai 2014)

__________ Biographical Notes on -- "Federal Court Judicial Appointment Announced" / Notes biographiques sur -- "Nomination à la magistrature de la cour fédérale":

May 29, 2015 – Ottawa, ON – Department of Justice.

The Honourable Peter MacKay, P.C., Q.C., M.P. for Central Nova, Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, today announced the following appointment:

The Honourable Patrick K. Gleeson, a recently retired Canadian Forces legal advisor in Ottawa, is appointed a judge of the Federal Court to fill a new position created by Bill C-11.

Mr. Justice Gleeson received a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from the University of Sherbrooke in 1985. He received a Bachelor of Laws (Distinction) degree from the University of New Brunswick in 1993 and a Master of Laws (Honours) from the McGill University Institute of Air and Space Law in 2005. He was appointed Queen’s Counsel in 2013.

After being admitted to the Bar of New Brunswick in 1994, he joined the Office of the Assistant Judge Advocate General in Halifax as a legal advisor and worked in different directorates until 2000. He then became the Director of Legal Services, Office of the Judge Advocate General, where from 2005 he served as the Senior Legal Advisor. He is involved in youth programs in the community such as scouting, hockey and school programs.

This appointment is effective immediately.  (source: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=981979&_ga=1.223327003.1072825899.1400532923, accessed 3 June 2015)


Le 29 mai 2015 – Ottawa (Ontario) – Ministère de la Justice Canada

L’honorable Peter MacKay, C.P., c.r., député de Nova-Centre, ministre de la Justice et procureur général du Canada, a annoncé aujourd’hui la nomination suivante :

L’honorable Patrick K. Gleeson, un conseiller juridique à la retraite depuis peu des Forces armées canadiennes à Ottawa, est nommé juge de la Cour fédérale pour combler un nouveau poste créé dans le cadre du projet de loi C-11.

Monsieur le juge Gleeson a obtenu un baccalauréat en administration des affaires de l’Université de Sherbrooke en 1985. Il a obtenu un baccalauréat en droit (avec distinction) de l’Université du Nouveau-Brunswick en 1993 et une maîtrise en droit (avec spécialisation) de l’Institut de droit aérien et spatial de l’Université McGill en 2005. Il a été nommé conseiller de la reine en 2013.

Après avoir été reçu au Barreau du Nouveau-Brunswick en 1994, il s’est joint au Bureau de l’assistant juge-avocat général à Halifax à titre de conseiller juridique et a travaillé dans différentes directions jusqu’en 2000. Il est ensuite devenu directeur des Services juridiques, Bureau du juge-avocat général, et y était le conseiller juridique principal depuis 2005. Il s’implique dans les programmes communautaires pour les jeunes, tels que les Scouts, le hockey et les programmes scolaires.

Cette nomination entre en vigueur immédiatement. (source: http://nouvelles.gc.ca/web/article-fr.do?nid=981979&_ga=1.268344334.1072825899.1400532923, visité 3 juin 2015)

Image source: http://www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca/en/article-template-standard.page?doc=legal-officer-receives-rare-honour/htqxhuxo, accessed 12 October 2015
"From left to right: The Minister of National Defence, Rob Nicholson, Colonel Pat Gleeson, and the Minister of Justice, Peter MacKay, at the Queen’s Counsel appointment ceremony. PHOTO: Department of Justice"

___________"Expert Consultation on the Administration of Justice through Military Tribunals Subject Matter Jurisdiction of Military Courts Remarks", Conference Room XIX, Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, 24 November 2014, 8 p., available at https://www.idmarch.org/document/%22canadian+military+law%22/KSJb-show/Expert+Consultation+on+the+Administration+of+Justice+through+Military+Tribunals+++Subject+Matter+Jurisdiction+of+Military+Courts+Remarks+by+Mr.+Patrick+Gleeson++Monday%2C+24+November+2014 (accessed 22 February 2015); also available at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/AdministrationJustice/Pages/ExpertConsultationonAdministrationofJusticeNovember2014.aspx (accessed 25 November 2015);

___________ Legal Aspects of the use of force in space, LL.M. thesis, McGill University, 2005, xi, 128 leaves; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/QMM/TC-QMM-99137.pdf and http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/-?func=dbin-jump-full&_current_base=GEN01&object_id=99137 (accessed on 6 December 2011);  abstract  in (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 75; sommaire à  (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 75;

___________"Legal Officer Receives Rare Honour", (May 2014) 18(5) The Maple Leaf  7; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/mdn-dnd/D12-7-17-5-eng.pdf (accessed 7 January 2016);

___________"Military lawyer honoured among federal Queen's Counsel recipients who have demonstrated exemplary service", Government of canada, News Release, Date modified:

__________"Perspectives on Space Operations" (2007) 5(2) Astropolitics 145-172; title noted in my research but article not consulted (3 July 2016);

___________"Renewal -- are we done?" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3 and 7; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Le renouvellement de la Loi et ses conséquences" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3; disponible http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (site visité le 18 avril 2012;

___________Testimony before the Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Issue 14 - Evidence - Meeting of October 4, 2012, available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/411%5CAEFA/14EVB-49716-e.HTM (accessed 14 December 2016);

GLOBAL SEMINAR ON MILITARY JUSTICE REFORM, October 18-19, 2013, Yale Law School, Summary Report, 18 p., available at  http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/public/docs/Public_Comment_Unrelated/06-Dec-13/04_GlobSeminar_MJReform_2013_Report.pdf (accessed on 28 October 2014);

GLOBE EDITORIAL, "Globe editorial: Military suicides: Time to help the soldiers who helped us", The Globe and Mail, 23 November 2016, available at  (accessed 25 November 2016);

GLOBE AND MAIL, THE, "Ask Hellyer to probe report of 1945 trial, killing of 2 Germans", The Globe and Mail (1936-Current), ISSN 0319-0714, 10/06/1966, p. 1; note: "By Special to the Globe and Mail;

OTTAWA--Defense Minister Paul Hellyer has been urged to investigate allegations in the German magazine Der Spiegel
that a Canadian general and other Canadian... (source: http://queensu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.cmd=nextPage%28%29&s.
light=t&s.pn=5&s.q=%22canadian+military+law%22, accessed 15 October 2015)

___________"Murder, Assault Charges Face 3 Korea PPCLI", The Globe and Mail (1936-Current), 08/03/1951, p. 3;

Ottawa, Aug. 2 (CP).-- Three Canadian soldiers face murder and assault charges arising from the death of a Korean man,
the army announced today. The assault... (source: http://queensu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.cmd=nextPage%28%29&s.
light=t&s.pn=5&s.q=%22canadian+military+law%22, accessed 15 October 2015)

___________"Somalia inquiry lawyer removed: chairman cites conflict of interest (Kim Carter)", The Globe and Mail (Index-only), May 15, 1996, p.A4, source: and http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=36&frbg=&indx=351&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=letourneau%20somalia&dstmp=1468164973425 (accessed 10 July 2016); the military lawyer is Kim Carter who retired later as a Colonel; she was a military judge; see infra, under Carter, Kim;


"L’adjudant André Gagnon et l’avocat de la défense, major Philippe-Luc Boutin. (Nicolas Laffont/45eNord.ca)"

GODBOUT, Jacques N., "Dans l’affaire Stéphanie Raymond, l’appel de l’acquittement de l’adjudant Gagnon enfin entendu en septembre",  45e Nord.CA, 19 juin 2017 disponible à  http://www.45enord.ca/2017/06/dans-laffaire-stephanie-raymond-lappel-de-lacquittement-de-ladjudant-gagnon-enfin-entendu-en-septembre/ (21 juin 2017);

___________ "Fin de l'enquête sur les accusations d'avoir fermé les yeux sur les abus sexuels des forces afghanes", 45e Nord.CA, 12 avril 2016 disponible à  http://www.45enord.ca/2016/04/fin-de-lenquete-sur-les-accusations-davoir-ferme-les-yeux-sur-les-abus-sexuels-des-forces-afghanes/ (16 avril 2016);

"Même atteint de SSPT, l’adjudant Howard Richmond est déclaré             Joseph Addeman, avocat de la défense (source: globalnews.ca/
coupable du meurtre «prémédité» de sa femme, poignardée à mort en       video/1748544/ottawas-gang-war-getting-more-violent-still-escalating-says-lawyer
juillet 2013. (photo tirée de Facebook)"                                                       (accessed 9 August 2017).

___________"Même atteint de SSPT, l’adjudant Howard Richmond est déclaré coupable du meurtre «prémédité» de sa femme",  45e Nord.CA, 26 novembre 2015 disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2015/11/meme-atteint-de-sspt-ladjudant-howard-richmond-est-declare-coupable-du-meurtre-premedite-de-sa-femme/   (9 August 2017);

Même s’il souffre du syndrome de stress post-traumatique, l’adjudant Howard Richmond a été déclaré coupable de meurtre
prémédité de sa conjointe cet après-midi au terme d’un procès devant juge et jury en Cour supérieure de l’Ontario à Ottawa
après neuf jours de délibérations.


Bien qu’il ait admis qu’il avait tué sa femme dès le début de son procès, il avait plaidé non coupable, son avocat Me Joe
Adelman [sic--Joseph Addelman], mettant son geste sur le compte de son état de stress post-traumatique. L’avocat de la défense soutenait que
l’accusé ne pouvait avoir l’intention de tuer sa femme, puisqu’il avait perdu le sens de la réalité la nuit des événement.

On remarquera le JAG, Blaise Cathcart, rangée de gauche, 1er au fond.

___________"Le ministre chinois de la Défense, Chang Wanquan, signe un accord de coopération avec le Canada",  45e Nord.CA, , disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2013/08/le-ministre-chinois-de-la-defense-chang-wanquan-signe-un-accord-de-cooperation-avec-le-canada/ (29 juin 2017);

__________"Ottawa annonce un pas dans la voie de la réforme du système de justice militaire", 45e Nord.CA, 16 juin 2015, disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2015/06/ottawa-annonce-un-pas-dans-la-voie-de-la-reforme-du-systeme-de-justice-militaire/ (visité 28 novembre 2015);

"Le colonel Gibson, qui vient d'être nommé juge militaire, en compagnie d'avocat de
 plusieurs autre pays, alors qu'il était déployé au Congo comme Juge avocat général (E-Veritas)"

___________"Première nomination à ce poste en six ans, Michael Gibson devient juge militaire", 45e Nord.CA, 5 October 2013, disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2013/10/premiere-nomination-a-ce-poste-en-six-ans-michael-gibson-devient-juge-militaire/ (visité 28 novembre 2015);

__________ "La reine Élizabeth II colonel en chef de la Branche des services juridiques des Forces canadiennes", 45e Nord.CA, 3 juin 2013, disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2013/06/la-reine-elizabeth-ii-colonel-en-chef-de-la-branche-des-services-juridiques-des-forces-canadiennes/ (vérifié le 8 mai 2014);

Sa Majesté la reine Élisabeth II a «gentiment» accepté de devenir le premier colonel en chef de la Branche des services juridiques des Forces canadiennes, annonce aujourd’hui un communiqué de la Défense nationale à Ottawa.

Cette nomination, annoncée le lendemain du 60e anniversaire du couronnement de Sa Majesté à l’abbaye de Westminster constitue, dit le ministère canadien de la Défense « une illustration hautement symbolique du serment qu’a prêté la reine lors de son couronnement. Elle y promettait notamment d’user de ses pouvoirs avec clémence pour établir le droit et la justice dans tous ses jugements tout au long de son règne.»

Jacques N. Godbout: source de l'image: https://www.45enord.ca/2015/11/traitements-de-detenus-afghans-par-la-police-militaire-declenchement-dune-enquete-dinteret-public/, visité le 11 novembre 2015
___________"Traitements de détenus adghans par la police militaire: déclenchement d'une enquête d'intérêt public", 45e Nord.CA, 5 novembre 2015, disponible à  http://www.45enord.ca/2015/11/traitements-de-detenus-afghans-par-la-police-militaire-declenchement-dune-enquete-dinteret-public/  (vérifié le 11 novembre2014);

Source de l'image: https://twitter.com/godbouma (vérifié 17 juin 2016)
Marc Godbout

GODBOUT, Marc, "Politique--Détenus afghans : des membres de la Police militaire accusent leurs dirigeants d'entraver l'enquête", 

  Imge source: Amazon.ca, accessed on 10 May 2014

GODEFROY, Andrew B., 1972-, For Freedom and Honour?  The Story of the 25 Canadian Volunteers Executed in the First World War, Nepean (Ontario): CEF Books, 1998, x, 95 p., ISBN: 189697922X;

1. Fear God and honour the King
2. Courts-martial in the field
3. Murder and cowardice
4. The watershed, 1916
5. Deserting His Majesty's Service, 1917
6. Shot like a dog
7. Repeat offenders, 1918
8. Pour encourager les autres
 Epilogue: Forgotten men.
" (source: Canadian Forces Military College Catalogue IRC Web site)

Ian Goertz
GOERTZ, Ian, "NATO in Cyberspace -- How important is the Tallinn Manual 2.0?", Nato Association of Canada web site, available at http://natocouncil.ca/nato-in-cyberspace-how-important-is-the-tallinn-manual-2-0/ (accessed on 16 October 2015)

Image source: mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/info/pubs/annRpt/2016annRpt-eng.aspx?=undefined&wbdisable=true#H_17, accessed 8 July 2017
"From left to right – David Goetz (Senior Counsel), Julianne Dunbar (General
Counsel), Hilary McCormack (Chairperson), BGen Robert Delaney (CFPM),
LCol Brian Frei (Deputy Commander) and Cdr Peter Killaby (CFPM Legal Advisor)"

GOETZ, David, "Bill C-25: An Act to Amend the National Defence Act", Ottawa:  Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Research Branch, Law and Government Division, 18 February 1998 and revised on 25 November 1998 (series; Legislative Summary; LS- 311E), 47 p., available at http://dsp-psd.tpsgc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/LS/361/c25-e.htm  (accessed on 17 July 2008);
GOETZ, David, "Projet de loi C-25: Loi modifiant la loi sur la défense nationale", [Ottawa]: Bibliothèque du Parlement, Direction de la recherche parlementaire, Division du droit et du gouvernement, 18 février 1998 et révisé le le 25 novembre 1998, 49 p. (Series; Résumé législatif; LS-311F); disponible à http://dsp-psd.tpsgc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/LS/361/c25-f.htm (vérifié le 17 juillet 2008);


Marc Gold, image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

GOLD, Marc, "Comments on Legislation and Judicial Decisions -- Canadian Bill of Rights -- Fair Hearing -- Equality before the Law -- National Defence Act -- Court- Martial Jurisdiction" (1982) 60 Canadian Bar Review 137-151; note: deals with the Supreme Court of Canada decision of MacKay v. The Queen, (1981) 114 D.L.R. (3d) 393, [1980] 2 S.C.R. 370;

GOLDENBERG, Irina and Angela Febbraro, Defence Research and Development Canada, ICDS, International Centre for Defence Studies, "News CDS seminar “Different Cultures – One Team: Building and Maintaining a Military-Civilian Partnership in Defence Organisations 04.07.2013", available at http://icds.ee/index.php?id=73&type=98&L=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=1324&tx_ttnews[backPid]=270&cHash=4788fef586  (accessed on 16 November 2014)

Canada (Dr Irina Goldenberg & Dr Angela Febbraro, Defence Research and Development Canada)

The relationship between the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Canadian Forces (CF) is defined by the National Defence Act (NDA). The Minister of National Defence is responsible for administering the NDA, both for the DND and CF. However, by law, the DND and CF are separate entities, headed respectively by the Deputy Minister (DM) and the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS), who are both responsible to the Minister but have different (yet complementary) roles: the DM is responsible for policy, resources, interdepartmental coordination and international defence relations, while the CDS is responsible for command, control and administration of the CF, military strategy, plans and requirements.

In terms of demographics, Canada’s defence organisation has 67,000 regular military personnel (or 52% of the total personnel), 31,000 reservists and 29,000 civilian employees (or 23% of the total). Over the last 10 years, the latter number grew by 38%, while the number of military personnel increased by 11%. These increases in numbers were largely a result of the campaign in Afghanistan and its operational requirements. The mean years of service are comparable between the military (11.5 years: 13.2 years for officers and 10.9 for NCOs) and civilian (10.2) personnel, which refutes the perception that civilians are less committed to working in defence organisations. Cutbacks in the mid-1990s, both of civilians and the military, resulted in a dip of experience that is difficult to compensate. Currently, the number of civilians is being cut, while the number of military personnel remains stable (although the number is not growing either).

The civilian workforce is composed of public servants (who may move between government departments; have job security – 91% of defence organisation’s civilians), term employees (those who are filling in for absentees), casuals (who spend a third of a year in public service duties) and students (future potential recruits for DND). In terms of employment categories, there are operational (31% of DND civilians); administrative and foreign service (29%); administrative support; scientific and professional; management (1%, as many such positions are filled in by the military); and other.

Civilians are represented, in different proportions, in all capability components: 20% are in the maritime forces, 20% in personnel services, 19% are in land forces, 11% are in material services, 8% in air forces, 6% in information services and 6% in science and technology. The land component is the largest (37% of military personnel), as it is closest to the on-going operations; a further 20% are in the air forces, 19% in maritime forces and 15% in personnel services. The civilian workforce is older (the average age is 46.2), compared with military (34.9), and has a higher proportion of female employees (40.9%, compared to 13.8% in military), but its attrition rate is comparable with the military’s (indeterminate civilians – 5.5%; regular force military – 6.1%), thus again highlighting the earlier point that civilians are not less committed than military personnel. The number of individuals eligible to retire from the DND civilian and Regular Force populations is steadily increasing.

With regard to policies and practices, the current starting point is the Canada First Defence Strategy, which sends a message that personnel within the defence organisation constitute one team (the Defence Team). It is supported by 6 principles, identified by the CDS, which will guide the reshaping and renewal of the CF: CF identity; Command-centric imperative; Authorities, responsibilities and accountabilities; Operational focus; Mission command; and An integrated Regular, Reserve and Civilian CF. The latter is particularly important in terms of civil-military collaboration, since it envisages a more integrated effort where CF structures are closely interconnected and interdependent to ensure the best utilization of appropriate skills and experiences at every level.

The Public Service Employment Act and the Public Service Labour Relations Act regulate government behaviour and principles in recruitment. The Treasury Board of Canada is the employer of the public service, and is generally responsible for accountability and ethics, and financial, personnel and administrative management. Public service employees belong to various “occupational groups”, each of which is governed by a collective agreement between one of several unions and Treasury Board.

The Code of Service Discipline (part of the NDA) is the basis for the CF military justice system and is designed to assist military authority to maintain discipline, efficiency and morale in the CF. It thus prescribes more severe punishments than those applied to civilians for the same offenses under the civilian justice system. The Code sets out who is subject to the military justice system; establishes service offences for which a person can be charged; establishes service tribunals and their jurisdiction as well as the processes of review and appeal.

Several Defence Administrative Orders and Directives apply to those who manage DND employees, setting out requirements and principles for civilian HR governance and management (including governance structure, functional direction, coordination and communication mechanisms as well as a performance management framework). There is a variety of committees to deal with civilian human resources, the highest being the Defence Management Committee, which provides the DM/CDS with decision support and advice with respect to issues of strategic importance (including human resources). The Civilian Human Resource Committee focuses specifically on strategic civilian HR management issues, while the Strategic Human Resource Management Council, which includes civilian and military chiefs of human resources, works to coordinate DND and CF human resources policies and resolve various issues. The Defence Team concept, along with other tools, is employed to increase contact between civilians and military, minimize stereotypes and harmonize culture across the defence organisation.

High emphasis is placed on values and goals of DND and CF personnel. The military is guided by the publication “Duty with Honour,” a doctrinal document which defines values (duty, loyalty, integrity, courage) and attributes (responsibility, expertise, identity) of military personnel. The Public Service Code of Ethics applies to civilians, espousing democratic, professional, ethical and people values that should guide civil servants. There are similarities between these two codes, such as ethical behaviour, loyalty, and rule of law, but also differences (e.g., unlimited liability and courage apply to the military).

Janis Goldie, image source:, accessed on 4 June 2014

GOLDIE,  Janis L., Morals, process and political scandals: the discursive role of the Royal Commission in the Somalia Affair in Canada, Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Calgary, Graduate Program in Communication Studies, 2009, xi, 354 leaves; copy at the University of Calgary;

This study was an effort to describe and understand the communication function of the Royal Commission of
Inquiry in the Somalia Affair in Canada. A major political scandal in Canada, the Somalia Affair was
initially marked by the torture and death of a Somalia man at the hands of a Canadian soldier while on a peace
enforcement mission in Somalia in 1993 and resulted in a great deal of media attention as well as the general
public reproach of Canadians. After first providing an overview of Royal Commissions of Inquiry, as well as
the historical and social context of the Somalia Affair within Canada, this dissertation argues that this
political scandal shook the nation, in part, because it marked a moment of moral dissonance in Canada. That is,
the Somalia Affair presented serious incongruities between commonly espoused Canadian values--such as
peacekeeping, multiculturalism and transparency/accountability--and the actions that the
Canadian soldiers undertook in Somalia. I connect the issue of moral dissonance to the commission in an
attempt to answer ' why' the commission was used in response to the moral dissonance caused by the Somalia
Affair. Utilizing an in-depth case study approach to the Somalia Affair, I undertake discourse analysis on
the approximately 50,000 pages of primary documentary sources from the commission as well as on the media
coverage of the affair. Ultimately, I find that the commission is an appropriate space to deal with the
moral dissonance that the Somalia Affair posed for two main reasons. Firstly, because it offers a space to
debate, define and potentially reassert the morals that were originally transgressed. Secondly, the
commission's reliance on process and procedure works to institutionalize, rationalize and legitimize those
morals that were transgressed as well as display that the political system itself operates effectively. In
all, I argue that it is these two communication features of the commission--as a space for moral
discourse to occur within a heavily formal and procedural process--that make the commission an
appropriate discursive place to respond to the moral dissonance that occurs in a political scandal like the
Somalia Affair. [Source http://amicus.collectionscanada.ca/aaweb-bin/aamain/itemdisp?sessionKey=1475690100002
_142_78_200_14&l=0&v=1&lvl=1&rt=1&itm=38060224&rsn=S_WWWdfatlnVYK&all=1&dt=%22Goldie,+Janis+L.+(Janis+Leanne),+1977-%22&spi=-], accessed 5 October 2016]

___________"PhD Abstracts -- Morals, process and political scandals: the discursive role of the Royal Commission in the Somalia Affair in Canada", (2010) 17(1) The International Journal of Speech Language and the Law 157-160; available at http://www.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/7620/6453  (accessed on 25 November 2012);


GOLDMAN, Patricia, "Changes to the Board of Inquiry Process" (May/Mail 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#top and http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article9 (accessed on 29 April 2012);
GOLDMAN, Patricia, "Modifications au processus des commissions d'enquête" (May/Mai 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx et  http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article6 (site visité le 29 avril  2012);


image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014
GOLDSTEIN, Elliott, "Videotape Evidence in Canadian Military Courts" (1987) 2  Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General Journal 59-74;
"La preuve par bande magnétoscopique et les tribunaux militaires du Canada" (1987) 2 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 63-80;

GOODMAN, Len and Donna Wood, "Toward the Development of a Canadian Less Lethal Weapon Approval Process:A Study of Contemporary Process Models, Defence R&D Canada – CSS,  Technical Memorandum, DRDC CSS TM 2011-17, October 2011; available at www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA553160 (accessed 2 October 2016);

GOODYEAR, Lisa L. (Lisa Laure), 1970-,  In the name of justice or finding a place : Canadian war crimes prosecutions at the end of the Second World War, Thesis (M.A.)--Royal Military College of Canada, 2002; thesis adviser: Serge Durflinger;

Description: Some of the bloodiest fighting in the aftermath of the D-Day invasion was between the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division and the 12 th SS Armoured Division (Hitler-Jugend). During those initial days of fighting in Normandy 156 Canadian soldiers paid the ultimate price while being held as prisoners of war. The two men responsible for these murders, Standartenführers Kurt Meyer and Wilhelm Mohnke, would be at the centre of intensive Canadian war crimes investigations. American forces captured Meyer in September 1944 and the Russian Red Army would capture Mohnke in May 1945. Mohnke's capture by the Soviet Union would allow him to escape Canadian justice. Canada was reluctant to engage in war crimes prosecutions. Members of the Department of External Affairs, such as Norman Robertson and John Read, did not support joining the UNWCC citing that in the past, war crimes trials had been a farce and thought it best for Canada not to participate. However, events of June 1944 would place Canada in the position of having to deal with war crimes committed against its soldiers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.); source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved and http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=1&frbg=&&indx=1&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&mode=Basic&vid=01LOC&ct=search&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&vl(freeText0)=NDHQ%20JAG&dum=true&dstmp=1467987049285 , accessed 8 July 2016)

Image source: http://www.keyano.ca/ContactUs/FacultyProfiles, accessed 2 October 2016
Hugh Avi Gordon
GORDON, Hugh Avi, Cheers and Tears: Relations Between Canadian Soldiers and German Civilians, 1944-46, Ph.D. thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Victoria, 2010, x, 354 leaves; available at http://dspace.library.uvic.ca:8080/bitstream/handle/1828/3180/Hugh%20Gordon%20PhD%20Dissertation%20Cheers%20and%20Tears%20final%20copy.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed on 7 May 2012);

Image source; https://www.linkedin.com/in/daniel-gosselin-54236bb8, accessed 19 April 2016
Daniel Gosselin

GOSSELIN, Daniel, "Book Review: Forced to Change: Crisis and Reform in the Canadian Armed Forces by Bernd Horn and Bill Bentley Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2015, 168 pages, $19.99 (PB), ISBN 978-1-45972-784-7", (2016) Canadian Military Journal,   available at  http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol16/no2/page82-eng.asp (accessed 19 April 2016);

This book tells the story of the reforms in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and the profession of arms in the late-1990s and early-2000s
that were triggered by the events centred upon the deployment of the Canadian Airborne Regiment to Somalia as part of a United Nations
peacekeeping mission in 1992-1993, in particular the torture and killing of a Somali teenager in March 1993.  The events in Somalia and
the subsequent response of the senior leadership of the CAF and the Department of National Defence contributed to generate a serious
crisis of civil-military relations in Canada and a loss of confidence by the government in the CAF, in particular, its officer corps. 

Lynne Gouliquer, photo source: http://www2.unb.ca/~carmen/lynne.html (accessed 1 May 2015)
GOULIQUER, Lynne, Soldiering in the Canadian Forces: How and Why Gender Counts!, Ph.D. Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Sociology, McGill University, Montreal, 2011, xii, 349 p.; available at  http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/QMM/TC-QMM-96779.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2015); author's site;

GOVERNMENT OF CANADA, Government of Canada Publications, "ArchiviaNet: On-Line Research Tool.  Courts-Martial of the First World War", available at http://publications.gc.ca/pub?id=277455&sl=0 (accessed on 2 August 2008); see also http://nlc-bnc.ca/databases/courts-martial/index-e.html (accessed on 22 December 2011);

Courts-Martial of the First World War

Like their civil counterparts, courts martial were legal bodies that are convened to determine the guilt or innocence of accused men and women. A panel of officers sat in judgement at a court martial, while the accused was represented by an officer who may have been a military lawyer. Courts martial had the authority to try a wide range of military offences, many of which closely resembled civilian crimes like fraud, theft or perjury. Others, like desertion and cowardice were purely military crimes. Punishments for military offences ranged from fines and imprisonment to execution. Military offenses were defined in the British Army Act. These offences, their corresponding punishments and instructions on how to run a court martial, were explained in detail in the Manual of Military Law, which was distributed to Canadian Expeditionary Force units. (source: http://nlc-bnc.ca/databases/courts-martial/index-e.html, accessed on 22 December 2011)

GOUVERNEMENT DU CANADA,  Publications du gouvernement du Canada, "ArchiviaNet: recherche en ligne.  Cours martiales de la première guerre mondiale", disponible à http://publications.gc.ca/pub?id=277455&sl=1 (vérifié le 2 août 2008);; voir aussi http://nlc-bnc.ca/base-de-donnees/cours-martiales/index-f.html, vérifié le 22 décembre 2011;
Cours martiales de la Première Guerre mondiale

Comme leur contrepartie civile, les cours martiales sont des organismes juridiques constitués pour déterminer la culpabilité ou l'innocence des accusés, hommes ou femmes. Un groupe d'officiers siègent en tant que cour martiale, tandis que l'accusé est représenté par un officier qui peut être un avocat militaire. Les cours martiales sont habilitées à juger une large gamme d'infractions d'ordre militaire, dont bon nombre ressemblent étroitement aux crimes civils comme la fraude, le vol ou le parjure. D'autres, comme la désertion et la lâcheté sont des crimes purement militaires. Les peines applicables aux infractions d'ordre militaire vont des amendes assorties d'un emprisonnement à l'exécution. Les infractions d'ordre militaire ont été définies dans la loi britannique intitulée Army Act. Ces infractions, les peines qui y correspondent et les instructions sur la manière de mener une cour martiale sont expliquées en détails dans le Manual of Military Law, qui a été distribué au Corps expéditionnaire canadien. (source:http://nlc-bnc.ca/base-de-donnees/cours-martiales/index-f.html, vérifié le 22 décembre 2011)

GOUVERNEUR-GÉNÉRAL, Rapport sur l'état de la milice de la province du Canada: présenté aux deux chambres du parlement par ordre de Son Excellence le gouverneur-général, 1866, 105 p.; le gouverneur -général était Charles Stanley Monck; note il y a des rapports en 1857, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869 et 1871, recherches en cours (13 février 2015); also published in English, see Report on the State of the Militia of the Dominion of Canada for the year 1875;

Canadian Armed Forces sets precedent with Child Soldier Doctrine", News Release, from National Defence, 2 March 2017, available at https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/news/2017/03/canadian_armed_forcessetsprecedentwithchildsoldierdoctrine.html (accessed 21 May 2017);

March 2, 2017 – Ottawa – Canadian Armed Forces/Department of National Defence 

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have set an important precedent with the development of a doctrine to specifically address the unique challenges
faced by military members confronted by child soldiers while deployed on operations. This Canadian initiative directly supports the United Nations
Security Council resolution 1261, which urges parties to armed conflicts to abide by concrete commitments made to ensure the protection of children
in situations of armed conflict. 

The Canadian Armed Forces Joint Doctrine Note (JDN) 2017-01 Child Soldiers was developed following discussions with Senator Romeo Dallaire
on his direct experiences with child soldiers, as well as those of CAF members who have met challenges when facing underage combatants. The
doctrine was produced in a condensed timeframe, reflecting its high priority for the Chief of the Defence Staff, General Jonathan Vance. 

The JDN offers guidance to individuals, units and commanders on how to approach the difficult situation of conflicts involving child soldiers, including
maximizing the safety of Canadian Armed Forces members and child soldiers. It includes guidance for the planning and execution of operations, including
specialized pre-deployment training. 

This initiative is consistent with Canada’s overall commitment to ending the use of girls and boys in hostilities, as demonstrated by our efforts as chair of the
Group of Friends on Children and Armed Conflict at the United Nations in New York, the funding of a number of child protection initiatives, and Canada’s
recent endorsement of the Safe Schools Declaration.

GOVERNMENT OF CANADA,  Defence and Security Policy:

Defence & Security Policy

GOVERNMENT OF CANADA, "Government in Council Appointments, Opportunities -- Selection Processes -- Current Opportunity -- Member, Military Judges Compensation Committee", 4 October 2016; available at http://www.appointments.gc.ca/slctnPrcs.asp?menu=1&lang=eng&SelectionProcessId=05C7A111-9795-4865-AC16-616A8DF9A4FB (accessed 21 October 2016);

GOVERNMENT OF CANADA, "Government in Council Appointments, Organization Profile --Military Judges Compensation Committee", web site, available at http://www.appointments-nominations.gc.ca/prflOrg.asp?OrgID=MJCC&type-typ=1&lang=eng (accessed 21 October 2016);  

Rob Grace, image source: http://www.hpcrresearch.org/users/rob-grace, accessed 8 February 2015.

GRACE, Rob, "From Design to Implementation: The Interpretation of Fact-finding Mandates",  Journal of Conflict and Security Law first published online December 10, 2014.  Notes: includes "Interview conducted by the author on 29 September 2011 with Kim Carter, Canadian Forces War Crimes Investigation Team Leader providing support for the Former Yugoslavia Commission; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (2 February 2015);

The mandate interpretation process is crucial to the implementation of fact-finding missions geared toward investigating alleged violations of international law, including human rights, international criminal law, and international humanitarian law. However, many disagreements exist about how fact-finding practitioners should weigh different factors in their mandate interpretation processes. This article—based in part on extensive interviews conducted by the author with fact-finding practitioners—examines areas of methodological agreement and disagreement, trends of professional decision making, and normative perceptions that practitioners hold about best practices regarding the interpretation of fact-finding mandates. Overall, the article aims to highlight points of convergence and divergence between past professional experiences and to illuminate the benefits and risks of different methodological choices.  (image source: http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/12/10/jcsl.kru019.abstract?sid=be9f35b0-fed1-4131-80ea-5f98241d5e5e, accessed on 2 February 2015)

Bill Graham, image source: http://web.archive.org/web/20050114004019/http://www.dnd.ca/site/Minister/index_f.asp, accessed on 25 April 2014

GRAHAM, Bill, "[Address of] The Honourable Bill Graham, P.C., M.P. Minister of National Defence, L'Honorable Bill Graham, P.C., M.P. Ministre de la défense nationale [to the] Office of the JAG Annual Mess Dinner, Royal Canadian Air Force Officers Mess, 27 October 2005, Ottawa, Ontario, Dîner régimentaire annuel du Cabinet du JAG, Mess des Officiers de la Force aérienne, 27 octobre 2005, Ottawa, Ontario", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 22-24; topics covered: Defending Canada; Defending North America; International Society; JAG and Canadian Forces Transformation; Award Recipients; available at Speech of Bill Graham to the JAG Annual Mess Dinner;

___________, former Minister of National Defence, 2004-2006 and former Minister of Foreign Affairs, 2002-2004, testimony before the House of Commons Special Committee on the Canadian Mission in Afghanistan, 12 May 2010 (40th Parl., 3rd Session); Important;

I believe at this point I could perhaps be helpful to the committee in understanding the circumstances around which the original agreement
was drafted with the Afghan authorities, which dealt with the transfer of detainees.

You'll know that, to some extent, this matter was covered extensively in Janice Stein and Gene Lang's book The Unexpected War. The chapter
on this is pretty extensive. Much of what I will say will replicate what is said in that book.


The role of the Canadian Forces was to provide primarily security for the political process to take place, which was coordinated with CIDA
and DFAIT, essential partners in the three-D process.

 I'd like to emphasize that in our view, the rule of law was an important component of our campaign in Afghanistan, both from a legitimacy
point of view and our credibility with the Afghan population. The question of detainees was a difficult one that we had to resolve. There was
no capacity in the Canadian Forces to manage large numbers of detainees. That was clear. We didn't have the number of troops or the type of
infrastructure that would have allowed us to do that.  

 Early discussions with NATO had indicated that NATO had no intention of providing a detainee holding capacity. The Americans had capacity
in Bagram, but in our view, not only was this getting to the point where they were resistant about taking more detainees, it also was true, at that
point, that because of both Guantanamo and our experience with Abu Ghraib, we were not of the view that the Americans would be appropriate
authorities to receive prisoners from Canada. And that matter was raised in debate in the House, which I'll come to later.

 That takes us to the point that we were in Afghanistan. We were in Afghanistan, so the Afghans were the logical and appropriate partners, with
built-in protections for the prisoners, of course. The Dutch, the British, the Danes were working on this solution as well. We had a sense of promise
that things were improving in Afghanistan.

From a chronology point of view, in May 2005 Foreign Minister Abdullah and I met. We agreed that an agreement was necessary and it would
have the support of both the Afghan and Canadian governments. We discussed the idea of a transfer with Afghan authorities, again when I was in
Kabul in October. Foreign Minister Abdullah was keen. President Karzai gave his okay. Defence Minister Wardak, however, made the point that
the Afghan forces had no capacity to deal with detainees but that the President agreed that a special force would be trained to handle them.

We therefore proceeded to work on our agreement, which was drafted with senior members of the Judge Advocate General's division in the
Department of National Defence, in fact one of whom was a doctor in international law. They were in contact with and had complete support of
their colleagues in Foreign Affairs and PCO. There was an understanding that the Dutch and British were working on similar agreements and
would be transferring prisoners to the Afghan authority as well.

The agreement contained, as you know, amongst other provisions, the Geneva Convention protections whatever the detainee's classification;
the Red Cross was to be notified; and a provision that the Afghan human rights commission was to be engaged. This, I want to emphasize,
colleagues, we believed was an extremely important provision. It was a part of what we believed was building civil society in Afghanistan at
that time, giving capacity to the human rights commission of Afghanistan.


When we finished drafting the agreement, our officials assured me—and I pushed them hard on this—that our agreement contained the best
language possible for the protection of prisoners.

I think it's appropriate at this point to emphasize that the agreement was drafted in anticipation. We had very limited experience with prisoners
in the system at that time. While we were aware that the Afghan prison system was not perfect and was in fact wanting in many respects, we
had no reason to believe they would not be capable of treating prisoners in accordance with the international humanitarian obligations set out
in the agreement.

In November of 2005, we met here with NGO representatives. I can say there was general agreement that the appropriate approach to this
issue was to transfer prisoners to the Afghans rather than the Americans at that time. Concerns were expressed about Afghan prison conditions,
which was something we were going to address through CIDA, but there was every support for the policy of transferring prisoners to Afghanistan
at that time.

Some members in the room will recall that the question of prisoners was raised in the debate in the House of Commons in November of 2005. I
raised the agreement. Various opposition members raised similar concerns about any transfer to U.S. authorities, but as I understood it, they
supported the transfer to Afghan authorities provided the proper provisions respecting the Geneva Conventions were present.

It is true this agreement lacked a right to follow prisoners, which was something contained in other agreements. This agreement was criticized
for that. With hindsight, it could have contained such a provision, which the present government in its wisdom has added. I must emphasize,
however, that we believed at the time that we had an agreement that contained the highest level of protection for any possible prisoners.


I'd also like to pay tribute to the members of the Judge Advocate Division, the legal officers, and the many other officials who, as you may know,
serve in the field at risk to their lives and provide instant advice to ensure that our troops conduct themselves in accordance with the obligations under
the Rome Statute and the relevant provisions of international humanitarian and Canadian law.


There was definitely a strong opinion at the leadership level that to have diverted troops to the process of managing prisoners would have impinged
on their ability to conduct the combat mission.

This was not a matter that was just our problem. The British were discussing the same thing; the Dutch, the Danish, everybody came to the same conclusion.
There was an unsuccessful attempt to suggest that perhaps NATO would have been a logical possibility for providing one of the countries in NATO to provide
a detainee supervision brigade, or something of that nature, but NATO wasn't willing to pick up that challenge, so that didn't go anywhere.


GRAHAM, Gertrud, died on 6 December 2015, Lahr Germany; on 7 December 2015, I, François Lareau, received the following email from LCol (retired) Benoit Pinsonneault:

Photo of Ken Osborne in the article of Lisa Graham
GRAHAM, Lisa, "US Meritorious Service Medal to Canadian grad Lieutenant Commander Ken Osborne, Law ’03",Queen's Law Reports at p. 41; available at http://law.queensu.ca/sites/webpublish.queensu.ca.lawwww/files/files/Alumni%20Donors/lawReports2011.pdf (accessed 1 May 2016);

GRAHAM, Ross, Dr., "Civil Control of the Canadian Forces: National Direction and National Command", (Spring 2002) 3(1) Canadian Military Journal 23-29; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo3/no1/doc/23-30-eng.pdf (accessed on 13 March 2012); research note: with the same title in Toronto: Canadian Forces College National Security Studies Course Paper, 2001 to be found at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/281/273/graham2.pdf;
GRAHAM, Ross, "Controle civil des forces canadiennes: direction nationale et commandement national", (Printemps 20020) 3(1)  Revue militaire canadienne  23-29; disponible à www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo3/no1/index-fra.asp  (site visité le 13 mars 2012); note de recherche: avec un titre identique dans: Toronto: Canadian Forces College National Security Studies Course Paper, 2001;

Image source: http://yfile.news.yorku.ca/2005/11/07/post-enron-corruption-conduct-and-civitas/, accessed 13 January 2016
Brian Grainger
GRAINGER, Brian, Senior Partner, Grainger & Associates Inc., Testimony before before the Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts, meeting 62, 12 May 1998, see minutes  and  evidence;

Image source: , accessed http://www.nortonrosefulbright.com/people/42601/gabrielgranatstein, accessed 6 November 2015
Gabriel Granatstein
GRANATSTEIN, Gabriel, "Guerrier un jour, avocat toujours...", DROIT-INC, 29 mars 2011, disponible à http://www.droit-inc.com/article5430-Guerrier-un-jour-avocat-toujours (vérifié le 6 novembre 2015);


Admis au barreau en 2009, Gabriel Granatstein est avocat chez Ogilvy Renault à Montréal, en droit de l'emploi et du travail. Avant de se joindre au cabinet, il a été officier au sein des Forces canadiennes et a notamment été affecté au maintien de la paix en Bosnie.

(still picture from the You Tube video)
Gabriel Granatstein

GRANATSTEIN, Gabriel and Mark Bergman, "In Montreal interview: Lt. Gabriel Granatstein", News interview on 12/04/07 hosted by Mark Bergman with Gabriel Granatstein about mission to Bosnia, on YOU TUBE, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9v0wajfHh4 (accessed 6 November 2015);

J.L. Granatstein, image source: http://vanguardcanada.com/the-new-defence-procurement-mess/, accessed on 23 April 2014

GRANATSTEIN, J.L., 1939-, "A Diary of the Defence Review, 1997", (summer 1997) 52(3) International Journal 524-532;

Image source: amazon.com/Canadas-Army-Waging-Keeping-Peace/dp/0802046916, accessed 30 November 2016
___________Canada's Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace, 2nd ed.,  Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2011, [xxiv], [13],  573 p., ISBN: 978-1-4426-1178-8; copy at the University of Ottawa, General UA 600 .G65 2011;

[About the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Mr. Granatstein writes:]

    What happened next tore the Canadian Forces asunder.  The Liberal government appointed a Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia on March 20, 1995.  Of the three commissioners, chair Judge Gilles Letourneau, Judge Robert Rutherford, and journalist and journalism professor Peter Desbarats, only Rutherford, had any military experience.  The commission's mandate was broad: the pre-deployment choice and  training of the CAR; the events in Somalia; and the post-deployment phase of the alleged cover-up of the Arone killing at National Defence Headquarters.  Because of the commission's splenetic chair, who badgered witnesses and regularly exploded in front of the TV cameras, the inquiry's relations with the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces deteriorated to the point of open hostility.  The commissioners clearly believed that the department was being dishonest, while the military found the commissioners  ill-informed and uncomprehending.  Senior officers saw the commission as a kangaroo court that, incredibly, devoted most of its time to an intensive investigation of who had altered a handful of press releases at NDHQ.  In the process, the Chief of the defence Staff, air force General Jean Boyle, had his career destroyed, in part at least by his own hand.  The commission unquestionably found evasion of the spirit and letter of the Access to Information Act and some attempts to cover up information that might have damaged the reputation of the Canadian Forces and their political masters.

    After two years and two extensions of its life, the commission's work was cut short by a new Defence Minister, Doug Young, in April 1997.  The commissioners then blamed the Department of National Defence for their failure to complete their task, but, in the end, in their appallingly titled report, Dishonoured Legacy, they produced a host of generally sensible recommendations on leadership, accountability, discipline, personnel selection, training, rules of engagement, readiness, and operational planning.  In effect, the commissioners declared that no future force should leave Canada without proper equipment, training, a clear chain of command, and a full understanding of its role.  Readers will recognize that preparation of this order has never yet happened in Canadian military history.  Yet the commissioners were right: it should.

    Where the Somalia Commission went wrong was in the attacks on individuals during its hearings, an attitude that suggested an absence of impartiality.  The focus turned the inquiry into a media circus, one that did terrible harm to the reputation of the leaders of both the army and the Canadian Forces.  The commissionners' strictures on individuals in their report made the damage worse.  The inquiry offered adverse comments on seven generals, one colonel, two lieutenant-colonels, and one major, pronouncing them failures.  The commissioners demonstrated little understanding that military-political decisions were often made with incomplete information and under pressure, and their report ended careers.  Some deserved to have their careers derailed; others did not.  All warranted some humane treatment, more understanding, from a supposedly impartial and dispassionate commission of inquiry. (pp. 408-409; notes omitted)

___________"The Canadian Forces and Aid to the Civil Power", available at http://www.cdfai.org/monthlycolumn/The%20Canadian%20Forces%20and%20Aid%20to%20the%20Civil%20Power.pdf (accessed on 1 August 2012);

___________"From Mother Country to Far Away Relative: The Canadian-British Military Relationship from 1945", (2009) Canadian Military History: Vol. 18: Iss. 1, Article 7, at pp. 55-60;

The Canadian army had been reduced to some 25,000 all ranks by successive cuts, and as the Cold War ended, it was so weak that it could not despatch a fully equipped
battalion, let alone a brigade, to participate in the first Gulf War.  Then came Somalia and revelations of torture and murder by members of the Canadian Airborne Regiment
and failures in command by senior officers. Simultaneously there was the operation in Former Yugoslavia where at least one unit performed very well in action against Croatian
regulars, but others, handicapped by post-Somalia rules of engagement, found themselves referring to the Judge Advocate General’s branch for permission to smoke, let alone
fight.  The Canadian units were abbreviated as Canbat I and II, for Canadian battlegroups I and II.  They were known to British troops in theatre as the “Can’t bats,” and it was
largely true.

    The dismal 1990s turned the Canadian Forces and especially the army inwards, and it determined that it was ill-educated, ill-prepared, ill-trained and, most obviously,
ill-equipped.[p. 60 ]

___________ “Going to war? ‘Parliament will decide’”, Globe and Mail, 9 September 2009;

___________"It's time to reform Canada's deficient National Defence Act.  The time to remedy these deficiencies is now rather than after the next domestic crisis requiring the use of the Canadian Forces.", The Hilll Times online, Saturday, 17 December 2011;  title noted in my research but document not consulted yet (17 December 2011);

Civil-military relations in Western democracies tend to be governed by two basic rules. First, the national state controls the use of military force, its last resort in maintaining domestic order. Secondly, the elected politicians control the military in accord with the nation's laws, thus making the politicians ultimately accountable for the use of force. In Canada, the military can provide Aid to the Civil Power, putting troops on the street in a crisis. This is an essential role, but the way in which this can be done requires clarification...(source: http://www.hilltimes.com/military-history/2010/11/15/its-time-to-reform-canadas-deficient-national-defence-act/24892, accessed on 17 December 2011)

___________"Sending in the Army", Ottawa Citizen, 10 November 2010;  available under the title "Canadian Forces and Aid to the Civil Power", at http://www.cdfai.org/the3dsblog/?p=26 (accessed on 31 May 2012);

___________Who Killed the Canadian Military?, Toronto: Harper Collins, 2004, 250 p., ISBN: 0-00-200675-8;

[Somalia Inquiry & Affair]

The Chrétien government created a Commission of Inquiry in March 1995 to investigate what had gone wrong in
Somalia, but the Commission headed by a sputtering and splenetic judge, unaccountably lost its way and began
investigating alterations to press releases rather than the central issues.


At root, the cause of the Somalia affair was the government's inability to say no.  Canadian leaders loved the kudos
they received in Washington and New York for ponying up troops for UN and other service.  They enjoyed the favourable
editorials praising their devotion to peacekeeping, and opinion polls confirmed that the electorate liked it too.  The senior
leadership may have pointed to the strains on its troops as the Canadian Forces tried to mount one overseas operation after
another, but, when pressed by the prime Minister, the Defence Minister, and the Deputy Minister, the generals and admirals
invariably saluted and said "can do".  Their training, their ethos, left them little option.  The men might be tired and their
units under-strength, the training might not always be adequate, and the equipment might be obsolete, but, by God, the
politicians and generals were ready, aye ready.  As a result, the Commission of Inquiry correctly pointed out, the Canadians
arrived in Somalia "with an uncertain mission, unknown task, ad hoc command arrangements, an unconsolidated relationship
to U.S. command, and unclear rules of engagement."  There ought to have been no surprise than an overstretched military,
with all ranks under stress, plunged into a morass. (pp. 157-159).

Image source: www.amazon.com/Broken-promises-history-conscription-Canada/dp/0195402588, 11 May 2016

GRANATSTEIN, J.L., 1939-,  and J. Mackay Hitsman, 1917-1970,  Broken Promises: A History of Conscription in Canada, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1977, 281 p., bibliography at p. [270-274], ISBN: 0195402588 paperback;

Image source: www.amazon.ca

GRANATSTEIN, J.L., 1939-, and Dean F. (Dean Frederick) Oliver, 1965-,  The Oxford Companion to Canadian military history,  Don Mills, Ont. ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2011, xiii, 514 p.; note: Co-published by: Canadian War Museum = Musée canadien de la guerre;

"The evolution of Canada as a military power is chronicled here by military historians Dean F. Oliver and J.L. Granatstein in this authoritative and highly readable book. Their entries include concise biographies from James Wolfe to Louis Riel to Rick Hillier; key military-political issues like the conscription crises, war finance, and Canada-US relations; lesser-known conflicts such as the Pig War and the Aroostook War; and more recent issues facing the Canadian Forces, including sexual harassment and post-traumatic stress disorder. Rare photographic material and original wartime paintings (reproduced in full colour) illustrate the people, events, and hardware that define Canada’s military history."--Publisher’s description.

___________"The Somalia Affair and The Oxford Companion to Canadian Military History", (2015) 22(4) Canadian Military History; article 6; available at http://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1704&context=cmh (accessed 31 May 2015);

GRANGER, Eric, Lawyer, Criminal Lawyers Associations, testimony on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act, before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 66, 13 February 2013, minutes and evidence;

GRANT, Dale, "Canada's military a law unto itself", Toronto Star, 12 March 1996, p. A.13;

Description: One of the things which makes the military different from all other arms of government is that it has its own justice system.
For while military personnel can be charged under civilian laws and tried in public court, most offences - be they stealing office supplies,
drunkenness, rape or murder - will be dealt with by an internal system that has its own police, prosecutors, courts and prisons as well as a
large body of specific laws and regulations to support it. But as the Somalia inquiry has graphically shown, the words ``military justice''
are a cruel oxymoron in Canada. Accusations of corruption, cover-up and abuse of power made against senior officers are routinely buried
in a cloud of secrecy and endless investigations that go nowhere. In some cases, like that of Maj. Vincent Buonamici, the Canadian Forces
military police officer in Somalia, it is claimed people were sent in to tap phones, pick locks and remove documents from files to impede
his investigation. (http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch
a+law+unto+itself%22&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe, accessed 18 August 2016)

___________"Military and society at arms over forces' role", Toronto Star, 1 September 1997, p. A13;

Description:   It might seem a small bit of fallout from the work of the Somalia inquiry, but an arcane research study by sociologist Donna Winslow highlights the fundamental cause of Canada's ongoing military malaise with devastating clarity. In The Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia; A Socio-cultural inquiry, Winslow looked at the airborne with the same analytical approach that one might take with a recently discovered tribal society in New Guinea. One does not have to condone the actions of racist murderers or the buck-passing and cover-up that so soiled the Somalia affair to ask if these beliefs are true in any degree. For the attitudes revealed in Winslow's study are found throughout the Canadian Armed Forces. From corporals to generals, this writer has heard them time and time again in the past five years. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Advanced&tab=default_tab&indx=1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28D13699706UI0%29=any&vl%28D13699706UI0%29=title&vl%28D13699706UI0%29=any&vl%281UIStartWith0%29=contains&vl%28freeText0%29=Dale+Grant&vl%28boolOperator0%29=AND&vl%28D13699705UI1%29=any&vl%28D13699705UI1%29=title&vl%28D13699705UI1%29=any&vl%281UIStartWith1%29=contains&vl%28freeText1%29=Somalia&vl%28boolOperator1%29=AND&vl%28480887489UI2%29=any&vl%28480887489UI2%29=title&vl%28480887489UI2%29=any&vl%281UIStartWith2%29=contains&vl%28freeText2%29=&vl%28boolOperator2%29=AND&vl%28D13699709UI3%29=all_items&vl%28D13699708UI4%29=all_items&vl%28D13699707UI5%29=all_items&vl%2813699710UI6%29=00&vl%2813699711UI6%29=00&vl%2813699712UI6%29=Year&vl%2813699713UI6%29=00&vl%2813699714UI6%29=00&vl%2813699715UI6%29=Year&Submit=Search, accessed 18 August 2016)

___________"Ottawa to blame for state of military justice", Toronto Star, 29 May 1998;

Description: The recent damning report in Maclean's magazine about rape and the sexual molestation of women in the Canadian Armed Forces is further proof that the more things change at National Defence, the more they remain the same. To use the argument, as Defence Minister Art Eggleton and Gen. Maurice Baril have, that any organization with more than 60,000 people is bound to have some bad apples in it, is disingenuous in the extreme. Baril, the new Chief of the Defence Staff, gets high marks for his efforts to institute change. Unlike some of his predecessors, he leads by example. Trouble is, although he runs the system, he does not have the power to modify its structure. That is the responsibility of the government. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx=1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=%22military+justice+canada%22&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe, accessed 18 August 2016)

___________ "Ottawa's stance in indefensible We'll never know what government role in Somalia affair was: Final Edition", Toronto Star, 13 January 1997, p. A.13;

Description:   Canada's already battered military got a bad start on 1997. First, there was the firing a few days before the new year of Lt.-Gen. Armand Roy, deputy chief of defence staff, for allegedly fiddling the defence department out of $70,000 to $80,000 in improper accommodation and travel expenses. Then came the Sandra Perron incident and a whole new range of questions about the treatment of women in the military. Defence Minister Doug Young may bluster at the critics and promise a report to the Prime Minister by March 31 on the future of the military. Yet, given the events of the past year, few believe our military malaise will be solved so quickly and neatly. We would have seen more accusations of malfeasance and buck passing. Not just against military officers, but against senior civil servants and the Conservative politicians of the day as well. Whatever the outcome, it would have certainly given Canadians a less-than-flattering look at the inner workings of their political, military and civil service elites. (http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx=1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=Ottawa%27s+stance+in+indefensible+We%27ll+never+know+what+government+role+in+Somalia+affair+was%3A+Final+Edition&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe, accessed 18 August 2016)

GRANT, Isabel, 1957-,  Dorothy Chunn, 1943-, and Christine Boyle, 1949-, The Law of Homicide, Scarborough (Ontario): Carswell, 1994, see "Protection of Persons Acting under Authority -- (a) The Armed Forces" at pp. 6-77 to 6-80, ISBN: 0459552562 (pbk.); there is also a loose-leaf edition which is updated, ISBN: 045955244;

Photo: Sgt Roxanne Clowe , Canadian Forces Combat Camera
"Kandahar Air Field Brigadier-General T.J. Grant (left), Commander of Joint
Task Force Afghanistan, Dave (Tiger) Williams (centre in uniform), and then Chief of Defence Staff,
General Rick Hillier, along with members from Hockey Team Canada admire the Stanley Cup on May 2,
2007 after arriving at the Kandahar Airfield in Afghanistan. Team Canada returned to Kandahar this week
to show their support for the soldiers and to play a couple of games of hockey against the Canadian soldiers.
[image source: canada.com/sports/hockey+stars+visit+kandahar+likely+last+time/4401213/story.html, accessed 28 July 2017]

GRANT, Colonel T.J., "Training on Rules of Engagement in Domestic Operations", research essay, Advanced Military Studies Course 1, Canadian Forces College, 2 November 1998, 32 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/261/grant1.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2012);

GRAVEL, Amélie, Les victimes d’infractions d’ordre militaire : des victimes comme les autres, winner of the 2016 Sword and Scale essay competition;


En 2015 est entrée en vigueur la Charte canadienne des droits des victimes (Charte) qui donne une plus grande voix aux victimes de la criminalité
dans le système de justice pénale. Cette loi ne s’applique pas à l’égard des infractions militaires, qui requièrent un système de justice distinct.
Le projet de loi C-71, une adaptation de cette Charte aux particularités du système de justice militaire, semble être tombé dans l’oubli. Les victimes
d’infractions militaires se voient donc privées des droits reconnus à toute autre victime canadienne. D’importantes modifications législatives entrées
en vigueur au cours des 34 dernières années ont fait converger les rôles des principaux acteurs du système judiciaire militaire vers une uniformité
avec leurs homologues des tribunaux civils de justice pénale. La victime, quant à elle, demeure la seule à encore souffrir de la disparité entre le
système de justice pénale et le système de justice militaire. (source: http://www.cba.org/News-Media/News/2016/June/swordscale?lang=fr-CA,
accessed 21 August 2016)
[TRANSLATION] The Canadian Victims’ Bill of Rights, which gives greater voice to the rights of victims of crime throughout the criminal justice
system, came into effect in 2015. This law does not apply, however, to military infractions. Bill C-71, an adaptation of this Bill of Rights to the
particularities of the military justice system, seems to have fallen of the rails. Victims of military infractions are therefore deprived of the same
rights granted to all other Canadian victims of crime. Important legislative changes over the past 34 years have helped to align the roles of the
various actors in the military justice system with those of their counterparts in the criminal courts and eliminate some of the disparity between
the two systems. The victim, however, still suffers from the disparities that remain.
(source: http://www.cba.org/News-Media/News/2016/June/swordscale?lang=en-CA, accessed 21 August 2016)

GRAVEL, Jean-Yves, "L'aide militaire au pouvoir civil, 1867-1900" (décembre 1972) 2(2) Protée 39-49; titre noté dans mes recherches mais article non consulté (15 décembre 2011); Protée, il s'agit peut-être du prériodique publié par: [Chicoutimi, Quebec] Dép. des sciences humaines de l'Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. DESCRIPTION: v. 23 cm.  v. 1- déc. 1970-; copie à l'université Carleton, Ottawa;

GRAVEL, Paul, LCdr. , The Canadian Forces and Inter Departmental Cooperation Towards Domestic Security : Tear Down Those Walls!, Canadian Forces College, JCSP 35, 2009?, 26 p., available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc35/exnh/gravel.pdf (accessed on 28 November 2011); also available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/295/287/gravel.pdf (accessed 15 August 2016);

GRAY, Susan L., Just War Theory: An Analysis of its Relevance for Contemporary Warfare and States, Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MA in Public Ethics Department of Philosophy Saint Paul University Ottawa, Canada, 2009, iv, 127 p.; available at https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/28561/1/MR65979.PDF (accessed 20 September 2016);


Contemporary Just War Theory (JWT) is the philosophical theory used to determine
the moral and ethical issues surrounding warfare and it is currently at a crossroads. Most
applications of JWT (within the last century) presuppose at least the following: the conflict's
participants are traditionally defined and known states; the world structure is state-based; most
conflicts are divisible into stages (in simple terms: pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict);
and, finally, a clear outcome will mean victory for one side, be it one state or an allied group
of states. In light of Philip Bobbitt's non-traditional global market state model, is
conventional JWT still valid for determining the ethical scope of the types of conflicts
emerging in the 21st century? This study explores some of these recent calls for the adaptation
and revision of JWT and applies contemporary JWT to a phenomenon of the global market
state: the rise of the private military industry. Based on this application, I found that JWT
could not assess Private Military Contractor (PMC) activity on three counts. As PMCs
operation within the limits of privacy, JWT cannot assess their actions and the behaviour and
judgment of their members as JWT's ad bellum and in bello principles are designed to apply
to public actors: namely legitimate states, their political leaders and militaries. Secondly, due
to the private nature of PMC contracts and terms of service, the principle of proportionality
cannot be applied to their activity. Finally, PMCs obscure the principles of proper authority
and public declaration; a state that may not have the public support of its nation to actively
influence a war or engage in it altogether can seek to a void any open declaration of war and
employ a PMC instead of its own military. With regard to modern JWT itself, I concluded that
three areas need revision: the decreasing difference between pre-emptive war and preventive
strikes; the  jus in bello issue of discrimination between legitimate and non-legitimate targets;
and the responsibilities and principles that should govern the moral behaviour involved
in restoring the pre-conflict status quo deserve substantial study.

GREAT BRITAIN, War Office, The rights of a soldier when in arrest charged with an offence under the army act., 10 April 1940 edition,  [Ottawa : King's Printer, 1940], 6 p., ill.; 19 cm; Reprinted in Canada, June 1940, by permission of the Controller, His Majesty's Stationery Office; call  number CWM LIBRARY / BIBLIOTHÈQUE DU MCG : REF TECH UB 625 C2 R5 1940;  http://catalogue.warmuseum.ca/musvw/FullBB.csp?WebAction=ShowFullBB&EncodedRequest=*A3*FE*A1*19*D1Ka*84*89J*E7*A3*BC*D1*00*E5&Profile=Profile28&OpacLanguage=eng&NumberToRetrieve=50&StartValue=13&WebPageNr=1&SearchTerm1=MILITARY%20LAW%20CANADA%20HANDBOOKS,%20MANUALS,%20ETC%20%20A%20A%20%20%20%20.499.9264!GREAT%20BRITAINWAR%20OFFICE%20.1.88125&SearchT1=&Index1=1*Subjectbib$&SearchMethod=Find_1&ItemNr=13, accessed on 11 June 2014;


Leslie Green, photo source: http://www.ccil-ccdi.ca/ccil-veterans-scholarship/, accessed on 8 April 2014

GREEN, L.C. (Leslie Claude), 1920-2011, "Canada's  Role in the Development of the law of Armed Conflict", (1980) 17 Canadian Yearbook International Law;

__________"Canadian Law and the Punishment of war Crimes", (1980) 28 Chitty's Law Journal 249;

___________"Cicero and Clausewitz or Quincy Wright: The Interplay of Law and War", (1998/1999) 9 Journal of Legal Studies 59–98;

___________The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 3rd ed., Manchester: Juris Publishing / Manchester University Press, 2008; 2nd edition in 2000 available at http://www.corteidh.or.cr/tablas/r32529.pdf (accessed 30 September 2016);

___________"The Defence of Superior Orders in The Modern Law of Armed Conflict", (1993) 31 Alberta Law Review 320-333;

___________"Enforcement of the Law in Non-international Conflicts in V. Götz, ed.,  Liber amicorum Günther Jaenicke—zum 85. Geburtstag, Berlin: Springer,1998, at pp. 113–147;

___________"The Environment and the Law of Coventional Warfare", (1991) Canadian Yearbook of International Law 222-282;

___________"Humanitarian law and the man in the field", (1976) 14 Military Law and Law of War Review 96-115;

___________"The International Judicial Process and the Law of Armed Conflict", 1999) 38(1) Revue de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre 15–89;

___________"Is There a 'New' Law of Intervention and Occupation", in Thomas McK. Sparks and Glenn M. Sulmasy, eds., International law Challenges: Homeland Security and Combating Terrorism, Neport, Rhode Island: Naval War College, 2006,  at pp. 167-200 (series; International Law Studies; vol. 81); available at http://www.usnwc.edu/Research---Gaming/International-Law/Studies-Series/documents/Naval-War-College-vol-81.aspx (accessed on  4 March 2012);

Image source: (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 21
From the left: Bill Graham, Leslie Green and
Jerry Pitzul, 27 October 2005.

___________Orbituary, Leslie Green, Edmonton Journal, available at http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/edmontonjournal/obituary.aspx?n=leslie-green&pid=154860234 (accessed 28 August 2016);

___________"Peacekeeping and war crimes", (1995) 34 Military Law and Law of War Review 247-255;

__________"Principal Publications of Professor L.C. Green", International Law Studies, volume 75, available at http://stockton.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1451&context=ils (accessed 26 December 2016);

___________"The Relations between Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law: A Historical Overview", in Susan C. Breau and Agnieszka Jachec-Neale, eds., Testing the Bounderies of International Humanitarian Law, 2006 at p. 46;

___________"Le rôle du Canada dans le développement du droit en matière de conflit armé", (1980) 11(3)  Études internationales  489-508; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/revue/ei/1980/v11/n3/701076ar.pdf (vérifié le 5 janvier 2012);

___________"The Role of Discipline in the Military", (2004) 42 Canadian Year Book of International Law 385-421;

___________“The Role of Legal Advisors in the Armed Forces”,  (1978) 26 Chitty’s Law Journal 23; also in (1977) 7 Israel Yearbook on Human Rights;

___________"Superior Orders and Command Responsibility",  (1989) 27 The Canadian YearBook of International Law 167-202;

___________Superior orders in national and international law, Leyden : A. W. Sijthoff, 1976, xix, 374 p., ISBN: 9028604065; see preview at http://books.google.ca/books?id=QP-LAqs5iKMC&pg=PA54&dq=%22national+defence+act%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rBYHT-j6LqL00gGOiv2_Ag&ved=0CF4Q6AEwCTg8#v=onepage&q=%22national%20defence%20act%22&f=false (accessed on 6 January 2012);

___________"A Wartime Military Lawyer Reminisces" (1989) 3 Canadian Forces JAG  Journal 1 (title noted in my research but document not consulted yet, 5 January 2012);

___________"What is  -- Why is there -- the Law of War?, (1994) 5 Finnish YearBook of International Law 99-148;

Image source: , accessed 5 September 2016
Christopher Greenwood

GREENWOOD, Christopher, "International Law Framework for the Treatment of Persons Detained in Afghanistan by Canadian Forces: Report" (2007) <http://www.bccla.org/antiterrorissue/greenwoodreport.pdf>; "note: This report was among the affidavits for the respondents examined by the Federal Court of Canada in Amnesty International Canada v Canada (Minister of National Defence) [2007] FC 1147"; available at https://bccla.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Report-of-Prof.-Greenwood-London-School-of-Economics.pdf (accessed on 4 November 2014); research note: see also article by Cheadle, Bruce, "Academic hired to argue detainees' rights case", The Globe and Mail, 1 September 2007, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/academic-hired-to-argue-detainees-rights-case/article18144054/ (accessed on 5 September 2016);

GREENWOOD, F. M. (F. Murray), 1935-2000, "L'insurrection appréhendée et l'administration de la justice au Canada", (1980) 34 Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française 57-91; disponible à https://www.erudit.org/revue/haf/1980/v34/n1/303837ar.pdf (vérifié le 24 janvier 2017); note: Traduction: André Vachon, s.r.c.;

GREENWOOD, F. Murray (Frank Murray), 1935-2000, and Bary Wright, 1957-, eds., Rebellion and invasion in the Canadas, 1837-1839, Toronto ; London : for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press, c2002, xvi, 499 p. : maps ; 23 cm.(series; Canadian state trials; volume 2), ISBN: 0802037488;

  • Introduction Rebellion, invasion, and the crisis of the colonial state in the Canadas, 1837-39 /​ F Murray Greenwood and Barry Wright
  • Part I. Upper Canada 1. Trying the rebels : emergency legislation and the colonial executive's overall legal strategy in the Upper Canadian rebellion /​ Rainer Baehre
  • 2. The Toronto treason trials, March-May 1838 /​ Paul Romney and Barry Wright
  • 3. The treason trials of 1838 in Western Upper Canada /​ Colin Read
  • 4. The Kingston and London courts martial /​ Barry Wright
  • 5. The Prince affair : gallant colonel or the Windsor butcher? /​ F Murray Greenwood
  • 6. Patriot exiles in Van Diemen's Land /​ Cassandra Pybus
  • Part II. Lower Canada 7. This ultimate resource: martial law and state repression in Lower Canada, 1937-38 /​ Jean-Marie Fecteau
  • 8. State trial by legislature : the Special Council of Lower Canada, 1838-41 /​ Steven Watt
  • 9. The General Court Martial at Montreal, 1838-39 : operation and the Irish comparison /​ F Murray Greenwood
  • 10. The Montreal Court Martial, 1838-39 : legal and constitutional reflections /​ F Murray Greenwood
  • 11. Women's work : women and re bellion in Lower Canada, 1837-39 /​ Beverley Boissery and Carla Paterson
  • 12. The punishment of transportation as suffered by the Patriotes sent to New South Wales /​ Beverley Boissery
  • Appendices : archival research and supporting documents: A. In pursuit of rebels at the National Archives of Canada : beyond the usualr round-up of suspect sources /​ Patricia Kennedy
  • Tables of National Archives sources with commentary (P Kennedy)
  • B. Archival sources in Quebec relating to the legal suppression of the rebellions of 1837 and 1838 in Lower Canada /​ James Lambert
  • C. Rebellion trials sources in Ontario Archives /​ Susan Lewthwaite
  • D. Supporting documents.  (Source: http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/10633244?selectedversion=NBD25356642, accessed 14 January 2017)

Cover page of that National issue, http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-addendum/2009/07-09_solo.aspx, accessed 30 November 2014
GREENWOOD DAVIS, Heather, "No Life Like It", (June 2009) National 14-19; available at http://cbanational.rogers.dgtlpub.com/2009/2009-06-30/pdf/no_life_like_it.pdf (accessed on 16 January 2012); National is a journal of the Canadian Bar Association;

"Today, the Canadian Forces wouldn't deploy on a major peacekeeping operation or [United Nations] Chapter 7 mission without a legal officer
as part of the establishment in terms of deploying," says Lesperance.  "The JAG Branch is much more involved in the military justice system as
a result of the changes that came down after the whole Somalia thing.  I think that the legal officer is much more integrated into the thinking of
the leadership now." (p. 18) 

GRIFFITHS, Ann, "Editorial: Navies, Oceans and Legal Entanglements", (Summer 2010) 6(2) Canadian Naval Review 2-3; available at http://www.navalreview.ca/wp-content/uploads/public/vol6num2/vol6num2art1.pdf (accessed 7 June 2017);

Second, military forces are increasingly being drawn into standards of civilian law – the ‘civilianization’ of law.
We can see this in the discussions about Afghanistan and the treatment of people taken prisoner there. We can
see this in rules of engagement and scrutiny of the behaviour of military forces in all situations. This, I think, is
a good thing, military forces should not exist outside the law. But it means that the most important person in any
military operation may be the lawyer who must be consulted at every stage an figure out the increasingly tangled web
of laws.

Source de l'image: lgdj.fr/l-applicabilite-temporelle-du-droit-international-humanitaire-9783725585076.html, vérifié le 10 mai 2017

GRIGNON, Julia, L’applicabilité temporelle du droit international humanitaire, Genève: Schulthess, 2014, 500 p., (Collection; Collection Genevoise), ISBN : 978-3-7255-8507-6; thèse de doctorat;

 Source de l'image: https://www.fd.ulaval.ca/faculte/professeurs/julia-grignon, vérifié le 10 mai 2017
Professeure Julia Grignon
___________"The end of international armed conflict and non-international armed conflict for the purpose of the applicability of International Humanitarian Law", XXXVIII ROUND TABLE ON CURRENT ISSUES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW,  THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL AND NON-INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTS: CHALLENGES FOR IHL? SANREMO, 3rd–5th SEPTEMBER, 2015; professor Grignon is Co-Director of the International Criminal and Humanitarian Law Clinic, Faculty of Law, Laval University, Quebec; available at http://www.iihl.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Grignon-2.pdf (accessed 10 May 2017);

Emmanuelle Gril, image source:               Simon Hébert, juge à la
ca.linkedin.com/in/emmanuellegril,          Cour supérieure, P.Q. depuis 2015
accessed on 12 January 2015                     source image: droit-inc.com/article15579-Quatre-nouveaux-juges-a-la-Cour-superieure
GRIL, Emmanuelle, "Avocat et colonel dans les Forces canadiennes: un parcours peu banal", (mars 2007) 39(3) Le Journal -- Barreau du Québec 9; article sur le Colonel Simon Hébert, avocat militaire dans la réserve; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol39/200703.pdf (vérifié le 5 mars 2012);

Image source: http://web.archive.org/web/20030516133304/http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/Feature_Story/2003/may03/05/Untitled-1.jpg, accessed 22 November 2015
"One of Maj Warren Fensom’s secondary roles during
Op APOLLO was assisting the civil military affairs
officer in villages surrounding the Kandahar airport.GRIMARD"

GRIMARD, Christine, "Military lawyer won ‘hearts and minds’ in combat zone", 2003-06-24, Department of National Defence, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030729145402/http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/feature_story/2003/may03/05_f_e.asp (accessed 22 November 2015);

GRIMSHAW, Paul, "Conduct after Capture and Terrorist Hostage-Taking: A Case fo a New Doctrine", Canadian Forces College, JCSP 33, Exercise New Horizons, 16 April 2007, 15 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/293/287/grimshaw.pdf (accessed on 15 June 2014);

John R. Grodzinski, image source: http://www.rmc.ca/aca/his/per/grodzinski-jr-eng.php, accessed 8 May 2014

GRODZINSKI, John R., " 'Bloody Provost' Discipline during the War of 1812", (Autumn 2007) 16(4) Canadian Military History 25-32; available at http://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1467&context=cmh (accessed 7 January 2015);

Image source for book cover: https://www.                   Sir George Presost, 1767-1816
google.com;Google image source; accessed                 image source for Prevost: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Pr%C3%A9vost
28 July 2017
____________Defender of Canada: Sir George Prevost and the War of 1812 / by John R. Grodzinski ; foreword by Donald E. Graves, Sir George Prevost and the War of 1812, Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, [2013], c2013,: xxi, 375 p.  SERIES: Campaigns and commanders; NOTES: Includes bibliographical references (p. 351-362) and index.  Introduction: The untold story of Sir George Prevost's leadership in the War of 1812 -- The making of a general, 1767-1808 -- Nova Scotia, Martinique, and Quebec, 1808-1811 -- Planning the defense of British North America, September 1811-June 1812 -- Declaration of war and military operations in 1812 -- Operations around Lake Ontario intensify: January to May 1813 -- The Canadas survive repeated invasion: June to December 1813 -- "Give Jonathan a good drubbing": January to August 1814 -- Preparing for the Plattsburgh Campaign -- A single stain: the Plattsburgh Campaign -- "Respecting my conduct at Platsburgh": the fate of Sir George Prevost. ISBN: 0806143878 (hardcover : alk. paper);  ISBN: 9780806143873 (hardcover : alk. paper);   ISBN: 9780806143873(AMICUS catalogue); Sir George Prevost died shorthly before his scheduled court martial in London, England; available in part in https://books.google.ca/books?id=JfQNAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA232&lpg=PA232&dq=Canada+%22Judge+Advocate+General%22&source=bl&ots=mt8AGh22D9&sig=OOsYGhqKZm2-HdvWCMtb-4g2gDE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjAyavwsavVAhWC2YMKHW0TC_04RhDoAQhBMAY#v=onepage&q=Papineau&f=false (accessed 28 July 2017);

GROOME, Garner, legal officer with the OJAG; probably reserve force; biographical note:

Garner Groome is Counsel at the Law Society of Alberta. He was admitted to the Alberta bar in 1992 after articling in the Court
of Appeal of Alberta. He practiced primarily in appellate advocacy before entering public service with the Canadian Forces' Office
of the Judge Advocate General. Garner joined the Law Society of Alberta in 2005 as one its counsel responsible for, among other
things, the prosecution of ethical misconduct complaints and other professional regulatory matters.
CONFERENCE PRESENTERS and PANEL CHAIRS, at: https://www.ucalgary.ca/ilec5/files/ilec5/Bios_FINAL.pdf, accessed 21 July 2017]

GROUX, George, "Judge advocate general backs ombudsman", The Ottawa Citizen, 16 September 1999; reply to Blanchield, Mike, supra;

Sonja Grover, image source: https://www.lakeheadu.ca/users/G/sgrover/node/17363 , accessed 10 February 2015

GROVER, Sonja, "The Extraterritorial Application of the Canadian Charter to Detainees in Canadian Military Custody : A Re-Examination of Amnesty International Canada v. Canada (Canadian Forces)", (2008) 4(3) High Court Quarterly Review 40-53;

Abstract: In Amnesty International Canada v. Canada (Canadian Forces), the Federal Court of Canada held that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms does not protect against the transfer of detainees held by Canadian Forces to Afghan authorities even if the transfer exposes detainees to a substantial risk of torture. This paper sets out the legal basis for extension of the Canadian Charter to the detainees. The argument is made that international law principles themselves prohibit the abrogation or derogation from a higher standard of human rights protection potentially available to a vulnerable group. It is explained how that principle applies in this case. The paper thus examines the question of extraterritorial jurisdiction in the application of human rights protections. The interplay between international law and the domestic human rights law of the State when on foreign soil with effective military custody and control over foreign detainees is explored.  (source: , accessed on 10 February 2015)

___________"The Supreme court of Canada's declining of its jurisdiction in not ordering the repatriation of a Canadian Guantanamo detainee : implications of the case for our understanding of international humanitarian law", (March 2011) 15(3) The International Journal of Human Rights 481-508;

The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) declined its jurisdiction in its 2010 ruling in Canada (Prime Minister) v. Khadr by not ordering the repatriation of Canadian Guantanamo detainee Omar Ahmed Khadr. Despite finding that Khadr's deprivation of liberty at Guantanamo was not in accord with the principles of fundamental justice, and that Canada was complicit in his ongoing detention, the Court left the remedy to the Canadian federal government's discretion. This based on a theory of 'royal prerogative' inapplicable on the facts of the case, and an erroneous claim of an inconclusive record relating to alleged relevant foreign relations matters.(source: http://web.archive.org/web/20120119140132/http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/2011/ihl-bibliography-2nd-trimester-2011.pdf, at pp. 16 and 19; accessed 15 March 2015)

GROVES, Matthew, "The Civilianisation of Australian Military Law", (2005) 28(2) University of New South Wales Law Journal 364-395; discusses Canadian military law; available at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/UNSWLJ/2005/28.html#Footnote146  (accessed on 30 July 2012);

Image source: http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/about/corporate_overview/biographies/grubb.html, accessed 25 January 2016
Tim Grubb

GRUBB, Tim, Colonel, Canadian Forces Provost Marshall, on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act: before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, issue 37, 23 May 2013,  minutes and evidence;

Image source: www.akirapress.co.uk/the-implementation-of-international-humanitarian-law-edited-by-frits-kalshoven-and-yves-sandoz.html, accessed 2 October 2016
GUILLEMETTE, Diane, "Legal advisors in armed forces" in Frits Kalshoven and Yves Sandoz, eds., et al. (co-editors), Implementation of International Humanitarian law / Mise en oeuvre du droit international humanitaire, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989, at pp. 133-151, ISBN: 90-247-3784-2; available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=dM07Glkc7_IC&pg=PA150&dq=judge+advocate+general+canada+%22law+of+armed+conflict%22&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=judge%20advocate%20general%20canada%20%22law%20of%20armed%20conflict%22&f=false (accessed 24 July 2015);

GUINDON, P., "Research Essay -- Rules of Engagement", Advanced Military Studies Course 1, Canadian Forces College, 27 October 1998; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/261/guindon1.pdf (accessed on 16 November 2014);

Image source: , accessed 8 July 2017
Adel Guitouni

GUITOUNI, Adel, Donna Wood, and Defence Research and Development Canada Valcartier (Quebec), "Command and Control Concepts and Solutions for Major Events Safety and Security: Lessons Learned from the Canadian Experience with Vancouver 2010 and G8/G20 Events",  June 2011, 36 p.; Notes: Accession number: ADA546792;  see http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA546792 (accessed on 14 December 2013);

Image source: www.duncker-humblot.de/index.php/national-prosecution-of-international-crimes-nationale-strafverfolgung-volkerrechtlicher-verbrechen.html?q=Canada, accessed 25 January 2016

GUT, Till, and Max Wolpert, "Prosecution of International Crimes in Canada" in Albin Eser, Ulrich Sieber, Helmut Kreicker, eds., Nationale Strafverfolgung völkerrechtlicher Verbrechen / National Prosecution of International Crimes, volume 5, Freiburg im Breisgau : Ed. iuscrim, 2005,  at pp. 19-87, ISBN: 3861138824 (v. 5 : Max-Planck-Institut) ISBN: 342811776X (v. 5 : Dunker & Humblot);  title noted but article not consulted yet (30 March 2015);

GUTIERREZ, Isaza Sofia, La criminologie et l'affaire somalienne, thèse (M.A.), Université d'Ottawa, 2008, v, 107 p.; disponible à http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/002/MR48460.PDF (vérifié le 16 avril 2012);

"La guerre et son étude ont pendant longtemps été un domaine appartenant au champ des sciences politiques, car elle relevait de la sphère inter étatique. Suite aux deux grandes guerres du 20 siècle, le droit et la sociologie s'y sont intéressés et ont d'ailleurs développé des concepts ainsi que des théories afin d'aborder la guerre: que ce soit le droit international et la pénalisation de certains comportements à travers un système de justice international ou que ce soit par l'étude des acteurs et des mouvements de la guerre. Or, la criminologie en tant que discipline des sciences sociales spécialisée dans l'étude du crime, la pénologie du crime et les politiques de contrôle de la criminalité ne s'est pas ou très peu aventurée dans l'étude des guerres et plus précisément dans l'étude des crimes de guerre. Cette recherche se veut un exercice pratique de l'application de théories criminologiques à un cas présentant une situation de crime de guerre. Le choix s'est arrêté sur l'affaire somalienne de 1993, une situation délicate bien connue par le public canadien de par sa vaste médiatisation. Pour cette étude, nous cherchions à évaluer et à sonder l'utilité d'une application de théories criminologiques en choisissant comme objet d'étude l'interprétation des membres des propres Forces canadiennes des évènements de l'affaire somalienne. Compte tenu l'univers technique des militaires, ainsi que la complexité de l'affaire somalienne, cette étude ne cherchera pas à contribuer à l'étude des interprétations sociales des crimes de guerre, mais elle évaluera le processus d'application de deux théories criminologiques à cet objet d'étude. Nos choix méthodologiques ont dans leur ensemble constitué une partie de notre objet de recherche. À travers une méthode qualitative, nous avons recueilli et choisi deux témoignages de militaires de la Commission d'enquête royale et d'un des procès à la cour martiale à travers desquels s'insérait un récit des évènements. L'analyse narrative a été appliquée permettant de déceler des caractéristiques narratives quant au contenu, mais également quant à la fonction du narrateur de ces récits. Bien que l'échantillon choisi est très limité l'analyse du matériel a permit de tirer certaines tendances. L'analyse de la mobilisation des cadres normatifs pour définir le caractère déviant ainsi que celle de la gestion des problèmes sous la perspective de la profession a dans les deux cas permis d'identifier qu'il existe plusieurs interprétations des évènements et ce, malgré la culture sociale militaire et la même formation académique à caractère militaire. D'autre part, ces deux analyses indiquent que la position hiérarchique du militaire devient un facteur important non seulement lorsque vient le moment de définir le crime de guerre, mais également quant à la gestion du problème suite à ces évènements. Ainsi, bien que les militaires partagent des caract?ristiques sociales, professionnelles et culturelles communes, ce sera plut ôt l'appartenance au groupe militaire et plus encore la position hiérarchique occupée au sein de l'institution qui influencent l'interprétation des militaires par rapport à des situations telles que les crimes de guerre. Au delà? de ces résultats, cette étude vise plutôt à contribuer au débat quant à l'absence des études sur les crimes de guerre en criminologie." (source: http://gradworks.umi.com/MR/48/MR48460.html, visité le 21 janvier 2012);

Photo source: http://www.rmcclub.ca/eVeritas/2006/Issue20/200620.htm, accessed 20 September 2016
The Gynn family with Randy Gynn (2nd from right) and Judge
Walter Goodfellow (center),  a former JAG officer (reserve force).

GYNN, Randy (Randolph), former Cdr (retd) and JAG officer; a 1966 RMC Graduate;

___________anonymous, "Retirement"(May/Jun 1998), 3 JAG Newsletter --Bulletin d'actualités 2;

Cdr Randy Gynn, AJAG Pacific Region, retired from the Canadian Forces on 1
Jun 98 after 36 years of dedicated service.  After spending 12 years as a MARS
officer, he reclassified to legal officer, holding many varied positions, including that
of Military Trial Judge from 1991 to 1995.