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Ah ! Les crocrocro, les crocrocro, les crocodiles
Sur les bords du Nil, ils sont partis n'en parlons plus

updated and corrections / mises à jour et corrections: 8 May 2023

Canadian Military Law -- Part II
Bibliography E to G /

Droit militaire canadien -- Partie II
Bibliographie E à G



Other sites on military law

Part II -- Bibliography: A-B--C-D--E-G--H-L--M-R--S-Z

Part I  --  Canadian Military Law -- Miscellaneous

- Blog

- Somalia Inquiry & Government Reaction
      -  1995-1997: Somalia Inquiry
Departmental Reaction to Somalia Inquiry
      -  Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services
          January 1997 to July 1997
-  The Special Senate Committee on the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia (April 1997)
Report to the Prime Minister on the Leadership and Management of the Canadian Forces (March 1997)
Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change in the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces (October 1997 to 1999)
Bill C-25--An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
(Royal Assent, 10 December 1998)
2003 -- Five Year Review of Bill C-25
      - 2011 -- Second Five Year Review of Bill C-25

Governments Bills 1999-2012 on National Defence Act

- Current Affairs -- Sexual Misconduct

- Court Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-2017

- JAG & DND Web Sites

- Laws, Regulations and Orders

Superseded Legislation

- Web Sites of Interest


Starting here:

Bibliography E to G  /
Bibliographie E à G

Image source: http://www.orielchambers.co.uk/barrister/harry-east, accessed 6 March 2016
Harry East
EAST, Harry, Permission to Die: An Examination of the Law and Morality of Batllefield Mercy Killing, Ph.D. thesis, Southampton University, c. 2013, [xii], 312 p. (thesis supervisor: Hazel Biggs); deals with Canadian law and Semrau; available at  http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/354406/3.hasCoversheetVersion/Final%20PhD%20thesis%20-%20Harry%20East%20%281%29.pdf (accessed on 10 August 2014);

Image source: http://www.thetelegram.com/?controllerName=photo&page=1&contextId=1207030
, accessed 16 April 2015
EASTLAKE, Darja, notes on;

Major Darja Eastlake is the Deputy Judge Advocate of CFB Gagetown. Her career in the Canadian Forces began in 1988
when she joined the Reserves. Much of her career in the Reserves focused on human intelligence and she was deployed
twice to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In 1993, Major Eastlake began her undergraduate studies in languages at the University of Toronto. Upon finishing her
degree, she became a Police Officer with the Halton Regional Police Service and later with the Toronto Police Service.

Major Eastlake began her studies in law at the University of Windsor in 2001. She articled with the Federal Department
of Justice, completing rotations in Civil Litigation, Tax, Aboriginal Law, and Prosecutions. She was called t o the Alberta
Bar in 2006. Upon moving to New Brunswick in 2007, she joined our provincial bar.

That same year, Major Eastlake became a member of the Regular Forces as a Legal Officer. In 2008, she was posted as
the Deputy Judge Advocate for the Combat Training Centre and later as the Deputy Judge Advocate for 3 ASG/CFB Gagetown
in July 2011. She returned to this position after deployment onboard the HMCS Vancouver for operations off the coast of Libya.
(source:  2012 Annual International Humanitarian Law Conference, www.unb.ca/fredericton/law/_resources/pdfs/news/2011/ilsconf.pdf; accessed 16 April 2015)

____________photo of Darja Eastlake in 2015-2016 Annual Report of the Judge Advocate General, at p. 33, available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2016/mdn-dnd/D1-16-2016-eng.pdf (accessed 3 January 2018);

EBERLE,  Donald C., Conscription Policy, Citizenship and Religious Conscientious Objectors in the United States and Canada during World War One, A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate College of Bowling Green State University in partial fulfillment of The requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, August 2013, viii, 499 p.; available at https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=bgsu1371657052&disposition=inline  (accessed 4 July 2016); note: He is Adjunct Instructor at Northwest State Community College

In democratic societies, governments often assume extraordinary powers during wartime, thus redefining, at least temporarily, the
relationship between citizens and the State. During the First World War, the democratic governments of the United States and
Canada conscripted their citizens to fight on the distant battlefields of Western Europe. Conscription created unique challenges for
both governments as a number of eligible men, in both Canada and the United States, refused to recognize their government's
authority to compel them to take up arms. Though the number of conscientious objectors was rather small, they were a remarkably
diverse group that was highly visible. This created challenges for policy makers. The war would not wait and these almost
unprecedented conscription policies was being made and revised even as they were being implemented.

The war years were a difficult time to oppose government policy as both Canada and the United States employed impassioned
rhetoric and expanded coercive powers to encourage all citizens, and resident aliens, to give the government their full cooperation.
The young men who would later become religious conscientious objectors were peaceful, industrious and law abiding. They were
generally considered to be highly valued members of society. The war, and specifically conscription, changed this positive perception.
Complicating matter even further was the fact that many conscientious objectors were German immigrants, or the descendents of
German immigrants. They frequently read and spoke German, often more fluently than they read or spoke English. These men, and
their co-religionists, were now viewed as unpatriotic, untrustworthy, ignorant and dangerous.

This dissertation examines the manner in which conscientious objectors challenged, either directly or indirectly, the basic authority
of the state. It explores how conscientious objectors were identified as a threat, and how the governments of Canada and the United
States tried to contain that threat. It also examines the ways in which citizenship was a contested and evolving concept in both Canada
and the United States during the war, and particularly during the period of conscription, especially for recent immigrants and their
descendants whose ethnic background and religious beliefs made them a highly visible minority and set them apart from the dominant culture.

Examining conscription policy, and how it applied to conscientious objectors, during this particular moment in history not only
sheds greater light upon the creation and implementation of conscription policies, but is crucial to answering larger questions about
cultural attitudes in the United States and Canada toward vulnerable and marginalized populations. These issues remain highly relevant
as both the United States and Canada become more diverse and continue to attract large numbers of immigrants.
(source: https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_10?0::NO:10:P10_ACCESSION_NUM:bgsu1371657052, accessed 3 October 2016)

Image source: http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/253551.Crime_And_Punishment_In_The_Royal_Navy_Of_The_Seven_Years_War_1755_1763, accessed 3 January 2016
EDER, Markus, 1967-,  Crime and punishment in the Royal Navy of the Seven Years' War, 1755-1763, Aldershot, Hampshire, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, c2004, vi, 200 p. ; 24 cm. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references (p. 187-194) and index. ISBN: 0754635074 (alk. paper); copy at the University of Ottawa, Brian Dickson Law Library FTX General  KD 6320 .E33 2004; noted but not consulted yet (3 January 2016);

Arthur Eggleton: image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

EGGLETON, Arthur, "In defence of change", The Ottawa Citizen, Wednesday, 3 November, 1999, p. A19; the Hon. Eggleton is Minister of National Defence;

___________Testimony of the Minister of National Defence, Arthur Eggleton, on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs on 6 October 1998, Issue 34, see  minutes and  evidence;    

EDMISON, J. Alexander, Major, 1903-1980, lawyer, member of the OJAG during WW II, see the article "Officier chargé des sans-foyer", La Presse, 23 novembre 1944 à la p.21; disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2962828 (consulté le 6 août 2018);

___________Biographical notes on Alexander Edmison, at https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/67631938/john-alexander-edmison (accessed 6 August 2018);

J. Alex Edmison was born in Cheltenham, Ontario and lived mostly in Toronto as a young boy. He was
Boy Mayor of Toronto. He studied at Queen's University, Kingston, and did law at McGill University,
Montreal. He was a skilled debater, historian, prison reformer and book collector. During WWII,
he served in the Black Watch and was cited by General Eisenhower in dispatches. He was in one of
the first party of liberators to visit Dachau. He worked tirelessly to help displaced persons. He served
on the board of the Queen's University Theological College for forty years. Alex served on Canada's
first National Parole Board 1959-1969. Queen's awarded him an honorary doctor of laws degree in 1974.
One of Alex's passions was working on Edmison family history.

___________on Alexander Edmison, see "Montreal Major Made Director", Hamilton Spectator, 1944/11/22, available at https://collections.museedelhistoire.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5107316 (accessed 8 June 2019);

____________on Edmison, Major A.J., see "French Canadians in Forces for G.S.  Maj. A.J. Edmison Tells Kiwanians Troops All Out for Active Service", The Gazette, Montreal, 8 December 1944, at p. 13, available at , accessed 20 June 2020;

[Long title of article omitted from image]

___________photo of Major J. Alex Edmison, in "Promoted Overseas: Maj. Alex Edmison", The Gazette, Montreal, Monday, 27 March 1944 at p. 13, available at https://www.newspapers.com/image/...., accessed 27 June 2020;

Image source: google.com/imgres (accessed 31 August 2018)
John de Chastelain, former CDS
EDMONTON JOURNAL, "Former generals want own lawyers at inquiry", Edmonton Journal, Feb 20, 1997, p.A. 3, available at http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=7&frbg=&indx=61&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Gilles%20Letourneau%20military&dstmp=1475776201511, accessed 6 October 2016;
The generals who were at the top of the military pyramid in 1992 now claim that the government cannot represent them at the Somalia
inquiry because of conflict of interest. The officers, including John de Chastelain, retired general and former chief of the defence staff,
have all been formally warned by the inquiry that its final report may find fault with them. But their requests to switch to civilian lawyers
angered Gilles Letourneau, chair of the Somalia inquiry, who suggested Wednesday it's all a ploy to trip up the inquiry as the days tick
down to a March 31 cut-off date.[
Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved]

EDWARDS, C.A., Flight Lieutenant, part of the JAG branch, see "R.C.A.F. Law Officers Arrive in Britain", The Lethbridhe Herald, 14 January 1944 at p. 3; available at https://www.newspapers.com/...., accessed 19 May 2020;

__________on EDWARDS, C.A. preliminary research indicates that he may have been a City councillor Prince George BC, see  The Vancouver Sun, 10 June 1964 at p. 11;

__________on EDWARDS, C.A. preliminary research indicates that he may have resigned from Crown Trust as solicitor to continue in private practice, National Post, 7 June 1958 at p. 4

___________on EDWARDS, C.A., Flight Lieutenant, see "Flt. Lt. Edwards Arrives Overseas", The Vancouver Sun, Friday, 14 January 1944 at p. 5, available at https://www.newspapers.com/image/...., accessed 17 June 2020;

___________on EDWARDS, C.A., Squadron leader, see "Farewell to Arms: A Column Dedicated to the Peacetime Activities of Former Fighting Men",  Edmonton Journal, Tuesday, 19 February 1946, at p. 10, available at https://www.newspapers.com/image/...., accessed 17 June 2020;

Image source: thestar.com/authors.edwards_peter.html, accessed 11 March 2018
Peter Edwards
EDWARDS, Peter, "Members of Canadian military banned from associating with outlaw bikers. Move comes four years after report that found some active and retired troops have an uncomfortably close alliance with outlaw motorcycle clubs", thestar.com, 9 March 2018; available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2018/03/09/members-of-canadian-military-banned-from-associating-with-outlaw-bikers.html (accessed 11 March 2018);

Source of image: http://www.lybrary.com/the-military-leadership-handbook-p-194730.html, accessed 3 October 2016

EDWARDS, Robert, "Discipline" in Colonel Bernd Horn and Dr. Robert W. Walker, The Military Leadership Handbook, Kingston, Ont.: Canadian Defence Academy Press, c2008. DESCRIPTION: 560 p. , at  pp. 228-243; available at http://books.google.ca/books?id=ImvM9L2pTrEC&pg=PA233&lpg=PA233&dq=%22Canadian+forces%22+%22law+of+armed+conflict%22&source=bl&ots=C5dbvrQyoq&sig=nR3k6PISyXUlItIbwAExEIKHOig&hl=en&sa=X&ei=B0VZVNWeL4a2yATKoYKgCw&ved=0CE4Q6AEwCDge#v=onepage&q=%22Canadian%20forces%22%20%22law%20of%20armed%20conflict%22&f=false (accessed on 4 November 2014); also available in French / aussi publié en français à https://books.google.ca/books?id=WDjd5abwNPMC&pg=PA258&lpg=PA258&dq=%22discipline+militaire%22+Canada&source=bl&ots=Ril8sXGSaY&sig=o-8jTOwEFS-bmnCgzzGaM8hLzBU&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=fV0YVaSuFIyUyASE4YH4BA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%22discipline%20militaire%22%20Canada&f=false (site visité le 29 mars 2015);

EDWARDS, Victoria, "13789 Commander Darren Rich, RRMC Grad, Royal Military College of Canada COS", e veritas posted by rmcclub on 22 October 2008 2012, available  at  http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=2329 (accessed on 21 June 2015);

E-Veritas: Have you found yourself concerned with any facets of cadet discipline since coming to RMC?

darrenrichduo.jpgCdr Rich: As the Special Assistant to the Commandant for S133 Brigadier General (Ret’d) Jean Leclerc and E1607 Brigadier-General Jocelyn Lacroix (RMC 1999),
 I conducted summary trials over cadets. Generally, a Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel would conduct the summary trial as the Presiding Officer. Until recently, a cadet who
 was found guilty could only be fined up to a couple hundred dollars. Now, however we have more options, for example fines, extra work and drill and stoppage of leave to
 better suit the punishment to crime. With a view to maintain discipline, the goals are to encourage the cadet to think about and change his or her behaviour; deter others from
 repeating the same behaviour and rehabilitate the offending cadet. We encourage cadets who are struggling to seek support from their Squadron Commanders, peers, the Peer
Assistance Group, the Padres, staff, and medical personnel (such as the mental health experts on base, etc.). In the rare case where the police are involved, the issues are dealt
with either in civil court downtown or via the Court Martial system. The more serious cases stem almost invariably from the consequences of the misuse of alcohol.
When I was a cadet at RRMC, senior cadets conducted summary trials on junior cadets. The senior cadets were learning how to lead and mete out discipline and didn’t always
 get it right. The senior cadets had a few options, for example extra work and drill, inspections or denial of leave. I was once assigned extra duties for not showing up to referee
 a ball hockey game that I didn’t even know I’d been assigned to do. The punishments were designed to take away the cadets` free time. Cadets could be sentenced to run up to
 6 circles a day at Royal Roads (2 miles). Alternatively, they may be assigned inspections in the morning, lunch, evening, and before lights out. They could lose their [scant]
 leave privileges. They may have to wear white belt and white gaitors all day.

ELDER, W.G. (William G.), was police magistrate in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, city police court and left position to serve with the JAG "department" of the Canadian army overseas, see Eric O. Burt, "Prairie Justice book recalls familiar names from court beat", The Star Phoenix, Saskatoon, Saturday, 7 March 1992 at p. B4 Prism, available at https://www.newspapers.com/...., accessed 18 May 2020;

___________on ELDER. W.G., see "Magistrate W.G. Elder Succumbs", Star-Phoenix, Monday, 10 February 1958, at p. 3, available at https://www.newspapers.com/...., accessed 13 June 2020;


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___________on ELDER. W.G., see "Magistrate rites held", The Leader-Post, Regina, 20 February 1958, at p. 14, available at https://www.newspapers.com/image/....,  accessed 13 June 2020;

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___________on ELDER. William Gardener, Lieutenant, 1893-1958, available at http://ssns.frontiersd.mb.ca/SeniorYrs/Curricula9-12/Grade11/CanadianHistory/RemembranceDay/Soldiers/UnivCo/Elder.html, accessed 20 July 2020;

Lt. William Gardiner Elder 

Elder, William Gardiner, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, formerly of Athelstane, Quebec.
Occupation: law student. Medals/Honours: Military Medal (MM). Military Service:
Private [later Lieutenant in the Canadian Expeditionary Force], M.M., Reg. No. 475453,
4th University Co., PPCLI, Attestation Papers. Diary Reference: “[W.G.] Elder, [A.R.]
Oldford, [W.] Lovegrove and myself detailed on one stretcher … Poor Elder had worked
like a Trojan the day before digging out men buried by shells,”2:3 Jun ’16; “Elder, who
was with me at the head of the stretcher said, ‘I guess this is the end. We can never get
out of here. Let’s shake hands’,” 2:4 Jun ’16; “Elder and I managed to stagger down to
the dugouts under the ramparts,” 3:4 Jun ’16.

Additional Biographical Information

Pte. William Gardiner Elder, a 22-year-old law student, enlisted with the 3rd University
Company at Saskatoon on 12 October 1915. According to Hodder-Williams, he was
wounded on 10 April 1917 and was struck off strength on 15 April 1917. He received
the Military Medal shortly after the Battle of Vimy Ridge. After he recovered from
his wounds, he served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force and rose to the rank of

ELECTIONS CANADA, "Canadian Forces Electors Homepage", available at http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=vot&document=index&dir=reg/cfe&lang=e (accessed 5 May 2015);

Image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca, accessed on 15 November 2014

ELECTIONS CANADA AND OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, "Canadian Forces -- Deputy Returning Officers Briefing -- 2011 Federal General Election (Military Vote: 18 Apr 2011 to 23 Apr 2011), 72 p., available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/cf-deputy-returning-officer-briefing.pdf (accessed on 15 November 2014); also available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law/cf-deputy-returning-officer-briefing.page (accessed on 15 November 2014);

ELECTIONS NOVA SCOTIA, "Voting in Nova Scotia for Canadian Armed Forces Personnel", viewed on 28 July 2017, at http://electionsnovascotia.ca/content/canadian-armed-forces

During a provincial general election, Elections Nova Scotia will contact the Judge Advocate General’s office which
will send a message to all units of the Canadian Forces to inform them of the election, the eligibility requirements
for voting, and the process for applying to vote by write-in ballot.

ELEMENT, Sandy, Executive Assistant to the Judge Advocate General, see https://ca.linkedin.com/in/sandy-element-b4713817 (accessed 29 December 2018);

ELIEF, Ivan, Notes on Ivan Elieff, lawyer, member of the OJAG, reserve, see Pacific Business & Law Institute, "Essential Tools for Disability Planning and Practice", 12 April 2016, available at http://www.pbli.com/catalogues/255/essential_tools_for_disability_planning_and_practice.pdf (accessed 22 August 2018);

Ivan Elieff, Counsel, Ministry of Social Development and Social Innovation, Victoria,
BC. Ivan Elieff has over 15 years experience as a lawyer. He has provided senior policy
advice and gained a detailed understanding of government processes and operations in
a number of capacities. Ivan joined the Legal Services Branch in 2007, after serving for
a year and a half as a policy analyst with another department. He has given solicitor’s
advice primarily to the Ministry of Social Development and Social Innovation, focusing on
the areas of trusts, administrative law, and statutory interpretation. He has also provided
similar advice to other branches within the Ministry of Justice. Ivan has maintained a parallel part
time career in the Canadian Armed Forces Primary Reserve, and is currently the reserve Deputy Judge
Advocate advising Vancouver Island units through the office of the Assistant Judge Advocate General,
Pacific Region. Prior to joining government, Ivan articled and practiced, primarily as a solicitor, at a
private Victoria firm, after receiving his LLB from the University of Victoria in 2000.

___________photo of LCdr Ivan Elieff with others in  in LookOut, 29 April 2013 at p. 15, available at http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/58/2013-04-29-17.pdf (accessed 10 May 2020);

Matthew Elliott

ELLIOTT, Matthew, legal officer with the office of the JAG; see linkedin.com/in/matthew-elliott-82a15a50/?originalSubdomain=ca (accessed 8 April 2023);

ELLIOTT,  Ian, "Kingston gets military law center", The Kingston Whig Standard, available at http://www.thewhig.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=799178&auth=Ian+Elliot&archive=true (accessed on 15 December 2011);

Claude Emanuelli, image source: http://www.bandbsa.be/contes/interview/emmanuelli-interview.htm, accessed on 1 May 2014

EMANUELLI, Claude, 1946-,  "Avant-propos [du numéro de la revue Études internationales portant le titre "Le droit international humanitaire (droit international des conflits armés)"], (1992) 23(4) Études internationales 717-721; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/revue/ei/1992/v23/n4/703081ar.pdf (site visité le 28 février 2012);

___________"Comments on the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law", (2006) 44 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 437-449;

___________Les actions militaires de l'ONU et le droit international  humanitaire, Montreal: Wilson & Lafleur, 1995, 112 p.; 23 cm.,  ISBN 2891273176  (Collection; La Collection Bleue; Faculté de droit Section de droit civil Université d'Ottawa);

source de l'image: droit.coop/fr/service.prt?svcid=CO_CATALOG17&page=productDetail.jsp&id=3761, site visité 27 juin 2017
___________Les conflits armés et le droit, Montréal: Wilson et Lafleur, 2017, xii, 306 p., 24 cm, 978-2-89689-358-4; voir la Table des matières;

Source de l'image: renaud-bray.com/books_product.aspx?id=1047110&def=International+humanitarian+law%2CEMANUELLI%2C+CLAUDE%2C9782896352333, visité 27 juin 2017
___________International Humanitarian Law, Cowansville: Éditions Yvon Blais, 2009, xxvii, 423 p., ISBN: 9782896352333; sur la version française, voir https://edoctrine.caij.qc.ca/recherche#q=militaire&first=20&t=edoctrine&sort=relevancy&f:caij-unik-checkboxes=[Doctrine,L%C3%A9gislation,jurisprudence]&m=detailed&i=1&bp=results (consulté le 14 octobre 2018);

EMBURY,  A.W. (Alan W.),  Major, legal officer in 1941, see McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at p. 49, available at i-xii and 1-102;

___________on EMBURY, A.W., Major, who was the prosecutor of the GCM of Lt. E.G.A. Boulton, see  BARRETT, Matthew Kenneth, Ruin and Redemption: losing and Regaining Honour in the Canadian Officer Corps, a thesis submitted to the Graduate Program in History in conformity with the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Queen's University, KIngston, Ontario, September 2019, v, 395 leaves at p. 252; available at https://qspace.library.queensu.ca/bitstream/handle/1974/26534/Barrett_Matthew_K_201909_PhD.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y (accessed 30 October 21019);

___________on EMBURY, Alan W., research if his father was Embury, John Fletcher Leopold (1875-1944), see https://esask.uregina.ca/entry/embury_john_fletcher_leopold_1875-1944.jsp  (accessed 1 December 2020);

___________on EMBURY, Alan W., see "Prominent Regina lawyer dies at 71", The Leader-Post, Regina, Saturday, 23 September 1978 at p. 2, available at , accessed 24 May 2020;


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Tom Endicott -- image source http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Tom-Endicott.jpg

ENDICOTT, Lieutenant-Colonel T. (Tom) M., "The Social Evolution of the Canadian Forces -- Post Somalia", CSC 28-018,  Master thesis, Canadian Forces College,  May 2002,  73 p., thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement  for the degree  of  Master of Defence Studies; available at http://wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc28/mds/endicott.pdf (accessed on 24 July 2008) and at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/288/286/endicott.pdf (accessed on 8 May 2014);

"Enforce Code of Service Discipline", Course: PRes BMQ, 70 Slides, Note: Reference: B-GG-005-027/AF-022; available at: http://collections.banq.qc.ca/,  accessed 11 October 2017); see also http://slideplayer.com/slide/9359804/ (accessed 10 March 2018);

Rick Eng

ENG, Rick, lawyer, member of the OJAG; see https://ca.linkedin.com/in/rick-eng-b6329923, accessed 14 June 2018;

Rick Eng
___________on Rick Eng, see DALHOUSIE CLASS NOTES, about Maj. Rick Eng (JD'11), available at https://alumni.dal.ca/class-notes/legal-advice-at-sea/ (accessed 11 April 2017);

Maj. Rick Eng (JD’11) deployed with Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) Toronto as Her Legal Advisor during
Operation REASSURANCE. During this operation, Toronto is participating in NATO Operation ACTIVE ENDEAVOUR.
HMCS Toronto is tasked with locating, tracking, reporting and boarding vessels that are suspected of involvement in or
support of terrorist activities in the Mediterranean Sea.

HMCS Toronto operated in the Black Sea between 6 and 25 September 2014 with vessels from several partner nations,
including Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine and the United States. While in the Black Sea, the ship
 took part in several exercises that focused on interoperability and maritime situational awareness.

HMCS Toronto departed from Halifax, N.S. on 24 July 2014. Throughout Her deployment, Maj. Eng has provided legal
advice to the ship in the areas of Operational Law, Military Administrative Law and Military Justice.

James Robichaud
ENGEL, Shirlee, "Former Canadian Forces private alleges abuse in military training", Global News -- Toronto, 4 November 2014, available at http://globalnews.ca/news/1614086/military-veteran-alleges-abuse-by-drill-sergeant/, accessed 13 March 2017; includes video; the victim's name is Pte James Robichaud; has retained lawyer Michel Drapeau;

ENGLAND, L.L. (Leslie Leroy),  1917-1990, LCol, in 1967, was a member of the office of the Judge Advocate General, and present at the Special Joint Committee of the Senate and of the House of Commons on Employer-Employee Relations 'in the Public Service of Canada.—No. 32; Tuesday, March 14, 1967, at pp. 1567-1612 as reported in the Canadian Government Publications Catalogue 1967, issued by The Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1968 at p. 45 (Cat. No. SP6-367), available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2016/spac-pspc/PF1-4-1967.pdf (accessed 12 September 2018); also available at http://parl.canadiana.ca/view/oop.com_SOCHOC_2701_3_2/799?r=0&s=1 (accessed 24 August 2020); NOW AVAILABLE AT https://parl.canadiana.ca/view/oop.com_SOCHOC_2701_3_2/799?r=0&s=1 (accessed 2 September 2020); subsequently, Mr. England was Chief, Clemency and Legal Division, National Parole Board, for example in 1971;

___________on ENGLAND, L.L. (Leslie Leroy), see excerpt in CAMPBELL, Margaret Isabel Catherine, Harmony and Dissonance.  A Study of the Influence of Foreign Policy Goals on Military Decision-Making with Respect to the Canadian NATO Brigade in Germany, 1951-1964, Thèse présentée à la Faculté des études supérieures de l'Université Laval pour l'obtention du grade de Philosophiae Doctor (Ph.D.), Département d'histoire, Faculté des lettres, Université Laval, Québec, 2000. 337 f., à la p. 293, disponible à http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp02/NQ54006.pdf  (vérifié le 11 janvier 2015); aussi disponible à http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp02/NQ54006.pdf (consulté le 28 octobre 2017);

Major L.L. England, with the Judge Advocate General's Office, pointed out that, as Canadian soldiers
could have their ranks affected by civil cases in Germany, civil offenses resulted in more serious
consequences than for similar cases in Canada.741
74l Ibid. L.L. England, DJAG to Comd, 4 November 1959.

Photo source: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/lbrr/archives/insight%20vol.1%20no.2-eng.pdf, accessed 12 March 2019
L.L. England

___________ on ENGLAND, L.L. (Leslie Leroy), he was in 1968, National Parole Board, Chief, Clemency & Legal Division, Parole Service, see his article "The Royal Prerogative of Mercy", 13 pages in National Parole Board, Notes of Meetings, Regional Representatives' Conference, Laval, P.Q., May 12-17, 1968, available at https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/lbrr/archives/hv%209502%20d5%201968-eng.pdf (accessed 12 March 2019);

__________on ENGLAND, Leslie Leroy, see his death notice in The Ottawa Citizen, 8 June 1990, at p. 67, available at https://www.newspapers.com/image/, accessed 18 June 2020;


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Source of image: bookreviews.bbcf.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/engle-yves.jpg, accessed 1 March 2019
Yves Engler

ENGLER, Yves, "Canadian Military Flouts Access to Information Law", Global Research, 28 February 2019; available at https://www.globalresearch.ca/canadian-military-flouts-access-information-law/5670025 (accessed 1 March 2019);

Image source: queensu.ca/history/people/facultyinstructors/english-allan, accessed 20 April 2017
Allan English
ENGLISH, Allan, "Corruption in the Canadian military? Destroying trust in the chain of command", (2017) 23 Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 32-46; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (20 April 2017); for abstract and résumé, see http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/11926422.2016.1250654 (accessed 20 April 2017);

Corruption is often seen as being caused by internally motivated greed leading to prohibited acts in contravention of laws, rules and regulations.
However, corruption may also be defined as “dishonest action that destroys people’s trust.” Building on research conducted by scholars examining
this phenomenon in the United States military, this article explores questionable actions, which are externally motivated by systemic factors
embedded in the culture of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), by senior leaders in the CAF that can destroy trust in its chain of command. It
analyzes two case studies, the Deschamps report into sexual misconduct in the CAF and the Board of Inquiry into Afghan sexual assaults witnessed
by CAF members, to identify some key themes and areas for future research into how the lack of trust in the chain of command has impacted
negatively on the CAF’s professionalism and culture.


La corruption est souvent perçue comme un phénomène causé par la cupidité découlant de motivations internes qui conduit à des agissements prohibés,
en infraction aux lois, aux règles et aux réglementations. Mais la corruption peut également être définie comme « un agissement malhonnête qui mine la
confiance accordée par la population ». S’appuyant sur une recherche conduite par des universitaires qui ont examiné ce phénomène dans l’armée
américaine, cet article explore les agissements douteux, motivés par des facteurs systémiques externes qui, intégrés à la culture des Forces armées canadiennes
(FAC) par des cadres supérieurs de cette institution, peuvent miner la confiance en sa chaîne de commandement. Il analyse deux études de cas - le Rapport
Deschamps sur l’inconduite sexuelle dans l’Armée, et la Commission d’enquête sur les agressions sexuelles en Afghanistan, dont des membres de l’Armée ont
été les témoins - afin d’identifier certains thèmes clés et domaines pour de futures recherches sur la manière dont le manque de confiance dans la chaîne de
commandement a négativement impacté le professionnalisme et la culture de la FAC.

____________"Cultural dissonance: ethical considerations from Afghanistan", (Summer 2016) 22(2) Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 163-172; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (20 April 2017); for abstract/résumé source: see http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/11926422.2016.1176937 (accessed 20 April 2017);

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) includes ethical decision-making as part of its professional development program. However, the limitations of the CAF
professional development program in ethical decision-making become evident when CAF members must deal with coalition members whose ethical norms
differ significantly from those of the CAF. A number of recent cases in the Afghanistan mission highlight these limitations. This article examines the ethical
dilemmas faced by senior Canadian decision-makers in one such case. When confronted with numerous reports, starting as early as 2005, by members of the
CAF to the chain of command of incidents of sexual assault of boys by Afghan forces, senior decision-makers were faced with choices that could fall within
a continuum of actions. At one end of the continuum was to take immediate and forceful action based on Canadian values. At the other end was to take no
action since the attitude of most coalition partners was to do nothing because they accepted that this practice had been “common” in Afghanistan’s culture.
The article discusses the actions of senior Canadian decision-makers in this case and focuses on whether or not the CAF professional development program
adequately prepared them for their decision-making role in this type of ethical dilemma.


Les forces armées canadiennes (FAC) incluent la prise de décisions éthiques dans leur programme de développement professionnel. Cependant, les limites
de ce programme dans la prise de décisions éthiques deviennent évidentes lorsque les membres des FAC ont à faire à d'autres membres d'une coalition dont
les normes éthiques sont sensiblement différentes de celles des FAC. Certains exemples récents se rapportant à la mission en Afghanistan illustrent ces limites.
Cet article examine les dilemmes éthiques auxquels ont été confrontés des preneurs de décision de haut rang avec l'un de ces cas. Confrontés à de nombreux
rapports remontant jusqu'à 2005, transmis par des membres des FAC à leur commandement et concernant des abus sexuels de garçons par des militaires afghans,
les preneurs de décision de haut rang se sont retrouvés face à des choix qui pouvaient s'inscrire dans un continuum de mesures à prendre. À un bout du continuum,
il fallait une intervention immédiate et ferme, fondée sur les valeurs canadiennes. À l'opposé, aucune action ne devait être engagée, l'attitude de la plupart des
autres membres de la coalition étant de ne rien faire en raison de leur acceptation du caractère « courant » de ces pratiques dans la culture afghane. L'article discute
des actions engagées dans ce cas précis par les preneurs de décision de haut rang et s'interroge sur l'adéquation du programme de développement professionnel
des membres des FAC, en termes de préparation à leur prise de décision face à ce type de dilemme éthique.

ENGLISH, Allan, 1949-,  and Howard Coombs, eds., Effects-Based Approaches to Operations Canadian Perspectives, and see "Information Operations: Op Archer, Afghanistan, 2006" (p. 230), [Ottawa] : National Defence, c2008, v, 256 p., at p. 230 : ill. ; 25 cm.   NOTES: Distributed by the Government of Canada Depository Services Program.  Includes bibliographical references,  ISBN: 9781100106274, available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2008/forces/D2-233-2008E.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017);

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ENGLISH, Jack, The Role of the Militia in Today's Canadian Forces, [Ottawa] : Canadian International Council; Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, 2011, 40 p. (series; Strategic Studies Working Group papers; 1925-4903); available at http://www.opencanada.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/SSWG-Paper-Jack-English-September-2011.pdf (accessed on 31 May 2012); also available at https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/cdfai/pages/95/attachments/original/1413683498/The_Role_of_the_Militia_in_Today_Canadian_Forces.pdf?1413683498  (13 March 2017);

Image source: amazon.com/Lament-army-Canadian-professionalism-Contemporary/dp/077252520X/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8, accessed 29 June 2017

ENGLISH, John A. (John Alan), Canadian Institute of International Affairs, Lament for an army: the decline of Canadian military professionalism / John A. English,
Concord, ON : Irwin, c1998, xiii, 110 p. : 1 ill. ; 23 cm. Series: Contemporary Affairs no. 3.  NOTES: Co-published by Canadian Institute of International Affairs. Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN: 077252520X;

EPSON RIOT, 1919, on see:

- Image source: amazon.ca/We-Are-Not-Manslaughterers-Sergeant-ebook/dp/B00BFVRFTW

KNIGHT, Martin, We are not manslaughterers : the Epsom riot and the murder of station sergeant Thomas Green, [United Kingdom] : Tontobooks, 2010, xv, 287 pages : color illustrations ; 21 cm, Includes bibliographical references (pages 263-264) and index, ISBN: 9781907183140; 1907183140;

Product Description

In genteel Epsom, Surrey in the summer of 1919 a score of semi-rural police officers fought
a rioting mob of 400 Canadian soldiers in a battle of Rorke’s Drift proportions. At the end of
it the dependable Station Sergeant Thomas Green lay dead, bludgeoned by a bar torn from
the police cells.

Green is the only policeman to be murdered in his own police station on the mainland ever
and was one of only two killed by rioters in the 20th century – the other being PC Blakelock.

Yet media coverage was subdued and the path to justice tightly managed. Indeed no person
was charged with murder. A handful of Canadians were quietly convicted of riot and were
back home for Christmas.

We Are Not Manslaughterers lifts the lid on why the case is practically unknown and how
political and international considerations deprived Thomas Green of justice. David Lloyd
George and Winston Churchill were personally involved in engineering their desired
outcomes. Fraying colonial bonds necessitated a manipulation of the system nationally
and a backdrop of STDs among the convalescent soldiers triggered a cover-up locally.

Martin Knight is the author of George Best’s final autobiography as well as several other
sports, culture and fiction books.

[source: amazon.ca/We-Are-Not-Manslaughterers-Sergeant-ebook/dp/B00BFVRFTW, accessed 18 June 2019]

ESAU, Jeff, "Top military officers off base on detainee file", The Globe and Mail, 22 March 2007 and updated 27 March 2007, available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/top-military-officers-off-base-on-detainee-file/article17993420/ (accessed 21 December 2017);

The ICRC never tells third parties about its inspections and monitoring of prisoners, and reports back only to the government holding the captives.
That principle has been central to its role for nearly 150 years and is crucial to its ability to deal confidentially with all parties to a conflict.

But according to documents entitled Advice for the Minister and made public under the access to information law, a high-level group of half a
dozen senior policy, legal and parliamentary advisers told the minister to imply that the ICRC would inform Canada if detainees it handed to
Afghanistan were mistreated.

The group, led by assistant deputy minister for policy Vincent Rigby, first advised Mr. O'Connor last May that "if pressed" in the Commons
with questions about detainee follow-up, he should respond by saying: "If the ICRC advised us of some problems with transferred detainees,
we would discuss the issue with the government of Afghanistan."

Other DND officials signing off on the advice included Brigadier-General Daniel Gosselin, head of the international security policy division,
Colonel Neil Anderson, head of the NATO policy directorate and Colonel Bernard Cathcart from the international law directorate.


Patrick Ervin

ERVIN, Patrick, notes biographiques suivent:

Patrick Ervin, CD, LLB, MBA

M. Ervin a été nommé membre de la Commission de l'énergie et des services publics du
Nouveau-Brunswick en 2013.

M. Ervin est membre du Barreau du Nouveau-Brunswick et est actuellement président
du conseil d'administration de la Fondation pour l'avancement du droit au Nouveau-Brunswick.
Sa carrière juridique s’étend sur une période de 25 ans, notamment en tant que partenaire dans
un cabinet d’avocat de Saint John et en tant que conseiller juridique dans une entreprise de
technologies de l’information.

M. Ervin a également joui d’une carrière en tant qu’officier d’artillerie et au sein de la
branche du Juge-avocat général de la Réserve des Forces armées canadiennes
pendant 19 ans
.  Il a atteint le rang de major avant sa retraite.

[source: http://www.nbeub.ca/fr/board-members, site consulté le 21 avril 2020]

EUSTACE, J.L., Squadron Leader, military lawyer with No. 1 Cdn War Crimes Investigation Unit:

- Record of Proceedings of the Trial By Canadian Military Court of  Robert Holzer, Walter Weigel and Wilhem Ossenbach, held at Aurich, Germany, 25 March -6 April 1946; available at https://search.archives.un.org/unwcc-canadian-trials-trial-of-robert-holzer-walter-weigel-and-wilhelm-ossenbach-transcript-of-proceedings (accessed 25 October 2018); the Judge-Advocate was Wing Commander A.A. Cattanach; the prosecutor was W/C Durdin, O.W., assisted by S/L Eustace, J.V. or J.L. and Maj Blain, J.W., all of No. 1 Cdn War Crimes Unit;

- on No. 1 Cdn War Crimes Investgation Unit:
No. 1 Canadian War Crimes Investigation Unit was established on 4 June 1945 under the command of
Lieutenant-Colonel B.J.S. Macdonald to continue the work of the SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters,
Allied Expeditionary Forces) Court. Two detachments were established: the North West Europe
Detachment at Bad Salzflen, Germany and the U.K. Detachment at Canadian Army Headquarters,
London, England. Canadian personnel from the SHAEF Courts were transferred to the new Canadian
Unit whose mandate was to investigate all reports of war crimes affecting any member of the Canadian
forces. The unit remained active until its disbandment 31 May 1946.
[Source: https://www.archeion.ca/1-canadian-war-crimes-investigation-unit-fonds, accessed 25 October 2018]

- Photo of Robert Holzer, Walter Weigel and Wilhem Ossenbach, tried for war crimes in which S/L Eutache was the assistant prosecutor; 

This photo comes from the article by Lieutenant-Colonel (Retired)
Paul Thobo-Carlsen,  CMPA  Director of History and Heritage,
"Looking Back: Wartime RCAF Policemen and Post-War Security
Officer Moe Labrosse" and available at
www.cmpa-apmc.org/lb-moe-labrosse.html (accessed 9 April 2020).

- "Two Nazis Blame Other for Shot Killing RCAF Man", The Globe and Mail, 2 April 1946, at p. 8:

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ProQuest Historical Newspapers
https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.biblioottawalibrary.ca...., accessed 26 October 2018

EVANS, R.D., Captain was the prosecutor in the court martial of Lieutenant-Colonel N.A. McIntosh referred to in the article: "Officer Freed of Charge at Court Martial: Wins Acquittal at Trial of Ill-Treating Soldier", Hamilton Spectator, 1944/08/03, available at https://collections.warmuseum.ca/warclip/pages/warclip/ResultsList.php?QueryName=WarclipCustomQueryForm&WarclipCounter=WarclipCounter&RelevanceRanking=WarclipRelevanceRanking&lang=0&any=AdmWebMetadata&subject=WarSubjectMetaData&headline=WarHeadline&title=ObjTitle&SearchWord=prosecutor&QueryWord=all&QueryOption=any&image_x=0&image_y=0&StartAt=181 (accessed 5 June 2019);

EVERETT, Robert, "Parliament and Politics", in David Mutimer, ed., Canada Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs: 1997, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003 at p.11 and see "Somalia Inquiry" at pp. 49-51; these pages 49-51 are available at http://books.google.com/books?id=RyH-ouVcnrEC&pg=PA66&vq=somalia&dq=%22Dishonoured+Legacy%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_search_s&cad=5&sig=ACfU3U1p-BajAAgoQZRgU2ONa43K_j7ULg#PPA49,M1  and 
http://books.google.com/books?id=RyH-ouVcnrEC&vq=somalia&dq=%22Dishonoured+Legacy%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 16 July 2008);

EVERSON, Kristen, "Classified documents reveal crucial moments in response to 9/11-style attack:  Authorities would have just minutes to decide whether to shoot down a hijacked plane", CBC News/Politics, 1 March 2017, available at  http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/sept-11-classified-documents-airline-attacks-1.4011750 (accessed 17 March 2017);

The documents outline two scenarios. The first refers to an air attack from "a known terrorist group that we are in an armed conflict with."
The second was a later addition and refers to a scenario in which the military would assist law enforcement agencies such as the RCMP with
 "a more traditional hijacking scenario, where a disgruntled individual may want to take out his agressions on a company headquarters or
 specific person(s), or even the government."

Richard Evraire, image source: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=29812, accessed on 2 May 2014

EVRAIRE, Richard,  1938-, "Book Reviews -- Military Justice in Action: Annotated National Defence Legislation by Mr. Justice Gilles Létourneau and Professor Michel W. Drapeau", Canadian Military Journal, vol. 12, number 1, available at http://www.journal.dnd.ca/vol12/no1/72-evraire-eng.asp  (accessed on 23  January 2012);
EVRAIRE, Richard, "Critique de livres -- Military Justice in Action: Annotated National Defnce Legislation par l'honorable Gilles Létourneau et le professeur Michel W. Drapeau",  Revue militaire canadienne, vol. 12, numéro 1, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no1/72-evraire-fra.asp (vérifié le 23 janvier 2012);

EXPLORING HUMANITARIAN LAW -- 2 Day Educator Training, image from https://ccic.ca/fr/event/training-exploring-humanitarian-law/  (accessed 26 February 2019);

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Image source: http://www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/people/ewart_js.shtml, accessed 28 February 2018

John Skirving Ewart
EWART, J.S. (John Skirving), 1849-1933,  "Canada and War", (10 October 1932) 10(8) The Canadian Bar Review  495-506; available at https://cbr.cba.org/index.php/cbr/article/view/168/168 (accessed 28 February 2018);

EXEMPT STAFF -- as of 1 September 2012, see  http://www.admfincs.forces.gc.ca/apps/th-vh/total-eng.asp?PeriodID=35&startDate=2012-06-02&endDate=2012-09-01
Easy question -- how many French Canadians form part of this political organization at DND?

MacKay, Peter Gordon Minister of National Defence and Minister for the Atlantic Gateway

MacDonell, John MND Chief of Staff

Petric, Mike Policy Advisor

Fernet, Marian Director, Parliamentary Affairs 1
Throop, Paul Director of Operations

Paxton, Jay Director of Communications

Zanin, Josh Press Secretary

MacDonald, Andrea Communications Advisor - Atlantic

Melvin, Heather Foley Regional Affairs Director (Nova Scotia)

Domereckyj, Heather Senior Special Assistant

Currie, Andrew Special Assistant

MacDonald, Jordan Special Assistant

Wadden, Jennifer Special Asistant

Proctor, Janice Special Assistant

Leach, Jackie Special Assistant

Lyne, Maryn Special Assistant

Babb, Casey Special Assistant

Varner, Joe Director of Policy

Babcock, Brent           

 Alors --question facile-- devinez combien il y a de canadiens-français dans cette organisation au niveau politique?

Brent Walden, defence                            Dominic Martin, prosecutor; image source: still video at cbc.ca/player/play/2632176304
counsel, image source:                            (accessed 18 September 2017)

FAIRCLOUGH, Ian, "Greenwood aviator jailed for drug offences", Herald News, 1 November 2017; available at http://thechronicleherald.ca/novascotia/1516673-greenwood-aviator-jailed-for-drug-offences (accessed 2 November 2017); prosecutor was Maj. Dominic Martin; defence counsel LCdr Brent Walden and military Judge: Cmdr. Sandra Sukstorf;

FAIRBANKS, David Alexander ("Sandy"), Colonel, photos:

           [source: (Nov-Dec 2000) 4 JAG Newsletter-                                        [source: (Apr-Jun 2000) 2 JAG Newsletter- Bulletin d'activités at p. 5]                                     
           Bulletin d'activités at p. 7] 
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___________on FAIRBANKS, David Alexander ("Sandy"), Colonel, see McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at pages 182 and 213-214, available at 103-242;

Image source: http://books.google.ca
FARLEY, Kelly, Rick Walker, Harry Bondy, Dan Mendoza, "Freedom of Association and the Canadian Forces: Current Status and Future Trends", in Giuseppe Caforio, Gerhard Kümmel, ed., Military Missions and their Implications Reconsidered: The Aftermath of September 11th (Contributions to Conflict Management, Peace Economics and Development, Volume 2), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005, 594 p., at pp.497-517, ISBN: 0444519602, 9780444519603;

Unlike many militaries in Europe, the Canadian Forces (CF) have no union or representative association. Although two separate studies
 have shown that more than one-third of military members think positively about forming a union (Bradley & Charbonneau, 2004;
 Deneumoustier, 1971), there has traditionally been little movement towards any form of associationism within Canada's military.
 While there is no formal ‘contract’ between the CF and the government of Canada, an informal social contract has appeared to be
 successful in maintaining the status quo. Critics of the social contract argue the agreement is one-sided; that is, the responsibilities
 of the member to Canada are well defined in the National Defence Act and Queen's Regulations and Orders but there is “no such
 articulation of the responsibilities of the Government of Canada to the men and women of the CF” (Milner, 1998, p. 10). (source:
 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?chapterid=1784194&show=pdf, accessed on 11 August 2013); see also
 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1016/S1572-8323%2805%2902030-8 (accessed 6 March 2018);

James Farney, image source: uregina.ca/arts/politics-international-studies/faculty-staff/faculty/03-farney-jim.html, accessed 4 February 2018

FARNEY, James;  S. Bohdan, "The Predicament of Belonging: The Status of Enemy Aliens in Canada, 1914", (Winter 2005) 39(1) Journal of Canadian Studies 74-89;

This essay examines Canada's internment of enemy aliens during the First World War. The internment of thousands of aliens,
who had been invited to Canada short years before as immigrants, was not grounded in international law or xenophobia.
Instead, the decision by the Borden Cabinet to intern enemy aliens was rooted in an imperialist understanding of Canada
and the associated understanding of individuals as subjects of a sovereign. Internment forced the articulation of these
important categories and, as a result, the decision casts light on broader notions of "belonging" in pre-war Canada.
[source: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/200633/pdf, accessed 6 December 2017);

FARQUHARSON, R.A., "Ralston Slaps Pouliot Down for his Slurs.  Angered Minister Gets Applause of Both Sides in Denying Disloyalty.  Joined by Hanson", Hamilton Spectator, 1946/01/23; available at https://collections.museedelhistoire.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5060363 (accessed 15 April 2018); attack by Pouliot included BGen Orde, JAG;

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Source of Image: (2005)1 Les actualités -- Newsletter at p. 55.
"Our 'honest brokers' in action Major Quiroz-Borrero and Major Moore in Afghanistan"

FARRELL, Jim, "Afghans' claims settled by 'honest broker' Canadian military lawyer says his form of justice works", The Edmonton Journal, Thursday, December 23, 2004; available at http://www.afghanistannewscenter.com/news/2004/december/dec232004.html, accessed 25 February 2015; about Capt. Felipe Quiroz-Borrero; also published in (2005)1 Les actualités -- Newsletter 55-56;

___________"Gen. Boyle received high-level help, Somalia inquiry told; OTHER HELP", Edmonton Journal, 25 June 1996, p. A-8;

Maj Anthony Farris, left with MGen J. Pitzul (photo source: (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter at p. 10)
FARRIS, Anthony (A.T.), "Course Syllabus  -- International Humanitarian Law", Dalhousie University, available at http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/law/Academic%20Information%20Syllabi%20Moots%20Regulations/Syllabi/LAWS%202205%20International%20Humanitarian%20Law%20-%202014%20Syllabus.pdf, accessed 27 February 2015;

Image source: omltjag.blogspot.ca/2007/07/my-name-is-anthony-farris-and-i-will.html, accessed 18 August 2017
__________http://omltjag.blogspot.ca/ (accessed 10 April 2015); multitude of blogs from Afghanistan;

____________on Major Anthony Farris, see the following article: Blatchford, Christie, "
'We're the way ahead for Afghanistan' ", The Globe and Mail, 27 August 2007, available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/were-the-way-ahead-for-afghanistan/article1081033/ (accessed 26 September 2018);

  Image source: http://www.canadianlawyermag.com/499/Beyond-the-ordinary.html, accessed 26 August 2015
Maj Anthony Farris (right)
____________on Major Anthony Farris, see the following article: CARNIOL, Naomi, "Beyond the Ordinary: Anthony Farris has mentored military lawyers in Afghanistan and also gets lots of courtroom time as a JAG prosecutor",  (February 2009) 33(2) Canadian Lawyer 14,  posted 3 February 2009; available at http://www.canadianlawyermag.com/499/Beyond-the-ordinary.html  (accessed 26 August 2015); about Major Anthony Farris;

_______on Major Anthony Farris, see the following article: FOX, Brent, "Lessons in Afghan law -- Kentville native mentoring military lawyers through changing Afghan life", Kings County Register, 14 February 2008, available at  http://www.kingscountynews.ca/Living/2008-02-14/article-588661/Lessons-in-Afghan-law/1, accessed on 8 April 2015; article about Anthony Farris;

Farris notes the Afghan army is in operations, and it’s important to introduce these legal concepts so it conducts its actions
in accordance with international law.

A slow process
Farris acknowledges “mentoring is a slow process.”
Many concepts are foreign to the hosts and require a large measure of explanation and discussion. Experience and the
language barrier can also be issues.
But, Farris points out, it has been very rewarding. “I have witnessed progress. “I have provided the military lawyers
with a basic understanding of how their system works.  I have worked with key players in the court martial process to have
those soldiers accused of serious offenses to be tried in accordance with procedural safeguards recognized
by international law. And, I have taught soldiers at the basic level some of the simple rules related to military operations.”

_______on  Lieutenant-Colonel Anthony Farris, see the photo hereunder that appeared with article "New Sexual Misconduct Action Response Team and amendments to prosecution policies",  The Maple Leaf, Defence Stories, available at https://ml-fd.caf-fac.ca/en/2018/01/9807 (accessed 10 April 2020);

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FARRIS, John L., member of the JAG Branch during the World war II, see "British Columbia Telephone Company: John L. Farris", The Globe and Mail, 25 April 1972, at p. B16:

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ProQuest Historical Newspapers
https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.biblioottawalibrary.ca...., accessed 24 November 2018

___________on FARRIS, John L., see "John Farris Joins Sun Directorate", The Vancouver Sun, Wednesday, 14 December 1960 at p. 22, available at https://www.newspapers.com/image/...., accessed 27 June 2020;

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Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/fash-steven-r-431ba1b9, accessed 29 April 2017
Steven R. Fash
FASH, S.R. (Steven R.), "Military Justice by Summary Trial : at What Cost?", Canadian Forces Command and Staff College, 1995, 22 leaves, Exercise New Horizons, 28 cm., call number at Canadian Forces Military  College: #: 355.005 C3 1994-95 070;  Notes: CSC 21, 1994-95; "This paper argues that deficiencies exist in the summary trial process and that change is needed" (From the library catalogue); research note: "Chief of staff, Canadian Forces Morale and Welfare Services, 2010-present", see ca.linkedin.com/in/fash-steven-r-431ba1b9, accessed 29 April 2017;

Kari Fasting, image source:               Trond Svela Sand, image source:                     Image source: researchgate.net/publication/278084297_Military_
http://nsss.academia.edu/                   nih.no/om-nih/ansatte/sand-trond-svela/          and_gender_issues_A_categorized_research_bibliography
KariFasting, accessed 12
December 2017

FASTING, Kari and Trond Svela Sand, Gender and Military Issues -- A Categorized Research Bibliography, Oslo: The Norwegian Defence University College, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences/Defence institute, 2010, 207 p., ISSN: 1891-8751; available at http://www.nih.no/Documents/1_FI/Sekjson%20for%20milit%C3%A6r%20ferdighetsl%C3%A6re/01%20Gender%20and%20Military_nettdistribusjon.pdf (accessed 15 May 2015); research note: search the word "Canada" or "Canadian"; the book is available from  from: Trond Svela Sand, Jun 13, 2015;

This bibliography gives an extensive interdisciplinary overview of studies on gender issues in a military context. It covers more than 2500 references
of international reviewed articles, reports, books, and theses from military and non- military institutions. The references have been categorized in
themes such as “Masculinities”, “Gender, Sexual Harassment and Abuse in a Military Context”, “Gender, Physical and Psychological Ability”,
and “Recruitment of Women”.  Hence, it represents an essential tool for military leaders and scholars interested in gender issues in a military
context. (backcover of the book)

James B. Fay, 2nd row, first on the right, image from McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers,
Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002,  at p. 93, available at  pp. i-xii and 1-102.

FAY,  James B. (Burbeck), 1930-2007, Canadian Military Criminal Law: An Examination of Military Justice, LL.M. thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1974, 303 p.; Canadian thesis on microfiche 22822; available at  http://www.lareau-law.ca/Fay.pdf (accessed on 15 December 2014); married to Mona Rita Lewis, born in Cape Breton in 1931;

___________"Canadian Military Criminal Law: An Examination of Military Justice [in Four Parts]",  (1975) 23 Chitty's Law Journal 120-138; 156-175; 195-216; and 228-252; this article is a copy of LCol Fay's LL.M. (Master of Laws) thesis at Dalhousie University,

___________on FAY, Lieutenant-Colonel James B. (Jim), see "Appearance of bias seen in court-martial", The Globe and Mail, 27 May 1972, at p. 61;

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ProQuest Historical Newspapers
https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.biblioottawalibrary.ca...., accessed 3 March 2019

___________on FAY, Lieutenant-Colonel James B. (Jim), see Brian Butters, "Military tries, convicts, jails criminal quietly",  The Citizen, Ottawa, 17 July 1979 at p. 12:

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ProQuest, http://biblioottawalibrary.ca.ezproxy.biblioottawalibrary.ca/
ezproxylogin?url=/docview/2336482407?accountid=46526, accessed 29 April 2020

___________on FAY, Lieutenant-Colonel James B. (Jim), see his photo hereunder which is a detail of the 1981 JAG conference photo posted on flickr by Jim Rycroft at https://www.flickr.com/photos/xjag/4528355114/in/album-72157623951146254/lightbox/ (accessed 24 September 2020); a photo of the 1981 JAG conference photo, in colour,  can also be found in McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at p. 124, available at  103-242;

LCol Jim Fay

___________on FAY, Lieutenant-Colonel James B. (Jim), see his photo hereunder (I do not remember where this photo is from, 27 September 2020);

LCol Jim Fay

___________on FAY, Lieutenant-Colonel James B. (Jim),Brais, Guy, Major, was Judge-Advocate in the General Court Martial sex case of the padre Captain McRAE, Angus Alexander, CFB Edmonton, 15-18 July 1980,  see the transcript of this General Court Martial at https://cfbnamao.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/a-2019-00017_transcript.pdf (accessed 4 November 2020); the transcript was obtained by an Access to Information Act request, DND, number A0610347_265-A-2019-00017-00265; this is the number that appears at the bottom of each page; the prosecutor Major D.J. Boan and defence counsel was Major Guy Brais;

___________on FAY, Lieutenant-Colonel James B. (Jim), see  McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at pp. 93, 180, 211 and 212, available at i-xii and 1-102 and  103-242;

___________on FAY, Lieutenant-Colonel James B. (Jim), see "Obituary/Rubrique nécrologique", (2007) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 90;

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Image source: en.maremagnum.com/rare-books/the-defence-team-military-and-civilian-partnership-in-the/144094677, accessed 11 August 2016
FEBBRARO, Angela R. (Angela Rosa), 1963-, editor, Irina Goldenberg, 1974-, editor, Waylon Dean, editor, Canadain Defence Academy issuing body, Canada. Canadian Armed Forces.  Wing, 17 issuing body, The defence team : military and civilian partnership in the Canadian Armed Forces and Department of National Defence / edited by Irina Goldenberg, Angela R. Febbraro, and Waylon H. Dean Military and civilian partnership in the Canadian Armed Forces and Department of National Defence, Kingston, Ontario : Canadian Defence Academy Press, [2014] ©2014, iii, 268 p., NOTES: Produced for the Canadian Defence Academy Press by 17 Wing Winnipeg Publishing Office. Includes bibliographical references and index. Available also on the Internet. Issued by: Canadian Defence Academy.  ISBN: 9781100253565 (pbk.) ISBN: 9781100253572 (bound); available at (accessed 11 August 2016);

source de l'image: http://chrs.uqam.ca/professeurs-chercheurs/jean-marie-fecteau, page visitée 26 septembre 2016
J.-M. Fecteau

FECTEAU, J.-M. (Jean-Marie), "Mesures d'exception et règle de droit: Les conditions d'application de la loi martiale au Québec lors des rébellions de 1837-1838", (1986-87) 32 Revue de droit de McGill / McGill Law Journal 465-495; disponible à http://lawjournal.mcgill.ca/userfiles/other/19030-Fecteau.pdf (vérifié 8 Septembre 2015);

___________“‘This Ultimate Resource’: Martial Law and State Repression in Lower Canada, 1837-38” in F. Murray Greenwood and Barry Wright, eds., Canadian State Trials, Vol 2: Rebellion and Invasion in the Canadas, 1837-38,  Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002, pp. 207-247;

image source: http://www.osgoode.yorku.ca/faculty-and-staff/hay-douglas-c/, accessed 11 February 2015
Douglas Hay

FECTEAU, Jean-Marie and Douglas Hay, " ‘Government by Will and Pleasure instead of Law’: Military Justice and the Legal System in Quebec, 1775-1783",  in Murray Greenwood, 1935-,  and Barry Wright, 1957-, eds., Canadian State Trials, Toronto: Osgoode Society, 1996, at pp. 129-171; available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?id=4Ps2DwAAQBAJ&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=Canadian+State+Trials+Volume+I:+Law,+Politics,+and&source=bl&ots=Ldx4XTGDl6&sig=8JmbCbCy2tBDiQK_yjATH9I4nR8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibyZPmt_PbAhXXqYMKHcmEDo4Q6AEITTAJ#v=onepage&q=Canadian%20State%20Trials%20Volume%20I%3A%20Law%2C%20Politics%2C%20and&f=false (accessed 27 June 2018);

FEDERATION OF LAW SOCIETIES OF CANADA, 37th National criminal law program : substantive criminal law, advocacy & the administration of justice, [Ottawa:] Federation of Law Societies of Canada, 2010, 2 v. (various pagings) ; 28 cm. + 1 CD ROM; NOTES: "July 12 to 16, 2010, St. John's, Newfoundland".  Includes bibliographical references; see "Part X.  Military law  1. A primer on military law";

Image source: newmediaubc.wordpress.com/tag/chloe-fedio/, accessed 24 October 2017
Chloé Fedio

FEDIO, Chloé, "Ex-military members claim systemic racism in lawsuit.  Called 'porch monkey,' wife pelted with bananas, threatened to be burned, ex-members say", CBC News Ottawa, 22 December 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/canadian-military-systemic-racism-class-action-suit-1.3909258 (accessed 3 June 201&0;

FEIGELSON, H.E. (Hyman Eric/Hyman Emil), 1906-1995,  Lieutenant, of Military District number 4 in Montreal, was defence counsel at the court martial of Pte Skinner, see "Five Buckingham Girls Testify To Drinking And Dancing With German Prisoners of War in Thurso Hotel", Sherbrooke Daily Record, Tuesday, 28 mars 1944 at pp. 1 and 2; available at http://collections.banq.qc.ca/retrieve/7619561 (accessed 6 April 2018);

___________photo of H.E. Feigelson in Old McGill, published by the Junior Year, 1928, volume 31 available at http://yearbooks.mcgill.ca/viewbook.php?&campus=downtown&book_id=1929#page/52/mode/1up (accessed 7 June 2019);

___________there is a
"H. Eric Feigelson Obligations Prize"at McGill University, see https://www.mcgill.ca/law-studies/financial-support/prizes (accessed 7 June 2019);

Richard Feist
FEIST, Richard, Associate professor, program: Ethics / Philosophy, Saint Paul University, Ottawa; one of his courses taught is "EPE 6301/ECS 5120A Military and Peacekeeping Ethics", see http://ustpaul.ca/upload-files/humansciences/cours_2012_13/EPE_6301_ECS5120A_Syllabus_Feist.pdf, see his publications at http://ustpaul.ca/index.php?mod=employee&id=69&lang=en  (accessed 19 September 2016);

Andrew Feltham

FELTHAM, Andrew, on, "Andrew Feltham, J.D. 2020, to clerk with Justice Sheilah Martin at the Supreme Court of Canada", University of Ottawa, Common Law Section, 14 May 2019; available at https://commonlaw.uottawa.ca/en/news/andrew-feltham-jd-2020-clerk-justice-sheilah-martin-supreme-court-canada (accessed 20 May 2019);

Mr. Feltham has been a member of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) since 2006. He is
currently training to become a legal officer and is the first non-commissioned member to
merit a position into the Military Legal Training Plan. He currently summers with the
Office of the Judge Advocate General and will continue his career as a legal officer upon
being called to the bar.

"Femme d'un aviateur canadien accusée du meurtre de son bébé", La Presse, mercredi, 30 janvier 1957, à la p. 32; disponible à collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2877282 (vérifié le 30 mars 2018);

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William J. Fenrick, photo source: http://alumni.dal.ca/dal-news/weldon-award-bill-fenrick/, accessed on 8 April 2014

FENRICK, William J. (William John), "The Application of the Geneva Conventions by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", (1999) vol. 81, number 834 International Review of the Red Cross 317-329;

___________ "Applying IHL Targeting Rules to Practical Situations Proportionality and Military Objectives" (2009) 27(2) Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 271; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1817740 (accessed on 11 February 2015);

Image source: http://djcil.law.duke.edu/, accessed 12 February 2015
___________ "Attacking the Enemy Civilian as a Punishable Offense”,  (1996-97) 7 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 539-569; available at http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?7+Duke+J.+Comp.+&+Int%27l+L.+539 (accessed on 11 December 2011);

___________"The Crime against humanity of persecution in the jurisprudence of the ICTY”, (2001) 32 Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 81-96;

___________"Crimes in combat: the relationship between crimes against humanity and war crimes", The Hague, 5 March 2004; Guest Lecture Series of the Office of the Prosecutor; Mr. Fenrick was the Senior Legal Adviser, ICTY-OTP; available at http://tamilnation.co/armed_conflict/crimes_in_combat_fenrick.pdf (accessed at, 11 February 2015);

___________Development in the Law of Naval Warfare since World War II: The Potential Emergence of a Law of Naval Warfare for Limited Conflicts, thesis, Faculty of the National Law Centre, George Washington University, 1983;

__________"The development of the law of armed conflict through the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", (1998) 3 Journal of Armed Conflict Law  197-232;

___________"The Exclusion Zone Device in the Law of Naval Warfare", (1986)  24 Canadian Year Book of International Law 91-126;

___________"‘ICRC Guidance on Direct Participation in Hostilities’ (2009) 12 Yearbook Of International Humanitarian Law 287;

___________"In the Field with UNCOE -- Investigating Atrocities in the Territory of Former Yugoslavia", (1995) 84 The Military Law and the Law of War Review 33-66;

Image source: link.springer.com, accessed 4 February 2015

___________"International Humanitarian Law and Combat Casualties", (2005) 21 European Journal of Population  167-186;

___________"International Legal Aspects of Canadian Forces Experience in the Recent Gulf Conflict", in Canadian Council on International Law. Conference. (20th: 1991: Ottawa, Ontario), Canada and the Americas : proceedings, XXth annual conference, October 17-19, 1991, Ottawa, Ontario = Le Canada et les Amériques : travaux, xxe congrès annuel, 17-19 octobre, 1991, Ottawa, Ontario, Ottawa (Ont.) : Canadian Council on International Law = Conseil canadien de droit international, [1991], vii, 242 p. at p. 11, ISBN: 0920157181; copy at the University of Ottawa; title noted in my research but article not consulted (2 August 2008);

___________"Interdictions et restrictions apportées à l'utilisation de certains moyens et méthodes de guerre", (1992) 23(4) Études internationales 819-832; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/revue/ei/1992/v23/n4/703086ar.pdf (site visté le 28 février 2012);

___________"International Humanitarian Law and Criminal Trials", (1997) 7(1) Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 23-44;

___________"International Humanitarian Law / Law of Armed Conflict --Laws 2205.03...--Course Syllabus, draft 3 Jan 09", available at http://law.dal.ca/Files/Course_outlines%200809/International_Humanitraian_Law.pdf (accessed on  22 May 2012);

____________"International Legal Aspects of Canadian Forces Experience in the Recent Gulf Conflict", (1991) Canadian Council on International Law 13;

___________"Introductory Report: Military Objectives in the Law of Naval Warfare", in Round-Table of Experts on International Humanitarian Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (1989 : Ruhr-Universität Bochum) and Wolff Heintschel V. Heinegg.ed., The military objective and the principle of distinction in the law of naval warfare : report, commentaries, and proceedings of the Round-Table of Experts on International Humanitarian Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 10-14 November 1989 / edited by Wolff Heintschel ,  Bochum : UVB-Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, 1991, vi, 177 p., at p. 4 (series;  Bochumer Schriften zur Friedenssicherung und zum humanitären Völkerrecht ; Bd. 7), ISBN: 3883399337;

___________"Intervention by W.J. Fenrick (Canada) -- The Law of Naval Warfare", (1987) 26 Mil. L. & L. War Rev.  137-140;

___________Book Review, "Law and Conflict for the Contemporary Practitioner: Review of Kenneth Watkin: Fighting at the Legal Boundaries : Controlling the Use of Force in Contemporary Conflict (Oxford University Press, 2016)", 2 December 2016, available at https://lawfare.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/staging/2016/Fenrick%20Watkin%20Review%20Final.pdf and https://www.lawfareblog.com/law-and-conflict-contemporary-practitioner (accessed 13 December 2016);. 

___________"The Law of Armed Conflict: The Cushie Weapons Treaty", (1981) 11 Canadian Defence Quarterly 25-30;

____________ "The Law of War at Sea Today: Perspective from Canada", (1989) 3  Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General Journal 17-25;
____________ "Le droit de la guerre en mer de nos jours: Une perspective canadienne" (1989) 3 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 19-28;

__________"Legal Advisory Expertise", in Morten Bergsmo,, Klaus Rackwitz and SONG Tianying, eds., Historical Origins of International Criminal Law, Brussels:Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, 2017, xxxix, 1141 p.,   at pp. 513-514, ISBN: 978-82-8348-106-8 (print) and 978-82-8348-107-5 (e-book), available at  http://www.toaep.org/ps-pdf/24-bergsmo-rackwitz-song (accessed 1 June 2018);

___________"Legal Aspects of the Falklands Naval Conflict" (1985) 1 Canadian Forces  Judge Advocate General Journal 29-50;
___________"Les Aspects Juridiques de la Guerre Navale des Falklands" (1985) 1 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 31-53;

___________"Legal Limits on the Use of Force by Canadian Warships Engaged in Law Enforcement".(1980) 18 Canadian Yearbook of International Law (CYIL) 113-145; available in part at  https://books.google.ca/books?id=MwntRlhrmPIC&pg=PA115&lpg=PA115&dq=%22Canadian+Forces%22+%22legal+advisers%22&source=bl&ots=H3R0cXp-N6&sig=AOU2tyfziAOOq1k0_NsO3ssGT4M&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiQ8JKSqZjKAhXBlR4KHa-pDVE4ChDoAQg1MAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Canadian%20Forces%22%20%22legal%20advisers%22&f=false (accessed 7 January 2016);

___________"Leslie Claude Greeen: International Law Teacher", in Michael N. Schmitt, ed., International Law Across the Spectrum of Conflict: Essays in Honour of Professor L.C. Green On the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday, New Port, Rhode Island: Naval War College, 2000, at pp. xiii-xviii (series; International Law Series; vol. 75); available at http://www.usnwc.edu/Research---Gaming/International-Law/Studies-Series/documents/Naval-War-College-vol-75.aspx (accessed on 4 March 2012); also available at http://stockton.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1452&context=ils (accessed 26 December 2016);

__________"Legal aspects of use of force in peace time by CF maritime forces", Ottawa: Office of the Judge Advocate General, National Defence Headquarters, 1990 , 20 p.;

 Definition and status of warship. -- Domestic  law enforcement : jurisdiction : CF role : command and control : peace officer status : right of visit : use of force. -- Comment. -- Hot pursuit. -- Superior orders and liability. -- National Security. -- Selected comments on the Vincennes incident" (source: catalogue of the Canadian Forces College)

___________https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/william-fenrick/39/92/772, contains list of articles;

___________"The Merchant Vessel as Legitimate Target in the Law of Naval Warfare",  in Astrid J.M. Delissen and Gerard J. Tanja, eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead.  Essays in Honour of Frits Kalshoven, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1991, xxxiii, 668 p.at pp. 425-445, ISBN: 0792313356; notes: At head of title: T.M.C. Asser Instituut; available in part at http://books.google.ca/books?id=3dLjzfam03IC&pg=PA425&lpg=PA425&dq=william+j+fenrick&source=bl&ots=dyMwGzmSYL&sig=glJq2SZ_gCzWnFshkFUSuz_du48&hl=en&sa
(accessed on 8 March 2012);

Image source: www.routledge.com/Routledge-Handbook-of-the-Law-of-Armed-Conflict/Liivoja-McCormack/p/book/9780415640374, accessed 11 August 2016
___________"Methods of Land Warfare" in Rain Liivoja and Tim McCormack, eds., Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict, Oxon: Routledge, 2016 at p. 251 to approx. p. 263, ISBN:978-0-415-64037-4 (hbk) and 978-0-203-79836-2 (ebk);

___________"New Developments in the Law Concerning the Use of Conventional Weapons in Armed Conflict", (1981) 19 Canadian Yearbook of International Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international 229-256;

__________on FENRICK, Commander William J. (Bill), see "Fenrick receives Weldon Award for Work in International Humanitarian Law",  Hearsay: The Schulich School of Law Alumni, volume 35, winter 2013/14 at p. 30, available at https://cdn.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/law/Alumni/Hearsay_2014.pdf (accessed 20 August 2019);

___________on FENRICK, Commander William J., see McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at pp. 130, 168, 169, 170 and 213, available at 103-242;

___________"The Prosecution of War Criminals in Canada", (1989-90) 12 Dalhousie Law Journal 256-297; available at https://www.legal-tools.org/doc/4d1fda/pdf/ (accessed 27 Ocober 2018);

___________“Observations Concerning the Canadian Mission in Afghanistan and the Treatment of Detainees”, being Appendix 2 to Craig Scott, "Moral and Legal Responsibility with Respect to Alleged Mistreatment of Transferred Detainees in Afghanistan: Presentation to the House of Commons Special Committee on the Canadian Mission in Afganistan", Presentation to the House of Commons Special Committeeon the Canadian Mission in Afghanistan, finalized version 11 February 2010; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1552068 (accessed on 11 February 2014); also available at  http://nathanson.osgoode.yorku.ca/programs/conferences-workshops/2009-2010/special-forum-on-canadian-mission-afghanistan/commander-william-fenrick-observations/ (accessed 20 December 2015); IMPORTANT DOCUMENT

2. I retired from the CF in 1994. I have had access to no classified information concerning the mission and my friends and former colleagues in the CF have
 been particularly reticent concerning the detainee issue. I had an excellent understanding of how the CF implemented Canada’s International Humanitarian
 Law/Law of Armed Conflict (IHL/LOAC) obligations while I was a member of the CF. In particular: (i) I established the initial formal IHL/LOAC training
 program in the CF when I was Director of Legal Training and I was actively involved in such training throughout my career; (ii) I wrote an earlier draft of
 the current CF LOAC Manual; (iii) I was the senior IHL/LOAC adviser at National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) during the 1990-91 Gulf Conflict; and
 (iv) I was the first Director of Law for Operations from 1991 to 1994. I have had some peripheral involvement with IHL/LOAC training in the CF since my
 retirement and I believe I have a good understanding of how IHL/LOAC issues have been treated in the CF since my retirement.

3. The CF has as good an IHL/LOAC training program as any other country’s armed forces and a better program than the vast majority of armed forces. There
 are ample training materials available. The major materials are a Joint Doctrine Manual, Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, which
 is a basic legal text book, and a Collection of Documents on the Law of Armed Conflict which contains the texts of all relevant treaties and Canadian legislation.
 Both of these are accessible by the public. There is also a Code of Conduct for CF personnel which includes the following provisions: “4. Treat all civilians
 humanely and respect civilian property. 5. Do not attack those who surrender. Disarm and detain them. 6. Treat all detained persons humanely in accordance
 with the standard set by the Third Geneva Convention. Any form of abuse, including torture, is prohibited.” All members of the CF receive training in the Code
 of Conduct. It too is accessible to the public. As a well informed educated guess, I would think all members of the CF who are deployed on operations such as
 Afghanistan would receive additional training in IHL/LOAC, including the Code of Conduct.

4.  The CF also complies with Art 82 of Additional Protocol I (AP I) which requires that Canada “in time of armed conflict, shall ensure that legal advisers are
 available, when necessary, to advise military commanders at the appropriate level on the application of (IHL/LOAC) and on the appropriate instruction to be
 given to the armed forces on the subject.” All CF legal officers, beyond those at the most junior level, will have received one or more short courses on IHL/LOAC
 and, more recently, on Operations Law. Several legal officers at the intermediate and senior level have post graduate legal degrees in international law, including
IHL/LOAC. There are legal officers at the NDHQ level who work full time on international law issues, including IHL/LOAC, and who have a great deal of expertise
 in this area. In addition, legal officers are deployed on operations and some or all their time is devoted to advising on IHL/LOAC. Some legal officers in DFAIT also
 possess a high level of expertise in IHL/LOAC.

U.N. Commission of Experts' Final Meeting -- Mr. W. Fenrick seated, first on the right; image source: http://digital.case.edu/concern/images/ksl:mps17-photo-excomm0000001, accessed 14 March 2015 

___________"Professional Background" of William Fenrick, source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/william-fenrick/39/92/772, accessed 14 March 2015:

Professional background:

1. Professor of International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law, Dalhousie University, Schulich School of Law,
 Halifax Nova Scotia, 2005-2011

2. Senior Legal Adviser, Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (1994-2004).

3. Member United Nations Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 and Special Rapporteur
 for On-Site Investigations and for Legal Issues (part time only) (1992-94).

4. Member of Canadian Forces (1962-70, 1973-94) Retired with rank of Commander in Legal Branch.

5. Director of Law for Operations and Training, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1991-94.

6. Director of International Law, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1984-1991.

7. Director of Law for Training, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1983-1985.

8. Director of International Law, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1979-82.

9. Legal Officer, International Law Directorate, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 1977-79.

10. Assistant Deputy Judge Advocate (primarily employed as prosecutor or defending officer at courts martial), Halifax,

11. Naval Officer, National Defence Headquarters and HMCS Skeena, 1967-70

Image source: http://www.amazon.com/The-Handbook-International-Military-Operations/dp/0199641218, accessed on 15 November 2014

___________"The Prosecution of International Crimes in Relation to the Conduct of Military Operations", in Terry Gill and Dieter Fleck, eds., Handbook of the International Law of Military Operations, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2011, xxviii, 657 p., at pp. 501-514, ISBN13: 9780199545896; ISBN10: 0199545898; copy at Université Laval, Bibliothèque des sciences humaines et sociales;  see also 2nd edition, 2015  as chapter 29, ISBN: 978-0-19-874462-7 and ebook ISBN: 978-0-19-106208-7;

___________"The Prosecution of Unlawful Attack Cases Before the ICTY",  (2004) 7 Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 153-189;

___________"Reflections on the Canadian Experience with Law of Armed Conflict Manuals", in Nobuo Hayashi, ed., National Military Manuals on the Law of Armed Conflict, Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, 2008, at pp. 88-95; available at  http://kms1.isn.ethz.ch/serviceengine/Files/ISN/97486/ipublicationdocument_singledocument/702080ed-faaf-4ff2-9990-bdc4f244bc88/en/National_Military_Manuals_on_the_Law_of_Armed_Conflict.pdf and  http://www.fichl.org/fileadmin/fichl/documents/Pre-TOAEP/National_Military_Manuals_on_the_Law_of_Armed_Conflict.pdf (accessed on 8 March 2012); research: there is also a 2nd edition in 2010 with Fenrick's article at pp. 97-108; important contribution;

"The Sarajevo Op Justice Team.  Back row, from left: Maj Van Veen, Sgt Lamothe,
WO Murray-Ford, MCpl McCoomb, LCol Carter, PO Ross.  Front row: Maj Boutin,
Cdr Fenrick"  (text and image from McDONALD, R. Arthur McDonald, Canada's
Military Lawyers
, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at p. 169 available at  pp. 103-242.
___________"Report of Sarajevo On-Site Investigation" to the Commission of Experts under United Nations Security Council Resolution 780, 25 August 1993, 12 p.; Mr. Fenrick was the Special Rapporteur for On-Site Investigations; available at http://digitalcase.case.edu:9000/fedora/get/ksl:mps17-LtrToComm1993082500/mps17-LtrToComm1993082500.pdf (accessed 5 March 2015);

image source: http://iclr.bclawreview.org/
___________"Riding the Rhino : Attempting to Develop Usable Legal Standards for Combat Activities", (2007) 30(1) Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 111-137; available at http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1090&context=iclr (accessed on 8 March 2012);

__________"The Rule of Proportionality and Protocol I in Conventional Warfare", (1982) 98 Military Law Review 91-127;

___________"Should Crimes Against Humanity Replace War Crimes?", (1999) 37 Columbia Journal of Transnational  Law 767-785;

___________"Should the Laws of War Apply to Terrorists, Proceedings", (1985)  79th Annual Meeting of ASIL 112-114;

___________"Specific methods of warfare" in  Elizabeth Wilmshurst and Susan Breau, eds.,  Perspectives on the ICRC study on customary international humanitarian law,  Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007, at p. 238;

Image source: www.esil.sedi.eu, accessed 5 February 2015
___________"Targetting and Proportionality during the NATO Bombing Campaign Against Yougoslavia", (2001) 12 European Journal of International Law 489-502; available at (accessed 22 January 2015);

___________“The Rule of Proportionality and Protocol I in Conventional Warfare”, (1982) 98  Military Law Review 91-127;

___________"The Targeted Killings Judgment  and the Scope of Direct Participation in Hostilities", (2007) 5(2) Journal of International Criminal Justice 332-338;

___________under the direction of, and prepared by Members of Canada's Contributed Personnel to the Commission of Experts (Canadian War Crimes Investigation Team), "Incident study report regarding mortar shelling Dobrinja, Sarajevo", United Nations, Security Council, S/1994/674/Add.2 (Vol. III), 28 December 1994, Annex VI.A of Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780 (1992), available at http://archive.li/RZi0b#selection-213.0-217.39  (accessed 17 July 2017);

___________"The United Nations Commission of Experts on War Crimes in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia: A Personal Assessment", published in Proceedings of 1994 Canadian Council of International Law Annual Meeting;

FENRICK, William J., Member and Rapporteur on On-Site Investigations, Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), and contributors: Major J. Holland, Canadian Armed Forces, Member of Canada's Contributed Personnel to the Commission of Experts; Major P. Olson, Canadian Armed Forces, Member of Canada's Contributed Personnel to the Commission of Experts, and others, Final Report of the United Nations Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), Annex X.B Mass Graves, Pakracka Poljana, Unpa Sector West,  Croatia, notes: S/1994/674/Annex X.B; available at http://digitalcase.case.edu:9000/fedora/get/ksl:mps17-FRAnnex10b000000000/mps17-FRAnnex10b000000000.pdf (accessed on 5 March 2015);

FENRICK, William J. and Major A.J. van Veen, The battle of Sarajevo and the law of armed conflict, Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780 (1992), S/1994/674/Add.2 (Vol. I),  28 December 1994; note: William J. Fenrick Member and Rapporteur on On-Site Investigations, Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992) and Major A.J. van Veen, Canadian Armed Forces; Member of Canada's Contributed Personnel to the Commission of Experts; available at http://www.phdn.org/archives/www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/comexpert/ANX/VI-B.htm  (accessed 3 Ocober 2015);


Allan Fenske,  photo reproduced from http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/ab-pc/cm-mc/fenske-eng.html (accessed on 5 August 2014)

FENSKE,  Allan F., Biographical notes on Allan Fenske:
Colonel (Retired) Allan Fenske has been appointed part-time member of the Military Grievances External Review Committee
for a three-year term, starting June 13, 2014.

Mr. Fenske brings to the Committee extensive experience in military law and security issues, as well as substantial knowledge of
the terms and conditions pertaining to military service.

From 1968 to 1975, Mr. Fenske served as air navigator and completed operational tours on the Argus maritime patrol aircraft, as
well as on Sea King ship-borne helicopters.

On completion of his legal training, in 1980, he joined the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG). As part of the JAG
organization, Mr. Fenske served, for 25 years, in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, in Canada and abroad.

His senior appointments included Deputy JAG Human Resources, Deputy JAG Advisory and Legislation, Team Leader of the National
Defence Act
Amendment Team and Advisor to the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice chaired by former Chief Justice of Canada, Brian Dickson.

As well, he served, from 1998 to 2000, as Deputy Legal Advisor and General Counsel in the Office of the Department of National Defence/Canadian Armed
 Forces Legal Advisor and, from 2003 to 2005, as Director General Canadian Forces Grievance Authority.

Mr. Fenske holds a Master’s Degree in Public Administration from Harvard University, a Diploma in Legislative Drafting from the University of Ottawa, a
 Bachelor of Laws from Dalhousie University and a Bachelor of Arts from Saint Mary’s University. He is a graduate of the NATO Defence College
 and the Rotman School of Management’s Advanced Program in Human Resource Management (source: http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/ab-pc/cm-mc/fenske-eng.html
(accessed on 5 August 2014)


Le colonel à la retraite Allan Fenske a été nommé membre à temps partiel du Comité externe d’examen des griefs militaires. Son mandat de trois ans a
 débuté le 13 juin 2014.

M. Fenske possède une vaste expérience dans le domaine du droit militaire et dans les questions de sécurité; il a aussi une excellente connaissance des
 termes et des conditions applicables au service militaire.

De 1968 à 1975, M. Fenske était navigateur aérien et a participé à des affectations opérationnelles à bord de l’avion de patrouille maritime Argus et des
 hélicoptères embarqués Sea King.

En 1980, après avoir complété ses études en droit, il s’est joint au cabinet du juge-avocat général (JAG) où il a travaillé pendant 25 ans occupant divers
 postes au Canada et à l’étranger et se voyant confier de plus en plus de responsabilités.

M. Fenske a occupé plusieurs postes supérieurs au bureau du JAG: JAG adjoint - Ressources humaines, JAG adjoint - Consultations et lois, chef d’équipe
 au sein de l’équipe chargée des modifications à la Loi sur la défense nationale et conseiller auprès du groupe consultatif spécial sur la justice militaire
 présidé par l’ancien juge en chef du Canada, Brian Dickson.

De plus, M. Fenske a travaillé de 1998 à 2000 comme conseiller juridique adjoint et comme avocat général au bureau du conseiller juridique du ministère
 de la Défense nationale et des Forces armées canadiennes, puis de 2003 à 2005 comme directeur général – Autorité des griefs des Forces canadiennes.

M. Fenske détient une maîtrise en administration publique de l’Université Harvard, un diplôme en rédaction législative de l’Université d’Ottawa, un
 baccalauréat en droit de l’Université de Dalhousie et un baccalauréat ès arts de la Saint Mary’s University. Il est diplômé du Collège de défense de
 l’OTAN et de la Rotman School of Management (programme avancé) en gestion des ressources humaines.
 (source: http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/ab-pc/cm-mc/fenske-fra.html, 5 août 2014)

___________Biographical notes on Allan Fenske:

June 27, 2014

Mr. Allan Fenske has been appointed as part-time member of the Military Grievances External Review Committee. As such, Mr. Fenske will
 review grievances referred to the Committee by the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) and will issue findings and recommendations to the
 CDS and to the military member who submitted the grievance.

Mr. Fenske, a retired Colonel, has extensive legal expertise in military law and security issues. He held various positions within National
 Defence, particularly within the Judge Advocate General’s (JAG) organization, as Deputy JAG Advisory and Legislation and Deputy JAG
 Human Resources.  He also occupied the position of Director General Canadian Forces Grievance Authority and worked as legal advisor for
 other federal government departments. Mr. Fenske holds a Masters in Public Administration from Harvard University, a Bachelor of Laws
 and a Bachelor of Arts (Political Science) respectively from Dalhousie University and Saint Mary’s University.
(source: http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/mr-sm/wn-qn/2014/140627-eng.html, accessed 3 May 2015);

____________"Evolution of the Code of Service Discipline into the twenty-first Century: A Canadian Perspective", Address to the Canadian Bar Association, Commonwealth Association of Armed Forces Lawyers, 28 August 1996, unpublished paper,  mentioned in Jerry S.T. Pitzul, Brigadier-General,  and John C. Maguire, Commander, "A Perspective on Canada's Code of Service Discipline",  JAG Newsletter, Vol.IV: Oct-Dec 1999, pp. 6-16 at p. 12, note 44;

____________"Grievance reform : from insight to action in search of alignment [presentation slides]", in Military Law Section, CLE Conference : unravelling the mystery : the key to military administrative law = Conférence de la FJP de la Section du droit militaire : les Secrets du droit administrative dévoilés, Ottawa : Canadian Bar Association, 2003, 1 v. (various pagings) ; 28 cm; Note: "October 22, 2003/22 octobrer [sic] 2003 Ottawa, Ontario"; source: http://library.lsuc.on.ca/vwebv/holdingsInfo?searchId=612&recCount=10&recPointer=3&bibId=43343&searchType=7, accessed 9 October 2017;


___________"The Law of War: Legal Limitations on the Use of  Weapons?" (1987) 2 Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General Journal 31-58;
___________"Le droit de la guerre: limitations juridiques sur l'utilisation des armes nucléaires?", (1987) 2 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 33-62;

___________"Military Justice: A Progress Report on Current Concerns and  Directions for Reform" "- Overheads", p. 14", MJ 031F,  mentioned in the Report of the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services, supra, p. 36,  note 22;

___________on FENSKE, Colonel Alan, see McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at pp. 163 and 184, available at 103-242;

___________Photo: from the left: Allan Fenske, Pierre Boutet and Bill Reed, Mixed Dining-In, 10 April 2003, photo reproduced from JAG Newsletter, 2004, volume 1 at p.  5

___________"Retirement Colonel Allan Fenske, OMM, CD, QC", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 6;
___________"Retraite du colonel Allan Fenske, O.M.M., CD, c.r.", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 6; 

___________Testimony of Col. A.F. Fenske, Office of the Judge Advocate General on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts

Before the Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs:
- Meeting number 49, 22 April 1998, see minutes and evidence;

"There are two aspects I would raise for you. The first one is that at the end of November 1997 regulations were issued with respect to
 summary trials. The summary trials process, as many of you know, in fact deals with about 90% of our discipline. A lot of change has
 been built into that already, and there's training ongoing for that now.

The second thing is that one of the recommendations—and this was made in different ways, but both from the commission and the
 Dickson review group—was that there be more training with respect to military justice responsibilities. This is a big job, but we're
 working on it now."

- Meeting number 61, 11 May 1998, see minutes and evidence;

- Meeting number 65, 14 May 1998, see  minutes and evidence;

- concerning Bill C-42, the Public Safety Act, 6 December 2001; Col McAlea also testified with Col. Fenske; available at
 http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=e&Mode=1&Parl=37&Ses=1&DocId=1041247 (accessed 27 February 2017);

Before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs:

- Issue number 33, 1 October 1998, see minutes and evidence;
- Issue number 39, 29 October 1998, see minutes and evidence;
- Issue number 40, 4 November 1998, see minutes and evidence;
- Issue number 41, 5 November 1998, see minutes and evidence;

Warren Fenson, photo source: JAG Newsletter / Les actualités, vol. 1, 2003 at p. 53

FENSON, Major Warren, "Afghanistan: A JAG Officers Field Primer" (2003) vol. 1 JAG Newswletter 71-75;

___________ "Claim procedure and natural justice in the Balkans" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1-2; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
___________ "Précis : La résolution des conflits et la justice naturelle dans les Balkans" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1; disponible http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (site visité le 18 avril 2012);

___________"Identification of combatants: Tactical problems in Afghanistan" (February/Février 2003) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1, 5 and 6; available at  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125062546/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaledec2002.pdf (accessed on 19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : L'identification des combattants : problèmes tactiques en Afghanistan" (February/Février 2003) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1 et 5; disponible à  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125062546/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaledec2002.pdf (site visité le 19 avril  2012);

___________"Legal Aspects of Piracy", power point presentation, 24 slides; available http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&ved=0CEIQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.navy.forces.gc.ca%2Fnavy_images%
(accessed on 29 March 2012);  Major Fenson, at the time of the making of the undated document, was Deputy Judge Advocate at Esquimalt, B.C., Office of the Judge Advocate General;

___________Linked in at https://ca.linkedin.com/in/warren-fensom-0901812b (accessed 6 April 2017);

___________"Military Justice: Reflections from Past JAG Newsletters", (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 53-55;

Major Warren Fenson in Afghanistan, see image source: http://web.archive.org/web/20050408045600/http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/Feature_Story/2003/may03/05_f_e.asp
___________Notes on Warren Fenson, available at http://www.aach.net/bio.php  (accessed on 31 May 2012); other notes on Warren Fenson available at  https://www.linkedin.com/pub/warren-fensom/2b/181/90?trk=pub-pbmap (accessed on 30 April 2015);

Legal Advisor
HMCS Winnipeg, NATO
(3 months)

for Counter Piracy Deployed on short notice as on board legal advisor to the Commander including over 60 days uninterrupted sea-time in the Gulf of Aden and off the Coast of
Somalia. This Anti-Piracy mission was the first time that the Royal Canadian Navy was directly focused on such a task. Provided legal advice concerning the law of piracy and the
 use of force including advice to the Commander while on the bridge during active encounters with pirates.

2007 to 2011 Deputy Judge Advocate: Esquimalt British Columbia When not otherwise deployed, provided legal advice on all matters of military issues including boards of
 inquiry, discipline and operational issues. - In 2010 deployed aboard HMCS Vancouver for a 5 day domestic operation to support the RCMP with the interception and seizure
 of an illegal immigrate vessel.

2006 to 2007 Legal Advisor to Administrative Support Investigation Centre (ASIC; Was the first full time legal officer dedicated to ASIC to support their aim of improving
 boards of inquiries and other administrative investigations for the Canadian Forces. - In that capacity, was the officer responsible for the development of a Administrative
 Law Boards of Inquiry Course for the Office of the Judge Advocate General.

2005 to 2006 Language Training Ottawa: - French language.

2002 to 2005 Directorate of Training: Ottawa was the officer responsible for the development of Law of Armed Conflict Training for the Canadian Forces. Was the lead
 officer for many LOAC courses delivered across Canada for 3 years. Lead a team to Jamaica three times to provide the LOAC course to the Jamaican Defence Force and
 forces from other Caribbean Nations. Presented on the topic of the Canadian Forces system in development of LOAC in Geneva. In 2004, deployed for 30 days. [Excerpt,
 https://ca.linkedin.com/in/warren-fensom-0901812b, accessed 13 January 2016]

___________on Warren Fensom, see Farrell, Jim, "Duty called Canadian to 'Kandahar Bar' Practice", Edmonton Journal 19 February 2002 at p. A2, available at https://www.newspapers.com/ (accessed 15 May 2020);

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Maj Warren Fenson

___________on Warren Fensom, see GREEN, Ben "Lawyer brings occupational skills and hockey to Afghanistan", Lookout, 26 April 2011, at pp. 13 and 14; available at http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/56/2011-04-26-17.pdf (accessed 15 August 2018); about Maj Warren Fensom;

___________on Warren Fensom, see GRIMARD, Christine, "Military lawyer won ‘hearts and minds’ in combat zone", 2003-06-24, Department of National Defence, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030729145402/http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/feature_story/2003/may03/05_f_e.asp (accessed 22 November 2015);

___________"Op Apollo--Six Weeks in Adfhanistan", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 62-63;
___________ "Op Apollo -- Six semaines en Afghanistan",  (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 64-65;

___________"Rules of Engagement Training -- A JAG's Perspective" in Army Lessons Learned Center, Dispatches, Lessons Learned for Soldiers -- Rules of Engagement, Vol. 7, No. 1, October 2000 (Kingston, ON: Canada Communications Group, 2000).; available at http://web.mac.com/dmlast/DavidMLast/Mongolia_files/vol7no1-ROE-_e.pdf (accessed on 29 March 2012); ce document est aussi disponible en français dans la publication Dépêches, volume 7, numéro 1, octobre 2000; publiée par le Centre des Leçons Retenues de L'armée est situé à Kingston, Ontario;

Francesca Ferguson

FERGUSON, Francesca, "From Reservist to Full-time Professional in the Forces", Get to Know Your Forces, available at http://www.forces.ca/en/profile/gettoknowyourforces-213?pedisable=true (accessed 8 August 2016);

Francesca Ferguson                                                                                                 Image source for the above: https://twitter.com/forcesjobs/status/770966076096217088, accessed 3 June 2017

___________Francesca Ferguson, a JAG officer in a 2016 Canadian Forces recruiting video for military lawyers, available at http://media.forces.ca/_VIDEOS2010/00204_legalofficer_en.mp4 (accessed 25 December 2016);

 Source: ca.linkedin.com/in/stevenfouchard, consulté le 16 mars 2019
Steven Fouchard
___________on Ferguson, Francesca, see FOUCHARD, Steven, Armée canadienne, Affaires publiques de l'armée, "Avocat militaire : une expérience professionnelle « dynamique » ", Article / Le 19 janvier 2017 / Numéro de projet : 16-0114, disponible à  http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/fr/nouvelles-publications/nationaux-nouvelles-details.page?doc=avocat-militaire-une-experience-professionnelle-dynamique/ix1xwnsk(vérifié le 20 janvier 2017); article sur deux officiers du JAG: Captaine Francesca Ferguson et le  Lieutenant-Colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay;

"Canadian Armed Forces legal officer Captain Francesca Ferguson                     "Canadian Armed Forces legal officer Captain Francesca Ferguson during her                
during her training at Canadian Forces Military Law Centre in Kingston,            training at Canadian Forces Military Law Centre in Kingston, Ontario. Capt
Ontario. Capt Ferguson, who completed her schooling while working                 Ferguson, who completed her schooling while working as an Army Reservist,
 as an Army Reservist, says her work offers a wide variety of experiences          says her work offers a wide variety of experiences and a high degree of
 and a high degree of independence. Photo by Adam Dargavel, ©2015               independence. Photo by Adam Dargavel, ©2015 DND/MDN Canada."
DND/MDN Canada."
___________ on Ferguson, Francesca, see FOUCHARD, Steven, Canadian Army, Army Public Affairs, "Legal Officer: a ‘dynamic’ career experience",  Article / January 19, 2017 / Project number: 16-0114; available at http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/en/news-publications/national-news-details-no-menu.page?doc=legal-officer-a-dynamic-career-experience/ix1xwnsk, accessed 20 January 2017; article about two JAG legal officers: Captain Francesca Ferguson and Lieutenant-Colonel Marie-Ève Tremblay; also published in the Western Sentinel, 2 February 2017, at p. 10, available at http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/edmonton-sun-western-sentinel/edmonton_western_sentinel-0202/2017013101/10.html#10 (accessed 12 March 2017);

Capt Francesca Ferguson
___________on Ferguson, Francesca, see CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, "Legal Officer in the Canadian Armed Forces", You Tube published 6 August 2016; officers involved in the video are Lt(N) Derek Schroeder and Capt Francesca Ferguson available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTfB1jFpxcU  (accessed 8 August 2016);

___________photo of Francesca Ferguson with other JAG members:

"From left, Marc-Andre Vary, Francesca Ferguson and Gary Pattison, lawyers
with the Canadian Armed Forces, were out to support the band Lateby10 at
Rockable Hours, held at Babylon nightclub on Bank Street on Friday, Sept. 21,
2018. Photo by Caroline Phillips", source: obj.ca/article/legal-community-amps-it-rockable-
, accessed 7 June 2019.

FERGUSSON, Alex S.,  died in 1956, legal officer during World War II, see "[Death notice] Alex S. Fergusson", The Globe and Mail, 30 January 1956, at p. 4:

ProQuest Historical Newspapers

___________Capt A.A. Fergusson was the prosecutor in the following court martial referred in the article: "Court-Martial Tries Charges of Criminal Negligence", Globe and Mail, 1944/01/07, available at https://collections.museedelhistoire.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5028991 (accessed 4  September 2018);

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___________Capt A.S. Fergusson was the prosecutor in the following court martial referred in the article: "Three Officers Before General Court-Martial.  Charge of Negligence Following Death of Soldier.  Plea of Not Guilty Entered By Capt. G.G. Alleyn", Hamilton Spectator, 1944/01/06, available at https://collections.museedelhistoire.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5028992 (accessed 4 June 2019);

___________Major A.S. Fergusson was the Judge-advocate in the court martial of Lieutenant-Colonel N.A. McIntosh referred to in the article: "Officer Freed of Charge at Court Martial: Wins Acquittal at Trial of Ill-Treating Soldier", Hamilton Spectator, 1944/08/03, available at https://collections.warmuseum.ca/warclip/pages/warclip/ResultsList.php?QueryName=WarclipCustomQueryForm&WarclipCounter=WarclipCounter&RelevanceRanking=WarclipRelevanceRanking&lang=0&any=AdmWebMetadata&subject=WarSubjectMetaData&headline=WarHeadline&title=ObjTitle&SearchWord=prosecutor&QueryWord=all&QueryOption=any&image_x=0&image_y=0&StartAt=181 (accessed 5 June 2019);

[Title of the article omitted from the image of the article.]

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                                                                                                                                      Stéphanie von Hlatky                                                Viviana Fernandez
Source of images: www.wiiscanada.org/  (accessed 16 September 2016)

FERNANDEZ, Viviana, Stéphanie von Hlatky, Women in International Security Canada, Gender Mainstreaming in the Canadian Armed Forces : Benchmarking with NATO Allies and Partners, Executive Summary from the Workshop: Gender and the Armed Forces, Women in International Security Canada, 23 November 2015, 3 p.; available at http://www.wiiscanada.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/WIISLogoExecutive-Summary-SVH-Fernandez_SvH.pdf (accessed 16 September 2016); note:"The workshop was sponsored by the Centre for International and Defence Policy, the Defence Engagement Program and the Conference on Defence Associations Institute";


Harry Ferne, source of image:
The Ottawa Citizen, 22 May 2003, at p. D16.

FERNE, Harry C., 1918-2003, former JAG officer, 1952-1972, see obituary at http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=harry-ferne&pid=157402693, appeared in The Ottawa Citizen, 21 May 2003 (accessed 13 December 2015);

___________"Harry Ferne -- Obituary", The Times Colonist, 21 May 2003; available at https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/timescolonist/obituary.aspx?n=harry-ferne&pid=157463353 (accessed 15 August 2018);


FERNE Harry Curtis, Colonel CD (Ret'd) born January 26, 1918 in Fort MacLeod, Alberta passed away on May 17, 2003 at Victoria General Hospital
with his loving family by his side. Predeceased by his parents Ernest and Doris, twin brother Ernest and his beloved wife Jessie. Harry is survived by
his devoted children, Ernie (Jill), Don (Judi), Doug (Ruth), Barbara (Chris) Valentine. His grandchildren Sandra, Tracy, Andrew, Jessie, Jillian, Kim
(Peter), Katie (Dave), Mark (Tammie), Kevin (Darcie), Mandy, Curtis and great grandson Owen. Also survived by his brother Dave (Joy) and their
families. Harry received his teacher's certificate in 1940. He joined the Royal Canadian Navy September 1940 and served at sea for the duration of
the Second World War. Harry received his law degree from the University of British Columbia in 1950 and was accepted to the Law Society of
British Columbia. In 1952 he returned to the Armed Forces as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Branch, retiring from the Armed Forces
in 1972. He became a Commissioner with the Canadian Pension Commission in Ottawa until 1974. Harry then returned to British Columbia as a
solicitor with the AttorneyGeneral's Department, until 1982. During his retirement years, Harry served on the Board of the Victoria College
Craigdarroch Alumni Association as Vice-President. He began writing poetry and has been published by the International Poet's Society. The
cornerstone of Harry's life was his family. He embraced the concept of family and the strength of the family unit. In his words "the family is my
joy forever". Visitation for family and friends will be held at McCALL BROS., Johnson and Vancouver Streets, Victoria, B.C. on Wednesday,
May 21st from 6:30 to 8:30 p.m. Funeral Service will be held Thursday, May 22nd, at 1:00 p.m. at McCall Bros. Floral Chapel. Interment will
follow at Royal Oak Burial Park, 4673 Falaise Drive. If desired, donations may be made in memory of Harry Ferne to the Craigdarroch Castle
Historical Society, 1050 Joan Crescent, Victoria, B.C. V8S 3L5

He joined the Royal Canadian Navy September 1940 and served at sea for theduration of the Second World War. Harry received his law degree from the University of British Columbia in 1950 and was accepted to the Law Society of British Columbia. In 1952 he returned to the Armed Forces as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Branch, retiring from the Armed Forces in 1972. He became a Commissioner with the Canadian Pension Commission in Ottawa until 1974. Harry then returned to British Columbia as a solicitor with the AttorneyGeneral's Department, until 1982.

___________on FERNE, Captain(N) Harold (Harry), see  McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at pages 90 and 213, available at  103-242;

___________on FERNE, Commander H.C., from Ottawa, as the Judge-Advocate in the court martial referred to in the article: "Severe Rerimand issued--Captain Guilty of negligence in grounding", The Globe and Mail, 17 October 1968, at p. 8:

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

ProQuest Historical Newspapers
https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.biblioottawalibrary.ca...., accessed 24 November 2018

___________photo of FERNE, Harry C., Commander, see "Now, Let Me Consider This...",  The Windsor Star, Windsor, Ontario, 23 January 1965 at p. 12, available at https://www.newspapers.com/...., accessed 28 May 2020;

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

Roseline Fernet, source de l'image: everitas.rmcclub.ca/you-may-know
, consultée le 7 décembre 2019.

FERNET, Roseline, Capitaine avocate, membre du Barreau du Québec et du Cabinet du Juge-avocat général, admise au Barreau du Québec en 2018;

Image source: , accessed 2 June 2017
James Ferrabe
FERRABE, James, Southam News, "[ A Canadian military judge ruled Tuesday that... ]", CanWest News, Mar 7, 1989, p.1; note: court martial held in Lahr, Federal Republic of Germany; pleaded guilty to manslaughter; LCol Alain Ménard, defending officer;

Description: Although the defence has argued it was a civilian crime, [Pierre Boutet] said because
[Christian Pepin] was a member of the military serving overseas
and because there is a genuine and
intense interest of the military community in it, "the court concludes there exists a military nexus
sufficiently strong" for the
court-martial to hear the case. Pepin and [Antonnette Charest] travelled
to Vasarosnameny, Hungary, in Pepin's car and checked into a hotel June 2. Charest was found dead
in the hotel room the next morning by the hotel staff. Pepin was arrested by Hungarian police the
next day in Nyiregyhaza, a town about 40 kilometers away.
Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved

Jesse Ferreras, image source:                                        Abigail Bimman, image source:
globalnews.ca/author/jesse-ferreras/                             globalnews.ca/author/abigail-bimman/

FERRERAS, Jesse and Abigail Bimman, "Canadian victims gain new rights in military courts, they just can’t use them yet", Global News, 19 July 2019, available at https://globalnews.ca/news/5656820/canada-victims-rights-military-justice/ (accessed 20 July 2019); on Bill C-77;

Marc-André Ferron (Photo: Catherine Harrop/CBC), image source:

FERRON, Marc-André, Capitaine, membre de l'étude du JAG, travaille pour le Directeur des poursuites dans Obele Ngoudni F. (Caporal-chef), R. c., 2017 CM 4019 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/hqf4p>, consulté le 8 mai 2018;

Delphine Jung, source:                         Marc-André Ferron

__________sur FERRON, Marc-André, voir  JUNG, Delphine, "Un avocat [Marc-André Ferron] au service des militaires", http://www.droit-inc.com/DROIT-INC, nouvelles, 7 septembre 2017 disponible à http://www.droit-inc.com/article21085-Un-avocat-au-service-des-militaires (site consulté le 9 septembre 2017);

                                        Le jeune homme [Marc-André Ferron] originaire de Repentigny se lance alors en droit, à l’Université de Sherbrooke. Barreau 2011, il fait ensuite une maîtrise
                                        en droit international.   C’est là que ses professeurs lui parlent du juge-avocat général, le JAG, dans les Forces armées canadiennes.

                                        Après avoir travaillé au DPCP et au Tribunal spécial pour le Liban à La Haye, le Capitaine Ferron pose sa candidature pour entrer dans les Forces armées en 2014.

Marc-André Ferron

__________sur FERRON, Marc-André, voir Linked in à   https://ca.linkedin.com/in/marc-andr%C3%A9-ferron-651b74ab?trk=public_profile_browsemap_mini-profile_title (consulté le 2 juin 2019);

___________"Tribunal spécial pour le Liban.  La diversité juridique, linguistique et culturelle au service du droit international",  Paroles de droit, Faculté de droit de l'Université de Sherbrooke, volume 6, numéro 1, hiver 2014. à la p. 28; disponible à https://www.usherbrooke.ca/droit/fileadmin/sites/droit/documents/publications/Paroles_de_Droit-Hiver2014.pdf (consulté le 7 août 2018);

Après avoir brièvement pratiqué le droit  criminel comme procureur, j’ai fait partie de
la première cohorte de la maîtrise en droit international et politique internationale
appliqués (DIPIA). Cette maîtrise a pourobjectif de développer les compétences
nécessaires pour devenir un acteur de la scène internationale. J’ai rédigé des avis
juridiques, participé à une simulation de négociation et plaidé devant un banc de
juges internationaux lors du Concours de droit international Charles-Rousseau tenu
en Roumanie.


FERRON, Martin, avocat, membre du Barreau du Québec (2012), membre du Cabinet du Juge-avocat général (renseignements en date du 28 juin 2018); travaille au Cabinet du Juge-avocat général, Selfkant-Kaserne, Quimperlestrasse 100, Geilenkirchen 52511, ALLEMAGNE (renseignements en date du 31 décembre 2018);

Source of image: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Selfkant-Kaserne_in_Niederheid.jpg, accessed 10 April 2020

FETTERLY, R. W. (Robert Warren --"Bob"),
Lieutenant-Commander, legal officer with the OJAG (reserve force in 2009 and LCdr); was with the Directorate of Military Prosecutions and counsel for Her Majesty The Queen in the case of  McKoena D.K.K. (Captain), R. v., 2005 CM 6 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/282kt> (accessed 10 May 2018);

___________notes on Mr. Robert Fetterly, available at https://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20041115002 (accessed 10 March 2019);

Mr. Fetterly, a native of Oromocto, N.B., is a 1983 graduate of the University of Victoria Law School,
in Victoria, B.C. In 2002,
he received a master in of public administration from Dalhousie University.
Before joining the Nova Scotia Public Prosecution
Service in 1989, he was in private practice in British
and later in Nova Scotia. He was appointed senior Crown attorney in 1995 and in 2002 he was
appointed senior Crown counsel. In
2003 he was appointed acting chief Crown attorney for Dartmouth
and then Queen's counsel. Since 1978, Mr. Fetterly has also been in the naval reserve. He is currently a
lieutenant-commander and
a reserve military prosecutor in the Judge Advocate General reserve. He will
help manage the Dartmouth office of 13 Crown
attorneys and eight support staff.

____________photo hereunder of Rob Fetterly with Commander Peter Lamont, image source: publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2010/forces/D1-16-2009-eng.pdf, at p. 125:

LCdr Rob Fetterly, legal officer, Reserve Force, right, with
military judge, Commander Peter Lamont

____________research note on Rob Fetterly: as of 2019, Robert W. Fetterly was a Crown Attorney in Orangeville, Ontario, see https://www.lawyerscanada.net/robert-w-fetterly/, accessed 20 July 2020;

Stew Fettes

FETTES, Stew, "Civilian courts should handle military accused of crime", Regina Reader Post, 14 October 2016; available at  (accessed 25 October 2016); Mr. Fettes is President of the Regina Civil Liberties Association;

The Canadian Forces is pondering the idea of those accused of military sex crimes being tried in civilian courts rather than in a court martial.

What that means is those accused of atrocious acts will go to a public trial. If convicted, they will feel the wrath of Canadians, the embarrassment that goes along with it, fines, jail time and other penalties.

The old paramilitary organization we call the RCMP should also switch to a civilian process.


FERNE, Harry Curtis Colonel CD (Ret'd) Born January 26, 1918 in Fort MacLeod, Alberta, passed away on May 17, 2003 at Victoria General Hospital with his loving family by his side. Predeceased by his parents Ernest and Doris, his twin brother Ernest and his beloved wife Jessie. Harry is survived by his devoted children, Ernie (Jill), Don (Judi), Doug (Ruth), Barbara (Chris) Valentine; his grandchildren Sandra, Tracy, Andrew, Jessie, Jillian, Kim (Peter), Katie (Dave), Mark (Tammie), Kevin (Darcie), Mandy, Curtis and great-grandson Owen. Also survived by his brother Dave (Joy) and their families. Harry received his teacher's certificate in 1940. He joined the Royal Canadian Navy in September 1940 and served at sea for the duration of the Second World War. Harry received his law degree from the University of British Columbia in 1950 and was accepted to the Law Society of British Columbia. In 1952 he returned to the Armed Forces as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Branch, retiring from the Armed Forces in 1972. He became a Commissioner with the Canadian Pension Commission in Ottawa until 1974. Harry then returned to British Columbia as a solicitor with the Attorney General's Department, until 1982. During his retirement years, Harry served on the Board of the Victoria College Craigdarroch Alumni Association as Vice-President. He began writing poetry and has been published by the International Poet's Society. The cornerstone of Harry's life was his family. He embraced the concept of family and the strength of the family unit. In his words "the family is my joy forever". Funeral Service will be held Thursday, May 22nd, at 1:00 p.m. at McCall Bros. Floral Chapel, 1400 Vancouver Street, Victoria, B.C. A memorial service will be held in Ottawa at a later date. If desired, donations may be made in memory of Harry Ferne to the Craigdarroch Castle Historical Society, 1050 Joan Crescent, Victoria, B.C. V8S 3L5 McCall Bros. of Victoria 250-385-4465

Published in The Ottawa Citizen on May 21, 2003
- See more at: http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=harry-ferne&pid=157402693#sthash.KxIC9UC3.dpuf


FERNE, Harry Curtis Colonel CD (Ret'd) Born January 26, 1918 in Fort MacLeod, Alberta, passed away on May 17, 2003 at Victoria General Hospital with his loving family by his side. Predeceased by his parents Ernest and Doris, his twin brother Ernest and his beloved wife Jessie. Harry is survived by his devoted children, Ernie (Jill), Don (Judi), Doug (Ruth), Barbara (Chris) Valentine; his grandchildren Sandra, Tracy, Andrew, Jessie, Jillian, Kim (Peter), Katie (Dave), Mark (Tammie), Kevin (Darcie), Mandy, Curtis and great-grandson Owen. Also survived by his brother Dave (Joy) and their families. Harry received his teacher's certificate in 1940. He joined the Royal Canadian Navy in September 1940 and served at sea for the duration of the Second World War. Harry received his law degree from the University of British Columbia in 1950 and was accepted to the Law Society of British Columbia. In 1952 he returned to the Armed Forces as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Branch, retiring from the Armed Forces in 1972. He became a Commissioner with the Canadian Pension Commission in Ottawa until 1974. Harry then returned to British Columbia as a solicitor with the Attorney General's Department, until 1982. During his retirement years, Harry served on the Board of the Victoria College Craigdarroch Alumni Association as Vice-President. He began writing poetry and has been published by the International Poet's Society. The cornerstone of Harry's life was his family. He embraced the concept of family and the strength of the family unit. In his words "the family is my joy forever". Funeral Service will be held Thursday, May 22nd, at 1:00 p.m. at McCall Bros. Floral Chapel, 1400 Vancouver Street, Victoria, B.C. A memorial service will be held in Ottawa at a later date. If desired, donations may be made in memory of Harry Ferne to the Craigdarroch Castle Historical Society, 1050 Joan Crescent, Victoria, B.C. V8S 3L5 McCall Bros. of Victoria 250-385-4465

Published in The Ottawa Citizen on May 21, 2003
- See more at: http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=harry-ferne&pid=157402693#sthash.1AQfNvgX.dpuf

Eugene R. Fidell, photo source: http://www.feldesmantucker.com/professionals/eugene-r-fidell, accessed on 7 April 2014

FIDELL, Eugene R., "A case of the slows", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 April 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/04/a-case-of-slows.html  (accessed on 15 April 2016); replies by Michel Drapeau and Pascal Lévesque;

The Star has this powerful editorial about the Canadian Forces investigation into inaction
in the face of the sexual abuse of children by Afghan forces.

____________"An acquittal in Canada", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 28 February 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/02/an-acquittal-in-canada.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 1 March 2018); court martial acquittal of Capt. Todd Bannister;

____________ "A Night to Remember", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 March 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/03/a-night-to-remember.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 19 March 2016); court martial acquittal of ex warrant officer Wade Pear;

___________"Auditor General reports on Canadian military justice", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 29 May 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2018/05/auditor-general-reports-on-canadian.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 30 May 2018);

___________"The back story on Canadian legislative proposal?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 May 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/05/the-back-story-on-canadian-legislative.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 14 May 2018);

___________"Beaudry & Stillman cases to be argued at SCC", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 25 March 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/03/beaudry-stillman-cases-to-be-argued-at.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 26 March 2019);

___________"Beaudry and Stillman hearing to be webcast", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 26 March 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/03/beaudry-and-stillman-hearing-to-be.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 27 March 2019);

____________ "Book Review --Gilles Létourneau & Michel Drapeau, Military Justice in Action: Annotated National Defence Legislation", the Federal Lawyer, July 2012, vol. 59, number 6, at pp. 74-75, available at http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Book-review-of-Military-justice-in-action-by-Mr.-Fidell.pdf (accessed on 29 April 2014);

___________"A case of the slows", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 31 January 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/01/a-case-of-slows.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 17 March 2015);

The Ontario Superior Court, per Judge Martin James, has granted a stay of proceedings in a case that began as a military justice matter. The reason:
 unreasonable delay by the Canadian Armed Forces, in violation of s. 11(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The decision is R. v. Ward,
2015 ONSC 83, available here. The Daily Observer has the story

___________"Beaudry fallout", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 13 November 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2018/11/beaudry-falllout.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 14 November 2018);

___________"Bill C-77 passes 3d reading in Senate of Canada",  lobal Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 20 June 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/06/bill-c-77-passes-3d-reading-in-senate.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 14 November 2018);

___________Blog comment on Mr. Justice Létourneau's own blog comments on MGen Blaise Cathcart, Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 May 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/05/toute-bonne-chose-une-fin.html  (accessed on 13 May 2017);

Justice Letourneau's comments are more personal in tone than I would have preferred. As editor, as well as someone who has followed CF military justice as closely
as an observer can from a distance, I would like to offer a different perspective. There have been major developments in Canadian military law over the last several
 years, and it is undeniable that the Canadian Forces' position has been sustained in several major cases in the Supreme Court of Canada. To the extent that some or
all of those cases should have come out differently, Parliament could enact corrective legislation (I can think of at least one example where it ought to do so).
Reference should also be made to the laudable efforts at outreach under Gen. Cathcart's leadership with respect to potential areas of reform.

___________"Canadian Armed Forces seek a stay of CMAC decision in Beaudry", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 25 September 2018 available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2018/09/canadian-armed-forces-seek-stay-of-cmac.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 26 September 2018);

One wonders how many of the 40 cases said to be of concern could be transferred to the civilian courts, where the
accused's right to a jury trial could be honored. Permitting those cases to proceed in the military courts would mean
they would have to be retried in the event the Supreme Court affirms the judgment in Beaudry. If you were on the
Supreme Court would you grant the requested stay? What if some of the 40 affected defendants preferred to continue
in military proceedings; can't they waive their right to a trial by jury? And finally, how much of a burden on the civilian
courts of Canada would it be to add 40 more?

___________"Canadian Federal Court decision on grievances and time limits", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 20 July 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/07/canadian-federal-court-decision-on.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 27 July 2016); deals with the of  Simms v. Attorney General, 2016 FC 770;

___________"Canadian legislative hearing on Bill C-77",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 November 2018, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2018/11/canadian-legislative-hearing-on-bill-c.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 5 November 2018);

___________"Canadian military justice system in the news", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 6 June 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/06/canadian-military-justice-system-in-news.html  (accessed on 7 June 2016);

___________"Catching up with the times",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 June 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2018/06/catching-up-with-times.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 12 June 2016);

___________"Comparative conviction rates: probative?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 23 October 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/10/comparative-conviction-rates-probative.html  (accessed on 26 October 2017); 

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/patrice-germain-83186183, accessed 4 August 2017
Captain Patrice Germain (photo above), appeared with Major Dylan for the appellant in Golzari; and
Lientenant-Colonel Jean-Bruno Cloutier and Lieutenant-Commander Mark Létourneau appeared for the respondent
___________"Conduct to the prejudice: need there be proof of actual prejudice?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 August 2017, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/08/conduct-to-prejudice-need-there-be.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 4 August 2017);

In an interesting decision, the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada, on an appeal by the government, has held that the prosecution need not prove actual prejudice
where the offense is conduct to the prejudice of good order and discipline. The case is R. v. Golzari, 2017 CMAC 3. Justice Richard Mosley wrote for a unanimous court: ...


___________"Court-martial of a retiree" Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 5 December 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/12/court-martial-of-retiree.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 6 December 2017); court martial of Retired Royal Canadian Navy commander Nord Mensah;

___________"Court-martial of ex-soldier for a 5-minute AWOL", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 January 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/01/court-martial-of-ex-soldier-for-5.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 17 March 2015); 

___________"Crossed sabres in Ottawa", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 13 March 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/03/crossed-sabres-in-ottawa.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 15 February 2014);

Documents made available on the web by Global News reveal a 2011 effort by the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Armed Forces to call into question public remarks by now-retired Justice Gilles Létourneau. Justice Létourneau, who served on the Federal Court of Appeal and the Court Martial Appeal Court, has been an articulate, respected voice for military justice reform, and responded firmly to a letter the JAG sent to the late Edmond P. Blanchard, who was at the time Chief Justice of the Court Martial Appeal Court.

___________"Crown appeals acquittal in Canadian case", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 10 April 2018, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/04/crown-appeals-acquittal-in-canadian-case.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 11 April 2018);  court martial of Capt. Todd Bannister;

___________"Decaux Principles Workshop", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 April 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/04/decaux-principles-workshop.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) and https://yale.app.box.com/s/74qu8slcxmgy4tltkh9ogi9jpaowspi7 (accessed on 4 April 2018); three Canadians participated in the making of the document: Hon. Guy Cournoyer, Judge of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada; Colonel-Maître Professor Michel William Drapeau; and Dr. Pascal Lévesque, from the law firm Fradette & Le Bel, Saguenay, Qc; 

The report of the March 23-24, 2018 Yale Law School workshop on the Draft UN Principles Governing the
Administration of Justice Through Military Tribunals -- "The Yale Draft" -- can be found here.

___________" 'Disgraceful conduct' ruling in Canada", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 6 May 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/05/disgraceful-conduct-ruling-in-canada.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 7 May 2019);  court martial of Capt. Todd Bannister;

___________"The European Court of Human Rights and Military Justice", in Michel Drapeau Law Office, ed.,  Winds of Change: Conference and Debate on Canadian Military Law, [Ottawa:] Michel Drapeau Law Office, 2016, 102 p., at pp. 35-43, NOTES: Conference held at the University of Ottawa, 13 November 2015; "For the first time an international academic conference on military law was held in Canada at the University of Ottawa with the focus on reform and comparative law" (Gilles Létourneau, Preface, p. 7);  "(Organizing Committee for the Conference: Michel W. Drapeau, Joshua M. Juneau, Walter Semianiw and Sylvie Corbin)";  "Speech transcribed by Joshua M. Juneau, p. 31; available at mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2015-Conference-Proceedings.pdf (accessed 20 January 2016);

___________"Federal Court of Canada remands grievance case to CDS", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 27 October 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/10/federal-court-of-canada-remands.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed 28 October 2015); on the case Ouellette v. Canada (Attorney General) 2015 FC 1185, File number T-677-14; redress of grievance case, available at http://decisions.fct-cf.gc.ca/fc-cf/decisions/en/item/120584/index.do (accessed 28 October 2015);

___________"Félicitations au colonel-maître® Drapeau", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 10 March 2020, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/03/felicitions-au-colonel-maitre-drapeau.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed 11 March 2020) ; 

___________"An inconclusive hearing in Ottawa -- or at least one that's tough to handicap" Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 26 March 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/03/an-inconclusive-hearing-in-ottawa-or-at.html (accessed 27 March 2019); on the cases of Beaudry and Stillman argued on 26 March 2019;

Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/umjanedoan/497353227/, accessed 11 February 2015
___________"International Developments in Military Law", (2013) 17 Canadian Criminal Law Review 83- 90; available at http://www.law.yale.edu/documents/pdf/conference/Fidell_InternationalDevelopments.pdf (accessed on 12 December 2013); Notes: "This article is based on remarks presented in Ottawa on June 14, 2012 Education Conference on Canadian Military Law sponsored by the Court Martial Appeal Courtm of Canada"; also available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/Public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/academic-panel/Fidell/Fidell_International_Developments_in_Military_Law.pdf (accessed 26 April 2015);

___________"Is it time for Canada's Parliament to step in?",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 16 October 2020, available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/10/is-it-time-for-canadas-parliament-to.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed 18 October 2020) ; on Michel Drapeau 

__________"Is subsection 129(2) of the Canadian National Defence Act valid?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 24 March 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/03/is-subsection-1292-of-canadian-national.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 30 March 2016); about R. v. Karolyk, 2016 CM 1002 (General Court Martial Feb. 22, 2016), available at http://decisia.jmc-cmj.forces.gc.ca/jmc-cmj/cm/en/120532/1/document.do;

___________"Gen. Watkin weighs in on Stillman", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 21 August 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/08/gen-watkin-weighs-in-on-stillman.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 22 August 2019);

___________"Judicial independence: an issue that refuses to die", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 6 October 2020, available at  https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/10/judicial-independence-issue-that.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 7 October 2020);

___________"Keeping Up with the Common Law O'Sullivans? The Limits of Comparative Law in Context of Military Justice Law Reforms", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 February 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/search?updated-max=2014-02-05T09:51:00-05:00&max-results=7&start=14&by-date=false (accessed on 15 February 2014);

Mike Madden of the Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces has a thought-provoking article on military justice reform in the latest issue of the Alberta Law Review.

___________"Ken Watkin writes in Just Security", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 1 November 2018, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2018/11/ken-watkin-writes-in-just-security.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 2 November 2018);

___________"Lawyers' Rights Watch Canada study on trials of civilians by military tribunals", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 27 April 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/04/lawyers-rights-watch-canada-study-on.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 28 April 2015);

___________"Lawyer's Weekly reports on R. v. Moriarity", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 30 November 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/11/lawyers-weekly-reports-on-r-v-moriarity.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 1 December 2015);

___________"Leave granted in Stillman case", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 8 March 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/03/leave-granted-in-stillman-case.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 9 March 2018);

___________"A major ruling in Uganda" Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 23 November 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2018/11/a-major-ruling-in-uganda.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 24 November 2018);
The decision, which is subject to further appellate review, is pertinent to court-martial subject matter
 jurisdiction issues that are currently pending in Canada.

___________"Mark your calendar again", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 12 February 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/02/mark-your-calendar-again.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 13 February 2016); comments by Pascal Lévesque giving precised details on the case of H.M. The Queen v. Cawthorne, that will be heard by the Supreme Court of Canada on 25 April 2016;

___________"#MeToo, eh?",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 17 April 2018, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/04/metoo-eh.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 18 April 2018);

___________"Memo to Parliament", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 June 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/06/memo-to-parliament.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 5 June 2017); on R v. Déry;

Image source: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/military-justice-9780199303496?cc=us&lang=en&, accessed 18 June 2016
___________Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, FORTHCOMING BOOK -- SEPTEMBER 2016

___________"Military nexus again under the Canadian microscope", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 June 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/06/on-may-19-2017-court-martial-appeal.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 5 June 2017); about R v. Déry, 2017 CMAC, 19 May 2017;

___________"Military Police Complaints Commission opens an investigation", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 12 April 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/04/military-police-complaints-commission.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed 13 April 2018); about Mr. Beamish'complaint regarding a prisoner of war scenario at CFB Wainwright in the eighties;

___________"New UN website on legal frameworks for deployed contingents", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 22 December 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/12/new-un-website-on-legal-frameworks-for.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 23 December 2016);

___________"One of these days", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 12 July 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/07/one-of-these-days.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 13 July 2019);

___________"Op-ed about Admiral Norman's case", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 May 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/05/op-ed-about-admiral-normans-case.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 5 May 2018);

___________"Partial stay in Stillman case", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 26 February 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/02/partial-stay-in-stillman-case.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 26 February 2019);

___________"Prosecutorial independence at issue in Canadian court-martial appeals", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 13 March 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/03/prosecutorial-independence-at-issue-in.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29(accessed on 15 February 2014);
An issue of prosecutorial independence has been raised in two cases pending before the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada, Thibault
(CMAC-581) and Gagnon (CMAC-577). The thrust of the argument in each case is that the provisions of the National Defence Act and
 the Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Forces that authorize the Minister of National Defence to appeal are invalid under
 s. 52(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982. In a nutshell, these parties contend that the Minister is not independent, as a prosecutor must be,
 and as a consequence his notices of appeal in the two cases must be quashed. An unsuspended declaration of invalidity is sought. The
 core question is stated as follows:
Would a reasonable person who is aware of the relationship that exists between the Executive and the prosecutor conclude that the
 prosecutor is free from pressure by the Executive?

___________"Prosecutorial independence comes to stage center in Canada [H.M. The Queen v. Gagnon, 2015 CACM 2], Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 22 December 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/12/prosecutorial-independence-comes-to.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 23 December 2015);

__________" 'Proud boys' and free speech",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 6 July 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/07/proud-boys-and-free-speech.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 7 July 2017);

___________"Random selection", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 7 July 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2018/07/random-selection.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 8 July 2018);

___________"Recent Revisions of Military Justice Systems", New Haven, USA, 11 September 2011; available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/Public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/academic-panel/fidell/Fidell_Recent_Revisions_of_Military_Justice_Systems.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

___________"A "scandalous" gap in Canada -- who will fix it?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 March 2020, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/03/a-scandalous-gap-in-canada-who-will-fix.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 5 March 2020); about Canada (Director of Military Prosecutions) v. Canada (Office of the Chief Military Judge), 2020 FC 330 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/j5p93>, re court martial of Colonel Mario Dutil, Chief military Judge and decision of Col. D'Auteuil at his court martial;

___________"Sex offenses: an "unremitting problem" for the Canadian Forces", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 December 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/12/sex-offenses-unremitting-problem-for.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 12 December 2017);

___________"Sexual assault in Afghanistan: the bystander's duty", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 12 April 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/04/sexual-assault-in-afghanistan.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 13 April 2016);


___________"SCC decides Moriarity and companion cases", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 November 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/11/scc-decides-moriarity.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 20 November 2015); with reply comments by Pascal Lévesque and Michel Drapeau;

___________"Special prosecutor named to evaluate charges against Canada's chief military judge",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 20 February 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/02/special-prosecutor-named-to-evaluate.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 21 February 2018);

___________"Standards for appellate review of sentences", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 August 2017, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/08/standards-for-appellate-review-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 5 August 2017); see first level decision rendered by Lieutenant-Colonel L.-V. d’Auteuil, M.J. at http://www.canlii.org/en/ca/cm/doc/2016/2016cm3010/2016cm3010.html?autocompleteStr=Hoeks&autocompletePos=1;
The Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada has handed down its ruling in R. v. Hoekstra, 2017 CMAC 5, an appeal by the government on
the ground that the sentence was too lenient. The unanimous decision, written by Justice Patrick Gleeson, usefully articulates the governing
principles -- and increases the sentence from 60 days to 14 months' confinement, while staying the unserved portion

___________"Stillman: an easy case?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 28 July 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/07/stillman-easy-case.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 29 July 2019);

Source: http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/2017-09-15-Motion-in-Supreme-Court.-Intervenor-Eugene-Fidell.pdf, accessed 16 September 2017
___________"Stillman v. H.M. The Queen, SCC No. 37701". Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 15 September 2017, available at (http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/09/stillman-v-hm-queen-scc-no-37701.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)) (accessed on 16 October 2017); IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION to the issue of military nexus;
Of possible interest to readers of Global Military Justice Reform: the motion for intervention in support of the application for leave to appeal to the
Supreme Court of Canada in Stillman v. H.M. The Queen, SCC No. 37701, filed by Ottawa attorneys Michel W. Drapeau and Joshua Juneau on
behalf of the editor. It is available here. At issue is whether the military nexus test must be met in order for a court-martial to exercise jurisdiction over offenses under § 130(1)(a) of the National Defence Act. The decision of the Court Martial Appeal Court can be found here.

___________"Stillman: where does the path lead from here?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 August 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/08/stillman-where-does-path-lead-from-here.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 5 August 2019);


___________"Then there's the Mounties", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 24 October 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/10/then-theres-mounties.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 25 Otober 2016); about the Court martial Appeal Court of Canada " Notice to the Profession concerning access to digital audio recordings of the court's proceedings";

___________"Transparency watch", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 10 December 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/12/transparency-watch.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 12 December 2017);

___________"United States v. Khadr -- Canada to pay, but who will collect?",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 5 July 2017, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/07/united-states-v-khadr-canada-to-pay-but.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 6 July 2017);

___________"Up next at the Supreme Court of Canada: prosecutorial independence", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 April 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/04/up-next-at-supreme-court-of-canada.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 12 April 2015);  

___________"Victim's rights in the Canadian Forces",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 September 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/09/victims-rights-in-canadian-forces.html (accessed on 15 February 2014);

__________"What's doing (or not) in Canada", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 20 July 2019, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2019/07/whats-doing-or-not-in-canada.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 22 July 2019);

__________"Whither Canadian military justice?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 10 March 2018, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2018/03/whither-canadian-military-justice.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 11 March 2018);

__________"A World-Wide Perspective on Change in Military Justice", (2000) 48 Air Force Law Review 195-209; available at http://www.afjag.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-081204-031.pdf (accessed on 14 December 2013);

___________"Writing Competition (Bill C-???)",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 23 November 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/11/writing-competition-bill-c.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29
 (accessed on 24 November 2015);

FIDELL, Eugene R., Dwight Hall Sullivan, Elizabeth Lutes Hillman, Military justice: cases and materials, 2nd ed., New Providence, NJ : LexisNexis, c2012, xxxiii, 1327, [16] p. : ill. ; 27 cm;

Robert Fife, image source:                                                    Steven Chase, image source:
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/robert-fife           http://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/steven-chase

FIFE, Robert and Steven Chase, "Former commanders urging authorities to charge or exonerate Vice-Admiral Norman", The Globe and Mail, 18 January 2018; available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/former-commanders-urging-authorities-to-charge-or-exonerate-vice-admiral-mark-norman/article37664421/ (accessed on 19 January 2018);

___________ "Judge lifts publication ban on RCMP case against Vice-Admiral Norman", The Globe and Mail, 21 April 2017; available at theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/judge-lifts-publication-ban-on-rcmp-case-against-vice-admiral-norman/article34791139/ (accessed 22 April 2017);

An Ontario Superior Court justice has issued a ruling to lift a publication ban and unseal large sections of a redacted RCMP affidavit concerning
the criminal investigation of Vice-Admiral Mark Norman for alleged breach of trust in leaking government secrets.


In a ruling released late on Friday, Justice Kevin Phillips said the RCMP affidavit can be released, although details involving cabinet secrets
will remain redacted.

Image source: cbc.ca/news/politics/norman-military-relieved-1.3937401, accessed 25 April 2017
Vice Admiral Mark Norman, December 2015 (CBC)

___________"Trudeau sought RCMP probe of cabinet leaks on navy supply ship", The Globe and Mail, 24 April 2017; available
                       at  theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/trudeau-sought-rcmp-probe-of-cabinet-leaks-on-navy-supply-ship/article34802910/ (accessed 25 April 2017);

___________"Vice-Adm. Norman leaked cabinet secrets, helped press Liberals in navy contract: RCMP affidavit", The Globe and Mail, 26 April 2017, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/vice-admiral-norman-leaked-cabinet-secrets-helped-press-liberals-in-navy-contract-rcmp-affidavit/article34816333/ (accessed 27 April 2017);

Files numbers in the CF, see https://army.ca/forums/index.php?topic=109628.0 (accessed 10 April 2020);

FINDLATER, V.G. (Vic), Major, lawyer, member of the OJAG,  photo in  "Lethal weapon", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 76-77 (reproduced above);

__________photo of Major Vic Findlater, DJA Cold Lake, from (2004) 1 Les actualités -- JAG --Newsletter at p. 7:

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

Vic Findlater at https://ca.linkedin.com/in/vic-findlater-815717a7,
accessed 19 June 2020
__________on V.G. (Vic) Findlater, see the hereunder entry at Find.Law Canada, https://lawyers.findlaw.ca/alberta/bonnyville/findlater-law-739185/vg-vic-findlater-603928/#sec_barinfo", accessed 19 June 2020;

[Firm: V.G. (Vic) Findlater Professional Corporation o/a Findlater Law]
[distance between Bonnyville and Cold Lake is about 43 kilometers]

[has acted as Federal Crown prosecutor in 2019 , see https://www.lakelandtoday.ca/bonnyville-news/two-years-for-drug-trafficking-1911167]

Findlay v. United Kingdom, (1997) 24 E.H.R.R. 22; available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/Public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/academic-panel/additional/Findlay_v_UK_decision.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

Image source: sipri.org/publications/2002/use-force-un-peace-operations, accessed 5 July 2018

FINDLAY,  Trevor, 1951-, Stockholm International PeaceResearch Institute,  The Use of Force in UN Peace Operations, Solna, Sweden : SIPRI; Oxford ; New York : Oxford  University Press, 2002,  xii, 486 p. ; 24 cm, ISBN: 0198292821 (hardback); available at https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/books/SIPRI02Findlay.pdf (accessed 5 July 2018);


H.M. Finkle

FINKLE, Henry Mortimer, 1893-1962, JAG officer; see https://www.lsuc.on.ca/diversifying-the-bar-lawyers-make-history/ (accessed 9 October 2017);

Biographical Information:
Harry Finkle, or Finklestein, was one of the first generation of Jewish lawyers in Ontario. In his early career, he worked in the office of the Judge
Advocate General in the Department of Militia and Defence. He also practised with Jacob Pearlstein, another early Jewish lawyer.
Source: Arthur D. Hart, ed., The Jew in Canada (Jewish Publications Ltd., 1926), 402.

FIRTH, L.M. (Lorne Miller), Colonel, member of the OJAG, was Director (Administrator) of Estates (Navy, Army and Air Force), see The Quarter Army List, August 1946, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, at p. 175 (digitalized page number) https://digital.nls.uk/british-military-lists/archive/90102855, accessed 20 March 2019);

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

___________on FIRTH, L.M. (Lorne Miller), Lieutenant-Colonel, see example of his work as Administor of Estates in 1943, e.g. letter available at http://collectionscanada.ca/obj/001056/f2/j/sww-27861-jones-archie_walker-r139598.pdf (accessed 20 March 2019);

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

___________on FIRTH, L.M. (Lorne Miller), Colonel, former lawyer from Toronto, see "Warriors' Estates: Branch of Defense Department Supervises Distribution of Effects", Globe and Mail, 1944/06/03, available at https://collections.museedelhistoire.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5028212 (accessed 8 June 2019);

___________on FIRTH, L.M. (Lorne Miller), Colonel, see his death notice at The Ottawa Citizen, Friday, 27 May 1983, available at https://www.newspapers.com/image/... , accessed 19 June 2020;

John R. Fisher, image source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/john-r-fisher/47/934/97b, accessed on 9 November 2014

FISHER, John R., Major, Bail or Jail, Release or Retention Pending Trial under Military Justice in Canada, Canadian Forces College, 2010, 90, [8] p., JCSP 35 DL, Master of Defence Studies Research Project, C/PR-500/IRP/RP-02; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc35/mds/fisher.pdf (accessed on 4 April 2011);

In 1982, enshrining the Charter of Rights and Freedoms into the new Canadian Constitution created supreme law by imposing consistency
and full judicial review upon all legislation across the country and recognizing military law as a distinct division of law. Since then, the
military justice system has undergone a major evolution that is still underway to meet changes resulting from constitutional challenges
under the Charter. Within military justice procedures, provisions for pre-trial custody and release considerations have recently been part
of this evolution and reflect ongoing developments in the law of bail, driven primarily by criminal cases decided by the Supreme Court
of Canada. In examining the evolution of military bail, this paper provides an historical treatment of the law of bail in Canada as it
pertains to the military justice system, explores the present legislative framework and finally compares the military and criminal justice
systems in certain key areas. The long held quasi-judicial role of commissioned officers within the armed forces provides the foundation
for the duties and responsibilities of Custody Review Officers (CRO) within the legislative framework of military bail. Has the military
justice system kept pace with the criminal justice system in meeting the demands of the Charter, or is it lagging, thus risking a perception
of inequality of justice for those in custody awaiting trial for service and civil offences tried before military courts? In actual fact, criminal
law has a natural lead role in the evolution of the law of bail and military law is on a consistent course and keeping pace with it. The
combined efforts of Parliament and the Department of National Defence through the Office of the Judge Advocate General, as well as
through the decisions of military judges, continue to ensure that Canada’s military justice system is responsive to the demands of a free
and democratic society. - Author's abstract  [Source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch,
accessed on 1 January 2012]

___________Military justice training [videorecording]: CFC Toronto, 16 dec 99,  Toronto, Ont. :Canadian Forces College, 1999,  1 videocassette (ca. 1 hr. 38 min.);

In this lecture, John Fisher covers basic summary trial proceedings, as well as Canadian Forces personnel’s entitlements under the system of Canadian
military justice. The programme consists of a lecture and Powerpoint presentation. Such topics as the purpose of military justice, the legal basis for
military justice in terms of national and international legislation, members’ rights under the Code of Service Discipline, procedure under the CSD,
the difference between summary trials and court-martial, punishment, and the provision of legal advice, are discussed.
 [Source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 January 2011]

___________“The Right to Legal Counsel at Summary Trial” a paper solicited by the Office of the Judge Advocate General concerning Recommendation No. 7 to the Prime Minister by the Special Advisory Committee on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services. Barrie, 1997; title noted in my research but document not consulted (18 December 2011);

___________“Worst Case Scenario, a Brief to the Special Advisory Committee on Military Justice and Policing.” Barrie, 1997, 13, 2, 8 p. [Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, Dept. of National Defence, 1997];

The aim of this brief is to provide the members of the Special Advisory Group with some insight into the perceptions of military justice and
policing from a personal perspective gained “in the trenches” of both the military and civilian justice systems. The Canadian Armed Forces,
including its justice and policing systems, are presently in a state of crisis, causing concerns in public confidence. The problems appear to
stem from a decline in moral integrity related to the military principles of loyalty, duty and honour. These are issues of professional attitude,
leadership and accountability. The public has been inundated with allegations of bizarre behaviour, criminal acts and breaches of trust. What
is required is a long-term, well-thought-through solution, and not a quick-fix for the sake of expediency in meeting short-term political
exigencies. A long-term solution is proposed through formal education and training within the military system, to create and ensure that a
military justice system, to create and ensure that a military justice system is in place and capable of functioning in the worst case scenario.
In the short term, immediate steps should be taken to create a system of credible and tangible checks and balances, including a proper
judicial bench within the federal courts system for military judges and an autonomous military police organization under the aegis of the
Minister of Justice and the Solicitor General, respectively. Additionally, military police should undergo training at civilian police colleges
to augment their military training. - Executive Summary
[source: ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 January 2012]

FISHER, Luke, “Armed and Gay: Homosexuals in the Military Face an Uneasy Welcome”,  Maclean’s [Toronto ed.], May 24, 1993, pp. 14-15;
Canada lifted the ban on gays serving in the military in Oct. 1992 after a lesbian lieutenant sued the military for discrimination.  She won her case
and the armed forces were quietly integrated.  There has been little public outcry, but gays say social stigma makes it hard to be open” – summary in
Expanded Academic ASAP electronic index.  Includes brief comparisons with policies of six other countries.
 (source: http://library2.usask.ca/srsd/gaycanada/misc/MILITARY.htm, accessed 18 August 2016)

____________"Heated accusations in the Somalia Affair", MacLean's, 29 April 1996, at pp. 26-27; available at https://archive.macleans.ca/search?QueryTerm=+%22Somalia%22&DocType=Image&sort= (accessed 30 January 2019); also at https://archive.macleans.ca/article/1996/4/29/heated-accusations-in-the-somalia-affair;

____________"To the hearth of the matter", Maclean's [Magazine], 5 February 1996 at pages 22-23, available at http://archive.macleans.ca/article/1996/2/5/to-the-heart-of-the-matter#!&pid=22 (accessed 22 January 2019);

FISHER, Luke and Anthony Wilson-Smith, "On the defence", Maclean's, Jul 26, 1993, Vol.106(30), pp.16-17, "The controvery over the killing of a Somali prisoner in Canadian custody continues to stir. Two of the Canadian peacekeepers are accused of second-degree murder." (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=21&frbg=&indx=201&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&, accessed 8 July 2016); 

Image source: https://www.cigionline.org/person/oonagh-fitzgerald, accessed 8 February 2016
Oonagh Fitzgerald
__________ "Oonagh Fitzgerald, Background", available at http://www.cigionline.org/person/oonagh-fitzgerald, accessed on 24 November 2014;

Oonagh Fitzgerald is director of CIGI’s International Law Research Program, effective April 2014. She oversees the research direction of the
 program and related activities.

Oonagh has extensive experience as a senior executive of various departments of the federal government. In October 2011, she was appointed
national security coordinator for the Department of Justice Canada. In this role she ensured strategic leadership and integration of the department’s
policy, advisory and litigation work in relation to national security.

From 2007–2011, Oonagh served as the Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces legal adviser, leading a
large corporate counsel team of civilian Department of Justice lawyers, military lawyers and Department of National
Defence administrative professionals
. Prior to this she served as acting chief legal counsel for the Public Law Sector of the Department
of Justice (2004-2005), and before that was special adviser for international law (2003). From 2000 to 2002, she was assistant secretary to Cabinet,
Legislation and House Planning/Counsel, Privy Council Office, Canada. Oonagh has held a number of other positions in the Department of Justice:
senior general counsel and director general, Human Resources Development Canada Legal Services Unit (1998–2000); general counsel and director,
International Law and Activities Section (1997-1998); senior counsel for Regulatory Reform (1994-1996); and legal adviser, Human Rights Law
Section (1987–1994). She began her career in the federal government as a consultant at the Law Reform Commission of Canada; then as a
commerce officer, Marketing Practices Branch, Bureau of Competition Policy; and legal adviser at the Immigration Appeal Board. (emphasis in
bold added; source: http://www.cigionline.org/person/oonagh-fitzgerald, accessed on 24 November 2014).

___________Oonagh Fitgerald, Linkedin information, at https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/oonagh-fitzgerald/b/872/843 (accessed 9 April 2015):

Senior General Counsel, DND CF Legal Advisor

Department of Justice and Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces, Government of Canada
(4 years 7 months)

I provided legal leadership to the Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces, a client with significant land, infrastructure, materiel
and equipment holdings and an annual budget of over $20 Billion. I led a staff of 108 comprised of Department of Justice lawyers, DND civilians
and CF JAG military lawyers providing public law, compliance and governance, procurement, contract, intellectual property, real property, oil & gas,
environmental, labour, human rights and national security law advisory services, claims and litigation support, and legislative and regulatory drafting

___________FITZGERALD, Oonagh, principal consultant, Law Reform Commission of Canada, et al., Crimes against the State, Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1986, [viii], 72 p., (series; Working Paper; 49), ISBN: 066254241X; pdf conversion finished on 10 November 2006; information on the French version/informations sur la version française, FITZGERALD, Oonagh, conseillière principale, Commission de réforme du droit du Canada, et al., Les crimes contre l'État, Ottawa: Commission de réforme du droit du Canada, 1986, [viii], 76 p., (Collection; Document de travail; 49), ISBN: 066254241X;
PDF ENGLISH VERSION (Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2006)

- Table of Contents;
- [i-viii] and 1-72;

PDF VERSION FRANÇAISE ( Reproduit avec la  permission du ministre des Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada, 2010)
- Table des matières;
- [i-viii] et 1-76;

___________DND/CF LA Level 1 Business Plan 2009-2010, 38 p.; available at http://lareau-legal.ca/A-2015-00726.pdf (posted 6 October 2015); Oonagh Fitzgerald was then the Legal Advisor to the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces; François Lareau obtained this document after an Access to Information request, see http://www.lareau-law.ca/Access1Oct15.pdf;

FITZGERALD, Thomas E.K., Canadian Military Sentencing Digest, 2016, Carswell, 2016, xxxvii, 178 pages, ISBN: 978-0-7798-7199-5l; see http://www.carswell.com/product-detail/canadian-military-sentencing-digest-2016/, accessed 29 June 2016; see table of contents at http://www.carswell.com/product-detail/canadian-military-sentencing-digest-2016/ (accessed 23 September 2017); copy at Ottawa University: Brian Dickson Law Library FTX General  KE 7146 .F58 2016;
The Canadian Military Sentencing Digest, 2016 provides a comprehensive digest service on sentencing in the Canadian Military.
The book provides an up to date collection of Canadian military sentences at the Court Martial Court of Canada (CMC) and
Canadian Military Court of Appeal (CMAC) levels as they arise. Semi-annual updates of current decisions from the Court
Martial Court, the Court Martial Appeal Court, the Federal Court and Supreme Court of Canada will also be provided. The
Canadian Military Sentencing Digest, 2016 will not only provide a systematic listing of court decisions by military offence
but will set out military sentencing principles and other useful information.


Major (Ret) Thomas E.K Fitzgerald, M.A., LL.B has a distinguished career as a Prosecutor, both in the Ontario Public Service
and in the Office of the Judge Advocate General (OJAG). He graduated with a Master of Laws from Queen's University (Kingston)
and a Bachelor of Laws from the same university. He was written numerous articles on criminal law, constitutional law and military
history. In 2012, he was appointed Senior Counsel with the Ministry of the Attorney General. In 2015 he received the Courage and
Perseverance Award from the Federal, Provincial and Territorial Heads of Prosecution.

____________"The Nexus Disconnected : The Demise of the Military Nexus Doctrine", (December 2017) 65(1 and 2) The Criminal Law Quarterly 155 to aprox. 163;
Description: Certain provisions of the National Defence Act permit almost every federal offence to be prosecuted
within the military justice system. The recent decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in the tetrad of cases cited
as R. v. Moriarity, has clarified a military law legal controversy that has dogged Canadian military courts, appeal
courts and military practitioners for almost forty years. in a clearly written and economical judgment, speaking
for a unanimous court, Justice Thomas Cromwell swept aside the notion that a military nexus must exist before
military jurisdiction is conferred on a Canadian court martial. Here, Fitzgerald considers the facts of the four cases
and then acquaints the reader with a modicum of military law.
[Source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom
, accessed 11 October 2018]

___________obituary, FITZGERALD, Thomas Ernest Keith (Tom), 6 March 1956-14 July 2017, former JAG officer;

We are deeply saddened to announce the passing of Tom Fitzgerald, affectionately known as Tommy, Major Tom or simply Fitz.


After articling at the Ministry of the Attorney General, Crown Law Criminal, he became an Assistant Crown Attorney in Durham
Region in 1985 and in 1993 he was appointed as the Crown Attorney in North Bay and later the Director of Crown Operations in
the North Region where he mentored junior lawyers and was a respected member of the legal community.


Tom was born into a military family. He joined the Canadian Forces himself at the tenderage of 50 where he completed basic
training as a member of the 2nd Battalion of the Irish Regiment alongside soldiers who were half his age.

Tom was commissioned an officer and seconded to the Judge Advocate General’s staff in Ottawa for several years.

His legal experience made him an enormous asset in assisting with the prosecution of a widely-watched homicide case in Kandahar.
Later, Tom deployed for nine months to the NATO Training Mission Afghanistan, Kabul Military Training Centre Advisory Group, Camp
Alamo Afghanistan where he helped develop local legal structures and procedures.

On returning to the Crown Attorney’s office, Tom was appointed General Counsel for Central East and worked out of the Durham
Region office where he renewed many personal and professional relationships. After a reluctant early retirement and despite his
illness, Tom continued his teaching efforts by authoring the first book-length treatment of sentencing guidelines for offenders in the
military justice system. (source: http://www.canadianobituaries.com/durham/67405-thomas-fitzgerald-july-14-2017, accessed 18 July 2017)

FITZ-JAMES, D. Michael, Editor's Desk, "Rejigging the JAG" (February 2001) Canadian Lawyer 4; **** research note: author died on 27 March 2005 (age 54)and was the founder of the Lawyers Weekly, see http://micheladrien.blogspot.com/2005/03/in-memoriam-michael-fitz-james.html; published by H. P. Publications, 1977-; the SCC library has one number PER 2001 V. 25; see web site https://www.canadianlawyermag.com/ and to subscribe Please call 1-800-387-5164; thomson reuters; Canadian Lawyer and its sister publications Canadian Lawyer InHouse, Canadian Lawyer 4Students, and Law Times have been bought by Carswell, a Thomson Reuters business headquartered in Toronto;
to get copy https://store.thomsonreuters.ca/product-detail/canadian-lawyer-print-digital/

Launched in 1977, Canadian Lawyer delivers unbiased reporting and analysis of the legal
landscape from coast to coast and across all areas of practice. Focused on both the practice
and the profession, Canadian Lawyer delivers award-winning editorial content that informs,
inspires and occasionally inflames the lawyers, corporate counsel, judges, law professors,
and students-at-law who consider it a "must-read." It is published in print and digitally
11 times a year. www.canadianlawyermag.com

Image source: cbc.ca/mediacentre/bio/meagan-fitzpatrick, accessed 27 April 2017
Meegan Fitzpatrick
FITZPATRICK, Meegan, "Military justice system faces revamp", Calgary Herald, 25 April 2008; title noted in my research but document not consulted yet;

___________ "Military justice system faces shakeup; Defendants should choose type of court martial", 25 April 2008 Edmonton Journal  p. A.9; title noted in my research but article not consulted;

"Five Buckingham Girls Testify To Drinking And Dancing With German Prisoners of War in Thurso Hotel", Sherbrooke Daily Record, Tuesday, 28 mars 1944 at pp. 1 and 2; available at http://collections.banq.qc.ca/retrieve/7619561 (accessed 6 April 2018);

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

FLAHERTY, Elaine, "
[ The Canadian Armed Forces goes to the... ]", CanWest News, Jan 30, 1994, p.1,
Description: The Canadian Armed Forces wants the court to overturn a federal human rights tribunal ruling
that Simon Thwaites, 31, was the victim of discrimination based on his disability when he was released in 1989.
Thwaites was also awarded $152,000 in lost wages and compensation. Lawyers for the forces argued throughout
Thwaites's November 1992 hearing that because of his medical condition, and the fact that he was receiving AZT
treatments at a Halifax hospital, he could no longer go to sea. (AZT is a drug designed to slow the onset of AIDS.)
Thwaites's civilian doctor, an infectious disease specialist, told the human rights tribunal no one from the forces
ever contacted him. If they had, he would have told them Thwaites could have been treated at sea.
[Source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom
, accessed 12 October 2018;

© ProQuest LLC All rights reserved

FLAVIN,  Thomas, Commander, member of the JAG office; photo of LCdr Flavin hereunder, Lookout, vol. 55, number 46, 15 November 2010, at p.12:

                    "At the annual Office of the Judge Advocate General legal conference, the Assistance Judge Advocate
                   General (AJAG) Office for Pacific Region won the award for the Top AJAG office. The award recognizes
                   their efforts throughout the past year.  Left to right: Lt(N) Heather Fogo, CPO1 Brian Forsyth, LCol RandyCallan,
                   LCdr Thomas Flavin , Alix McKenzie and Kevin Stewart."

___________on Flavin, Thomas, see DEROSA, Katie, " Photos and Stories of 16 Military Workers at the Base", Times Colonist, 30 May 2012, available at pressreader.com/canada/times-colonist/20100530/281517927354430 (accessed 25 April 2017); one of the 16 military worker is Lt.-Cmdr. Thomas Flavin, "The Lawyer";

Thomas Flavin

___________photo of FLAVIN, Thomas, Commander with others:

" 15 hours ago

We are pleased to quite often host law students in our offices as interns. Seen here are
  students Sarah Offredi and Luke Stretch with Cdr Thomas Flavin [second
from left] ]and the AJAG team in Edmonton."

Image source: https://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Law-Visiting-Forces/dp/0198268947, accessed 26 September 2016
FLECK, Dieter, ed., The handbook of the law of visiting forces / edited by Dieter Fleck ; in collaboration with Stuart Addy ... [et al.], Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001, xxxv, 625 p. ; 24 cm, ISBN: 0198268947; now there is a second edition in 2018;

FLEMING, Stephan B. (Stephan Bernard), 1961-, The civilianization theory of civil-military relations [microform] : they have met the enemy and he is us,  thesis sunmitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University, May 1989, iv, 149 leaves; available at https://curve.carleton.ca/c9ce89fe-7c66-4a10-bd6c-98ac42145235 (accessed 5 October 2016);
This study critiques assumptions of the dominant paradigm in North American civil-military relations theory. The civilianization
model portrays historical change in civil- military relations as encompassing the decline of military institutional traditions by the
penetration of civilian administration, and the erosion of military professionalism as soldiers adopt the materialistic ethos.

War and society theory was employed in the conduct of three critical research strategies. The first examined the underestimated
impact of military forces in the emergence of the nation-state, bureaucracy, and capitalism. The second considered documentary
data, arguing that the prediction of the imminent collapse of the martial spirit reflects an enduring moral panic blaming the victim,
the soldier. Finally, the belief that remunerative and normative techniques have limited reliance on coercion in disciplining Canadian
troops was tested with using post-Korean War period data. The study concludes that military decline has been greatly exaggerated.


FLETCHER, E.A. (Ernest Angus), Major, Assistant Judge Advocate-General, in military district number 10 with Headquarters in Winnipeg in 1946,  see The Quarterly Army List, April 1946, Part I, London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1946 at p. 183 (bottom page number) or pp. 181-182 (top page number), available at https://deriv.nls.uk/dcn23/8964/89641296.23.pdf  (accessed 21 March 2019);

___________on FLETCHER, E.A (Ernest Angus), see a memorandum by him found in Canadian Army Courts Martial Documents : T-15568, available  http://heritage.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.lac_reel_t15568/20?r=0&s=1 (accessed 24 March 2019);

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

___________on Fletcher, E.A. (Ernest Angus), see his article "M.D. 10 Personalities: Military Law Assures Soldier of Justice No. 14 Major E.A, Fletcher" at  The Winnipeg Tribune, 13 March 1944, p. 4, available at https://www.newspapers.com/clip/10917913/the-winnipeg-tribune/(accessed 19 April 2020);

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

___________on Fletcher, E.A. (Ernest Angus), see "Major Fletcher Leaves Prairie Command Post", The Winnipeg Tribune, 4 September 1947 at p. 5; available at https://www.newspapers.com/..., accessed 21 May 2020;

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

Jean-Guy Fleury, image source: http://www.5ralc.ca/historique/detail_anciens_cmdt.php?id=7, accessed on 23 January 2014

FLEURY, J.G. (Jean-Guy), The Canadian Soldier And The State: The Chief Of Defense Staff And The National Security Policy The Need For A More Formal Relationship, Canadian Forces College NSSC 4, March 2002, 30 p.,; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/281/274/fleury.pdf (accessed 28 December 2016);

___________ Jus in bello and military necessity, Toronto: Advanced Military Studies Course, Canadian Forces College, 17 November 1998, 35 p., Call #: 355.005 A5 1998 no.31; available at http://wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/en/cfcpapers/index.php?search_where=author&keywords=fleury&programLimit=all&yearLimit=all&submit=Search (accessed on 1 August 2008); also available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/261/fleury2.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2012);

___________"The plea of ignorance", Toronto: Canadian Forces College, 1998, Call #: 355.005 A5 1998 no.27; available at http://wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/en/cfcpapers/index.php?search_where=author&keywords=fleury&programLimit=all&yearLimit=all&submit=Search (accessed on 1 August 2008); also available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/261/fleury1.pdf (accessed on 14 December 2013);

FLYNN, P.J., Major, General List, Assistant Judge Advocate-General, in military district number 2 with Headquarters in Toronto in 1946,  see The Quarterly Army List, April 1946, Part I, London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1946 at p. 180 (bottom page number) or p. 178 (top page number), available at https://deriv.nls.uk/dcn23/8964/89641296.23.pdf  (accessed 21 March 2019);

___________the case of Re Thompson, 1945 CanLII 122 (ON SC), <http://canlii.ca/t/g12tp>, discloses that Major P.J. Flynn, Assistant Judge Advocate General, Military District No. 2,  made an affidavit;

Simon Fodden

FODDEN, Simon, "Canada's Military Courts", 17 September 2009, available at http://www.slaw.ca/2009/09/17/canadas-military-courts/comment-page-1/ (accessed 28 December 2018);

FOGO, Heather S., "A Legal Mirage: State Responsibility for Non-State Actor Interference with Space Systems", (October 2018) 55 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 180-214;

Outer space is becoming a more accessible and less expensive domain in which
to operate. Consequently, growing numbers of state and non-state actors (NSAs)
are operating in, to, and through space. At the same time, instances of space-based
and ground-based interference with space systems are also increasing, disrupting
crucial space-supported services and applications relied on by millions, with great
financial and operational costs. The increased participation of NSAs in space
activities raises particular concerns, especially the threat of intentional interference
with space systems by nefarious actors like terrorist organizations. It also requires
consideration of whether states bear responsibility and/or liability for the acts of
NSAs with a nexus to those states. At first glance, it is tempting to conclude that
one or more normative legal regimes would apply. The potential regimes include
international space law, international telecommunications law, and the law of state
responsibility. On further examination, however, when it comes to interference,
there appears to be no effective legal mechanism to hold states accountable for
NSA interference with space systems, which can be exploited by NSAs and
challenge efforts by states to enforce “good” behaviour.

[source of abstract: : https://doi.org/10.1017/cyl.2018.17, accessed 10 May 2020]

Heather S. Fogo

___________ on FOGO, Heather S., at  https://ca.linkedin.com/in/heather-fogo-59077341, accessed 10 May 2020;

--------------------------Image source: http://news.uoguelph.ca//2014/01/lawyers-career-follows-military-path/
Image source: http://www.slideshare.net/esquimaltmfrc/hmcs-                       Heather Fogo onboard HMCS Regina
regina-pre-deployment-briefing-2012, accessed 14 December 2015

___________ "Personal Legal Issues", part of the HMCS Regina Pre-Deployment Briefing 2012, slide 1/81 to 16/81, available at http://www.slideshare.net/esquimaltmfrc/hmcs-regina-pre-deployment-briefing-2012 (accessed 14 December 2015);

____________Photo of LCdr Heather Fogo attending a roundtable on international law in Sanremo, Italy: 

Photo reproduced from: https://twitter.com/jagcaf?lang=en&lang=en, 12 September 2018

Teresa Pitman, image source: google image,                       Heather Fogo, image source: http://atguelph.uoguelph.ca/2014/01/lawyers-career-follows-military-path/
 accessed 24 February 2015

___________on FOGO, Heather, see PITMAN, Teresa, "Lawyer's Career Follows Military Path: Guelph Grads on the Go--Providing legal advice is part of the job", Tuesday, 7 January 2014, University of Guelph; article about JAG officer Heather Fogo; available at http://atguelph.uoguelph.ca/2014/01/lawyers-career-follows-military-path/ (accessed on 28 January 2014);

___________photo of LCdr Fogo, Heather with Cdr Shella Archer, in LookOut, 29 April 2013 at p. 15, available at http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/58/2013-04-29-17.pdf (accessed 10 May 2020);

___________research note on FOGO, Heather: leads the Canada Gender-based violence knowledge Center, see https://cfc-swc.gc.ca/violence/knowledge-connaissance/index-en.html, accessed 19 August 2019;

Image source: anglicanjournal.com/bios/Tali%20Folkins, accessed 27 April 2017
Tali Folkins
FOLKINS, Tali, "Should CEO of CBA take honorary military role?", Law Times, 20 July 2015, available at http://lawtimesnews.com/201507204824/headline-news/should-ceo-of-cba-take-honorary-military-role (accessed 23 July 2015);

source de l'image: https://www.amazon.ca/GRENADE-VERTE-HUGO-FONTAINE/dp/2923681819, visité 26 aot 2017                                

FONTAINE, Hugo, La grenade verte. Valcartier 1974 : les oubliés de la compagnie D, Montréal, Éditions La Presse, 2011, 199 pages;

"Forces Agree to End Anti-Gay Policies: Ottawa Pays Former Officer $100,000  to Settle Rights Suit”, The Globe and Mail, 28 October 1992, pp. A1, A8 (source: http://library2.usask.ca/srsd/gaycanada/misc/MILITARY.htm, accessed 10 May 2017); about lesbian lieutenant's case that ended the interdiction of homosexuality in the CF; Federal Court decision of 27 October 1992, by Justice William A. MacKay;  

Craig Forcese, photo source: http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/, accessed on 7 April 2014

FORCESE, Craig, "10 Minute Primer: Assessment of National Security and Intelligence Committee of Parliamentarians Functions", June 2016, available at https://vimeo.com/172601622 (accessed on 21 August 2016);

___________ "Armies Without Borders", 25 January 2012, available at  http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/national-security-law-blog/?currentPage=11 (accessed on 16 December 2013);

___________“Balancing the Right to Full Answer and Defence with need to Protect Sensitive Information, in the Context of National Security Proceedings”,  Annual Conference of the Judge Advocate General, Canada (Ottawa), October 2007;

___________Books, Articles and Presentations by Craig Forcese, available at http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/en/2014031411254/publications-and-scholarship/publications/books-articles-and-presentations-forcese.html  (accessed on 24 June 2014);

__________"Canada's Security & Intelligence Community after 9/11: Key Challenges and Conundrums" (September 15, 2016). Ottawa Faculty of Law Working Paper No. 2016-35. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2839622 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2839622;

Image source: https://books.google.ca/books...., accessed 20 February 2019
__________Destroying the Caroline, Toronto: Irwin Law, 2018,  392 pages; 

___________"The Executive, the Royal Prerogative and the Constitution", January 2017, University of Ottawa Working Paper WP 2017-01; available at https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=110099072074091023015075077089082070021078038028040067091087014081115024103001006087041045016000015111098003001122118115119091026059004029003115085103010080006081089070036030114000075071092114099094083077067067098076086095121090110080086103107094100027&EXT=pdf (accessed 27 January 2017); now published in  Peter Oliver, Patrick Macklem, and Nathalie Des Rosiers, eds., The Oxford handbook of the Canadian constitution, New York, NY : Oxford University Press, [2017],   xiv, 1147 pages ; 26 cm. ( Oxford handbooks) at chapter 7, pp.  151-168, available at https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ulsvDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA151&dq=military+law+%22code+of+service+discipline%22+Canada&ots=uMW34BlR5G&sig=0hVWYvGH7o2Z1Zr3z9_fO-dPK9I#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 1 March 2018);.

__________"Extraterritorial Application of the Charter to Canadian Forces", 14 March 2008, available at http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/national-security-law-blog/?currentPage=34 (accessed on 16 December 2013);

___________“National Security Law”, Annual Conference of the Judge Advocate General, Canada (Ottawa), October 2006;

___________National Security Law : Canadian Practice in International Perspective, Toronto: Irwin Law, 2007, xxix, 655 p.;

___________"Nutshell Primer: National Security Accountability Review in Canada", June 2016, available at https://vimeo.com/171962586 (accessed on 21 August 2016);

___________"Parliament, Creeping Constitutionalism, and the Deployment of Canadian Forces?", 5 January 2011, available at  http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/national-security-law-blog/?currentPage=18 (accessed on 16 December 2013);

___________"Prosecuting Kurt Meyer: The Abbaye d’Ardenne War Crimes Trial",  (January 14, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3519427 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3519427

___________Research Report: Assessment of Complainants’ Legal Claims [concerning international law and the actions of Canadian Forces in relation to Afghan detainees], Prepared for the
Military Police Complaints Commission in relation to MPCC 2008-042, 2010; available at http://craigforcese.squarespace.com/national-security-law-blog/?currentPage=24 (accessed on 16 December 2013);

___________Scholarly Papers (49) available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=1173239 (accessed 28 February 2017);

FORCESE, Craig, Leah West Sherriff,  INTRIPID, A Podcast called, by Stephanie Carvin and Craig Forcese, at  itunes.apple.com/ca/podcast/intrepid/id1289996203#, accessed 5 July 2018 (accessed 6 July 2018);

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/leah-west-sherriff-61152868, accessed 25 November 2017
Leah West Sherriff
___________"Killing Citizens: Core Legal Dilemmas in the Targeted Killing of Canadian Foreign Terrorist Fighters (August 26, 2016)" (2017) 54 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 134-187, available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2830602;


For the first time since the introduction of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Canada is an armed conflict with an insurgency that has actively recruited Canadians
and directed them to use or promote violence against Canada. In the result, the Canadian government may ask its soldiers to target and kill fellow Canadians, or to assist allies
in doing so. This situation raises a host of novel legal issues, including the question of “targeted killing” confronted by the United Kingdom in 2015 when it directed military force
against several Britons believed to plotting a terrorist attack. That incident sparked a report from the British Parliament highlighting legal dilemmas. This article does the same for
Canada by focusing on the legal implications surrounding a targeted killing by the Canadian government of a Canadian citizen. It examines how a Canadian policy of targeted
killing would oblige Canada to make choices on many weighty legal matters. First, it discusses the Canadian public law rules that apply when the Canadian Armed Forces deploy
in armed conflicts overseas. It then analyzes the international laws governing military force, scrutinized from the perspective of use of force (jus ad bellum) and the law of armed
conflict (jus in bello). It also examines an alternative body of international law: that governing peacetime uses of lethal force. The article concludes by weaving together these areas
of law into a single set of legal questions that would necessarily need to be addressed prior to a targeted killing of a Canadian.

FORCESE, Craig, Kent Roach, "Bridging the National Security Accountability Gap: A Three-Part System to Modernize Canada’s Inadequate Review of National Security,”  Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society, April 2016; series: TSAS Working Paper No. 16-04; available at http://tsas.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/TSASWP16-04_Forcese-Roach.pdf   (accessed 21 August 2016); excellent bibliography on the topic;

___________False Security: The Radicalization of Canadian Anti-terrorism, Toronto [Ontario] : Irwin Law, 2015;

___________ "Stumbling toward Total Information Awareness: The Security of Canada Information Sharing Act", (June 2015) 12(7) Canadian Privacy Law Review  65-76; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Papers.cfm?abstract_id=2622703 (accessed on 11 August 2016);

FORDHAM, R.S.W., (Reginald Sidney Walter), 1897-, London England, Lieutenant-Colonel, working in the Office of the Deputy Judge Advocate in 1940, see Goodlet, K. W. (2012). Number 22 Internment Camp: German Prisoners of Warand Canadian Internment Operations in Mimico, Ontario, 1940-1944. OntarioHistory, 104 (2), 90–115, at p. ; available at https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/onhistory/2012-v104-n2-onhistory04937/1065439ar.pdf (accessed 18 April 2020); on this officer, see also https://www.emedals.com/catalog/product/print/id/21415/;

Just before dawn on 25 June 1940, and while working in the
office of the
Deputy Judge Advocate General (DJAG),
ieutenant-Colonel R.S.W. Fordham received instructions
to proceed immedi
ately to Camp Borden just outside Barrie,
Ontario. Upon his arrival Fordham’s
superiors designated
him Commandant
of a new Prisoner of War (POW) camp,
which would be established shortly at Mimico, Ontario.
Fordham’s superiors
stressed that the organization and
ministrative work was to begin as soon as possible, since
they expected the first
prisoners to arrive within several days.20
The following day, Fordham visited the former Ontario
Reformatory in Mimico
and supervised the initial renovations
necessary to transform the site into an internment camp.
[at p. 96]

___________member of the Income Tax Board and author of the Canadian Income Tax Appeal Board Practice, Toronto: CCH Canadian Limited, 1958, xx, 220 p.;

___________photo of LCol R.S.W. Fordham reproduced from http://refairesavie.museeholocauste.ca/eng/appointment-commissioner-refugee-camps-canada-0 (accessed 18 April 2020);

Lieutenant-Colonel Reginald Sydney Walter
Fordham, Commissioner of Refugee Camps from
1940 to 1943. (Library and Archives Canada/
Photographer Unknown/Eric Koch Fonds/e010963518)

___________on LCol R.S.W. Fordham see Michael O'Hagan, Beyond the Barbed Wire: POW Labour Projects in Canada during the Second World War, Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Ontarion 2020, at p. 62; available at https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=9207&context=etd (accessed 18 April 2020);

With P.C. 2326 placing the administration of POW labour in the hands
of the
Department of Labour, Cabinet authorized the department to
blish the Directorate of Labour Projects on June 2, 1943 and the
department soon after appointed Lt.
-Col. Reginald Sidney Walter
Fordham as Director. A lawyer from Niagara Falls, Fordham had
spent two years as a POW in Germany in the First World War and
d served as the Commissioner of Refugee Camps in Canada
since 1941. at https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=9207&context=etd

FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE CANADA, "Canada's Response to the Questionnaire on the Follow-up to the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent", available at http://www.international.gc.ca/humanitarian-humanitaire/conference_27.aspx?lang=eng&view=d (accessed on  22 May 2012);
AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES ET COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL CANADA, "Rapport canadien en réponse au questionnaire sur le suivi de la XXVIIe Conférence internationale de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge", disponible à http://www.international.gc.ca/humanitarian-humanitaire/conference_27.aspx?lang=fra&view=d (visité le 22 mai 2012);

Video still (made 23 August 2016)
On the far right, representing Canada, Colonel Rob Holman

Foro Interamericano sobre Justicia Militar, "Video de introduccion del II Foro Interamerican sobre Justicia Militar", August 2014, You Tube video, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHe9GqigQBc (accessed 23 August 2016);

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/keith-reichert-94227537, accessed 5 November 2016
Major Keith Reichert, one of the
speakers at the conference

FOREIGN AFFAIRS PUBLISHER (New Zealand), "1st International Conference on Military Law in South Africa", 5 November 2016; available at http://foreignaffairs.co.nz/2016/11/05/1st-international-conference-on-military-law-in-south-africa/ (accessed 5 November 2016);

The 1st International Conference on Military Law in South Africa, hosted by the South African National Defence Force and the Defence
 Legal Services Division over the period 31 October to 4 November 2016 at the CSIR International Convention Centre in Pretoria, has concluded.

The conference theme (“Contemporary Military Law”) was explored with sub-themes relating to International Military Law, Human Rights Law,
Operational Law and the Administration of Military Justice. The objectives of the conference – to raise public awareness of the importance of
Military Law in a democracy and to stimulate interest in academic research in this specialised field of Public Law to strengthen the development
of South African Military Law – were successfully met with a number of international and local academics and military professionals presenting
research papers regarding the conference theme.

With delegates and presenters arriving for accreditation on Monday, 31 October 2016, the conference was officially opened on Tuesday, 1 November
2016 by Gen Solly Shoke (the Chief of the South African National Defence Force), who in his address welcomed the opportunity provided by the
conference for South African military lawyers to benchmark local approaches with that of other armed forces, and expressing the wish that the
conference would also provide a basis for evaluating whether any amendments to military- and other legislation may be necessary to empower
commanders to instil and maintain military discipline.


The Administration of Military Justice sub-them [sic] commenced with a presentation by Major General Blaise Cathcart, the Judge Advocate General
of the Canadian Armed Forces wherein he outlined the features of the Canadian military justice system, where after Major Keith Reichert, the
Assistant Chief of Staff (Strategic) on Major General Cathcart’s staff, reported on the Court Martial Comprehensive Review process presently being
conducted to evaluate whether any revision of the Canadian military justice system is required to enhance its effectiveness or legality.

  Image source: https://www.google.com, accessed 6 August 2018
Maryse Forget

FORGET, Maryse,  Avocate pour Justice Canada, travaille pour OFFICE OF THE LEGAL ADVISOR TO THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE AND THE CANADIAN FORCES -- DND/CF LA --LSDAODRS (Legislative Support and DAOD Review Services)/CABINET  DE LA CONSEILLÈRE JURIDIQUE AUPRÈS DU MINISTÈRE DE LA DÉFENSE NATIONALE ET DES FORCES CANADIENNES -- CJ MDN/FC --SSLSRDOAD (Soutien des services législatifs et service de révision des DOAD); research note by François Lareau: I had the chance to work with Maryse at the House of Commons;

___________"Semaine du droit et de la démocraties.  Cours no 6: La procédure législative et le cycle de vie des lois et instruments juridiques (Maryse Forget), disponible à https://uqo.ca/sites/default/files/fichiers-uqo/dfcp/Semaine/tableau/session6.pdf (consulté le 6 aoút 2018);

Maryse Forget, LL.B., M.A., C. Trad. Après des études en droit à l’Université de Montréal et un bref passage en pratique
privée où elle exerce dans le domaine du droit du travail, Maryse Forget quitte le droit actif pour se consacrer à sa grande
passion : la langue française. Elle obtient une maîtrise en Études françaises à l’Université de Montréal grâce
à l’analyse juridique d’un texte de littérature médiévale, puis un certificat en traduction à l’Université McGill, avant de
terminer sa scolarité de doctorat en Littérature française à l’Université d’Ottawa.  Son intérêt pour la jurilinguistique
dans la société bilingue et bijuridique du Canada l’amène alors à dédier sa carrière à la rédaction et à la traduction juridiques,
domaines où l’exactitude et le mot juste sont rois.

Image source: forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=operation-impact-technical-briefing/i520ieam, accessed 11 April 2017
Paul W. Forget

FORGET, Paul W., "Enforcement Detachments and the Canadian Navy: A New Counter-Drug Capability", (Summer 2011) 7(2) Canadian Naval Review 4-9; available at www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=operation-impact-technical-briefing/i520ieam (accessed 11 April 2017);

Scott Forster                               Scott Forster; this photo comes from the document
                                                    "Celebration of Life" distributed at the military Beechwood
                                                    Cemetery for Scott’s burial service on 26 June 2018                                                    

FORSTER, S.H. (Scott Hurst), 1942-2018, Colonel, former JAG officer:

Scott Hurst Forster had a distinguished, 40-year career with the Canadian Armed Forces. Born in Toronto in 1942,
he graduated with a B.A. degree from York University and an LL.B. degree from Queen’s University. Scott enrolled
at the Royal Canadian Military College in 1964, and served three years as a Pilot Officer, Reserve in the Royal
Canadian Air Force (RCAF). In 1967, as a newly minted lawyer, he joined the Office of the Judge Advocate General
(JAG), the senior judicial authority for the Canadian Armed Forces.

For the next 30 years, Scott served around the world in a series of increasingly responsible positions with commensurate
rank. He was a Legal Officer for Trenton, Ontario; National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa; Bonn, Cologne, Soest and
Lahr in West Germany; the Royal Canadian Navy base in Victoria, B.C.; and the Royal Canadian Army base in Gagetown,
N.B. He was stationed to United Nations bases for peacekeeping missions in Cairo, Egypt and Nicosia, Cyprus, and
subsequently appointed Assistant to the Judge Advocate General for the Prairie Region, Northwest Territories and
Northwestern Ontario. He appeared on behalf of the Crown in Court Martial Appeal Court in Edmonton, Calgary and
Winnipeg. He attended Staff Officer School for Intelligence Gathering, and Staff Officer College for Strategic Planning,
both in Toronto. Scott was ultimately posted to National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa, where he was appointed
Deputy Judge Advocate General and Director of Legal Services Claims, Defence and Prosecutions. He retired in 1997
with the rank of full Colonel. 

From 1997 – 2004, Scott served on the Veterans Review and Appeal Board (VRAB). Based first in Charlottetown, P.E.I.
and then in Ottawa, he travelled across Canada hearing and presiding over appeals.

In 1971, Scott married Dawn Stevens after a whirlwind courtship. Over the decades that followed, they proved to be a
fun-loving couple and a formidable team. Dawn adapted superbly to their life in various locations while maintaining her
own career in the travel industry. In 1999, Scott and Dawn moved to Cobourg, Ontario. Scott retired from VRAB in
December 2004 as a result of health issues. In August 2004, he had suffered a devastating stroke. For the next 14 years,
Scott and Dawn battled valiantly to regain Scott‘s quality of life, including dealing with his further diagnosis in 2014 of lung cancer.

Scott had the heart of a lion, and maintained his courage and his fight to the end.

Friends are welcome to join the family for a Celebration of Life Wednesday June 20, from 2 – 4 p.m. in the MacCoubrey
Funeral Home Reception Centre.

[source: http://www.maccoubrey.com/notice/5013, accessed 17 June 2018]

___________on FORSTER, Colonel Scott,
see  McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at pages 98, 106 and 213, available at i-xii and 1-102 and  103-242;

___________on FORSTER, Lieutenant-Colonel Scott,
see his photo on flickr by Jim Rycroft and available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/xjag/31997829544/in/photostream/lightbox/ (accessed on 25 September 2020);

Laval Fortier, source de la photo:
"Il retourne à la pratique du droit", Le nouvelliste, 20 mars 1946, p. 9,

FORTIER, Laval, né en 1904 et décédé le 16 mars 1983, ancien membre du Bureau du Juge-avocat général;

                                                      [... ]Notre nouveau commissaire en chef naquit à Québec le 18 avril 1904. En 1917,
                                                  il entrait au pe­tit Séminaire de Québec où il obtint son baccalauréat ès sciences,
                                                  en 1925.  Trois ans plus tard, il obtenait un degré en loi et était admis au Barreau
                                                  de la Province de Québec. Pendant l’année 1928-29. il poursuivait des études avancées,
                                                  en  journalisme, publicité et finance à l’université Columbia de New-York.

                                                      Vivement intéressé dans la publication de journaux, M. Fortier s’est occupé de
                                                  journalisme pendant les vacances d’été 1925, 1926 et 1927.  Il fut aussi affecté
                                                  au tirage au departement commercial du quotidien l’Evénement Journal de
                                                  l’ancienne capitale.  Il devint par la suite un directeur de ce journal, pour y demeurer
                                                  jusqu’en 1937.  Il fut aus­si directeur de “ La Compagnie de Publication Le Nouvelliste
                                                  Limitée” de Trois-Rivières de 1926 à 1941.

                                                      Entre temps, il fit partie de l’unité de réserve “Les Voltigeurs de Québec”, soit de
                                                  1926 à 1941, au moment où il entrait dans l’armée active du Canada. Dès son engagement,
                                                  il fut appointé Juge Avocat Général adjoint pour le district militaire numéro 5.  En
                                                  octobre 1942, il fut transféré à Ottawa comme assistant du Juge Avocat Général aux
                                                  Quartiers-Généraux avec le rang de Lieutenant-Colonel, et deux ans plus tard, il était
                                                  appointé adjoint du Juge Avocat Général. Il partit pour outre-mer à l’automne de 1944,.
                                                  où il fut attaché aux Quartiers-Généraux de l’armée canadienne à Londres comme
                                                  assistant du Juge Avocat Général.  En  février 1945, il fut attaché à la 21e armée
                                                  sur le continent et servit en France, Belgique, Allemagne et Hollande. Pendant cetemps,
                                                  il avait été créé Conseiller du Roi en 1942.  En 1944, l'honneur d’officier de l'Ordre de
                                                  l’Empire Britannique lui était conféré.

                                                      C’est en 1947 que M. Fortier entre à nouveau au service du gouvernement à titre de
                                                  Commissaire associé de l’Immigration.  Au 1er décembre 1949, il devenait commissaire
                                                  de l’Immigration, service d'outre-mer. C'est le 18 janvier 1950 qu'il devenait sous-ministre
                                                  du nouveau ministère de la Citoyenneté et de l'Immigration, poste qu'il occu­pera jusqu'au
                                                  moment de sa nomination comme nouveau comissaire en chef [de la Commission d'Assurance-
                                                     Anciennement directeur de plusieurs sociétés d’affaires, M. Fortier a aussi été, pendant deux
                                                 ans, vice-président de la succursale numéro 13 de la Légion Ca­nadienne, et aussi directeur de
                                                 l’institut Militaire de Québec.  Il est un membre fondateur du Cercle Universitaire d’Ottawa
                                                 et en était le Président pendant 1958 et 1959.

                                                 Il est marié à Claire Tellier, fille du Colonel et de madame E. H. Tellier de Montréal.  Il a deux
                                                 filles, l'une madame Gustave (Josette) Denis et l’autre Paule.
                                                 [Source: "À la Commission d'Assurance-Chômage.  Grande visite du commissaire en chef",
                                                 L'Action populaire, 21 juin 1961, pp. 1-2, à la p. 2; L'Action populaire est un journal de Joliette;
                                                 recherche effectuée le 21 mars 2018*]

___________on Fortier, Laval, see the following biographical notes in "Many From Ottawa Are Included in King's Birthday Honors List", The Evening Citizen, Thursday , 8 June 1944 at p. 8, available at https://www.newspapers.com/ (accessed 16 May 2020);


Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

___________on FORTIER, Laval, see "Acquit Veteran Guard on Trio of Six Charges", Globe and Mail, 1944/03/29, available at https://collections.museedelhistoire.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5064672 (accessed 5 June 2019); court martial of Cpl William Lee of Montreal; Lieutenant-Colonel R. Fortier was the Judge-Advocate (note initial is R.?); Capt. L.C. Carroll was the prosecutor; Capt. T.B. Brown was defence counsel;

____________sur FORTIER, Laval, voir également l'article du Lieutenant Jean-Charles Daoust, des Relations extérieures de l'armée: "Le colonel L. Fortier loue les Anglais", Le nouvelliste,  samedi 10 février 1945, à la p. 9, disponible à  http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3213699 (consulté le 19 octobre 2018);

___________sur FORTIER, Laval, voir "Le col. Laval Fortier nommé à l'immigration", La presse, Montréal, jeudi 9 octobre 1947, à la p. 17; disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2959574 (vérifié le 24 janvier 2019);

___________sur FORTIER, Laval, voir l'article du lieutenant Jean-Charles Daoust, "Une tâche importante est confiée au Lt-col L Fortier outre-mer", Le soleil, Québec, samedi 10 février 1945 à la p. 9, disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3439352 (consulté le 15 mars 2019); remarquons les noms de d'autres avocats militaires dans l'article;

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed


___________sur FORTIER, Laval, voir "Une causerie de M. Laval Fortier ici le 26 avril", Le nouvelliste, jeudi, 27 mars 1952, à la p. 17; disponible à  http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3211886 (consulté le 28 janvier 2019);

FORTIER, Margaret, "Fortress Security and Military Justice at Louisbourg, 1720- 45", Report Parks Canada, Report HE 14, 1980; available at http://www.krausehouse.ca/krause/FortressOfLouisbourgResearchWeb/Search/HE14-16.htm (accessed 7 October 2017);

Marie-Christine Fortin                      
"Office of the JAG@JAGCAF 23 hours ago   [2018]                                                                    
                                                           Legal Officers Captain Akis Vitsentzatos (left) and Lieutenant (Navy) Marie-Christine Fortin
participated recently in Exercise FINAL DRIVE, the final exercise for the Army
                                                           Operations Course at the @CanadianArmy Command and Staff College in Kingston, Ont.
                                                           (accessed 12 June 2016)"

FORTIN, Marie-Christine, consellière juridique au Cabinet du Juge-avocat général, depuis juin 2017, voir https://ca.linkedin.com/in/marie-christine-fortin-99570450 (site consulté le 9 Septembre 2017); member of the Law Society of Ontario;


Nadine Fortin, source de l'image: Google Image, site visité le 18 Mai 2014

FORTIN, Nadine, "POF 488, Le droit des conflits armés, syllabus Automne 2010", RMC -- CMR, Département de politique et d'économie, disponible à http://www.davidmlast.org/Politics_Review/Politics_Courses_files/POF%20488%20-%20FORTIN.pdf (vérifié le 30 juin 2015);

 Source de l'image: ca.linkedin.com/in/patrice-bergeron-284551a8, visité le 26 juillet 2017
Patrice Bergeron

___________interview de BERGERON, Patrice, "Armée: l'obéissance n'est plus nécessairement privilégiée", LaPresse.ca, 10 mai 2009; disponible à http://www.cyberpresse.ca/actualites/dossiers/le-canada-en-afghanistan/200905/10/01-855129-armee-lobeissance-nest-plus-necessairement-privilegiee.php (vérifié le 29 avril 2012); interview avec le major Nadine Fortin, avocate militaire;

Source de l'image: www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2010-11/ch-3-military-justice-system.page, visité 11 mai 2016
Nadine Fortin avec un client

__________notes biographiques http://www.cdp-hrc.uottawa.ca/uploads/BIOGRAPHIE_Fortin.pdf, site visité le 10 avril 2014;

__________notes on the career of Nadine Fortin, from https://www.redcross.ca/crc/documents/What-We-Do/International-Humanitarian-Law/Agenda-EHL-Training-Aug-2020.pdf, accessed 31 July 2020;

Captain Nadine Fortin-Office of the Judge Advocate General, Canadian Armed Forces:

Major Fortin began her legal career with Cain, Lamarre, Wells in 1994 before moving to the
University of Quebec
(TELUQ) where she developed courses and acted as a tutor. After
obtaining a master's degree in law from Laval
University, Major Fortin joined the Canadian
Armed Forces (CAF) and served in the office of the Judge Advocate
General (OJAG) as
deputy judge advocate with the 35th
Canadian Brigade Group and the Naval Reserve
Headquarter in Quebec. Major Fortin will then advise units of the 5th Canadian
Mechanized Brigade Group and
the 5th Canadian Service Battalion at Valcartier Garrison.
In 2009, Major Fortin was deployed to Kanda
har, Afghanistan, as the Canadian Battle
Group legal advisor.

Upon her return, Maj Fortin was posted to the Canadian Forces Military Law Center in
Kingston where she
teaches, in particular, the law of armed conflict and air and space
law at the Royal Mili
tary College of Canada. In 2012, Maj Fortin was posted to the
Directorate of law military personnel and then was assigned to the position of
chief of staff
-personal. She is Deputy Director of the Law of Armed Conflict course
offered by the
Institute of international Humanitarian Law at Salon-de-Provence since
2016 and currently holds the position of
Acting Director in the Directorate of International
Law of the OJAG

___________photo de Nadine Fortin enseignant à l'École des Commissaires des Armées, France:

One of our Legal Officers, Major Nadine Fortin, is at
the Defense School of Joint Supply Corps Officers in Salon-de-Provence,
France, for two weeks, instructing international francophonie government,
military, academic, and NGO experts, on the law of armed conflict. ",
accessed 17 May 2019.

  Source de l'image:  ledevoir.com/politique/canada/229597/a-la-guerre-comme-a-la-guerre
Nadine Fortin
____________sur Fortin, Nadine, voir CASTONGUAY, Alec, "À la guerre comme à la guerre!  Les soldats canadiens doivent respecter les règles internationales d'engagement, même si le conflit est atypique, comme en Afghanistan", Le Devoir, 27 janvier 2009; disponible à http://www.ledevoir.com/politique/canada/229597/a-la-guerre-comme-a-la-guerre (vérifié 29 septembre 2015); traite du Major Nadine Fortin;

Et si la major Fortin juge que l'état-major prend une décision qui contrevient aux règles internationales lors d'une mission?
L'avocate affirme avoir le droit de monter dans la chaîne de commandement pour dénoncer certains comportements.
«Si à mes yeux c'est complètement illégal, je peux passer à un autre niveau», dit-elle.

La major Fortin en sera à son premier déploiement en Afghanistan et sera confrontée à la réalité d'un conflit difficile
où l'ennemi n'est pas toujours identifiable. Elle se dit consciente que la tâche est lourde.

Mais elle aura, en cas de doute, l'aide de quatre autres avocats canadiens à Kandahar, qui seront dispersés avec
d'autres unités: le commandement régional de l'OTAN, le commandement canadien, l'équipe de reconstruction provinciale
et le mentorat de l'armée afghane.

Source de l'image: commonlaw.uottawa.ca/15/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9485&Itemid=78&lang=fr, visité 21 mai 2016
Major M.S. Nadine Fortin, Forces canadiennes et Collège militaire royal de Kingston

___________web site of Nadine Fortin -- http://nadinefortin.com/, accessed on 29 avril 2014;

______sur Fortin, Nadine, voir https://ca.linkedin.com/in/nadine-fortin-10633959, site cosnulté le 23 mai 2020;

FORTIN, Pierre (J.P./J.A.P.), Captain, was the prosecutor (possibly the assisting prosecutor) in  R. v. Vézina 1989 CM 81, Standing Court Martial,  29 August 1973, source of information:  MADSEN, C.M.V. (Chris Mark Vedel), Military law and operations, Aurora (Ontario): Canada Law Book, c2008-, vol. 3, at p. APP2: 1989-13? and APP2: 1989-14? (verify again the page numbers in Mr. Madsen's book);

___________Artificial space debris and international law, LL.M. thesis, Institute of Air and Space, McGill University, 1990, available at https://escholarship.mcgill.ca/concern/theses/gq67js311 (accessed 6 April 2020); 

__________on FORTIN, Pierre, Captain, was defence counsel in  R. v. Duguay 1987 CM 100, Special General Court Martial,  Lahr, Federal Republic of Germany, 12 June 987, source of information:  MADSEN, C.M.V. (Chris Mark Vedel), Military law and operations, Aurora (Ontario): Canada Law Book, c2008-, vol. 3, at p. APP2: 1987-25);

___________sur Fortin, Pierre, voir les notes biographiques suivantes:

Pierre Fortin

This individual was born in beautiful Montréal on 21 June 1960. He graduated from law
school in 1982 and was called to the Québec bar the following year. After two years of
private practice as a partner in a Montréal law firm, he joined the Canadian Forces as a
legal officer. Four years later, he left the service and undertook a Master's degree in air
and space law at McGill University in Montréal. His thesis is titled "Artificial Space
Debris and International Law" and should be completed by the end of 1990.
Other interests include international relations, nature (in all its forms), hockey, and squash.

[source: https://www.caisu.org/members/ssp/bios1990.html, site visité le 6 avril 2020]

FORTIN, Steve, "JAG : A Century of Service" (9 November 2011) 14(29) The Maple Leaf, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/commun/ml-fe/article-eng.asp?id=7188#cn-tphp (accessed on 30 November 2011);
FORTIN, Steve, "Le JAG : un siècle de service" (9 November 2011) 14(29) La feuille d'érable 13;  disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/tml/_pdf/2011/11-fra.pdf (vérifié le 25 avril 2012);

Image source: amazon.ca/Meeting-Generals-Tony                Tony Foster, image source: thestar.com/news/gta/2012/05/31/tony_foster.html
, accessed 23 October 2018
FOSTER, Tony, 1932-2012, Meeting of Generals, Toronto : Methuen, c1986,  xxiii, 559 p., [24] p. of plates : ill. ; 25 cm.  NOTES: Includes index.  Bibliography: p. 537-539; copy at Ottawa University, Morisset Library MRT General  D 804 .G43 M49 1986; available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?id=hgRDCQAAQBAJ&pg=PT585&lpg=PT585&dq=%22Frank+Plourde%22+meyer&source=bl&ots=DY6uwMZpga&sig=vP3VyqkjR7r8Z5TJr3zeBcCnVh8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjV3pKbipzeAhWjY98KHbMQB-8Q6AEwAnoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Frank%20Plourde%22%20meyer&f=false (accessed 23 October 2018);

FOURNIER, Michèle, 1976-, Homosexualité, armée et police: État de la question et expériences vécues par les militaires, policiers et policières gais selon leur propre point de vue, Ph.D. thesis in criminology, Université de Montréal, 2006; directeurs: Jean-Paul Brodeur et Marie-Marthe Cousineau;

Abstract (summary)

With regards to employment, certain working environments are accessible to sexual diversity, whereas others are still closed or hostile
towards those who choose to live openly with their homosexuality. Amongst the latter, it is considered that with respect to employment,
which traditionally requires male oriented skills wherein virility is valued, such as in the military or police corps, although differing on
certain points, they do share common characteristics which are often cited as obstacles to the integration of homosexuals.

This thesis delves into the question of the homosexuality in the military as well as various police forces. The objective herein would be
to acknowledge the fact that within the army and police forces in various countries where homosexuality is evident, it is imperative that
we consider the thought pattern of gay soldiers, and gay police officers in Quebec, according to their own particular point of view.

Current listed research indicates that the armed forces as well as police forces of several western countries permit the individual recruitment
and hiring of homosexuals, and that more recently, they are granting the same rights to these groups that they allocate to their heterosexual
personnel. The experience of the gay military and police personnel of these countries however, is marked by episodes of homophobia, and
although their presence does not harm the effectiveness of said services, they are still far from being completely accepted within these

In Quebec, twenty-one interviews realized with homosexuals stemming from military and police circles has given us a greater understanding
 of their lives and the way they deal with their working environment. The qualitative analysis arrives at conclusions pertaining to their experiences:
 As the homosexuality aspect has been condemned for decades within these environments and as such, it being unthinkable to publicly
 display homosexuality, it would appear that the military and police institutions have since made considerable progress in the acceptance of
 homosexuality within their ranks.

The organizational culture, and more particularly the male chauvinism which reigns within the army, restricts the integration of gay servicemen
 and women. It is considered however, that their situation continues to improve and that it is believed that in future years, homosexuality within
 the Armed forces will be more generally accepted. Insofar as the gay policemen and women are concerned, those groups describe their
 experience in the forces as positive, while underlining the openness of their organization enabling them, although in a limited fashion, display
 their homosexuality in their work environment. Quite like gay military personnel, they believe that relations between the police and the gay
 community have greatly improved over recent years and that the Montreal police organization is striving for even closer relationships with
 the diverse communities it serves.

The difficulties faced by some gay policemen and women and specifically some gay servicemen and women, however, cannot be ignored. It is
 understood that their situation has largely improved and that irrespective of the pitfalls, it is now possible for homosexuals to have a careen in
 these working environments, wherein such a career choice would have been unavailable to them a short time ago.
(source: http://search.proquest.com/docview/304922941, accessed 23 August 2016).

Source de l'image: linkedin.com/in/nicolas-fournier-25108b161, consulté le 13 mars 2019
Nicolas Fournier

FOURNIER, Nicolas, Punir la désertion en Nouvelle-France: justice, pouvoir et institution militaire de 1742 à 1761, mémoire présenté comme exigence partielle de la maitrise en histoire, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2013; disponible à http://www.archipel.uqam.ca/5900/1/M13113.pdf (vérifié le 25 mai 2015);

Cette recherche porte sur la question des déserteurs en Nouvelle-France durant les vingt dernières années du régime français. Il n'y a aucun ouvrage
complet sur ce thème, tandis que les études existantes se limitent souvent à l'analyse des causes ou des lieux de la fuite. L'historiographie ne s'est
pas intéressée à l'importance et à la complexité de la désertion pour les soldats ni pour les élites militaires. Nous avons donc analysé la situation des
déserteurs en Nouvelle-France en utilisant les procès pour désertion et les journaux militaires. En plus d'étudier ce comportement, nous voulions
étudier sa prise en charge par la discipline militaire et par le Conseil de guerre pour réduire son ampleur, mais surtout pour construire le pouvoir de
l'armée. Ainsi, la désertion est un phénomène commun dans les armées européennes de l'époque. Toutefois, la fuite des soldats en Nouvelle-France
est caractérisée par les particularités propres à la situation coloniale. En plus de causes généralisées, telles que la guerre ou l'alcool, l'Amérique
impose des conditions de vie particulières au soldat, par exemple les conditions météorologiques, la géographie et les Amérindiens. Par ailleurs, la
désertion est un phénomène qui comporte des particularités qui ne peuvent être généralisées pour l'ensemble de la Nouvelle-France. La façon de
déserter et la signification de la désertion sont modulées grandement selon le lieu, le moment et les circonstances de la fuite du soldat. De plus, les
impacts de la désertion sont nombreux sur l'armée, ce qui explique l'importance de ce phénomène. Les élites dénoncent officiellement la désertion,
cependant les mesures instaurées pour la contrer sont insuffisantes ou mal gérées. Bien que difficile à analyser, la discipline militaire demeure la
principale méthode pour gérer les soldats. Puis, la justice militaire intervient dans un certain nombre de cas. Le Conseil de guerre juge surtout par
contumace, cependant les déserteurs présents durant notre période semblent plus sévèrement punis qu'en Europe. Enfin, la grâce permet de réintégrer
quelques déserteurs dans les rangs, alors que les déserteurs intégrés à la colonie semblent éviter plus facilement la répression. Au-delà du contrôle de
la désertion, la justice militaire et l'octroi de la grâce contribuent à la construction du pouvoir. La dynamique de la prise en charge de la désertion
permet aux élites militaires de gagner une certaine autonomie par rapport à la métropole, tout en se distinguant du pouvoir « civil ». Puis, les élites
militaires confirment leur pouvoir sur l'armée. Toutefois, la justice militaire est aussi utilisée par un groupe restreint d'officiers de l'élite militaire
pour construire leur pouvoir personnel. Le rituel judiciaire contribue ainsi à la formation des réseaux de contacts, permettant à certains d'obtenir des
postes, des distinctions et des grades.(source du résumé: http://www.archipel.uqam.ca/5900/, vérification 3 février 2015;

___________"Punir la désertion en Nouvelle-France : justice, pouvoir et institution militaire de 1742 à 1761", (Printemps 2017) 34(1) Cahiers d'histoire 69-94, disponible à https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/histoire/2017-v34-n1-histoire03167/1040823ar/ (consulté le 21 décembre 2018);

Cet article reprend l’argumentaire d’une partie du mémoire de maîtrise du même titre déposé en 2013 par l’auteur.


La désertion est un phénomène important pour les élites militaires. Lorsque la discipline militaire ne parvient pas à contrôler les
soldats, les officiers recourent au Conseil de guerre. Au-delà du contrôle de la désertion, la justice militaire et l’octroi de la grâce
contribuent à la construction du pouvoir. La gestion de la désertion permet aux élites militaires de gagner une certaine autonomie
par rapport à la métropole et de confirmer leur pouvoir sur l’armée. La justice militaire est aussi utilisée par des membres de
l’élite militaire pour construire leur pouvoir personnel. Le rituel judiciaire contribue ainsi à la formation des réseaux de contacts,
permettant à certains d’obtenir des postes, des distinctions et des grades.

FOURNIER, Pierre, avocat de la défense à une cour martiale, voir , "Militaire traduit en cour martiale", Le soleil, lundi 9 juillet 1951 à la p. 11, disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3176080, vérifié le 2 juillet 2020;

Sylvain Fournier, source de la photo http://www.usherbrooke.ca/politique-appliquee/nous-joindre/personnel-enseignant/fournier-sylvain/, site visité le 10 avril 2014

FOURNIER, Sylvain, 1962-, "Le droit opérationel  au Timor oriental", (July/Juillet 2000) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 5; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519184345/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+00-07.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);

___________"Fourth Working Session - Role Change of a Security-Force: How to Deal with the Legal Aspects of Emerging Additional and Different Tasks of a Security Force", 44 Mil. L. & L. War Rev. 134 (2005); I haven't read these pages; 

Image source: In the article "Ici au Timor Oriental -- Here in East Timor"
___________"Ici au Timor Oriental -- Here in East Timor", JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités, volume III -- 1999 at pp. 47-52;

____________"Introduction to the LOAC and the Rules of Engagement", NATO LEGAL Deskbook, Partie XII: 2ième Edition 2010, p. 245; available at https://info.publicintelligence.net/NATO-LegalDeskbook.pdf
 (accessed 8 July 2017);

___________Le processus de redressement de grief des forces armées canadiennes : mise en contexte et critique,  thèse pour le grade LL.M., McGill University. Institute of Comparative Law, 1997,  x, 132 leaves, 1997, Morissette, Yves-Marie (advisor), disponible à  http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/-?func=dbin-jump-full&amp;current_base=GEN01&amp;object_id=20531, vérifié le 6 janvier 2012;

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the procedure for the redress of grievances in the Canadian Armed Forces. A comparative
 study of the parallel system under the American law will be undertaken. The author's wish is to highlight deficiencies in the
 Canadian grievance procedure and to suggest changes which would improve the procedure. The military context is reviewed in
 the first two parts of the thesis, it being the view of the author that the grievance procedure evolves in a work environment and
 as part of an institution which are unique. In the following parts, the thesis will situate the military personnel within the legal
 framework in which it operates and will trace the origins of the grievance procedure. A detailed examination of the procedure
 will then be presented. The last two parts of the thesis deal with judicial review of decision made in the grievance process and
 with a critical appraisal of the process. An overview of criticisms which may be leveled at this process in the Canadian Armed
 Forces will be followed by observations on the advantages of a system integrating positive features of the Canadian and American
 systems. (source:, accessed on 6 January 2012);

___________"NATO Military Interventions Abroad: How Roe are Adopted and Jurisdictional Rights Negotiated", Paper presented at the  XVth  International Congress  of Social Defence  entitled:  "Criminal Law between war and peace: Justice and cooperation in criminal matters in international military interventions", Toledo, Spain,  September  2007; available at http://www.defensesociale.org/xvcongreso/ponencias/SylvainFournier.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2012); see also http://books.google.ca/books?id=xw8me9GgngcC&pg=PA113&lpg=PA113&dq=%22NATO+Military+Interventions+Abroad%22&source=bl&ots=eFzPPLY8L3&sig=4q1yLEbVmhNcC5SM19p6tIWzZ5U&hl=
(accessed on 1 March 2012); now published in In Criminal Law between War and Peace: Justice and Cooperation , Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 2009,  p. 113;

__________Notes biographiques (non nécessairement écrites par monsieur Fournier):

[Member of the editorial board, The Military Law and the Law of War Review / La revue de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre]

Sylvain Fournier LL.M. is member of the Quebec Bar presently working as a consultant in Belgium. During the last few years he
 provided IHL and NATO legal training for different organizations including the International Committee of Military Medicine (ICMM),
 HPCR International, the NATO School and the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS). Currently he is developing an
 experimental web Portal for the NATO legal community under the direction of NATO Allied Command Transformation. For 22 years
 he served as a military officer in the Office of the Judge Advocate General in the Canadian Forces (CF), occupying different legal
 positions and serving on operational deployments in Macedonia, East Timor and Bosnia Herzegovina. Assigned in Germany for 8
 years he became senior legal counsel for the CF in Europe and Canada Head-of-Mission to Sending States. His last military assignment
 was at NATO HQ in Brussels where he served as legal advisor to the Chairman of the Military Committee and the Director of International
 Military Staff. He is member of the Advisory Board of the Reference Centre of Excellence on IHL and Military Ethics and of the ISMLLW
 where he presided the Committee on IHL from 2003 to 2007. (source: http://www.mllwr.org/editorial-board/, accessed on 20 February 2015) 

Sylvain Fournier
___________on FOURNIER, Sylvain, see the following biographical notes:

Sylvain Fournier is a Lecturer in Law and Politics at University of Sherbrooke where he studied law (LL.B.). Member of the Quebec Bar he
holds an LL.M. from McGill University. For 22 years Sylvain served as military officer in the Office of the Judge Advocate General in the
Canadian Forces (CF) occupying different legal positions and serving on operational deployments in Macedonia, East-Timor and Bosnia
Herzegovina. Assigned in Germany for 8 years he became Senior Legal Counsel for the CF in Europe. His last military duty was at NATO
HQ in Brussels where he served as Legal Advisor to the Chairman of the Military Committee. After retirement Sylvain worked as a Consultant
in Belgium for HPCR International (Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research), DILLS (Defense Institute of International Legal Studies) and
NATO Allied Command Transformation where he developed the web legal portal CLOVIS. Since 2000 he provides for the ICMM (International
Committee of Military Medicine) IHL training to military doctors in Africa, Arabia, Asia and Europe. (source: http://www.ismllw.org/REVIEW/mllwr%20EB.php,
vérifié le 4 août 2017)

___________on FOURNIER, Sylvain, see McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at p. 178 (East Timor), available at 103-242;

Source de l'image: (Juillet-Octobre 2000) 3 JAG Newsletter-Bulletin d'actualités 5
Le major Fournier recevant sa déco-
ration CD1 des mains du JAG

___________ page web --  http://www.usherbrooke.ca/politique-appliquee/nous-joindre/personnel-enseignant/fournier-sylvain/  (visitée le 8 novembre 2013)

[quelques notes sur l'expérience militaire:]

2005-2008 Conseiller juridique principal / Président du Comité Militaire de l’OTAN (Bruxelles)
. Agit comme conseiller juridique du président sur tous les aspects de la mission militaire de l'OTAN
. Rédige, négocie et passe en revue divers contrats / accords internationaux. (Statut des Forces, ROE)
. Prodigue des conseils ciblés pour atteindre les objectifs politiques et militaires stratégiques.
. Membre de différents comités de travail au sein de l’état major international à l’OTAN.
. Rédige un document de travail sur les applications pratiques de la Convention des Nations Unis sur le droit de la mer aux opérations
 militaires de l'OTAN.

2001-2005 Conseiller Juridique Principal / Forces Canadiennes en Europe (CFE) (Allemagne)
. Responsable de toutes les questions juridiques (Statut des forces et des personnes à charge, réclamations, fiscalité, emploi, discipline,
 télécommunications) des Forces canadiennes stationnées en Europe.
. Chef de Mission du Canada auprès des États d’Origines (BEL, FRA, NLD, GBR, USA) en Allemagne.
. Assure le bon fonctionnement d'une équipe de six juristes, deux consultants et un agent de liaison.
. Supervise la mise en œuvre de contrats de services de plusieurs firmes de génie conseil.
. Renégocie un accord international sur la présence des FCE avec les autorités allemandes.
. Préside un groupe de travail international sur les problématiques environnementales communes.
. Agit comme conseiller juridique au Quartier Général de la SFOR à Sarajevo (BiH) et responsable de toutes les questions liées à la
 mission de l'OTAN. (6 mois)

Image source: http://www.natolibguides.info/c.php?g=48607&p=711652, accessed on 12 February 2015

FOURNIER, Sylvain, 1962 and S.L. Bumgardner,  "Article 5 North Atlantic Treaty: The Cornerstone of the Alliance",  (July 2014) 34 Nato Legal Gazette 17-38; available at http://www.ismllw.org/NATO%20LEGAL%20GAZETTE/Legal%20GazetteIssueNo%2034.pdf (accessed 12 February 2015); see also  http://www.ismllw.org/NATO%20LEGAL%20GAZETTE/Legal%20Gazette%20Special%20Issue.pdf (accessed 17 May 2018);

Rory Fowler, image source: http://live.ottawacitizen.com/Event/Live_blog_Military_complaints_commission_hearing_Tuesday_May_22?Page=0, accessed 16 April 2015

FOWLER, Rory G., "An Appeal worth following: R. v. Crépeau", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 2 September 2020, available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/09/an-appeal-worth-following-r-v-crepeau.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed 3 September 2020);

___________ "Asymmetric Universality of Service?", available at http://cswan.com/wp-content/uploads/Blog-118-Rory-Fowler.pdf (accessed 10 March 2018); see also http://cswan.com/the-risks-arising-from-asymmetric-application-of-universality-of-service/;

___________" ‘Bad Facts’ and Awkward Law: The Director of Military Prosecutions v Deputy Chief Military Judge, et al., 2020 FC 330",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 5 March 2020, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/03/bad-facts-and-awkward-law-director-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 6 March 2020);

___________"Breaking the Deadlock: Independence of the Military Judiciary and the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada", 5January 5, 2021, available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract= (available at 8 January 2020);

___________"The Canadian Forces and Hateful Conduct", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  17 July 2020, at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/07/the-canadian-forces-and-hateful-conduct.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 18 July 2020);

___________"The Canadian Forces and 'Hateful Conduct'", available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/the-canadian-forces-and-hateful-conduct/ and at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ (accessed 22 July 2020); see also  (accessed 24 July 2020);
Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  17 July 2020, at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/07/the-canadian-forces-and-hateful-conduct.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 24 July 2020);

___________ "The Canadian Forces Grievance Process: How Adequate an alternative is it?", (October 2014) 27(3) Canadian Journal of Administrative Law and Practice/Revue canadienne de droit administratif et de pratique 277-307;


A recent Reference initiated before the Federal Court (but not yet decided) concerning a grievance by an officer of the Canadian Forces (CF)
offers an opportunity to re-examine the unique legal dimensions of the Crown-soldier relationship. This relationship remains grounded in a
Victorian perspective – some might say ‘antiquated’ – in which members of the armed forces are viewed as being in a ‘unilateral commitment
in return for which the Queen assumes no obligations’, thus limiting recourse for perceived wrongs on the part of the Crown. One of the principal
failings of much of the case law concerning this ‘employment’ relationship is that it tends to state what the relationship is not, rather than what it
is. Using the issues raised by the Reference, this paper proposes to examine how the Crown-soldier relationship may be viewed in the context of
modern public law, focusing on the circumstances under which the Crown might be liable for damages or compensation where members of the
armed forces are subject to flawed decision-making. One of the principal conclusions drawn by the author is that the Federal Court is unlikely
to signal a paradigm shift in this relationship and, barring legislative reform, the courts will take an incrementalist approach to modernization.

___________"Canadian Military Judges and the Chief of the Defence Staff",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 18 August 2020, available at  https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/08/canadian-military-judges-and-chief-of.html, accessed 21 August 2020;

___________"CDS-imposed limitations on convening courts-martial", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 22 May 2020, available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/05/cds-imposed-limitations-on-convening.html, accessed 21 August 2020;

"Charging the wrong person -- a 'rookie' mistake in the Canadian military justice system", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 23 April 2020, available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/search?q=Fowler, accessed 21 August 2020;

___________"Comment on Michel Drapeau's Blog "Canadian Parliament has replaced the Summary Trial System with a non-penal and non-criminal procedure in 2019. The Canadian military has yet to adopt it",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 27 July 2020, available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/07/canadian-parliament-has-replaced.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 28 July 2020);

___________"Damages, the Crown-Soldier Relationship, and the Canadian Forces Grievance Process", 12 July 2017, available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3001106;

__________"Deploying Canadian Forces Reservists in a Crisis: The Problem with Vague and Imprecise Language", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 6 April 2020, at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/04/deploying-canadian-forces-reservists-in.html, accessed 21 August 2020;

___________"The Deputy Chief Military Judge's Line in the Sand",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 August 2020, at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/08/the-deputy-chief-military-judges-line.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed 15 August 2020);

___________"Director of Military Prosecutions Withdraws Charges Against the Chief Military Judge of the Canadian Forces", available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/director-of-military-prosecutions-withdraws-charges-against-the-chief-military-judge-of-the-canadian-forces/ (accessed 25 March 2020);

___________"Discretion is the better part of (valour) statutory decision-making [Part I]", blog, 12 October 2020, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/discretion-is-the-better-part-of-valour-statutory-decision-making/ (accessed 13 October 2020);

___________"Discretion is the better part of (valour) statutory decision-making--Part II", blog, 13 October 2020, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/discretion-is-the-better-part-of-valour-statutory-decision-making-part-ii/ (accessed 13 October 2020);

___________"Extra-Territorial Application of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 January 2021, at globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2021/01/extra-territorial-application-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed 20 January 2021); about  R v McGregor, 2020 CMAC 8;

___________"Has the Canadian Forces Completely Abandoned the Rule of Law?", blog, 28 August 2020, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/has-the-canadian-forces-completely-abandoned-the-rule-of-law/ (accessed 29 August 2020);

___________"In the Current Dialogue with the Military Judiciary, the CDS isn't Listening", blog, 18 August 2020, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/in-the-current-dialogue-with-the-military-judiciary-the-cds-isnt-listening/ (accessed 29 August 2020);

__________"Is the Canadian Military Prosecution Service (CMPS) bringing prosecutions and appeals without merit?",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 May 2020, at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/05/is-canadian-military-prosecution.html, accessed 21 August 2020;

___________"Judgments as 'Remedial Measures' -- What we can learn from recent developments", blog, 2 October 2020, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/tag/op-honour/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/judgments-as-remedial-measures-what-we-can-learn-from-recent-developments/  (accessed 5 October 2020);

“Judicial review brought by the Director of Military Prosecutions could have been avoided”, (25 November 2019), available at Ottawa Citizen, Defence Watch <https://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/fowler-judicial-review-brought-by-the-director-of-military-prosecutions-could-have-been-avoided>;

LCol Fowler’s retirement announcement/ Retraite du lieutenant-colonel Rory G. Fowler,  received by me on 18 November 2016:

                          1. Lieutenant-Colonel Rory Fowler will retire on 25 January 2017 after more than
                          27 years of loyal and dedicated service to Canada and to the Canadian Armed Forces.
                          His last day of work will be on Friday, 2 December 2016.

2.         Lieutenant-Colonel Fowler joined the Canadian Armed Forces in 1989 under
the Regular Officer Training Plan while attending Queen’s University in Kingston.
Since then, he has been engaged in a unilateral commitment with the Crown in return
for which the Queen has assumed no obligations.  Commissioned in 1991, following
Basic Infantry Officer Training, he joined 1 PPCLI in Calgary, where he served as a
rifle platoon and reconnaissance platoon commander.  He deployed with the 1 PPCLI
Battle Group on Op HARMONY in Croatia in 1994.  In 1996, he was posted to 2 R22eR
as the PPCLI Exchange Officer, serving as the Assistant Operations Officer and a rifle
company second-in-command.  He deployed on Op CONSTABLE in Haiti in 1997 and
participated in Op ASSISTANCE in Manitoba in 1997 and Op RECUPERATION in
Quebec in 1998.  Posted to the Land Force Western Area Training Centre in 1999, (then)
Captain Fowler served as a Militia Training Support Team Leader – Infantry, Second-
in-Command Basic Training Company, Training Co-ordination Officer and Technical
Adjutant.  In 2001, he was selected for the Military Legal Training Plan and attended
the University of Western Ontario Law School.


3.         Graduating in 2004, Captain Fowler was selected for the Dean Ivan C. Rand
Honour Society based upon meritorious academic standing throughout his undergraduate
studies in law and his outstanding contributions in the service of the students of the Faculty
of Law.  Captain Fowler articled with the Middlesex County Crown Attorney and, upon
Call to the Bar of Ontario in 2005, was posted to the Directorate of Law – Administrative
Law in Ottawa, where he advised Director General Canadian Forces Grievance Authority
on matters arising in the context of CF grievances and on judicial review of decisions by
the final authority in the grievance process.  He was promoted to major in 2006 and, in
2007, was posted to the Directorate of Law – Compensation, Benefits, Pensions and
Estates and was appointed Acting Director in September of that year.  He served in this
capacity until July 2010, interrupted by a deployment to Afghanistan from September
2008 to April 2009 where he served as the legal mentor to 205 Corps of the Afghan
National Army.


4.         In July 2010, (then) Major Fowler was posted to CFB Kingston as the Base
Deputy Judge Advocate.  In particular, upon its ‘stand up’, he advised 1st Canadian
Division Headquarters, principally on matters of operational law and also supported
training at the Canadian Army Command and Staff College, including mentoring junior
legal officers in the context of operational exercises held at the Staff College.  He also
advised on myriad disciplinary and administrative legal matters arising on this diverse
Base.  From July to October 2011, Major Fowler deployed as the Task Force Legal
Advisor for Task Force Libeccio, the Air Component to Operation MOBILE, Canada’s
effort to protect civilians in Libya pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1973.


5.         In 2012, Major Fowler was selected for post graduate education and completed
an LLM (
with Merit) at University College London, where his studies focused on Public
and Administrative Law.  In 2013, he was posted to the Canadian Forces Military Law
Centre as Standards Officer, where he co-ordinated the development of the new Legal
Officer Qualification Standard and the inaugural Legal Officer Qualification course.
In 2014, Lieutenant-Colonel Fowler was promoted to his current rank and posted to
Ottawa as the Director of Law – Administrative Law.  Upon retiring, Lieutenant-Colonel
owler and his wife Erin (née Olizar) will reside in Kingston, Ontario, where Lieutenant-
l Fowler will continue practising public and administrative law. ....


1.         Le lieutenant-colonel Rory Fowler prendra sa retraite le 25 janvier 2017 après
plus de 27 années de service loyal et dévoué au Canada et aux forces armées canadiennes.
Le 2 décembre 2016 sera sa dernière journée au travail.


2.         Le lieutenant-colonel Fowler s’est enrôlé dans les Forces canadiennes en 1989 dans
le cadre du Programme de formation des officiers de la Force régulière à  l'Université Queen’s
de Kingston.  Depuis, il a servi dans un engagement unilatéral avec la Couronne en échange de
quoi la Reine n’a assumé aucune obligation.  Suite à sa formation initiale d'officier d'infanterie,
il reçoit sa commission d’officier avant d’être affecté au 1er  PPCLI à Calgary, où il servira
d’abord comme commandant de peloton de fusiliers et de peloton de reconnaissance.  Il a été
déployé avec le groupement tactique du 1er  PPCLI sur l’Op HARMONY en Croatie en 1994.
En 1996, il a été muté au 2e  R22eR comme officier d'échange du PPCLI, servant d’abord
comme officier a
djoint des opérations, puis en tant que commandant en second d’une
compagnie de fusiliers.  Il est déployé sur l'Op CONSTABLE en Haïti en 1997 et a participé à
nitoba en 1997 et Op RECUPERATION au Québec en 1998.  Muté
au Centre de formation de la Force terrestre du Secteur de l'Ouest en 1999, le capitaine Fowler
(tel qu’il était alors) a servi à titre de chef d’équipe pour le soutien à l’entraînement de la Milice
(infanterie), en tant que commandant en second de la compagnie de formation élémentaire,
officier de coordination de la formation et en tant que capitaine-adjudant technique.  En 2001,
il a été choisi pour le Programme militaire d’études en droit et a fréquenté l'Université Western
Ontario Law School.


3.         Diplômé en 2004, le capitaine Fowler a reçu le prix de la Société honorifique du doyen
Ivan C. Rand en reconnaissance de ses résultats scolaires méritoires tout au long de ses études
de premier cycle en droit et ses contributions exceptionnelles au service des étudiants de la
Faculté de droit.  Le capitaine Fowler a complété son stage en droit avec le procureur de la
Couronne du comté de Middlesex et, suite à son assermentation au Barreau de l'Ontario en
2005, il est affecté à la Direction juridique - droit administratif à Ottawa, où il a conseillé le
Directeur général - Autorité des griefs des Forces canadiennes sur les questions soulevées
dans le cadre des griefs des FC ainsi que préparer la défense de décisions prises par l'autorité
de dernière instance dans le processus de règlement des griefs soumises à un contrôle judiciaire
en Cour fédérale.  En 2006, il est promu au grade de major.  En 2007, il est affecté à la
Direction juridique - rémunération, avantages sociaux, pensions et successions et a été
nommé directeur par intérim en septembre de cette année.  Il occupera ces fonctions jusqu'à
juillet 2010, prenant seulement une pause pour un déploiement en Afghanistan de septembre
2008 à avril 2009, où il a servi comme mentor juridique auprès du 205e Corps de l’armée
nationale afghane.


4.         En juillet 2010, le ​​major Fowler a été affecté à la BFC Kingston comme juge-avocat
adjoint, où il conseillera notamment la 1ère Division du Canada, suite à sa constitution,
principalement sur les questions de droit opérationnel, en plus de soutenir le Collège d’état-
major et de commandement de l'Armée canadienne, y compris le mentorat des avocats militaires
subalternes dans le cadre d'exercices opérationnels tenus au Collège d’état-major.  Il a également
fourni des avis juridiques sur une pléthore de questions disciplinaires et administratives.  De juillet
à octobre 2011, le major Fowler fut déployé en tant que conseiller juridique auprès de la Force
opérationnelle Libeccio, la composante aérienne de l'Op MOBILE, soit la contribution canadienne
pour protéger les civils en Libye, conformément à la Résolution 1973 du Conseil de sécurité de


5.         En 2012, le major Fowler a été choisi pour le programme d’études supérieures et il
obtiendra une maîtrise en droit (avec mention) à l'University College London, où ses études
ont porté sur le droit public et administratif.  En 2013, il est affecté au Centre de droit militaire
des Forces canadiennes en tant qu’officier des normes, où il a coordonné le développement de
la nouvelle norme de qualification d’avocat militaire, ainsi que le premier cours de la qualification
d’avocat militaire.  En 2014, le lieutenant-colonel Fowler a été promu à son grade actuel et affecté
à Ottawa en tant que Directeur juridique - Droit administratif.  À sa retraite, le lieutenant-colonel
Fowler et son épouse Erin (née Olizar) retourneront à Kingston, où il continuera sa pratique en
droit public et administratif. [...]

___________"Military Administrative Law", 8 February 2017, available at http://cswan.com/military-administrative-law/ (accessed 4 May 2017);

__________"Military Judicial Independence: I have heard of orders, and rumours of orders …",  blog,  Law Office of Rory G. Fowler, 26 September 2020, and available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/military-judicial-independence-i-have-heard-of-orders-and-rumours-of-orders/ (accessed 27 September 2020);

___________on FOWLER, Rory, see "Rory Fowler on Mark Norman", CTV News, circa 15 May 2019, available at  https://www.ctvnews.ca/video?clipId=1679050 (accessed 21 May 2019); video

___________on FOWLER, Rory, see the article by Pugliese, David, "Military quietly ends policy of promptly investigating sexual misconduct cases.  Military police policy formerly required that investigations of potential criminal cases be closed and the results delivered in 30 days or less", National Post, 22 November 2018; available at  https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/military-quietly-ends-policy-of-promptly-investigating-sexual-misconduct-cases(accessed 22 November 2018);

But a former senior officer in the military’s Judge Advocate General’s office says military police are taking far
longer than their civilian police counterparts to investigate sex assaults and other criminal cases.

“When I compare the speed of investigations, civilian police are markedly faster to (where) military police investigations are
 taking four to six times as long to complete,” lawyer Rory Fowler, a retired lieutenant colonel, said Wednesday.
 “That is not a small deviation.”

He said the situation is made even worse as further time is needed for military officials to review whether charges should
 proceed. Movement on some cases can take as much as two years, Fowler added.

on FOWLER, Rory, see the article by Pugliese, David, "Reserve force commanders dumped, racial incidents alleged: Army units in Ontario dealing with crisis in leadership", The Recorder & Times, 9 October 2018, available at https://www.recorder.ca/news/canada/reserve-force-commanders-dumped-racial-incidents-alleged-army-units-in-ontario-dealing-with-crisis-in-leadership/wcm/cf2edf1d-bba5-4fd4-b3d9-7a6583d62018 (accessed 11 October 2018);

Rory Fowler, a lawyer from Kingston, Ont. and a retired lieutenant colonel, said the military is on solid
ground legally in citing privacy laws as the cases proceeded using internal administrative measures.
If disciplinary action had been taken and a court martial held then the information would be required
to be released to the public.

What is cause for concern, Fowler said, is the military’s increasing use of such administrative action
instead of the more formal process. “That way, you’re not going to have public scrutiny and it’s not
something that will be discussed in the public domain,” he said. “That, I think, is a problem as it stifles
public debate and public discussion about what the issues are.”

___________on FOWLER, Rory, see the following articles by Murray Brewster:

- "Mark Norman says he has 'a story to tell' — but can he tell it?", CBC News Politics, 16 May 2019; available at https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/mark-norman-breach-trust-davie-supply-ship-1.5137834 (accessed 21 May 2019);

- "Supreme Court tests the limits of military justice in rare appeal case", CBC News, 26 March 2019; available at https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/supreme-court-military-justice-court-martial-1.5071218 (accessed 27 March 2019); re the Beaudry and Stillman appeals heard by the Supreme Court of Canada on 26 March 2019;

- "Vets minister sued for defamation in fight over pensions",  CBC News, 21 July 2018; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/vets-minister-sued-for-defamation-in-fight-over-pensions-1.4755735  (accessed on 27 July 2018);

on FOWLER, Rory, see his participation in the video in FERRERAS, Jesse and Abigail Bimman, "Canadian victims gain new rights in military courts, they just can’t use them yet", Global News, 19 July 2019, available at https://globalnews.ca/news/5656820/canada-victims-rights-military-justice/ (accessed 20 July 2019); on Bill C-77;

___________on FOWLER, Rory, see "Town Hall 16 video", as mentioned by Eugene R. Fidell, Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 7 JUne 2021, available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2021/06/town-hall-16-video.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 8 June 2021)

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

___________"Like Thanos, review and reform of the independence of Canadian military judges is inevitable", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  14 August 2020, https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/08/like-thanos-review-and-reform-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed 15 August 2020);

___________"The Chief of the Defence Staff's Ongoing Disregard for the Rule of Law",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  28 August 2020,  https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/08/the-chief-of-defence-staffs-ongoing.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29, accessed 29 August 2020;

__________"The next Chief Military Judge", [April 2020] at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/the-next-chief-military-judge/  (accessed 10 April 2020); also available at Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  9 April 2020, available at  https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/04/the-next-chief-military-judge-of.html, accessed 21 August 2020;

__________"The next Chief Military Judge of the Canadian Forces",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  9 April 2020, at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/04/the-next-chief-military-judge-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 10 April 2020);

Potential pitfalls for members of the Canadian Forces when engaging legal counsel", http://cswan.com/wp-content/uploads/potential-pitfalls-for-members-of-the-canadian-forces-when-engaging-legal-counsel-blog-98-rory-fowler.pdf (accessed 4 May 2017);

___________"A Proper Exercise of Statutory Power", available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/a-proper-exercise-of-statutory-power/, accessed 25 March 2020;

Yesterday, 13 March 2020, Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) announced
that it would suspend classes and would take the extraordinary step of ordering
Cadets to remain on the grounds of the RMC campus as well as closing the campus
grounds to visitors.

___________"Prosecuting the Chief of the Defence Staff", Rory Fowler blog, 4 February 2021, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/  and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/prosecuting-the-chief-of-the-defence-staff/ (accessed 7 February 2021);

___________"R v Bourque, 2020 CM 2008--The Rule of Law Applies to the Chief of the Defence Staff", Rory Fowler blog, 21 July 2020, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/r-v-bourque-2020-cm-2008-the-rule-of-law-applies-to-the-chief-of-the-defence-staff-too/ (accessed 22 July 2020);

___________"R v Bourque, 2020 CM 2008--The Rule of Law and the Chief of the Defence Staff", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 21 July 2020, available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/07/r-v-bourque-2020-cm-2008-rule-fo-law.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 and at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ (accessed on 6 March 2020);

___________"R v MacPherson et. al.: Judicial Independence Redux",  Rory Fowler blog, 27 October 2020, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/  and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/r-v-macpherson-et-al-judicial-independence-redux/  (accessed 28 October 2020);

___________"R v MacPherson et. al. --Judicial Independence Redux",   Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  27 October 2020, at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/10/r-v-macpherson-et-al-military-judicial.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed 28 October 2020);

___________"R v Christmas – Beware the Ghosts of Judgments Past",  blog,  Law Office of Rory G. Fowler, 13 November 2020,  available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/r-v-christmas-beware-the-ghosts-of-judgments-past/  (accessed 14 November 2020);

___________"R v Christmas – Beware the Ghosts of Judgments Past",  blog,   Global Military Justice Reform web site, 13 November 2020, available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/11/r-v-christmas-beware-ghosts-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed 14 November 2020);

Image source: cswan.com/organization-of-the-canadian-forces-canadian-forces-vs-canadian-armed-forces-and-the-report-of-the-special-staff-assistance-visit/, accessed 4 May 2017
Rory Fowler
___________"Select Comments Regarding the RMCC SSAV Report", available at  http://cswan.com/wp-content/uploads/Blog-102-Rory-Fowler-April-19-2017-3RD-LINK.pdf (accessed 4 May 2017);

___________"So ... about that vacancy for the position of Chief Military Judge", blog,  Law Office of Rory G. Fowler, 24 September 2020, and available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/so-about-that-vacancy-for-the-position-of-chief-military-judge/  (accessed 25 September 2020);

___________"Some Current Thoughts on the CF and the COVID-19 Pandemic", blog, Law Office of Rory G. Fowler, 30 March 2020, and available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/page/6/  and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/some-current-thoughts-on-the-cf-and-the-covid-19-pandemic/  (accessed 25 September 2020);

___________"Some unsolicited advice for the incoming Chief of the Defence Staff …",  blog, Law Office of Rory G. Fowler, 9 January 2020, and available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2021/01/some-unsolicited-advice-for-incoming.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed 10 January 2020);

___________"Some unsolicited advice for the incoming Chief of the Defence Staff …",  the complete blog, Law Office of Rory G. Fowler, 9 January 2020, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/ and http://roryfowlerlaw.com/some-unsolicited-advice-for-the-incoming-chief-of-the-defence-staff/ (accessed 10 January 2020);

__________"Summary Hearings versus Summary Trials - Canadian Military Justice",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  28 July 2020, at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/07/summary-hearings-versus-summary-trials.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 29 July 2020);

__________"Summary Trials under the Code of Service Discipline and Mental Disorder", available at http://cswan.com/wp-content/uploads/Blog-105-Rory-Fowler-July-3-2017.pdf (accessed 10 March 2018); see also http://cswan.com/mental-disorder-and-summary-trials-under-the-code-of-service-discipline/;

__________Testimony and photo-still of Lieutenant-Colonel (Ret'd) Rory Fowler as an individual before the Senate Standing Committee on National Security and Defence,  on Bill C-77, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Acts, 27 May 2019, available at https://senvucloud.parl.gc.ca/Harmony/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20190527/-1/9143 (accessed 30 May 2019);

___________Testimony of Major Rory Fowler before the Military Police Complaints Commission, Fynes Public Interest Hearings, Transcript of Proceedings, Ottawa, 22 May 2012, volume 25, at pp. 16 to 111; available at http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/2012-05-22-Maj-Fowler-LCol-King.doc (accessed 20 August 2017);

___________"Time for Canada to improve military tribunals, not abolish them", The Hill's Times, 10 June 2020, see https://www.hilltimes.com/2020/06/10/time-for-canada-to-improve-military-tribunals-not-abolish-them/251925, accessed 11 June 2020; also available at the   Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  14 June 2020, at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/06/time-for-canada-to-improve-military.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 15 June 2020);

Town Hall 11 this Monday with Rory Fowler", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  7 January 2021 and available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2021/01/town-hall-11-this-monday-with-rory.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29   (accessed 8 January 2021); about the cases concerning the independence of military judges that will be heard by the CMAC in January 2020; difficulty François to log in, go to my saved JAG emails for Global Justice e-mail of 12 Jan 2021;

Town Hall 11", "Global Military Justice Reform Town Hall 11",  see Eugene R. Fidell, "Yes, Virginia, there is video",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  11 January 2021 and available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2021/01/yes-virginia-there-is-video.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed 12 January 2021); the passcode for zoom Town Hall 11 video is z8qcqO&8;

__________"[Untitled]", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog,  26 September 2020 and available at https://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/09/it-appears-that-chief-of-defence-staff.html  (accessed 27 September 2020);

It appears that the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) of the Canadian Forces has,
in fact, suspended his order of 2 October 2019, entitled: Designation of Commanding
Officers with respect to Officers and Non-Commissioned Members on the Strength
of the Office of the Chief Military Judge Dept ID 3763 (the 'Designation Order').

__________Web site from the law firm of Cunningham Swan Lawyers, web site, available at http://cswan.com/lawyers/rory-fowler/ (accessed 4 May 2017);

__________Web site of Rory Fowler, at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/ (accessed 25 March 2020);

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Communicate with the Law Office of Rory G. FOWLER, at:

Tel: 613.777.3820 | FAX: 613.777.3822 | Email: rory@roryfowlerlaw.com

221 Queen St, Kingston, ON, Canada,  K7K 1B4

___________"What, precisely, is 'Military Justice' ", [2017], 17 p., from http://cswan.com/wp-content/uploads/Blog-110-Rory-Fowler-Aug-22-2017.pdf (accessed 9 December 2017);

Today, the Office of the JAG exists as an ‘other element’ of the Canadian Forces4.  It is not precisely a unit; nor is it a Formation
or a Command (although the JAG has been granted the powers of an Officer Commanding a Command)5. All legal officers whose
duty it is to provide legal advice are–and must be–posted to the Office of the JAG.6  Make no mistake: notwithstanding their sand-
coloured berets, even the legal officers who advise the various units of CANSOFCOM and the Command itself are posted to the
Office of the JAG, and not to their supported Command. It is something that distinguishes Canadian Legal Officers from American
Staff Judge Advocates–the chain of command for legal advisors of the Canadian Forces is through the Office of the JAG. It is not a
‘Tech Net’. It is their actual chain of command.
4 Ministerial Organization Order 96-082 Re: Office of the Judge Advocate General, dated 1 August 1996.
5 Ibid.
6 QR&O 4.081.

__________"Why are Conditional Discharges not available to Courts Martial in Canada?", available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/why-are-conditional-discharges-not-available-to-courts-martial-in-canada/ (accessed 25 March 2020); also published on 24 March 2020, at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.com/2020/03/why-are-conditional-discharges-not.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29(accessed 25 March 2020);

___________"A Word or Two on Release Items in the Canadian Forces", blog, 18 January 2021, available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/blog/  and at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/a-word-or-two-on-release-items/ (accessed 20 January 2021);

___________"A Word or Two on The Emergencies", blog, Law Office of Rory G. Fowler, 31 March 2020, and available at http://roryfowlerlaw.com/a-word-or-two-on-the-emergencies-act/  (accessed 3 April 2020);

Image source: www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/58/2013-05-21-20.pdf, accessed28 August 2016
On the photo, Cdr Sheila Archer with Lt(N) Mike Baker.

FOWLER, Roy G. and Baker Mike, lecturers, "Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Political and Economic Science POE 488A--Law of Armed Conflict, Winter 2013-14 Syllabus", version: 12 Jan 2015, 9 pages; obtained under Access to Information Act reply to request file A-2015-00669, 22 July 2015, available at http://www.lareau-legal.ca/A-2015-00669.pdf (accessed 29 July 2015);


FOX, Edward ("Ned") James, Lieutenant-Commander, lawyer, member of the Law Society of Ontario; member of the OJAG; Canadian Armed Forces Legal Advisor in Administrative Law in 2019, see https://pdinstitute.uottawa.ca/sites/cce/files/facing_changes_in_the_military_while_respecting_the_rule_of_law_emerging_responses_and_legal_issues_2.pdf (accessed 19 May 2019);

FOX, Michael, sur, voir l'article "Un Recours Collectif Extraordinaire: Comment a été approuvée la plus importante récompense pour la discrimination historique LGBT dans le monde?", Avocat TV, disponible à https://avocat-tv.com/un-recours-collectif-extraordinaire/ (consulté le 22 septembre 2019)

Les avocats n’étaient pas non plus à l’abri de la discrimination. En 1974, Michael Fox, âgé de 17 ans,
s’est enrôlé dans la réserve de l’armée puis a servi pendant un an comme Casque bleu de l’ONU.
“Je soupçonnais que j’étais homosexuel, mais à cet âge et à cette époque, je pensais que, puisqu’il
n’avait été décriminalisé que récemment et qu’il était encore contraire au droit militaire, c’était tout
à fait immoral et je me suis juré de rester célibataire “, se souvient-il. Alors qu’il poursuivait ses
études et commençait sa formation d’officier de marine, Fox s’est rendu compte qu’il serait impossible
de garder ce vœu de célibat, même si ” mon attitude à l’époque, et elle l’est toujours, est que le
meilleur antidote aux préjugés est d’être dehors et discrètement compétent. Malheureusement, être
dehors n’était pas une option à l’époque.” Il a vu l’UES mener des opérations anti-gay à Halifax,
arrêtant et déchargeant des marins. “J’ai toujours attendu l’arrestation et l’expulsion avec une
certaine humiliation, même si ce n’était pas de la disgrâce “, dit Fox.

Décidé à combattre de telles politiques, il a fait des études de droit. Peu de temps après l’obtention
de son diplôme, dit Fox, il s’est présenté à son commandant. Il avait également postulé et s’est vu
offrir un emploi au bureau du Juge-avocat général. Mais le fond s’est effondré lorsqu’il a reçu un
appel disant que son supérieur avait dit au JAG qu’il était gai et qu’il ferait donc l’objet d’une
enquête. “Je n’avais pas d’autre choix que de démissionner de la réserve et de retirer ma
candidature.” Fox a poursuivi une longue et fructueuse carrière en tant que procureur de la
Couronne à Hamilton, en Ontario, où il travaille toujours. Pourtant, même après tout ce
temps, il trouve ces événements extrêmement difficiles à discuter.

James Foy, image source: http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-enews/2013/07.aspx, accessed 23 January 2015

FOY, James, Autonomous Weapons Systems: Taking the Human out of International Humanitarian Law,  2013,  Canadian Bar Association's (CBA) National Military Law Section Law School Sword and Scale Essay Prize/Lauréat du Concours de dissertation 2013 du Salut militaire; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2290995 and http://www.cba.org/CBA/sections_military/pdf/2014-essay.pdf (accessed on 26 July 2014); also published in (2014) 23  Dalhousie Journal of Legal Studies 49-70;

Me Jean-Marc Fradette, source de l'image:                    Frédéric Tremblay
flavocats.ca/equipe/me-jean-marc-fradette/, consultée le
23 novembre 2019.

FRADETTE, Jean-Marc et Frédéric Tremblay , "Entrevue avec Me Jean-Marc Fradette: Comment fonctionne la cour martiale?,  émission, "C'est jamais pareil", ICI  Radio-Canada.ca Première,  en semaine de 6 à 9 heures, avec Frédéric Tremblay, rattrapage de vendredi, 22 novembre 2019, à 07h48, 10 minutes et 48 secondes; traite en partie de la cour martiale du Major Duquette qui a lieu à Bagotville cette semaine;  disponible à https://ici.radio-canada.ca/premiere/emissions/cest-jamais-pareil/episodes/448736/rattrapage-du-vendredi-22-novembre-2019 , émission écoutée le 23 novembe 2019; excellente vulgarisation du sujet par Me Fradette; 

____________"Entrevue avec Me Jean-Marc Fradette: Les impacts de la culpabilité du major Duquette,  émission, "C'est jamais pareil", ICI  Radio-Canada.ca Première,  en semaine de 6 à 9 heures, avec Frédéric Tremblay, audio fil du lundi 25 novembre 2019, à 07h45, 13 minutes et 56 secondes; traite de la cour martiale du Major Duquette qui a lieu à Bagotville;  disponible à https://ici.radio-canada.ca/premiere/emissions/cest-jamais-pareil/segments/entrevue/143512/cour-martiale-bagotville, émission écoutée le 26 novembe 2019; 

FRANCE, "Meeting between the French Defence General Inspection Board, and the Judge Advocate General (JAG); available at http://www.ambafrance-ca.org/Meeting-between-the-French-Defence (accessed 16 March 2017)

A delegation from the French Defence General Inspection Board met the Canadian Forces Judge
Advocate General in Ottawa on 15 and 16 January 2007.

The purpose of the meeting was to study the way the Canadian Forces include juridical aspects into
the conduct of operational and administrative responsibilities

David Fraser, image source: https://www.google.com accessed on 14 November 2014

FRASER, Colonel David, "The Perception of War Versus the Reality of Law", AMSC 5 (Advanced Military Studies Course 5), Canadian Forces College, 30 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/265/275.pdf  (accessed on 19 June 2012);

FRASER, N.C., Captain, legal officer, see "Lt.-Col. Gillespie Named to Command Armored Regiment--Number of Appointments And Other Changes Announced by National Defence Department", The Ottawa Citizen, Wednesday, 23 April 1941 at p. 3, available at https://www.newspapers.com/image/...., accessed 9 July 2020;

___________on FRASER, N.C., research note: there was a Mr. Justice N.C. Fraser of the Ontario Supreme Court in the aearly 1970's;

Image source: thestar.com/entertainment/2014/03/24/walter_gordon_symposium_looks_at_massey_report_legacy.html, accessed 18 December 2017
John Fraser

FRASER, John, "Judicial gamesmanship played out at court martial", Toronto Star, Aug 4, 1996, p. F.1;

Description: THIS IS the last of four columns on the troubling case of Lt.-Cdr. Dean Marsaw, Canada's top submariner, who late last year was found guilty
of verbally and physically abusing the men under his command. My own view is that Dean Marsaw, a loner who stuck by the rules, was thrown to the
jackals during the expanding Somalian crisis in which the hierarchy of the Canadian Forces stood accused of making only enlisted men accountable for
their behavior. None of this, however, is what has really condemned Dean Marsaw in the public's mind. If anyone remembers this case at all, it is the
disgusting story of the commander who was convicted of putting a cigar tube up the anus of a fellow officer.
© ProQuest LLC All rights reserved, see http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=34&fn=search&indx=331&vl(13699712UI6)=&dscnt=0&vl(1UIStartWith0)=exact&vl(1UIStartWith2)=contains&vid=01LOC&mode=Advanced&vl(D13699709UI3)=all_items&vl(boolOperator1)=AND&tab=default_tab&vl(13699711UI6)=00&vl(D13699706UI0)=any&vl(freeText1)=canada&dstmp=1513593520024&vl(13699710UI6)=00&frbg=&vl(13699715UI6)=&vl(D13699705UI1)=any&vl(D13699708UI4)=all_items&vl(13699714UI6)=00&vl(1UIStartWith1)=contains&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&vl(480887489UI2)=any&vl(boolOperator0)=AND&Submit=Search&vl(D13699707UI5)=all_items&vl(boolOperator2)=AND&vl(freeText2)=&vl(13699713UI6)=00&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=court%20martial, accessed 18 December ]

David Grant Frayer
FRAYER, David Grant, 5 August 1941-8 November 2021; was a military judge in the JAG Reserve Branch; see death notice at passages.winnipegfreepress.com/passage-details/id-302809/FRAYER_DAVID (accessed 18 November 2021);

[Excerpt only]

Leonard French

FRENCH,  Leonard, "Who would win? Supreme Court vs. Canadian Army (In re Norton)", 14 December 2018, available on YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7CbM10vGrQE&t=373s, accessed 25 December 2019;

Lawful Masses with Leonard French
110K subscribers
What is the source of a Court's power? What happens if the
military decided not to follow the law? Let's see how Chief
Judge Harvey handled the Canadian Army when they refused
to obey Court Orders regarding military discharge/exemptions.

Robert Fricke, image source: https://www.linkedin.com/pub/robert-fricke/45/1aa/586, accessed on 14 November 2014
FRICKE, Major Robert K., United States Marine Corps, "I'll Decide What Cases to Prosecute and You Decide What Infantry Tactics to Employ"   A Proposal to Eliminate the Commander's Power to  Refer Charges to Trial  by Court Martial  -- Another Step Toward Dissociating  the Word "Military" from Justice,  thesis for the LL.M. degree in military law, The Judge Advocate General's School, 47th Judge Advocate Officer Graduate Course, April 1999, 144 p., Appendix A and B; available at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA439860 (accessed on 7 March 2012);  on the subject of reform in other countries, see "Canada & The Somalia Experience", at pp. 85-103;

FRIEDGUT, A.H. (Abe), Major, lawyer and member of the JAG Branch, see "Major Friedgut To Leave Post", Star-Phoenix, Saskatoon, 5 May 1945 at p. 7, available at https://www.newspapers.com/, accessed 17 May 2020;

when he entered the army.  During his services
with the armed forces, his practice was looked
after by the firm of Hodges and Noonan, to
whom he wishes to convey his thanks.

___________on FRIEDGUT, A.H. (Abe), see Austin F. Cross, "A.H. Friedgut Tells of Life in Holy Land", The Ottawa Citizen, Tuesday, February 8, 1955 at p. 7; retrive from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.biblioottawalibrary.ca/docview/2338073290/2C8D71A637B045CBPQ/2?accountid=46526, accessed 17 May 2020; hereunder is an extract of the article:


Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

FRIEDLAND, Martin L., 1932-, Controlling Misconduct in the Military: a Study  prepared for the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, [Ottawa]: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 1997, vi, 181 p., ISBN: 0660168685, cat. No. CP32-64/2-1997E;  PDF Source: Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2012; also available on the Commission's CD-ROM 1997,  Information Legacy: A Compendium of Source Material from the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, supra;
- Table of Contents;
- pp. i-vii and 1-102;
- pp. 103-181;
FRIEDLAND, Martin L., 1932-, Contrôle de l'inconduite dans les forces armées: Étude préparée pour la Commission d'enquête sur le déploiement des Forces canadiennes en Somalie, [Ottawa]: Ministre des Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada, 1997, vi, 208 p., ISBN: 0660955490, no. de cat. CP32-64/2-1997F;  PDF Source: Reproduit avec la permission du ministre des Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada, 2012; aussi disponible sur le CD-ROM 1997 de la Commission, Un héritage documentaire - Recueil des ressources de la Commission d'enquête sur le déploiement des Forces canadiennes en Somalie, supra;
- Table des matières;
- pp. i-vii et 1-118;
- pp. 119-208;

Martin L. Friedland, photo source: https://www.fd.ulaval.ca/faculte/personnel/40, accessed on 8 April 2014

FRIEDLAND, Martin L., 1932-, "Military Justice and the Somalia Affair", (1997) 40 The Criminal Law Quarterly 360-399; see also the work of Mr. Friedland for the Somalia Commission of Inquiry;

Image source: http://www.amazon.ca
___________My Life in Crime and Other Academic Adventures, Toronto : Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press,  c2007, xii, 513 p., and see "Controlling Misconduct in the Military", at pp. 402-418, ISBN: 9780802097903;
 available at http://books.google.com/books?id=FkFOTMBAHGcC&printsec=titlepage&dq=codification+%22law+reform+commission+of+canada%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_toc_s&cad=1 and
 http://books.google.com/books?id=FkFOTMBAHGcC&dq=codification+%22law+reform+commission+of+canada%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 10 April 2008);

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/deborah-friedman-ll-b-b4a27133, accessed 11 August 2017
Deborah Friedman

FRIEDMAN, Deborah, General Counsel and Deputy Legal Advisor, Office of the Legal Advisor to DND and the CF

General Counsel and Deputy Legal Advisor

Deborah Friedman is the General Counsel and Deputy Legal Advisor to the Department of National Defence and the
Canadian Armed Forces where she is responsible for overseeing the delivery of high quality legal services on a wide
range of areas of law including, civil liability (tort and contract law), contracting, procurement, real property and
intellectual property, legislative and regulatory drafting support, administrative and Charter law, as well as matters
of national security.  ...

[source: www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/dnd-cf-deputy-legal-advisor-bio.page, accessed 11 August 2017]

Michael Friscolanti, photo source: http://www.macleans.ca/author/mfriscolanti/, accessed on 3 August 2014

FRISCOLANTI, Michael, "Behind Robert Semrau’s dismissal.  His removal from the Canadian Forces sends a clear message through the ranks", Maclean’s, 5 October 2010, p. 1, available at http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/no-mercy/ (accessed 15 April 2017);

___________"Canadian military payments for death and destruction in Afghanistan", The Canadian Encyclopedia, 29 January 2011, revised 15 December 2013; available at https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/canadian-military-payments-for-death-and-destruction-in-afghanistan (accessed 16 January 2018);

___________ "Capt. Robert Semrau Dismissed from the Forces. Canadian soldier avoids jail time for shooting a wounded insurgent in Afghanistan (Updated)",  Maclean’s, 5 October 2010, p. 1, available at macleans.ca/news/canada/capt-robert-semrau-dismissed-from-the-forces/ (accessed 15 April 2017);

___________ "Serial killer Russell Williams could lose his military pension after all -- Legal battle over ex-colonel's retirement benefits now before Ontario's highest court", MacLean's, 1 August 2014; available at macleans.ca/news/canada/serial-killer-russell-williams-could-lose-his-military-pension-after-all/ (accessed 3 August 2014);

___________"What's a life worth?  Canadian military payments for death and destruction in Afghanistan have tripled", MacLean's, 10 January 2011; available at macleans.ca/news/canada/whats-a-life-worth/ (accessed 12 February 2015);

FRIESEN, David D., Exemption of the Mennonites from military service in Canada, [Winnipeg]: Faculty of law, [University of Manitoba, 1939], [24] leaves. NOTES: Thesis (LL.B.) -- University of Manitoba; not consulted yet (3 January 2016);

Ian Froese, the author, image source:                                                     LCdr Saloumeh (Sally)Torani, the prosecutor in this case; on the photo, she is
https://twitter.com/ianfroese (accessed 2 November 2017)                    "receiving a General Campaign Star for service in Afghanistan".
                                                                                                                image source: Department of National Defence  Report on Plans and Priorities
                                                                                                                2011-12, at p. 49 at tbs-sct.gc.ca/rpp/2011-2012/inst/dnd/dnd-eng.pdf (accessed 2 November 2017)     

FROESE, Ian, "Ex-Shilo soldier not guilty of sex crime", The Brandon Sun, 2 November 2017, available at (accessed 2 November 2017);  accused: retired warrant officer Jason Buenacruz; prosecutor: LCdr Saloumeh Torani; presiding judge: Commander Martin Pelletier; defence counsel: not identified at this time; 

-------Image detail: www.combatcamera.forces.gc.ca/gallery/cc_photos/detail/?filename=AR2005-A01-356&assetId=2952
Paul Frost, legal officer, 5 Dec. 2005, PRT Site Kandahar, Afghanistan, 

FROST, Paul, JAG officer; the above image appeared in the following article: Major Brad Coates, "Alternate Dispute Resolution and the Canadian Forces", Canadian Military Journal, volume 7, number 2, available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo7/no2/coates-eng.asp (accessed 15 January 2017);

available at redcross.ca/crc/documents/How-We-Help/International-Humanitarian-
"Lt Col Paul Frost, Office of the Judge Advocate General, Canadian     Law/International-Humanitarian-Law-Conference-EXTERNAL-Report-Ottawa-January-24-2018.pdf (accessed 13 June 2018);
Armed Forces delivering his presentation", on 24 January 2018,
International Law Conference, Ottawa

___________ notes on Paul Frost from 2017 Canadian Council on International Law (CIL), 2017 CCIL Conference November 2-3 in Ottawa, “Canada at 150: The Return of History for International Law”, 2017 Speaker Biographies, Keynote Speakers, available at  http://www.ccil-ccdi.ca/speakerbios, accessed 26 October 2017:

Paul Frost (Speaker) is a Lieutenant-Colonel serving with the Office of the Judge Advocate General for the Canadian Armed Forces. He is
currently the Director of International and Operational Law at National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa, where he works as the principal
military legal advisor on international law issues, with a particular focus on international humanitarian law. LCol Frost has previously served
as legal advisor to the military’s Strategic Joint Staff, as the senior regional supervising legal advisor for Central Canada, and as a tactical unit
legal advisor with Canadian Special Operations Forces Command. His operational experience includes international deployments as the Canadian
Task Force Legal Advisor in Afghanistan, Haiti, and the Mediterranean, and domestic deployments with the military legal teams supporting civil
authorities at the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games and the Toronto G8/G20 conference. LCol Frost holds a master’s degree in law from
Columbia University. (E)

Photo by Sgt Jerry Kean/DND, AR2005-A01-378a
Major Paul Frost, left, legal advisor,  PRT Site Kandahar, Afghanistan,
17 December 2005

___________Paul Frost, JAG officer, photo, Canadian Forces Imagery Gallery, available at http://www.combatcamera.forces.gc.ca/gallery/cc_photos/detail/?filename=AR2005-A01-378&assetId=2962 (accessed 1 June 2017);

Major Paul Frost, the legal advisor to the Provincial Reconstruction Team, counts out Afghani currency for settling
an Afghan’s claim for reimbursement as a result of damage to his vehicle by Canadian soldiers. The Canadian Forces
provides monetary compensation to Afghan locals where it is demonstrated that the actions of Canadian soldiers have
caused damage to personnel or property.


Le Major Paul Frost, conseiller juridique de l’Équipe provinciale de reconstruction, compte des devises afghanes
pourégler la demande de remboursement d’un Afghan pour les dommages causés à son véhicule par des soldats canadiens.
Les Forces canadiennes versent une compensation monétaire aux Afghans lorsqu’il est prouvé que les gestes de soldats
canadiens ont causé des dommages aux personnes et aux biens.

FUKUSHIMA, C.J. (Christopher/Chris), captain, lawyer, member of the OJAG; appeared as co-counsel for the Director of Military Prosecutions in D’Arcy N.C. (Captain), R. v., 2021 CM 4004 (CanLII), <https://canlii.ca/t/jfszc>, accessed 13 May 2021; member of the Law SWociety of BRish Columbia;

___________photo of Christopher Fukushima with others, in  Lookout, MARPAC NEWS, CFB Esquimalt, vol. 66, number 5,  8 February 2021 at p. 14, available at lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/66/2021-02-08-05.pdf (accessed 14 May 2021);

FULLERTON, Colonel D.K.                                                           Colonel Fullerton, in the middle, between Capt Semrau and his wife Amélie; on the right is
image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-                     Capt David Hodson who was also part of the defence team (2010).
structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page                          [image source: www.ottawacitizen.com/news/disastrous+week+leaves+military+vets+wondering+they+there/3640828/story.html]
(accessed 1 July 2017)
FULLERTON, Colonel D. (Delano) K., Director of Counsel Services, OJAG;

Defence Counsel Services

Our Mission

To provide the legal services prescribed at Queen's Regulations and Orders (QR&O) article 101.20(2) to persons subject to the Code of Service Discipline charged or liable to be charged under that Code. Those services include:

  • Provision of legal advice to a person arrested or detained in respect of a service offence
  • Provision of legal counsel to an accused person where there is reasonable grounds to believe the accused person is unfit to stand trial
  • Provision of legal advice of a general nature to an assisting officer or accused person on matters relating to summary trials
  • Provision of legal advice with respect to the making of an election to be tried by court martial
  • Provision of legal counsel in respect of a bail hearing before a military judge
  • Provision of legal counsel to an accused person which includes
    • representation at a court martial
    • representation for release pending appeal
    • representation at a hearing as to the sufficiency of evidence to put an accused person on trial where a finding of unfit to stand trial has been made
    • representation in respect of an application to a referral authority made in accordance with Queen's Regulations and Orders article 109.03
  • Provision of counsel, where the Minister of National Defence appeals the legality of a finding or sentence or the severity of a sentence awarded by a court martial
  • Provision of legal counsel to a person on an appeal or an application for leave to appeal under sections 230 or 245 of the National Defence Act with the approval of the Appeal Committee established under article 101.21 of the Queen's Regulations and Orders
  • Provision of legal advice to a person who is the subject of an investigation under the Code of Service Discipline, a summary investigation or a board of inquiry.

Our Lawyers

DDCS is comprised of the Director and other legal officers performing defence counsel services. When a person subject to the Code of Service Discipline has the right to be represented in the manner prescribed in regulations made by the Governor in Council he or she may request to have a particular legal officer assisting the Director to act as legal counsel or any legal officer assisting the Director. If available the Director shall appoint him/her a legal officer of his/her choice, if not, the Director shall insure ensure that another legal officer assisting the Director is made available.

Our Approach

Our services are provided in the official language of the client's choice and in a manner that allows the client to clearly understand the disciplinary process. There are many points during the disciplinary process when clients must make certain choices and give instructions to their lawyer on how their defence should be conducted. Our objective as defence counsel is to ensure that these choices are informed choices.

Request for Counsel

Under current regulations you are entitled to full representation by a military defence lawyer once the charges are sent to a Referral Authority. Prepare a memorandum to your commanding officer requesting military defence counsel and it will be forwarded to our office. A lawyer will normally, be appointed to act on your behalf once the request and the Record of Disciplinary Proceedings, including election of language of trial have been received. The Director of Defence Counsel Services shall, always, endeavor to appoint counsel in a timely fashion so as not to compromise the right of an accused person to a full answer and defence.

Points To Remember

"If you are the subject of an investigation or suspected of an offence, you are not, under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, obliged to provide a statement to the police or other military authorities.

When you are suspected of having committed an offence, the military police should, according to law, offer you an opportunity to speak to counsel before proceeding with the interview. Your right to counsel is very important, and you should call the duty counsel or counsel of your choice before speaking to the military police."

You may be asked by the police to take a polygraph, commonly known as a "lie detector" test. Remember that you are not obliged to submit to this test, and that the results are not admissible in court to prove either your guilt or your innocence. However, the polygraph procedure includes interviews before and after the test itself. What you say to the examiner during these interviews may be used as evidence against you at the trial.

Information for Persons Charged with a Service Offence or Being Investigated for Service Offences

Entitlement to Counsel

As a rule, Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members charged with an offence under the Code of Service Discipline are entitled under QR&O 109.04 to a military lawyer to represent them, when a charge is forwarded to a Referral Authority for disposal by court martial. In exceptional circumstances, a lawyer may be appointed at an earlier time. The services of a defence lawyer are provided without cost to the Canadian Armed Forces member.

Information: Duty Telephone Numbers

For legal advice on your right to counsel on arrest or interrogation by the police:

For legal advice on summary trials and elections:
1-888-715-9636, or in Ottawa: (613) 997-8985
[Source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/defence-counsel-services.page, accessed 1 July 2017]

Colonel D.K. Fullerton, Director of Defence Counsel Services,
Canadian Armed Forces; image source: publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2018/mdn-dnd/D1-16-2018-eng.pdf, accessed 4 February 2019

____________"Defence Counsel Services and the Court Martial Comprehensive Review", memorandum, Gatineau (Québec), 13 February 2017, 24 p.; obtained under Access to Information Act, file number at DND:  A-2017-00890 at pp. 00129-00152;  available at lareau-legal.ca/A-2017-Bis00890.pdf (put on line on 3 February 2019);

FULTON, D.W., Major, former member of the OJAG; was defence counsel in R. v. Tobjinski, 1989  CM 9,  Standing Court Martial, Lahr, Federal Republic of Germany, 21 March 1989, source of information:  MADSEN, C.M.V. (Chris Mark Vedel), Military law and operations, Aurora (Ontario): Canada Law Book, c2008-, vol. 3, at p. APP2: 1989-8;

Image source: www.gordon.army.mil/osja/history.htm, accessed 8 July 2017
FULTON, William S., Jr., 1925-2015, Command Authority in Selected Aspects of the Court-Martial Process, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA 1971, Identifier: Accession Number: AD0772292, source: United States Defense Technical Information Center; document not consulted but noted 3 July 2016;

Description: Descriptive note: Individual research rept..
In the aftermath of recent amendments to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, still more have been proposed. Their purpose is to reduce further the decision-making functions of commanders in the court-martial process. The question is whether those powers are necessary to promote order and discipline in the Army. Through literature research, this question is brought to focus on three constitutional rights not directly applicable to military trials; namely, the rights to bail, indictment by grand jury, and trail by jury. The functions of commanders with respect to the comparable military judicial processes are compared with civilian practices in the United States and military practices in Great Britain, Canada, France, and West Germany. (Modified author abstract)
(source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=TN_dtic_techAD0772292&indx=68&recIds=TN_dtic_techAD0772292&recIdxs=7&elementId=7&renderMode=poppedOut&displayMode=full&frbrVersion=2&frbg=&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=%22military%20law%22%20canada&dstmp=1467538859745&gathStatIcon=true)

RESEARCH NOTE: site accessed 3 July 2016 -- "PRIMO CENTRAL -- Access provided by the Library of Congress Research Service & Library Services Divisions"  ***EXECELLENT SITE!!!

Photo of Cpl Stuart Langridge, photographer: Adrian Wyld (image source: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/military-needs-to-be-transparent, accessed 7 March 2015)

FYNES, Shaun, "Shaun  Fynes: The military must be transparent to respect the memory of Stuart Langridge", The Ottawa Citizen, 7 March 2015; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/military-needs-to-be-transparent, accessed 7 March 2015;

Absolute power apparently does corrupt and that is at the root of the problem. Soldiers are subjected to a closed military justice system which in our
experience protects the chain of command and political masters and is impermeable to civilian oversight. As a result the military is not answerable
or open in their actions. It is unclear if they are simply rogue or falling on their sword when their conduct has become arrogant and egregious.
The non-combat death of our son should have been investigated by the police of local jurisdiction not by the military followed by a coroner’s
inquest. (source: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/military-needs-to-be-transparent, accessed 7 March 2015)

Photo source: https://www.timescolonist.com/news/local/part-2-when-the-trauma-of-war-won-t-let-go-1.773088, accessed 2 November 2018
"Victoria couple Shaun and Sheila Fynes have been outspoken
critics of the way the Canadian Forces treats soldiers suffering
with post-traumatic stress disorder. Their son, Cpl. Stuart Langridge,
hanged himself in 2008 after tours in Bosnia and Afghanistan.
Photograph By DARREN STONE, Times Colonist"

___________Testimony of FYNES, Shaun, before the House of Commons on Bill C-77, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Acts, 1 November 2018 (42nd Parl., 1st Sess.., meeting 114), see   http://www.ourcommons.ca/Committees/en/NDDN/StudyActivity?studyActivityId=10298424 and http://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/NDDN/meeting-114/notice and  http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20181101/-1/30326?Language=English&Stream=Video&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.1;%20Win64;%20x64;%20rv:63.0)%20Gecko/20100101%20Firefox/63.0  (accessed 24 October 2018);

Image source: https://www.lefil.ulaval.ca/trois-questions-donald-fyson-33101/, accessed 17 October 2018
Donald Fyson

FYSON, Donald, with the assistance of Evelyn Kolish and Virginia Schweitzer, The Court Structure of Quebec and Lower Canada, 1764-1830 (Montreal: Montreal History Group, 1994/1997/2012). http://www.profs.hst.ulaval.ca/dfyson/courtstr/

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

[source: http://www.profs.hst.ulaval.ca/Dfyson/Courtstr/martial.htm, accessd 17 October 2018]

Source of image: http://www.riverwashbooks.com/?page=shop/flypage&product_id=18775, accessed on 9 November 2014

GABRIEL, Richard A., The Warrior's Way: A Treatise on Military Ethics, Kingston: Canadian Defence Academy Press, 2007; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2012/dn-nd/D2-206-2-2007-eng.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2014); aussi publié en français à http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/344878/publication.html (vérifié le 29 mars 2015);

GAGE, Conolly Hugh, Lieutenant-Colonel, was defence counsel of Brigadier General J.F.A. Lister, see BOSS, William, "Restrict Crown in Examination of Gen. Simonds", Globe and Mail, 1946/05/10, available at https://collections.museedelhistoire.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5081808 (accessed on 5 June 2019); on court martial of Grigadier-General Lister;

___________on GAGE, Conolly, see in CANADIAN PRESS, "Huntley Sinclair Among Canadians in U.K. Contest [House of Commons]", The Evening Citizen, Ottawa, Tuesday, 7 February 1950 at p. 6;

Col. Conolly Gage, Ulster Unionist (Conservative)
candidate in Belfast, was assistant deputy judge
advocate general with the Canadian Forces in Belgium.

Retrieved from http://biblioottawalibrary.ca.ezproxy.biblioottawalibrary.ca/
ezproxylogin?url=/docview/2338026447?accountid=46526, accessed 30 April 2020.

___________on GAGE, Conolly, born 10 November 1905-3 October 1984, see "Conolly Gage" in WIKIPEDIA, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conolly_Gage, accessed 14 June 2020;

A nephew of Sir Denis Henry, Bt., Conolly Gage was educated at Repton School and
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.[1] He was called to the Bar from the Inner Temple
in 1930,[2] and built up a London practice. In 1932 he married Elinor Nancy Martyn.

Gage in 1939 joined the Royal Artillery as a gunner. With the First Canadian Army of
World War II, he became Lieutenant Colonel and Assistant Judge Advocate General.[3]

He was elected Ulster Unionist Member of Parliament for Belfast South in 1945, resigning
in 1952. He was also Recorder of Saffron Walden and Maldon from 1950 to 1952, a
County Court Judge from 1958 to 1971 and a Circuit Judge from 1972 to 1978.[1]

His son, William Gage, was also a judge.

___________on GAGE, Conolly,  see "Hearing Tuesday in Case of Lister", The Gazette, Montreal, Monday, 22 April 1946, at p. 7; available at , accessed 18 June 2020;

[Excerpt only]

___________on GAGE, Conolly, was also listed with the British OJAG, see Quarterly Army Lists (Second series), 1942, Third Quarter, Part 1, p. 27, at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=121315  (accessed 14 June 2020);

Photo of Alyssa Gagne, thitd from the left; photo reproduced from article by Captain Robert W.
Mackenzie, with Major Jen Campbell, "Air and Space Power Operations Course breaks down
'stovepipes' ", 7 January 2019 at skiesmag.com/news/air-and-space-power-operations-course-breaks-down-stovepipes/ (accessed 9 April 2023).

Alyssa Gagne, photo reproduced from google.ca/....  and
(both sites accessed 9 April 2023).

GAGNE, Alyssa, legal officer with the office of the JAG, articling at Halifax, future member of the Nova Scotia Barristers' Society (research done on 9 April 2023);

GAGNÉ, Isabelle, Capitaine, co-avocate de la défense avec le major B.L.J. Tremblay dans Morissette J.N.S. (Sergent), R. c., 2020 CM 5008 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/j8zpn>, BFC Valcartier, site consulté le 15 août 2020;

___________photo hereunder of Major Gagné with Major McGarva:

"After 6 months in Baghdad, Major Andrew McGarva welcomes
his replacement as NATO Mission Iraq’s Legal Advisor (International
Law), Maj Isabelle Gagne. Safe trip home, Maj McGarva – excellent
work! Welcome to Baghdad, Maj Gagne!" image source: mobile.twitter.com/
(put on line on 30 May 2022).***

GAGNON, Charles, capitaine, Discipline, loi et devoirs militaires : précis élémentaire, [Lévis, Québec? : s.n., 1941?] (Lévis [Québec] : Le  Quotidien), 30 p., 19 cm.; copie à Bibliothèque et Archives Canada; voir aussi le catalogue CUBIQ; ****

GAL-OR,  Noemi, "Book Review: Another kind of justice: Canadian military law from Confederation to Somalia by Madsen, Chris", Canadian Foreign Policy, 01/1999; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (4 March 2019);

Andrew Gale (midle) Clackamas County Sheriff's Office
policy analyst, image source: http://www.oregonlive.com/clackamascounty/index.ssf/2014/05/clackamas_county_sheriffs_offi_14.html, accessed 23 January 2015

GALE, A.N. (Andrew N.), Governance of the Canadian Forces Military Police, Toronto: Canadian Forces College, CSC 28, Exercise New Horizons, MDS Thesis, 6 May 2002, 68 p.; available at wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc28/mds/gale.doc (accessed on 11 July 2008);

"This paper examines the governance of the Canadian Forces Military Police demonstrating that the preferred governance of military
police is vested in the Canadian Forces Provost Marshal and not the established chain of command. Indeed, this change in governance
is required for the military police to evolve into a professional policing service necessary to support a Constitutionally compliant and
modern military force. Reviewing the concept of police independence in Canadian society furthers this position. The significance of
this concept is pertinent to the evolution of policing in Canada and is a benchmark for future discussion on military police governance.
Following a brief review of the evolution of military policing, the paper presents recent developments in Canadian military justice,
military police powers, and core military police functions. Finally, the paper concludes with recommendations to strengthen military
police service to the Canadian Forces under the new governance relationship."- Abstract, p. 2.
[Source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 December 2011]

GALAHER, J.G., Private et al., equivalent charges to treason etc. courts martial in 1949:

Canadian Press, The Globe and
, Saturday, 29 September 1945, p. 1   

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

Trial of Private John Gordon. Galaher
notes from newspapers -- work in progress:

 - John Gordon. Galaher, 34 year old
-  from Windsor Ontario, member of Essex Scottish Regiment
- charged on 20 August 1945 in Farnborough, Corunna Barracks, England
- trial held in camera, trial by General Court martial
- Defence counsel LCol M.W. Andres
- Prosecutor is LCol G.D. / J.D. Watt
- The president of the court martial is Col. M.B.K. Gordon from Ottawa
- arrested in France about 5 months ago by the Canadian Special Investigation Service
- confined at Reading jail for the last 2 1/2  months
- "Galaher landed in Dieppe with men of the 2nd Canadian Divison in the raid
on Aug 19, 1942 and was taken prisoner by the Germans."
- trial finished on 23 August 1945: "The findings and sentence, being subject to confirmation
by a higher authority will be promulgated in due course."
- "The form of the announcement is tantamount to a verdict of guilty.  Without any need
for appeal by the prisoner, however,  the verdict and sentence are subject to revision by
higher authorities and are, therefore, not promulgated till conformation is reserved.  If the verdict
is not guilty it is so announced by the court and the accused set free."
- sentenced to life
- charged under Section 4(5) of the Army Act with "having been made a prisoner of war,
voluntarily aiding the enemy in Germany between January, 1943, and December, 1944 and
acting as an informer for the enemy of information useful to the enemy obtained by him
from Allied prisoners of war."  "Army authorities said the charge was equivalent to treason."

- see also the book Pit of Shame: The Real Ballad of Reading Gaol by Anthony Stokes, 2007, at p. 141,
available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=dxONbxCZieEC&pg=PA141&lpg=PA141&dq=%22John+Gordon+Galaher%22&source=bl&ots=bBw78RMjOc&sig=

(accessed 9 April 2018).

"Canadian Military Headquarters claimed that the reason for the security blackout was that the evidence
would reveal 'hughly secret methods used by the military intelligence to pass information from prisoners
of war to [the] authorities in England."

- see also "Story Ninety-Eight: Treason", 15 Jan 2009

"In 1944 the Nazi created the Britisches Freikorps or British Free Corps which was the brainchild of John Amery
a son of a British cabinet minister. This Nazi recruitment effort focused on recruiting POW’s which included three Canadians.

Edwin Barnard Martin of the Essex Scottish Regiment(Captured at Dieppe in 1942) , CPL. John Gordon Galaher, Pvt. George Hale.
At a military trial on Sept 28, 1945 they were sentenced to life imprisonment.
All were given a royal pardon in 1954
(Source documents of WW 2 Court Martial Records at Ottawa Federal Records Centre in Tunney’s Pasture, microfilm Lot 44, Accession 72R6)"
available at: https://oshawaremembers.wordpress.com/2009/01/15/story-ninety-eight-treason/, accessed 9 April 2018

-------- Source: (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter--Les actualités at p. 8
Ed Gallagher                                          "Le lcol Léveillé, AJAG Edmonton, remet la Médaille
                                                                canadienne du maintien de la paix au lcol Gallagher [à droite]."

GALLAGHER, Edward, former JAG officer, 1992-2001, web site at http://patriotlaw.com/our-people/ (accessed 2 June 2016); appeared as co-counsel for the Appellant Her Majesty the Queen in R. v. Boland, 1995 CanLII 10771 (CMAC), <http://canlii.ca/t/ggpvc> (accessed 11 May 2018);

___________on GALLAGHER, Ed, Major, see McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at p. 173, available at  103-242;

Ryan Gallant, circa 2006, image
source: welcome.upei.ca/Summer_2006.pdf, accessed 26 August 2019

GALLANT, Ryan (C. Ryan), legal officer with the OJAG since January 2018, see https://ca.linkedin.com/in/c-ryan-gallant-02588577?trk=pub-pbmap (accessed 11 October 2018); former Crown Prosecutor, Government of Alberta, Edmonton, 2015-2018; 

___________on GALLANT, Ryan C., acted as prosecutor in the court martial of Kanaar J.R. (Private), R. v., 2020 CM 5009 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/j94jp>; accessed 15 August 2020;

___________on GALLANT, Ryan C., member of the PEI Bar, posted to Edmonton as of December 2020; see  (accessed 25 December 2020);

Image source:  http://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/gloria-galloway, accessed 26 May 2016
Gloria Galloway

GALLOWAY, Gloria, "Cabinet documents show transfer of sex-assault investigations to military police was motivated by desire for quick resolution", The Globe and Mail, 28 October 2018; available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-cabinet-docs-show-transfer-of-sex-assault-investigations-to-military/ (accessed 31 October 2018);

___________ "Canadian Forces firm on anti-malaria drug ahead of Africa mission", The Globe and Mail, 5 December 2016 and updated 8 April 2017; available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/canadian-forces-firm-on-risky-anti-malaria-drug-ahead-of-africa-mission/article33202493/ (accessed 20 December 2017);

___________ "Dallaire testifies mefloquine drug impaired thought process in Rwanda", The Globe and Mail, 7 March 2017, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/dallaire-testifies-mefloquine-drug-impaired-his-thought-process/article34235648/ (accessed 11 March 2017); re testimony of Dallaire before the House of Commons Committee on Veterans Affairs;

___________"Former Canadian soldier wants to be a reservist despite PTSD, The Globe and Mail, 10 April 2017"; available at theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/former-canadian-soldier-wants-to-be-a-reservist-despite-ptsd/article34661133/ (11 April 2017); the name of the former service member is Joshua Dorais;

Mr. Dorais, 43, has filed a complaint with the Canadian Human Rights Commission alleging that the Canadian
Armed Forces is discriminating against him on the basis of a disability by refusing to allow him to return to the reserves.

The military says his PTSD prevents him from being deployed anywhere at any time – the universality of service rule that
sees many permanently disabled soldiers handed their discharge papers. But Mr. Dorais says that is not true, that he has the
 condition under control and that his PTSD would not impede his performance as a nursing officer.


A few weeks later, he received a form letter from a recruitment medical evaluator confirming that he was being rejected as
a result of the rules around universality of service. Because of his medical history, Mr. Dorais was told that he remains “at
increased risk for a recurrence of symptoms, especially if again subject to the stress of a military environment.”

So, last week, Mr. Dorais appealed to the Human Rights Commission, saying that the Forces can no more predict the behaviour
 risk associated with his mental-health history than it can predict that a soldier will be maimed or mortally wounded during military

___________"Foundation for mefloquine awareness asks Trudeau to reopen the Somalia inquiry", The Globe and Mail, circa 12 March 2018; available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/foundation-for-mefloquine-awareness-asks-trudeau-to-reopen-the-somalia-inquiry/article38273226/  (accessed 13 March 2018);

___________ "Malaria drug’s effect on troops should be examined: Somalia inquiry head", The Globe and Mail, 17 November 2016; available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/malaria-drugs-effect-on-troops-should-be-examined-somalia-inquiry-head-says/article32881571/ (accessed 17 November 2016);

___________"No apology from Veterans Minister for attacking vet [Sean Bruyea] who Library of Parliament says is correct in critique of new Pensions for Life", The Globa and Mail, 27 September 2018; available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-no-apology-from-veterans-minister-for-attacking-vet-who-library-of/ (accessed 28 September 2018);

____________"Over 400 disabled veterans waiting on priority list for public-service jobs", Ottawa: The Globe and Mail, 25 May 2016, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/hundreds-of-disabled-veterans-waiting-on-priority-list-for-public-service-jobs/article30169629/ (accessed 26 May 2016);

Successive federal governments have said they would help disabled veterans get public-service jobs, but a long-time advocate says the civil
service is not co-operative and he questions whether anyone ensures that discharged military personnel are considered when openings arise.
The former Conservative government brought in the Veterans Hiring Act on Canada Day of last year that said veterans who were released
for medical reasons were to be first in line for any civil-service job, and that all veterans would get “priority entitlement” to advertised
government vacancies.

Elizabeth Richards, lawyer from the Department of              Wayne Stickland of Larmer Stickland, image source: 
Justice, image source: google image search from The             http://larmerstickland.com/
Ottawa Citizen

Source of image for mefloquine box: globalnews.ca/news/3099642/
accessed 12 December 2017
___________"Somalia veterans' malaria drug case is too old to proceed", The Globe and Mail, 8 December 2017, available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/somalia-veterans-malaria-drug-case-is-too-old-to-proceed-ottawa-argues/article37280711/?cmpid=rss1 (accessed 13 December 2017);

 Image source: kmlaw.ca/lawyers/jody-brown/, accessed 6 July 2017
Jody Brown, counsel in the case
___________"Veteran sues Ottawa over pension-payment delays", The Globe and Mail, 4 July 2017, available at theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/veteran-sues-ottawa-over-pension-payment-delays/article35550905/ (accessed 6 July 2017); note: the veteran is Doug Jost, a former lieutenant;

A veteran who was forced to wait more than six months for his first pension cheque is the lead plaintiff in a proposed class-action
lawsuit that accuses the federal government of breaching its obligations to former soldiers, sailors and aviators by being slow to
deliver their retirement benefits.
The suit asks for interest on money that was delayed and other costs as well as compensation for pain and suffering. Mr. Jost’s lawyer,
Jody Brown of Koskie Minsky LLP, said more information will be needed from the government to calculate the total amount of the

GAMACHE, Pierre, L'indépendance et l'impartialité institutionnelles des organismes administratifs autonomes unifonctionnels et multifonctionnels, Mémoire présenté à la Faculté des études supérieures de l'Université Laval pour l'obtention du grade de maître ès droit, Faculté de droit, Université Laval, mai 1999, v, 141 p.; disponible à https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape9/PQDD_0002/MQ41905.pdf (consulté le 16 octobre 2018); discute de la décision de la C.S.C. Généreux; Me Gamache travaille à Revenu Québec (renseignement en date du 31 décembre 2018);

GANS, Arthur E. (Major), Loyalty: A Military Ethicist  Looks at the Problem of Conflits, 24 p.; available at http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE88/Gans88.pdf (accessed 2 November 2017); Mr. Gans is a reverend;

____________ "Vocation or Job: A Warrior's Place in a Rights Place in a Rights-Driven Society", (Winter 1994) 24(2) Canadian Defence Quarterly 10-13;

GARDAM, M. (Mary) C., LCdr, legal officer,member of the OJAG; see https://www.lawyerscanada.net/lcdr-m-c-gardam/ (accessed 20 August 2018);

___________on GARDAM, Mary, former OJAG member, see photos hereunder:

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

Mary Gardham, source of image: https://twitter.com/marygardam, accessed 21 April 2020

Dan Gardner, image source: http://www.actuaires.ca/meetings/annual/2011/speaker_e.asp, accessed on 23 April 2014

GARDNER, Dan, "Semrau verdict exposes flawed law", The Ottawa Citizen, Friday, July 30, 2010 at p. A13;

As these cases have shown repeatedly, most people see a profound moral distinction between mercy killing and
murder.  But the law recognizes no such distinction.

It is not people's moral sense that is flawed.  It is the law.  How the law should be changed is debatable.  I would
prefer that someone like Semrau be praised, not convicted, but a reasonable case can be made for the creation of
a lesser charge of  "compassionate homicide."

What is not debatable is that the law as it stands is unacceptable.  And verdicts like that rendered against Capt.
Robert Semrau are dishonest and indefensible.

Source of image and text: http://journalservir.com/nouvelle.php?id=895, visité 14 décembre 2015
De gauche à droite: lcol Richard Garon, commandant sortant du 2 RAC,
col Dan Chafaï, commandant du 34 GBC et lcol Sylvie Pelletier, commandant
entrant du 2 RAC. (Photo: bdrc Ferreira, 2nd Fd Regt)

GARON, Richard, Lieutenant-Colonel, "L'évaluation du leadership au sein des Forces canadiennes et les leçons tirées des événements en Somalie", 2012?, disponible à http://www.cmrsj-rmcsj.forces.gc.ca/cb-bk/art-art/2012/art-art-2012-5-fra.asp  (visité 14 décembre 2015);

Cet article vise à déterminer les principaux facteurs des défaillances des Forces canadiennes (FC) en
matière de leadership lors de leur intervention de 1993 en Somalie.  L'auteur s'appuie sur l'hypothèse
que les FC ne disposaient pas des outils conceptuels nécessaires pour mesurer les compétences de leurs chefs.
[source: http://www.cmrsj-rmcsj.forces.gc.ca/cb-bk/art-art/2012/art-art-fra.asp, visité le 4 décembre 2015]

GARSTANG, Edward John, Crime and punishment on the Western Front: the Australian Imperial Force and British Army Discipline, thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of Murdoch University, 2009, xvi, 265 p.; available at https://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/728/2/02Whole.pdf (accessed 22 April 2020); 

GAUDREAULT, Cynthia, lawyer, member of the OJAG; Major Gaudreault is a member of the Quebec Bar and is posted at AJAG Prairie Region Office, Winnipeg (3 June 2018);


" 14 hours ago [2 June 2018]

The 10th annual in support of and
took place at CFB Winnipeg last weekend. Representing
our Prairie region team were Maj Cynthia Gaudreault, Grant MacLeod, Maj Sherry
MacLeod, Signy Vallentgoed and CWO Sandra Spragg.

source: Twitter account: https://twitter.com/JAGCAF, at: https://twitter.com/JAGCAF/media
(accessed 3 June 2018).

"Maj Cynthia Gaudreault (RCAF), is attending an operational Law of Armed
Conflict course in Paris, designed for French officers prior to deploying as legal
advisors. The group is discussing the legalities for engagement with a particular
unit, location or subject."

source: https://twitter.com/JAGCAF/status/1220717446362992640 and

___________GAUDREAULT, Cynthia, lawyer, member of the OJAG, see Twitter account at https://twitter.com/CynGau (accessed 30 March 2020);

GAUGH,  M.H., Captain, member of the OJAG; was co-counsel with Major M.L.P.P. Germain for the Director of Military Prosecutions in the case Carlyon R. Y. (Lieutenant-Commander), R. v., 2017 CM 4013 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/hp4h9> (accessed 10 May 2018);

Image source: missingpeople.net/pickton_murder_trial_could_start.htm, accessed 3 June 2018
Geoffrey Gaul
GAUL,  Geoffrey, former legal officer, LCdr,  (reserve force) in 2009 named Justice of the B.C. Supreme Court:

In 2000, he joined the reserves of the Canadian Forces, working in the office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG)
and was commissioned as a lieutenant (navy).  He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-commander in 2004. His
practice expertise is in criminal law, environmental law, and first nations/aboriginal law
[source: Hall, Neal, "New judges named to B.C. Supreme Court", The Vancouver Sun, 2 February 2008, available at
pressreader.com/canada/vancouver-sun/20080202/281973193339407, accessed 21 December 2017]

___________photo of Lt(N) Gaul, Geoffrey with other JAG officers from the article of  PETTIGREW, Leishia, "Canada-NZ Exchange 2007 -- Legal Staff Officer Captain Leisha Pettigrew, from HQ 3rd Land Force Group, Took Part in the Annual Exchange in Canada (CANEX).  It proved to be a Joint-Service Experience",  (2007) 126 Navy Today 14-15; available at http://navy.mil.nz/downloads/pdf/navy-today/nt126-web.pdf (accessed 4 November 2015);

From the left: Capt Leishia Pettigrew, Maj Sean Raleigh, Lt Geoff
, Lt Col Randy Callan, Maj Phillip Drew, Maj Tammy Tremblay
& Lt Cdr Mary Wardam; Image source: p. 15 of the article.

Image source: , accessed 17 January 2016
Alain Gauthier
GAUTHIER, Alain, testimony of Alain Gauthier, director general of operations, Office of the ombudsman, National Defence and Canadian Forces Ombusman, on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act, before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 63, 4 February 2013, minutes and evidence;

GAUTHIER, J. René,  "Nécrologie: Me J. René Gauthier, C.R.", La Presse, 20 avril 1971 à la p. 16; officier légal dans CARC, 1941-1945  disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2716457 (consulté le 20 août 2018);

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

____________sur le chef d'escadre René Gauthier, voir aussi:  "...Inauguration d'un service juridique dans la troisième région d'aviation...Service juridique", Le devoir,  mardi 26 janvier 1943,  at p. 2; available at http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2804853 (accessed 20 August 2018);

____________sur le chef d'escadre René Gauthier, voir aussi:  "La 3e région d'entrainement aérien possède maintenant son propre service juridique", La Tribune, Sherbrooke, mercredi 27 janvier 1943, disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3541273 (vérifié le 27 janvier 2019);

___________sur Me Jean-René Gauthier, voir aussi les notes biographiques de  Jean-Jacques Lefebvre, 1971 Revue du Barreau 500-502; ****

sur le chef d'escadre René Gauthier, voir aussi:  "Service juridique de l'aviation", La presse, Montréal, lundi, 25 janvier 1943 à la 17; contient aussi d'autres photos et des notes biographiques; disponible au permalien http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2962059, site consulté le 24 février 2020;

Image source: www.nauticapedia.ca/dbase/Query/Biolist3.php?&name=Gauvin%2C%20Jacques%20J.&id=5290&Page=8&input=1, accessed 26 May 2016
Jacques J. Gauvin
GAUVIN, Jacques J., Captain (N), The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Canadian Forces : social experimentation or a revival of the Canadian military ethos?, Toronto: Canadian Forces College, National Security Studies Course Paper, 2000, 27 p. (series; NSSC paper; NSSC 2, 2000);

"The thesis to be examined proposed that the equality rights provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms have positively contributed to the
revitalization of the Canadian military ethos and that the gulf between the Canadian society and its military is in fact closing"
[source: ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 8 December 2011]

GAUVIN, R.J. (Robert Joseph), Major, member of the OJAG, employed by the Director of Military Prosecutions in  R. v. Burton, 2018 CM 2002, available at  (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/hqlq0> (accessed 8 May 2018); member of the Law Society of Ontario;

Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/marygazze

Mary Gazze, the author
GAZZE, Mary, "Canadian Forces won't change access to staff records despite Williams case", The Globe and Mail, 23 October 2010 and updated 26 March 2017, available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/canadian-forces-wont-change-access-to-staff-records-despite-williams-case/article1215453/ (accessed 8 February 2018);

GEDDES, R.R and  Emergency Preparedness Canada Directorate of Emergency Operations Coordination and the Advisory Committee on Vital Points Contract Study Report on Protecting Category II Vital Points during Time of War or Serious civil Crisis,  Ottawa, 28 March 1988,  available at https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/lbrr/archives/jf%201525.c74%20g43%201988-eng.pdf (accessed 4 October 2020);

Summary [excerpt]
The role of the Canadian Forces is to defend Canada
from external
military aggression. The normal, first line
protection of property
against criminal acts is an owner's
responsibility.Sabotage is an
offence under the Criminal
Code of Canada. Therefore, the protection
of civil vital
points' property against acts of sabotage is considered
be a civil law and order function in which the owners or occupants
are responsible for providing the normal, first
line protection.  The
various levels of government having
jurisdiction are responsible for
the provision of
appropriate emergency response, backup protective
services. That concept is current policy for the Vital Points Program.
Because it appears to be the only practicable approach, that policy
for the protection of
Category II Vital Points should be confirmed

From the left: LCol A. Dufour, LCdr M. Geiger-Wolf,
Roma Stevenson, Maj. Powers, Joy Beghin, and Thea Haut (source of image:  (July-Oct 2000) 3 JAG Newsletter--Bulletin d'actualités at p. 7)

GEIGER-WOLF, Michele, member of the Law Society of Manitoba since 1992, legal officer with the OJAG:

  • DJA

    – Present (21 years 8 months)

    In this position I provided legal advice and assistance to senior members of the military chain of command on all aspects of the law that arose, similar to corporate counsel. Key areas include administrative law, military justice, international law, agreements and memoranda of understanding, statutory interpretation, The Privacy Act and Access to Information. I was also able to teach legal subjects to non-lawyers, including in the areas of military justice, the law of armed conflict, and military administrative law. I was privileged to teach at the Jamaican Defence College and to an international group of military officers [source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/michele-geiger-wolf-288a402b, accessed 21 February 2018]

____________on GEIGER-WOLF, Michele, see following photo:

GEIGER-WOLF, Michele, LCol is on the left.
" 1 hour ago [22 November 2018] Congratulations to AJAG
Prairie Chief Warrant Officer Sandra Spragg for receiving the "Volunteer Extraordinaire" award
from the . CWO Spragg has generously volunteered more than 1000 hours of her
off-duty time in the past 14 months!" (site accessed 22 November 2018)

___________ "Roma Stevenson -- 35 Years of Outstanding service", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 2; Commander Geiger-Wolf is a JAG officer since 1996, see https://ca.linkedin.com/in/michele-geiger-wolf-288a402b);
___________ "Roma Stevenson -- 35 ans de service exemplaire", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 3;


Claudia Berthiaume, journaliste et auteure de l'article                     De la g.,: Julie Lemieux, Guillaume Gélinas et Luc Gélinas ("(photo tirée
Source de l'image: https://twitter.com/cberthiaumejdm,                   de la page Facebook de Luc Gélinas), source:
consulté le 13 mars 2018                                                                   45enord.ca/2016/10/le-reserviste-guillaume-gelinas-finalement-cite-a-son-proces-pour-deux-meurtres-au-1er-degre/

GÉLINAS, Guillaume,  voir l'article de BERTHIAUME, Claudia, "Un ex-militaire admet avoir tué son père et sa belle-mère.  Il a été condamné à la prison à vie lundi, sans possibilité de libération avant 18 ans", Journal de Montréal, 12 mars 2018; accusé est un ancien militaire [réserve] Luc Gélinas; juge: Michel Pennou; avocat de la défense: Marc Labelle; procureur de la couronne: Éric Côté; incident 13 février 2014; les victimes: Luc Gélinas et Julie Lemieux;

Il semble que le tueur, qui a servi dans les Forces armées canadiennes, peinait à conserver un emploi depuis son retour
d’une mission en Afghanistan, trois ans auparavant.
D’après son avocat, Marc Labelle, un événement aurait « débalancé » Guillaume Gélinas lorsqu’il a œuvré en Afghanistan.
Un de ses amis proches a été « déchiqueté » tout près de lui lorsque sa propre grenade a explosé.
[source: journaldemontreal.com/2018/03/12/lex-membre-des-forces-armees-canadiennes-guillaume-gelinas-plaide-coupable-1, consulté le 13 mars 2018]

[Note de recherche: ci-dessous un interview entre Isabelle Richer et l'avocat de Guillaume Gélinas, Me Marc Labelle; cependant l'interview n'est
pas sur le cas de Guillaume Gélinas mais sur la façon de défendre de Me Labelle ]

Me Marc Labelle, source: https://twitter.com/radiocanadainfo/status/850743321295069184, site consulté le 6 octobre 2020.

___________sur GÉLINAS, Guillaume, voir RADIO-CANADA, "Guillaume Gélinas condamné à perpétuité pour les meurtres de son père et de sa belle-mère", 12 mars 2018 avec un video d'un entretien entre Isabelle Richer et le dr. Gilles Chamberland, psychiatre et directeur dex xervices professionnels Institut Philippe Pinel de Montréal sur le stress post-traumatqie et disponible à https://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/1088667/guillaume-gelinas-coupable-meurtres-pere-belle-mere  (consulté le 6 octobre 2020);

Image source: facebook.com/alexandre.gelinasproulx, accessed 16 March 2018
Alexandre Gélinas-Proulx

GÉLINAS-PROULX, Alexandre, Les droits internationaux de la personne:  un cadre conceptuel ne pouvant faire abstraction des entités non humaines / Alexandre Gélinas-Proulx ; sous la direction de Syméon KaragiannisMémoire de Master 2, Université Robert Schuman (Strasbourg), Faculté de droit, de sciences politiques, et de gestion, 2008, 79 pages; voir http://www.sudoc.abes.fr//DB=2.1/SET=3/TTL=1/CLK?IKT=1016&TRM=Les+droits+internationaux+de+la+personne (accessed 28 August 2017);

Le capitaine Alexandre Gélinas-Proulx au centre avec l'accusé
le "Master Seaman" Daniel Cooper, Halifax, 26 septembrr 2017,
source: globalnews.ca/news/4067480/master-seaman-faces-sexual-assault-charges-at-military-court-martial-in-halifax/, page consultée le 9 Mai 2020.

___________ on Alexandre Gélinas-Proulx, see THOMSON, Aly,"Sailor's court martial on sex charge delayed after defence lawyer withdraws", The Canadian Press--The Chronicle Herald--News, 26 September 2017, available at http://thechronicleherald.ca/metro/1506496-sailors-court-martial-on-sex-charge-delayed-after-defence-lawyer-withdraws (accessed 30 September 2017);

Master seaman Daniel Cooper, a naval communicator at Canadian Forces Base Halifax, briefly appeared before military judge Col. Mario
Dutil on Tuesday in Halifax.

After a delay of several hours as lawyers met behind closed doors, Cooper's lawyer, Maj. Alexandre Gelinas-Proulx, told Dutil he was
applying to withdraw due to "irreconcilable differences."

Dutil agreed to the request, and told Cooper to retain another lawyer as quickly as possible.

GELLY, Pierre, décédé le 1er mars 1972, Major, assistant-juge avocat, voir l'article de Lucien Plante, "Les noms des 19 accusés sont révélés et d'autres personnes mises en cause", L'Action catholique : organe de l'Action sociale catholique,  samedi 24 juillet 1954, à la p. 1; disponible au permalien suivant: http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3526328, page consultée le 2 juillet 2020;

___________sur Gelly, Pierre, avocat de la défense à une cour martiale, voir , "Militaire traduit en cour martiale", Le soleil, lundi 9 juillet 1951 à la p. 11, disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3176080, vérifié le 2 juillet 2020;

___________sur Gelly, Pierre,voir son avis de décès dans Le soleil, vendredi 3 mars 1972, à la p. 33, disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2639064, site visité le 2 juillet 2020; notez l'erreur "vierge noire"!; monsieur Gelly a été gentilhomme huissier de la verge noire de 1948 à 1968;


___________sur Gelly, Pierre, il est "avocat au quartiers-généraux du district militaire numéro 5", voir "Feu Mme Emile Gelly", Le devoir,  lundi 9 août 1943, à la p. 5, disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2805020, site visité le 2 juillet 2020;

__________sur Gelly, Pierre, son père était L'honorable Émile Gelly, 1869-, ancien militaire et juge de la Cour supérieure du Québec, voir http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/EmileGelly.htm (site consulté le 6 octobre 2020);


Mark Gendron, image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page, accessed 1 August 2015
GENDRON, Mark, on https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/mark-gendron/88/976/22b (accessed 1 August 2015);

Image source: https://ipolitics.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Nov.40171.jpg, accessed 2 October 2016
Colonel Mark Gendron, left, with Major-General Michael Hood

_____________The legal and strategic paradigms of the United Nations' intervention in Somalia, Thesis, Master of Arts in War Studies, Royal Military College of Canada, 1994, iv, 198 leaves; Includes bibliographical references; thesis advisor: Joel Sokolsky; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp04/mq22766.pdf (accessed 8 July 2016);

___________on Mark Gendron, see Sean M. Maloney, "Operational Manoeuvre Group Operation SOHIL LARAM II, Kandahar Province, February 2008",  (2009) 18 Canadian Military History 60-78, at p. 68;

___________Testimony of Colonel Mark Gendron, deputy judge advocate general, operations before the House of Commons, Standing Committee on National Defence, 4 November 2014, available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/parl/xc34-1/XC34-1-2-412-35-eng.pdf (accessed 24 June 2019)

GENEVA CENTRE FOR SECURITY POLICY (GCSP), web site at https://www.gcsp.ch/ (accessed 31 August 2018);

" 12 hours ago

Colonel David Antonyshyn, DJAG Military Justice, is in
teaching a CENTROC workshop that focuses on the role
of commanders and legal advisers when implementing the Law of
Armed Conflict, Human Rights Law and rules governing the Use of
Force in military operations." (accessed 31 August 2018)

Source de l'image: http://montrealcampus.ca/2015/04/militant-insoumis/, vérifié le 29 avril 2017
Alain Gerbier
GERBIER,  Alain, "La débacle morale de l'armée canadienne Des Casques bleus tortionnaires, des initiations tournant mal...les scandales abondent",  31 janvier 1997; disponible à http://www.liberation.fr/planete/1997/01/31/la-debacle-morale-de-l-armee-canadiennedes-casques-bleus-tortionnaires-des-initiations-tournant-mall_192483 (vérifié le 29 avril 2017);

GERMAIN, Alban, Capitaine, avocat, en 1918, voir "Une grave accusation",  Le devoir, mercredi le 11 décembre 1918, à la p. 3; disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2800192 (consulté le 27 juillet 2018); sur cet avocat voir Revue du Barreau, 1941 à la p. 78; décédé en février 1941;

___________sur GERMAIN, Alban, avocat qui représente le ministère de la milice, dans la cour martiale dont parle l'article suivant: "Trois autres inculpés", Le devoir, Montréal, 18 décembre 1918 à la p. 3; disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2800198 (consulté le 14 mars 2019);

___________sur GERMAIN, Alban, 1873-1941, "Décès des acteurs de l’histoire du Québec du 1er janvier 1941 au 31 décembre 1960 -- 22 février 1941", disponible à https://grandquebec.com/ligne-du-temps-xx-siecle/deces-1940-1960/ (vérifié le 29 mars 2019);

22 février 1941 : Meurt à cause d’un incendie dans sa bibliothèque d’Outremont Alban Germain,
avocat criminaliste. Né en 1873 et natif du comté de Wright, province d’Ontario, il fait ses études
au séminaire de Sainte-Thérèse, puis au séminaire de Joliette, ensuite à la Faculté de droit de
l’Université Laval de Montréal. Il commence à pratiquer le droit en 1900, comme associé
d’Albert Théberge et il devient l’un des avocats criminalistes les plus connus au Québec.


___________sur Germain, Alban, voir l'article  "Me Alban Germain périt dans un incendie qui éclate à sa demeure", L'illustration nouvelle, Montréal, 24 février 1941 à la p. 3, reproduit de http://numerique.banq.qc.ca/patrimoine/...., site consulté le 26 mai 2020;

Pressing (and holding) the Ctrl key and scrolling the wheel
of the mouse allows to zoom in or out of the web page being viewed

____________Photo de Alban Germain, Le Canada, lundi 24 février 1941, à la p. 16, disponible à http://collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/3571792, vérifié le 19 juin 2020;

Alban Germain

source: ca.linkedin.com/in/patrice-germain-83186183, accessed 3 June 2018
Patrice Germain

GERMAIN, Patrice (M.L.P.P.), Captain, acted as co-counsel with Captain L. Langlois for the Director of Military Prosecutions in the case of Edmunds N.S. (Master Corporal), R. v., 2017 CM 3016 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/hnzwk> (accessed 9 May 2018); membre du Barreau du Québec; member of the OJAG since 2014;

Francis Campbell, multimedia journalist
and author of the article; photo source:
thechronicleherald.ca/author/francis-campbell-8011/, accessed 4 September 2019

___________on GERMAIN Patrice, was the prosecutor in the court martial referred to in the article by Campbell, Francis, "Fondling of frigate-mates aboard HMCS Charlottetown earns navy officer a reprimand", The Chronicle Herald, Halifax, 29 August 2019; available at https://www.thechronicleherald.ca/news/halifax/fondling-of-frigate-mates-earns-navy-officer-a-reprimand-346626/ (accessed 4 August 2019); defence counsel was Lieutenant-Commander Brent Walden; Commander Sandra Sukstorf, was the presiding judge at that Standing Court martial; charges were behaving in a disgraceful manner while aboard HMCS Charlottetown;

A female navy officer [Sub-Lieutenant Aidan Brownlee] who several times grabbed the genitals of male colleagues
aboard HMCS Charlottetown was handed a severe reprimand and a $3,000 fine at a Halifax court martial Thursday.


Germain said a severe reprimand is often used in conjunction with a fine to provide more impact.

“It can delay some progression,” Germain said. “I cannot give you a mathematical answer and I
do not want to say that it is purely Victorian era heritage where you’ve been reprimanded and you
hide in your room. It is a punishment in itself ... actually a more serious punishment than a fine,
whatever the amount of the fine is.”

Germain said the sentence is a “great resolution” for the offence committed.

___________photo of Major Patrice Germain (left) and Major Dylan Kerr at the CMAC in R v Corporal Beaudry on 31 October 2018, appearing at p. 29 of the Director of Military Prosecutions Annual Report 2017-2018, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/jag-annual-report-17-18.pdf (accessed 10 October 2018);

Jane Gerster, image source: http://www.thestar.com/authors.gerster_jane.html, 23 January 2015

GERSTER, Jane,  "20 Years after Somalia affair of tortured teen", Metro News, 16 March 2013, available at http://metronews.ca/news/canada/597698/saturday-marks-anniversary-of-somalia-affair/ (accessed on 2 September 2013);

Walter Dorn, a professor at the Canadian Forces College in Toronto, said he agrees some of the progress made after Somalia is being allowed to languish, particularly since Canada no longer seems to embrace its traditional role as a peacekeeper.

“It means that Canadian soldiers are less experienced and less knowledgeable and less well-prepared for peacekeeping and our peace operations in general,” said Dorn, noting that he doesn’t think Canada suffers from the same institutional failings that enabled Arone’s torture and death.

The federal government’s forthcoming Bill C-15, which proposes changes to the military justice system, could pose just such a risk, warned Peter Tinsley, the chief prosecutor for the Somalia cases in the 1990s.

The bill — which seeks to balance military police independence against the ability of commanders to hold them to account — files in the face of two decades of effort spent making military police more independent, Tinsley said.

“None of (the prosecutors) were proud of the events that took place,” he said. “But we did our jobs.”

Last month, Glenn Stannard, chairman of the Military Police Complaints Commission,told a Commons committee the bill would curtail guidelines that have been in place “since the period following the troubled Somalia deployment,which specifically sought to safeguard MP investigations from interference by the chain of command.”

The bill “doesn’t bode well and doesn’t recognize the lessons that should have been learned in Somalia,” Tinsley said.

___________"Experts wonder if military remembers lessons from Somalia affair", The Canadian Press, 16 March 2013; available at http://news.yahoo.com/experts-wonder-military-remembers-lessons-somalia-affair-110655122.html (accessed 12 May 2015);


GIBSON, H.F., Captain, from Kingston, was the defending officer of Sgt. Emmanuel Schuler in his General court martial, see "3 Canadians Acquitted on Charges of Mutiny", Globe and Mail, 1945/08/04, available at https://collections.museedelhistoire.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5030361 (accessed 5 June 2019);

Photo of Michael Gibson, reproduced from http://www.45enord.ca/2013/10/premiere-nomination-a-ce-poste
(accessed on 1 April 2014)

GIBSON,  Michael R., "Armed forces abroad, peacekeeping operations and military tribunals", Internal Commission of Jurists, Human Rights and the Administration of Justice Through Military Tribunals, Geneva, 26-28 January 2004, 7 p.; available at http://www.icj.org/IMG/pdf/28_January_2004.pdf (accessed on 27 July 2008); "Colonel Gibson is a graduate of the Royal Military College of Canada (Honours B.A. Political Science and History), the University of Toronto Faculty of Law (LLB) and the London School of Economics and Political Science (M.Sc. International Relations, and LLM Public International Law)", see  http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dsa-dns/sa-ns/ab/sobv-vbos-eng.asp?mAction=View&mBiographyID=1015 (accessed on 16 January 2012); he is a member of the Ontario Bar; his LL.M. would be circa 2006;

___________Biographical notes (not necessarily written by Michael Gibson) / notes biographiques (pas n/cessairement composées par Michael Gibson):

Originally from Strathroy, Ontario, Colonel Michael Gibson joined the Canadian Forces in 1980. He initially flew as an Air Navigator
in the Air Force doing passenger, cargo, VIP and air-to-air refuelling missions on the CC-130 Hercules and Boeing 707 aircraft. He
also served as a strategic airlift operations planner at Air Transport Group Headquarters Trenton, and as a Platoon Officer training officer
candidates on the Basic Officer Training Course.

After becoming a Legal Officer, Colonel Gibson served in a variety of positions, including Deputy Judge Advocate Trenton, Director
of Military Justice Policy and Research, and Director of International and Operational Law. He has been prosecution, defence and
appellate counsel, and has had significant involvement in recent legislation affecting the military justice system as policy architect,
instructing counsel for the drafting of legislation, and as a witness before Parliamentary committees. He has also published several
 articles on international human rights law and the administration of justice by military tribunals, and was formerly the President of
the Canadian National Group of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War. Immediately prior to his appointment
as a Military Judge, Colonel Gibson was the Deputy Judge Advocate General Military Justice, responsible for military justice policy,
legislative reform and strategic initiatives concerning the Canadian military justice system.

Colonel Gibson’s service as an officer in the Canadian Forces has taken him to over 60 countries around the world. His operational
deployments abroad included Legal Advisor to the Canadian Contingent of the NATO Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina,
Legal Advisor to the Disaster Assistance Response Team on its deployment to assist victims of an earthquake in Turkey, Deputy Legal
Advisor at the NATO SFOR Headquarters in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Senior Military Law Advisor for the Rule of Law Unit
of MONUC, the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Colonel Gibson is a graduate of the Royal Military College of Canada (Honours B.A. Political Science and History), the University of
Toronto Faculty of Law (LLB) and the London School of Economics and Political Science (M.Sc. International Relations, and LLM Public
International Law).

The Governor in Council appointed Colonel Gibson as a Military Judge on 1 October 2013.

[source: http://www.jmc-cmj.forces.gc.ca/en/biographies-gibson.page, accessed on 8 January 2015]


Né à Strathroy, Ontario, le colonel Michael Gibson s’est enrôlé dans les Forces canadiennes en 1980. Il a d’abord servi comme navigateur
aérien au sein de la Force aérienne effectuant des missions de transport de passagers, de fret et de dignitaires ainsi que de ravitaillement
air-air à bord d’aéronefs CC130 Hercules et Boeing 707. Il a également servi comme planificateur des opérations de transport aérien
stratégique au Quartier général du Groupe Transport aérien, à Trenton, ainsi qu’à titre d’officier de peloton donnant de la formation aux
aspirants-officiers dans le cadre du Cours élémentaire d’officier.

Devenu avocat militaire, le colonel Gibson a occupé différents postes, dont ceux de juge-avocat adjoint à Trenton, de directeur – Justice
militaire, politique et recherche, et de directeur du Droit international et opérationnel. Il a été avocat de la poursuite, de la défense et d’appel,
et il a participé activement à l’élaboration de textes de loi récents touchant au système de justice militaire en tant qu’architecte de politique,
qu’avocat-conseil dans le cadre de la rédaction de textes législatifs, et il a aussi agi comme témoin de comités parlementaires. Il a également
publié de nombreux articles concernant le droit international des droits de la personne et l’administration des tribunaux militaires, en plus
d’avoir occupé le poste de président du groupe national canadien au sein de la Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre.
Immédiatement avant sa nomination en tant que juge militaire, le colonel était Juge-avocat général adjoint/Justice militaire responsable de la
politique en matière de justice militaire, de la réforme législative et des initiatives stratégiques concernant le système canadien de justice militaire.

Le service du Colonel Gibson en tant qu’officier dans les Forces canadiennes l’a mené dans plus de soixante pays dans le monde. Ses missions à
l’étranger comprennent celles de conseiller juridique du contingent canadien de la Force de stabilisation de l’OTAN (SFOR) en Bosnie-Herzégovine,
de conseiller juridique de l’Équipe d’intervention en cas de catastrophe lors de son déploiement pour venir en aide aux victimes d’un séisme en
Turquie,  de conseiller juridique adjoint au quartier général de la SFOR de l’OTAN à Sarajevo, Bosnie-Herzégovine, et de conseiller juridique
militaire principal de l’unité de la primauté du droit de la MONUC, la Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies en République démocratique
du Congo.

Le colonel Gibson est diplômé du Collège militaire royal du Canada (baccalauréat ès art en politique et histoire, avec distinctions), de la Faculté
de droit (LLB) de l’Université de Toronto et de la London School of Economics and Political Science (M. SC. en relations internationales et LL.M.
en droit international public).

Le gouverneur en conseil a nommé le colonel Gibson comme juge militaire le 1er octobre 2013.

[source: http://www.jmc-cmj.forces.gc.ca/fr/biographies-gibson.page, site visité le 8 janvier 2015]

Image source: www.hoover.org/news/order-discipline-and-accountability-armed-forces, accessed 31 May 2016
Colonel Michael Gibson, 2012, image credit:
 Janet Chang

___________Biographical Notes (not necessarily written by Michael Gibson) / notes biographiques (pas n/cessairement composées par Michael Gibson):

OTTAWA, February 6, 2015 – The Honourable Peter MacKay, P.C., Q.C., M.P. for Central Nova, Minister of
Justice and Attorney General of Canada, today announced the following appointments: ....

The Honourable Michael R. Gibson, a military judge in Ottawa, is appointed a judge of the Ontario
Superior Court of Justice to replace Mr. Justice J.C. Murray (Milton), who resigned effective December 31, 2014.

Mr. Justice Gibson received a Bachelor of Laws from the University of Toronto in 1994 and a Master of Laws,
Public International Law, from the London School of Economics and Political Science in 2007. He was admitted
to the Bar of Ontario in 1996.

Mr. Justice Gibson was appointed a military judge in 2013. Prior to that, he had been legal counsel with the
Judge Advocate General (JAG) office in Ottawa since 2003. He was defence counsel, JAG Directorate of Defence
Counsel Services in Hull (2000-02) and Deputy Judge Advocate at the Canadian Forces Base in Trenton (1996-2000).
His main areas of practice were criminal prosecutions, immigration and real property, and international law.
(source: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/news-nouv/ja-nj/2015/doc_33094.html, accessed 8 February 2015)


OTTAWA, le 6 février 2015 – L'honorable Peter MacKay, C.P., c.r., député de Nova-Centre, ministre de la
Justice et procureur général du Canada, a annoncé les nominations suivantes : [...]

L'honorable Michael R. Gibson, juge militaire à Ottawa, est nommé juge de la Cour supérieure de justice
de l'Ontario. Il remplace monsieur le juge J.C. Murray (Milton), qui a démissionné le 31 décembre 2014.

Monsieur le juge Gibson a obtenu un baccalauréat en droit de l'Université de Toronto en 1994 et une maîtrise
en droit, droit international public, de la London School of Economics and Political Science en 2007. Il a été
reçu au Barreau de l'Ontario en 1996.

Monsieur le juge Gibson a été nommé juge militaire en 2013. Avant sa nomination, il était conseiller juridique
au sein du Bureau du juge-avocat général (JAG) à Ottawa depuis 2003. Il a également été avocat de la défense
pour la Direction du service d'avocats de la défense (JAG) à Hull (2000-2002) et juge-avocat adjoint à la Base
des Forces armées canadiennes à Trenton (1996-2000). Ses principaux domaines de pratique étaient les
poursuites pénales, l'immigration et le droit immobilier, et le droit international.
(source: http://www.justice.gc.ca/fra/nouv-news/nj-ja/2015/doc_33094.html, visité le 8 février 2015).

___________ "Canada has one of the best military justice systems in the world -- The Office of the Judge Advocate General which is responsible for military justice policy, is continually  engaged in a rigorous and transparent examination of all aspects of the military  justice system and is the leading proponent for its continuous improvement", The Hill Times online, 31 October 2011; available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/allied-forces-mil-justice/canada-mj-sys/08_Col_Gibson_Hill_Times_Best_System.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

___________"Canada's Military Justice System", (Spring 2012) 12(2) Canadian Military Journal  61-64; available at  http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no2/61-gibson-eng.asp (accessed on 25 March 2012);
___________"Le système de justice militaire au Canada" (printemps 2012) 12(2) Revue militaire canadienne 61-64; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no2/61-gibson-fra.asp (vérifié le 25 mars 2012);

___________"International Human Rights Law and the Administration of Justice through Military Tribunals Preserving Utility while Precluding Impunity", (Winter 2008) 4(1) Journal of International Law and International Relations 1-48; available at http://www.law.yale.edu/JILIR_International_Tribunals.pdf (accessed on 26 February 2012); also available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/allied-forces-mil-justice/canada-mj-sys/11_Col_Gibson_Intl_Human_Rghts_Law_4JIntlLIntlRel1.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

Source: 45enord.ca/2013/10/premiere-nomination-a-ce-poste-en-six-ans-michael-gibson-devient-juge-militaire/, accessed 12 October 2017
Le colonel Gibson, qui vient d'être nommé juge militaire, en compagnie d'avocats de
plusieurs autre pays, alors qu'il était déployé au Congo comme Juge avocat général (E-Veritas)

___________interview with 14435 Michael Gibson, Deputy JAG, Military Justice, eVERITAS, available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=71856 (accessed on 16 November 2014);

e-veritas: What is the purpose of the Canadian military justice system?

14435 Col Michael Gibson: The Canadian military justice system has two fundamental purposes: to
promote the operational effectiveness of the Canadian Forces by contributing to the maintenance of
discipline, efficiency and morale; and, to contribute to respect for the law and the maintenance of a
just, peaceful and safe society. It thus serves the ends of both discipline and justice. 

Image source: web.archive.org/web/20130522200906/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/index-eng.asp, accessed 9 December 2020

___________"JAG leads proactive military justice oversight, responsible development and positive change -- Michel Drapeau says the Judge Advocate General Office should be broken up, and rebranded.  But his argument does not withstand objective scrutiny",  The Hill Times, 18 March 2013; available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/allied-forces-mil-justice/canada-mj-sys/09_Col_Gibson_Hill_Times_JAG_Proactive.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);

___________Letter to the editor of the Canadian Military Journal on "the creation of a Canadian National Group of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War (ISMLLW), and to share some information with your readers regarding this organization.creation",  Military Law Journal, vol. 12, number 4, p. 7; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no4/page7-eng.asp  (accessed on 8 January 2015); also published in French -- aussi publié en français à  http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no4/page7-fra.asp;  

--------- (source: www.amazon.ca/Military-Justice-Modern-Alison-Duxbury/dp/1107042372, accessed 27 July 2016)
___________"Military Justice in operational settings, in peacekeeping and in situations of transitional justice", Text of Speaker, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, 19th Congress, Quebec City, 2012, available at http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_texts%20of%20speakers.php and http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_textes%20des%20orateurs/02%20Colonel%20Gibson.pdf (accessed on 24 August 2013); also published in Alison Duxbury, Matthew Groves, eds.,  Military Justice in the Modern Age, Cambridge University Press, 2016, 446 p., at chapter 19 at aprox. pp. 381-396, ISBN: 9781107042377;

35A striking Canadian example is the Statement of Defence Ethics, which applies to employees of the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND)
and the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF).  Clause 3.1 provides that 'At all time and in all places, DND employees and CAF members shall uphold Canada's
parliamentary democracy and its institutions by respecting the rule of law'.  See www.forces.gc.ca/en/about/statement-of-defence-ethics.page.
(source footnote 35 at https://books.google.ca/books?id=RFCeDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA384&lpg=PA384&dq=%22military+justice%22+Canada&source=bl&ots=O-dJqRhUPi&sig=hDM_tZdMLRYmr7Qyt0M5WHmVzn8&hl
, at p. 391, accessed 2 October 2016) 

Image source: lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/470321/1/2012-2013+Recueil+Qu%C3%A9bec+Textes+Naert.pdf, accessed 5 June 2016
___________"Military Justice Systems" in Stanislas Horvat and Marco Benatar, eds., L'interopérabilité juridique et la garantie du respect du droit applicable dans le cadre des déploiements multinationaux, Texte du Congrès / Legal Interoperability and Ensuring Observance of the Law Applicable in Multinational Deployments,  Bruxelles: Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre, 2013 (collection; Recueils de la Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre; 19) at pp. 280 to approx. 284; notes:19e Congrès international 19th International Congress ,         s       sQ  UÉBEC   (Canada)     1 - 5 mai/May 2012; available at http://www.academia.edu/3656564/LInteroperabilite_juridique_et_la_garantie_du_respect_du_droit_applicable_dans_le_cadre_des_deploiements_multinationaux_Legal_Interoperability_and_Ensuring_Observance_of_the_Law_Applicable_in_Multinational_Deployments (accessed on 28 February 2014);

Image source: www.mpfpr.de/publications/max-planck-encyclopedia-of-public-international-law/, accessed 5 June 2016
___________"Military Tribunals" in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, volume 7, New York: Oxford University Press, 2013-, online edition; see http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e336?rskey=e5pof5&result=1&q=&prd=EPIL%20%28 (accessed on 27 December 2013);

___________"Military Tribunals", in Frauke Lachenmann and Rüdiger Wolfrum, eds.,  The Law of Armed Conflict and the Use of Force, The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford (U.K.): Oxford University Press, 2017, xxxii, 1427 p. at pp. 732-738  Series; (Max Planck encyclopedia of public international law thematic series; volume 2), ISBN-13: 9780198784623;

___________on Colonel Michael Gibson, see Edwards, Victoria,  "14435 Michael Gibson, Deputy JAG, Military Justice", e veritas, posted by rmcclub on March 4th, 2012, available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=71856 (accessed on 26 March 2012);

___________on Colonel Michael Gibson, see KARI, Shannon, "Appointment of military judge to Superior Court a first", Law Times, 16 February 2015; available at http://www.lawtimesnews.com/201502164491/headline-news/appointment-of-military-judge-to-superior-court-a-first (accessed on 20 November 2015); about the appointment of Colonel Michael Gibson; article not accurate as it omits Colonel Armand Desroches was the first named Judge;

___________on Colonel Michael Gibson, see: SUTTON, Rebecca, "Interview with alumnus Colonel Michael Gibson, Canada's Deputy Judge Advocate General for Military Justice", (March 2013) 6(2)  Rights Review at pp. 3 and 21; available at http://ihrp.law.utoronto.ca/sites/ihrp.law.utoronto.ca/files/PUBLICATIONS/RR_Spring%202013%20Final.PDF (accessed 19 January 2016);

___________published decisions of Justice Michael R. Gibson at https://www.canlii.org/en/on/onsc/#search/type=decision&ccId=onsc&sort=decisionDate&text=Gibson%20%2F2%20%22J.%22&id=%22R.%20v.%22%20OR%20%22v.%20R.%22%20OR%20%22Regina%22%20OR%20%22Rex%22%20OR%20%22HMTQ%22%20OR%20%22The%20Queen%22%20OR%20%22R.%20c.%22%20OR%20%22c.%20R.%22%20OR%20%22la%20reine%22&origType=decision&origCcId=onsc (accessed 18 April 2020);

__________Recipient of the Meritorious Service Medal (Military Division):

[Recipient of the Meritorious Service Medal (Military Division)]

Colonel Michael Richard GIBSON, CD, 6 August 2013

 From February 2010 to June 2013, Colonel Gibson displayed consummate expertise
in criminal law and military justice as the deputy judge advocate general (Military Justice).
He led the sustained effort to advance Bill C-15, the Strengthening Military Justice in the
Defence of Canada Act, a strategic policy that culminated with Royal Assent of the bill
in June 2013. Colonel Gibson’s dedication and leadership have enhanced Canada’s military
justice system and the operational effectiveness of the Canadian Armed Forces.

[Image source: forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/honours-history-medals-chart/meritorious-service-medal.pdf, at p. 90]

Major Michael Gibson
___________ Speakers Corner, "Military legal counsel - There's no life like it", (18-24 October 1999) 10(35) Law Times 6-7; also published in (January-March 2000) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités 8-10;

___________Testimony of Colonel Michael R. Gibson, Deputy Judge Advocate General, Military Justice, on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act,

-- before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 66, 13 February 2013, minutes and evidence;
before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 67, 25 February 2013, minutes and  evidence;
before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 68, 27 February 2013, minutes and  evidence;
before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 69, 4 March 2013minutes  and  evidence;


___________Testimony of Col. Michael R. Gibson, Deputy Judge Advocate General of Military Justice,  on Bill C-16, An Act to amend the National Defence Act (military judges)Bill C-16, a Bill in response "to the recent judgment of the Court Martial Appeal Court in the case of R. v. LeBlanc regarding the constitutionality of the appointment and tenure of military judges";

- before the House of Commons Standing Committee  on National Defence, meeting number 12, 15 November 2011, minutes and evidence;

- before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, issue number 6, 23 November 2011, minutes  and  evidence;

___________Testimony of Col. Michael R. Gibson, Deputy Judge Advocate General of Military Justice,  on Bill C- 425 , An Act to amend the Citizenship Act (Honouring the Canadian Armed Forces) before the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration, on 19 March 2013, see ourcommons.ca/Committees/en/WitnessMeetings?witnessId=178937

Colonel Michael Gibson, 19 March 2013

Victoria Gibson, image source:
theglobeandmail.com/authors/victoria-gibson/, accessed 3 September 2019

GIBSON, Victoria, "Canada must fix loophole that allows peacekeepers avoid prosecution for crimes overseas: Freeland", 30 August 2019, iPOLITICS, available at https://ipolitics.ca/2019/08/30/canada-must-fix-loophole-that-allows-peacekeepers-avoid-prosecution-for-crimes-overseas-freeland/ (accessed 3 October 2019);

Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland says her government needs to find ways to address a loophole that allows
Canadian peacekeepers, military and police personnel to evade domestic prosecution for crimes committed
overseas — but stopped short on Friday of committing to a specific plan.

“The problem you’ve identified is real,” Freeland told reporters at a research funding announcement at the
University of Toronto, stressing that the government needed a framework to deal with offences like sexual
assault alleged to have been committed outside Canada. But she cautioned that the issue was complicated
by issues of extraterritoriality and that finding evidence and witnesses in such cases was “very, very

Jacyln Giffen, image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

GIFFEN, Jacyln, "Pathways to International Law Careers", CCLI Review, 2011/12/16; see Part 2: Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces; available at  http://www.ccil-ccdi.ca/revue-review/2011/12/16/pathways-to-international-law-careers.html (accessed on 18 March 2012);

The process to become a Regular Force (full-time) legal officer is a competitive one.  Each year the legal branch, like other military occupations, is only authorized to enrol
a limited number of applicants.  This is meant to account for attrition, and/or achieve modest growth depending on the manning priorities of the Canadian Forces.  Recent
years have seen an average of five (5) positions made available, but this will vary from one year to the next.  Applications submitted to recruiting centres are processed and
screened on a rolling basis throughout the year, and interview/selection boards are typically held in the spring and fall (if required).

Successful applicants who receive, and accept, an offer of enrolment in the Canadian Forces will then proceed to a 14-week basic training course -- known as Basic Military
Officer Qualification (BMOQ) -- at the Canadian Forces Leadership and Recruit School in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. During this course, candidates cover topics
including general military knowledge, principles of leadership, regulations and customs of the Canadian Forces, basic weapons handling, and first aid. As regular force
officers, candidates will also be required to complete a rigorous physical fitness program. Included in the basic training will be training exercises to apply newly acquired
military skills, such as force protection, field training, navigation and leadership. Successful completion of all components of the BMOQ is required in order to continue
on the road to becoming a CF legal officer.  Following basic training, candidates may be assigned to second language training, depending on individual levels of
proficiency.  Second language training can last anywhere from two to nine months.

Once this initial training period is completed, new legal officers join the Office of the JAG for their first posting.

Chief disciplinarian, MWO Robert Gagnon                 "The discipline side of the program at CFDPDB includes detailed kit maintenance
                                                                                       and layout each day.  Inmate cells ans kit are inspected and points received based on performance."               
GILES, Mark, "CF prison has clear objectives", (April 21 avril 2004) The Maple Leaf--La Feuille d'érable 17; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2015/mdn-dnd/D12-7-7-14.pdf (accessed 15 August 2016); aussi publié en français à la meme page sous le titre "Objectifs clairs au prison des FC";

Image source: www.cprs.ca/saintjohn2011/Mark_Giles.aspx, accessed 26 May 2016
Mark Giles
___________"Military Police Unit Provides Specialized Support  -- National  Defence's major-crimes unit sends clear message", Nov/Dec 2005/ www.frontline-canada.com, at pp. 22-23, available at http://www.frontline-canada.com/Defence/pdfs/05_6_Giles.pdf (accessed on 27 November 2011); about the CFNIS = Canadian Forces National Investigation Service established in 1997;

GILES, T.R., 1918-, Lieutenant-Colonel, legal officer in 1969, see Canadian Forces Officers' List (Regular), 1969, available at  https://navalandmilitarymuseum.org/sites/default/files/pdf/Navy_List_1969_March_400_dpi.pdf (accessed 17 August 2018);

___________on GILES,  T.R., Colonel, appeared for the accused, appellant, in the Court martial Appeal Court of Canada, see Regina v. Weselak, 1972 CanLII 1450 (CMAC), <http://canlii.ca/t/htwl7>  and  (1972) 9 C.C.C. (2d) 193;à

___________on GILES, T.R., was counsel for the Canadian Pension Commission, see Pension Review Commission, Interpretation Decision, PRB I-25, 20 June 1978, available at https://www.vrab-tacra.gc.ca/Decisions/InterDecision-I-25-eng.cfm, accessed 19 June 2020;  

Ritu Gill, image source: https://ca.
accessed on 16 November 2014

GILL, Ritu and Angela Febbraro, "Experiences and Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Forces Combat Arms", (1 February 2013) 19(2) Violence Against Women 269-287;

Recent studies examining sexual harassment in the military indicate a decrease in reports of harassment, which may be attributed to several factors, including zero-tolerance policies or anti-harassment programs. However, the decrease may also be attributed to fears of losing one’s job or of being derogated by colleagues if harassment is reported. This qualitative study of women employed in the Canadian combat arms examined spontaneously shared perceptions and experiences of sexual harassment. Six of the 26 women interviewed shared their experiences or perceptions of harassment, including concerns about potential repercussions of reporting. Implications for gender integration in military organizations are discussed.(source: http://vaw.sagepub.com/content/19/2/269.short, accessed on 6 November 2014);

Richard H. Gimblett, image
source:  Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

GIMBLETT, Richard H., "Dissension in the Ranks", CFB Esquimalt Museum web site, available at  http://www.navalandmilitarymuseum.org/archives/articles/controversies/dissension-the-ranks (accessed 18 March 2018);
In a broader context, the incidents of 1949 were the culmination of a pattern of low-level disobedience that had been practiced in the RCN
since at least the mid-1930's, probably picked-up by sailors who (like their officers) frequently were rotated for training with the Royal Navy.
The messdeck lock-ins were a variation on the civilian sit-down strike, spontaneous displays precipitated by some local event, and undertaken
to alert officers to a problem the sailors believed was within the power of those superiors to correct. Because there existed no officially
sanctioned outlet for collective complaints, officers accepted the lock-in as an unofficial protest. If the men's demands were at all reasonable
(and invariably they were), they were acted upon, promptly and without recrimination. No member of the RCN was ever awarded the
punishment stipulated under King's Regulations for mutiny - death by hanging.

Image source: amazon.com/Naval-Mutinies-Twentieth-Century-International/dp/0714654604

GIMBLETT, Richard H.,  "The Post-war 'incidents' in the Royal Canadian Navy" in Christopher M. Bell and Bruce A. Elleman, eds., Naval mutinies of the twentieth century: an international perspective, London: Portand or Fred Cass., 2003, xii, 288 p., at p. 246 to 263,  ISBN: 0714654604 (cloth); title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (1 January 2012);

___________"What the Mainguy Report Never Told Us : The Tradition of 'Mutiny' in the Royal Canadian Navy Before 1949", (Summer 2000) 1 Canadian Military Journal  87-94;

Marc Gionet, image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014

GIONET, Marc, "Canada the Failed Protector : Transfer of Canadian Captured Detainees to Third Parties in Afghanistan", available at http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/JCS/article/view/15229/20291 (accessed on  22 May 2012); Mr. Gionet is the Director of the Atlantic Human Rights Centre at Saint Thomas University in Fredericton, New Brunswick; now published at (2009) 29 Journal of Conflict Studies 1-14,  available at https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/JCS/article/view/15229/20799 (accessed 24 June 2015); available at https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/jcs/article/view/15229/20291#no53 (accessed 3 April 2017);

GIRARD, Nicole, lawyer and officer with the JAG, see photo of Nicole Girard on flickr by Jim Rycroft available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/xjag/31997830954/in/album-72157623951146254/ (accessed 25 September 2020);

Capc Nicole Girard                                    From the right: Margaret-Ann MacDonald,
Source de l'image: (2006)                          Nicole Girard, and Mrs. Mitchell, Lahr, Federal Republic of Germany,
1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 26       circa 1981-1982 (photo: François Lareau)

GIRARD, Nicole et Nadine Fortin, "Oui, votre honneur!", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 26; notes: also published in Le Valeureux, Journal de l'exercice Pèlerin Valeureux 2005;
GIRARD, Nicole et Nadine Fortin, "Yes, Your Honour!", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 26; notes: également publié dans Le Valeureux, Journal de l'exercice Pèlerin Valeureux 2005;

Image source: https://books.google.ca

GIRARD, Philip, Bora Laskin: Bringing Law to Life, Toronto : Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press, 2005, xvi, 646 p., [24] p. of plates : ill., ports. ; 24 cm. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references and index, ISBN: 0802090443 (bound), 9780802090447 (bound), 9781442626188 (pbk.); see at pp 478-480 about Laskin's dissenting judgment in MacKay v. The Queen; available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=7wvRKd9uR50C&pg=PA479&dq=Canada+%22Judge+advocate+General%22&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=hfcYVe-OHIH2yQSW_4C4BQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Canada%20%22Judge%20advocate%20General%22&f=false (accessed on 30 March 2015);

GIROUARD, René [Arthur] de la Bruere, 1882-1941, Lieutenant-Colonel, see Healy, J.J., "True and Fascinating Canadian History Vet of the Month: June, 2011", available at https://www.rcmpgraves.com/vetcorner/vetmonth-jun11.html (accessed 10 March 2018);

As a child, he moved with his parents to St. Catharines, ON., where he received his early education
at Bishop Ridley's College. At the age of 18 years he received his Commission in the Royal Leicester
Regiment Imperial Forces while stationed in Halifax, NS. Over subsequent years, he would go on to
distinguish himself with many other appointments related to honourable civic and military affairs.

After leaving Halifax, Mr. Girouard transferred to the Royal Canadian Regiment but in 1905, he
left military life entirely with the rank of Captain and he entered the profession of civil engineering.

In 1914, he saw action briefly in France, then he returned to Canada and he organized the 178th French
Canadian Battalion in the Eastern Townships of Québec before taking them overseas in 1917.
En route, he was appointed Officer Commanding aboard the Leviathan. Returning to Canada again,
he was placed in Command of the Depot Branch in Québec and in 1918 he took that Unit overseas
together with the Laval University Unit.

Back in Canada the following year, Mr. Girouard was appointed Warden of St. Vincent de Paul
Penitentiary in Montreal and Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Military District # 5 in Québec.

[Vold and oversized added; Mr. Girouard does not appear do have been a lawyer]

___________on GIROUARD, René de la Bruere, see his Personnel Records of the First World War available at http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/military-heritage/first-world-war/personnel-records/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=419884  and http://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?op=pdf&app=CEF&id=B3569-S020 (accessed 10 March 2019);

___________on GIROUARD, René Arthur de la Breure, see photo and article on him in The Evening Citizen, Ottawa, Fiday, 10 January 1941 at pp. 1 and 12;

[photo at p. 12 of the article,
Retrieved from http://biblioottawalibrary.ca.ezproxy.biblioottawalibrary.ca/
, accessed 30 April 2020]

Brad Gladman, image source: Google Image, accessed on 10 May 2014 

GLADMAN, Brad W. (Brad William), Enabling Appropriate Freedom of Action at the Operational Level: The Legal Authorities for the Conduct of Domestic Operations,  Ottawa: Centre for Operational Research and Analysis, Defence Research and Development Canada, 2006, Technical Memorandum 2006-17);

Image source: https://twitter.com/westdef1/status/486540306465058817, accessed 22 July 2017
___________recent projects of Dr. Brad Gladman, Strategic Analyst,  Cdn Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre (CFAWCRFI@forces.gc.ca):

His recent projects include an analysis of the Use of Force in CF Operations, and the Rules of Engagement framework;
an analysis of the legal authorities for the conduct of domestic operations; and most recently, an analysis of means to
ensure the operational level commands have appropriate inputs into the force development process.
(source: http://jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/112/123, accessed 22 July 2017)

___________"Strenthening the Relationship : NATO Expansion and Canada Command", (Winter 2006-2007) 9(2) Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 1-20; available at http://jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/112/123 (accessed 22 July 2017);

Patrick K. Gleeson, source of photo: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page --accessed 21 March 2014

GLEESON, Patrick K. (Patrick Kevin) (Pat), Biographical Notes on /Notes biographiques sur:

Colonel Patrick Gleeson

Deputy Judge Advocate General/Operations, Canadian Armed Forces Office of the Judge Advocate General
Colonel Gleeson was born in Saint John, New Brunswick. His involvement through secondary school with Air Cadets sparked his interest in a
military career, and upon graduation from high school in 1980 he was accepted into the Regular Officer Training Plan. He attended le Collège
Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean, graduating with a degree in Business Administration in 1985. After graduation he served in Shearwater, Nova
Scotia, and Kingston, Ontario, as an administration officer before entering law school under the Military Legal Training Plan in 1990. He received
his LL.B. from the University of New Brunswick in 1993. Colonel Gleeson completed his articles in Fredericton with the law firm of Hanson and
Hashey and was admitted to the Law Society of New Brunswick in 1994. After spending two years in Halifax, as an assistant Deputy Judge
Advocate and prosecutor, Colonel Gleeson was promoted to Major and posted to Ottawa in 1996, where he gained experience in the fields of
administrative and operational law. He also served as a member of the National Defence Act Amendment Team, developing and implementing
significant reforms to the National Defence Act. In 2000, Colonel Gleeson was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel and assumed the position of
Director of Law Military Justice Policy and Research. He also served as the Special Assistant to the Judge Advocate General prior to being
posted to Montreal as the Assistant Judge Advocate General Eastern Region in 2003. Colonel Gleeson returned to academic studies again in
2004, attending the McGill Institute of Air and Space Law. He completed his LL.M and on his return to Ottawa in 2005, he was promoted to
Colonel. He has since served in a variety of senior leadership positions within the Office of the Judge Advocate General. He was also seconded
to the Department of Justice for an 18 month period, coordinating the legal aspects of a variety of national security related matters on behalf
of the Assistant Deputy Attorney General Public Safety, Defence and Immigration. Colonel Gleeson has had significant involvement in the
development of military justice legislation, leading policy development, instructing on the drafting of legislation and assisting Parliamentarians
in their consideration of legislative reforms in numerous forums, including as a witness before Parliamentary committees. In 2012, Colonel
Gleeson was posted to his current position, Deputy Judge Advocate General/ Operations, where he is responsible for the delivery of operational
legal advice to the CAF at the tactical, operational and Strategic levels. Colonel Gleeson’s operational experience includes deployments to Haiti,
and to Europe where he provided legal advice in support of Royal Canadian Air Force combat operations over the Balkans. He has also acted as
the legal advisor to Joint Task Force 2, the Canadian Forces Counter-Terrorism/Special Operations unit.
(source: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/news-nouv/nr-cp/2013/bio.html, accessed on 8 May 2014)

Colonel Patrick Gleeson
Juge-avocat général adjoint/Opérations, Forces armées canadiennes Cabinet du Juge-avocat général
Le Colonel Gleeson est né à Saint John, Nouveau-Brunswick. Sa participation avec les Cadets de l’air durant sa jeunesse lui a fait découvrir le
milieu militaire et à la fin de son secondaire en 1980, il a été accepté au Programme de formation des officiers de la Force régulière. Il a obtenu
son diplôme en administration des affaires au Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean en 1985. Après avoir gradué, il a occupé le poste d’officier
d’administration du personnel dans les unités et les bases de Shearwater (Nouvelle-Écosse) et de Kingston (Ontario) avant d’être admis en
1990 à la faculté de droit dans le cadre du Programme militaire d’études en droit. Il a reçu son diplôme de l’Université du Nouveau-Brunswick
en 1993. Le Colonel Gleeson a effectué son stage au cabinet d’avocats Hanson and Hashey à Fredericton et a été admis au Barreau du Nouveau-
Brunswick en 1994. Au cours des deux années qui ont suivi, il a travaillé en tant que juge-avocat adjoint et procureur à Halifax. En 1996, le
Colonel Gleeson a obtenu le grade de major et il a été transféré à Ottawa. Cela lui a permis d’acquérir de l’expérience en droit administratif et
des opérations. Il a également fait partie de l’équipe de révision de la Loi sur la défense nationale chargée d’élaborer et de mettre en place
d’importantes modifications à la Loi sur la défense nationale. En 2000, le Colonel Gleeson a été promu au grade de lieutenant-colonel et nommé
directeur juridique – Justice militaire, politique et recherche. Il était également l’adjoint spécial du Juge-avocat général avant d’être muté à Montréal,
en 2003, afin d’occuper le poste de juge-avocat général adjoint de la région de l’Est. En 2004, le Colonel Gleeson est retourné à nouveau aux études
à l’Institut de droit aérien et spatial de l’Université McGill. Il a terminé sa maîtrise en droit l’année suivante. Il est revenu à Ottawa en 2005 où il a
alors obtenu le grade de colonel. Depuis, il a occupé divers postes de direction supérieure au Cabinet du Juge-avocat général. Il a également travailler
au ministère de la Justice durant 18 mois afin de coordonner les aspects juridiques de diverses questions liées à la sécurité nationale, au nom de
l’assistant du juge-avocat général de la Sécurité publique, de la Défense et de l’Immigration. Le Colonel Gleeson a grandement contribué à
l’élaboration de la législation du droit militaire, en plus de diriger l’établissement de la politique principale, d’informer sur la rédaction des lois
et des règlements, d’aider les parlementaires dans leur prise en considération des réformes législatives lors de divers forums de discussion et
d’agir en tant que témoin devant les commissions parlementaires.  En 2012, le colonel Gleeson a été muté au poste de Juge-avocat général adjoint/
Opérations. À ce titre, le colonel Gleeson est responsable de l'offre des avis juridiques sur les opérations aux FAC, aux niveaux tactiques, opérationnels
et stratégiques. L’expérience opérationnelle du Colonel Gleeson inclut des missions en Haïti et en Europe. Il donnait des conseils juridiques en appui
aux opérations de combat de l’Aviation royale canadienne au dessus des Balkans. Il a également été conseiller juridique de la Force opérationnelle
 interarmées 2, l’unité des opérations spéciales et anti-terroristes des Forces canadienne.
 (source: http://www.justice.gc.ca/fra/nouv-news/cp-nr/2013/bio.html, site visité le 8 mai 2014)

__________ Biographical Notes on -- "Federal Court Judicial Appointment Announced" / Notes biographiques sur -- "Nomination à la magistrature de la cour fédérale":

May 29, 2015 – Ottawa, ON – Department of Justice.

The Honourable Peter MacKay, P.C., Q.C., M.P. for Central Nova, Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, today announced the
following appointment:

The Honourable Patrick K. Gleeson, a recently retired Canadian Forces legal advisor in Ottawa, is appointed a judge of the Federal Court to
fill a new position created by Bill C-11.

Mr. Justice Gleeson received a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from the University of Sherbrooke in 1985. He received a Bachelor
of Laws (Distinction) degree from the University of New Brunswick in 1993 and a Master of Laws (Honours) from the McGill University
Institute of Air and Space Law in 2005. He was appointed Queen’s Counsel in 2013.

After being admitted to the Bar of New Brunswick in 1994, he joined the Office of the Assistant Judge Advocate General in Halifax as a legal
advisor and worked in different directorates until 2000. He then became the Director of Legal Services, Office of the Judge Advocate General,
where from 2005 he served as the Senior Legal Advisor. He is involved in youth programs in the community such as scouting, hockey and school

This appointment is effective immediately.
 (source: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=981979&_ga=1.223327003.1072825899.1400532923, accessed 3 June 2015)


Le 29 mai 2015 – Ottawa (Ontario) – Ministère de la Justice Canada

L’honorable Peter MacKay, C.P., c.r., député de Nova-Centre, ministre de la Justice et procureur général du Canada, a annoncé aujourd’hui la
nomination suivante :

L’honorable Patrick K. Gleeson, un conseiller juridique à la retraite depuis peu des Forces armées canadiennes à Ottawa, est nommé juge de la
Cour fédérale pour combler un nouveau poste créé dans le cadre du projet de loi C-11.

Monsieur le juge Gleeson a obtenu un baccalauréat en administration des affaires de l’Université de Sherbrooke en 1985. Il a obtenu un baccalauréat
en droit (avec distinction) de l’Université du Nouveau-Brunswick en 1993 et une maîtrise en droit (avec spécialisation) de l’Institut de droit aérien et
spatial de l’Université McGill en 2005. Il a été nommé conseiller de la reine en 2013.

Après avoir été reçu au Barreau du Nouveau-Brunswick en 1994, il s’est joint au Bureau de l’assistant juge-avocat général à Halifax à titre de conseiller
juridique et a travaillé dans différentes directions jusqu’en 2000. Il est ensuite devenu directeur des Services juridiques, Bureau du juge-avocat général,
et y était le conseiller juridique principal depuis 2005. Il s’implique dans les programmes communautaires pour les jeunes, tels que les Scouts, le hockey
et les programmes scolaires.

Cette nomination entre en vigueur immédiatement.
(source: http://nouvelles.gc.ca/web/article-fr.do?nid=981979&_ga=1.268344334.1072825899.1400532923, visité 3 juin 2015)

image source: cas-cdc-www02.cas-satj.gc.ca/portal/page/portal/fc_cf_en/CoatofArms, accessed 18 March 2018

___________"Biographical notes; available at http://cas-cdc-www02.cas-satj.gc.ca/portal/page/portal/fc_cf_en/Bio/Gleeson (accessed 18 March 2018);

The Honourable Patrick K. Gleeson

Mr. Justice Gleeson was born in Saint John, New Brunswick. He enrolled in the Canadian Forces in 1980. He was educated at le
Collège Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean, the University of New Brunswick and the McGill Institute of Air and Space Law. Mr.
Justice Gleeson was called to the New Brunswick Bar in 1994. He served as a legal officer in the Office of the Judge Advocate
General where he held numerous positions, retiring in the rank of Colonel.He was appointed to the Order of Military Merit in
2012 and named Queen’s Counsel in 2013. Appointed Justice of the Federal Court and ex officio, member of the Federal Court
of Appeal on May 28, 2015. Appointed as a Judge of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada on June 19, 2015. Address:
Federal Court, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H9.

[source: available at http://cas-cdc-www02.cas-satj.gc.ca/portal/page/portal/fc_cf_en/Bio/Gleeson,
accessed 18 March 2018]

Image source: http://www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca/en/article-template-standard.page?doc=legal-officer-receives-rare-honour/htqxhuxo, accessed 12 October 2015
"From left to right: The Minister of National Defence, Rob Nicholson, Colonel Pat Gleeson, and the Minister of Justice, Peter MacKay, at the Queen’s Counsel appointment ceremony. PHOTO: Department of Justice"

___________"Expert Consultation on the Administration of Justice through Military Tribunals Subject Matter Jurisdiction of Military Courts Remarks", Conference Room XIX, Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, 24 November 2014, 8 p., available at https://www.idmarch.org/document/%22canadian+military+law%22/KSJb-show/Expert+Consultation+on+the+Administration+of+Justice+through+Military+Tribunals+++Subject+Matter+Jurisdiction+of+Military+Courts+Remarks+by+Mr.+Patrick+Gleeson++Monday%2C+24+November+2014 (accessed 22 February 2015); also available at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/AdministrationJustice/Pages/ExpertConsultationonAdministrationofJusticeNovember2014.aspx (accessed 25 November 2015); also available at https://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=/Documents/Issues/AdministrationJustice/Consultation2014/PatrickGleeson.docx&action=default&DefaultItemOpen=1 (accessed 1 August 2019);

___________ Legal Aspects of the use of force in space, LL.M. thesis, McGill University, 2005, xi, 128 leaves; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/QMM/TC-QMM-99137.pdf and http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/-?func=dbin-jump-full&amp;_current_base=GEN01&amp;object_id=99137 (accessed on 6 December 2011);  abstract  in (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 75; sommaire à  (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 75;

___________"Legal Officer Receives Rare Honour", (May 2014) 18(5) The Maple Leaf  7; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/mdn-dnd/D12-7-17-5-eng.pdf (accessed 7 January 2016);

___________"Military lawyer honoured among federal Queen's Counsel recipients who have demonstrated exemplary service", Government of canada, News Release, Date modified:

Federal Court orders lobbying commish to reconsider Aga Khan decision", ipolitics, 16 April 2019, available at https://ipolitics.ca/2019/04/16/federal-court-orders-lobbying-commish-to-reconsider-aga-khan-decision/ (accessed 28 April 2019);

Ottawa appeals court ruling that ordered fresh look at Aga Khan-Trudeau episode", The Canadian Press, 26 April 2019, available at https://www.nsnews.com/ottawa-appeals-court-ruling-that-ordered-fresh-look-at-aga-khan-trudeau-episode-1.23804075 (accessed 28 April 2019);

___________on his important judgment in Sections 12 and 21 of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act, RSC 1985, c C-23 (Re), 2020 FC 616 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/j8mjx>:

"Statement by the Honourable David McGuinty, Chair of the National Security and Intelligence Committee of Parliamentarians on the recent decision of the Federal Court", 17 July 2020,
available at https://www.nsicop-cpsnr.ca/press-releases/pr-cp-2020-07-17/pr-cp-2020-07-17-en.html  (accessed 3 August 2020);

Ottawa, July 17, 2020 — The Federal Court released a decision on CSIS warrant application
proceedings and recommended that an independent review be conducted into a number of systemic
issues. In response, the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness and the Minister of
Justice and Attorney General of Canada have referred the matter to the National Security and
Intelligence Review Agency (NSIRA). The Ministers requested that NSIRA regularly report on
its progress to the National Security and Intelligence Committee of Parliamentarians (NSICOP).
The Chair of NSICOP, the Hon. David McGuinty, issued the following statement:

“The Committee has taken note of the very troubling issues raised in the decision by the Federal
Court. The Committee agrees that NSIRA, as the successor to the Security Intelligence Review
Committee (SIRC), with its broad mandate and authorities is well-positioned to examine these
important matters”. Mr. McGuinty added that “our Committee looks forward to hearing from
NSIRA with respect to the terms of reference of its review, and regularly thereafter as its work

Mr. McGuinty has assured Mr. Murray Rankin, Chair of NSIRA, of the full cooperation of NSICOP.
The Committee will be particularly interested in any findings and conclusions with respect to the
provision of legal advice on national security and intelligence issues by the Department of Justice.
In 2019, NSICOP examined a similar issue in its Special Report on the Collection, Use, Retention
and Dissemination of Information on Canadians in the context of the Department of National
Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces Defence Intelligence Activities. Pursuant to that review,
the Committee referred the matter to the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, as
required under s. 31(1) of the NSICOP Act. The Special Report was tabled in Parliament on
March 12, 2020.

The NSICOP and the National Security and Intelligence Review Agency (NSIRA) must take all
reasonable steps to cooperate with each other to avoid any unnecessary duplication of work in the
fulfillment of their respective mandates. The two review bodies may also share information withà
each other, in conformity with their respective right of access to information.

NSICOP members hold the highest level of security clearance, are bound by the
Security of Information Act and meet in private.

- see article by Jim Bronskill, "Judge calls for review after CSIS fails to flag info likely obtained illegally", The Canadian Press, 16 July 2020,
available at https://www.680news.com/2020/07/16/csis-review/, accessed 3 August 2020;

- see Episode 125: Being Candid on the Duty of Candour (A quick take on the Federal Court Decision)

On 16 July the Federal Court released a long rumoured decision on CSIS operations. While many of the
legal issues raised in the case have been resolved as a result of Bill C-59, the decision noted a number of
other issues that raise questions about relations between the Service, the Federal Court and the Department
of Justice. The Intrepid Gang discuss what happened and why, why CSIS officers need some kind of
immunity (and bemoan that it took so long to get it), the duty of candor and some of our early big picture
take-aways. This is a topic to which we will certainly return to in the future.

Please note, on the same day it was announced that in response to the decision, the Justice and Public
Safety Ministers asked NSIRA to conduct a review of both Justice Canada and CSIS Canada to be
conducted by former Supreme Court Justice Marie Deschamps and Professor Craig Forcese. Although
a founding member of Intrepid, Craig Forcese has entirely recused himself from any commentary,
discussion, or observations in relation to this issue at this time and was in no way involved in the
production of this podcast. (Blame all mistakes on Stephanie)

- article by Jim Bronskill, "Excessive secrecy, inadequate training at CSIS among issues flagged by federal review", Global News, 13 October 2020; available at , accessed 16 October 2020;

__________"Perspectives on Space Operations" (2007) 5(2) Astropolitics 145-172; title noted in my research but article not consulted (3 July 2016);

__________Photo (detail) of The Honourable Patrick K. Gleeson with others:

On November 22, 2017, students attended a Court hearing before Justice Patrick Gleeson
held at the University of Calgary’s Law Faculty, followed by a question & answer session.

source:  https://twitter.com/FedCourt_CAN_en/status/935588653652430848/photo/1, accessed 4 May 2020
Note: this a detail of the photo

___________"Renewal -- are we done?" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3 and 7; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Le renouvellement de la Loi et ses conséquences" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3; disponible http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (site visité le 18 avril 2012;

___________Testimony of Colonel P.K. Gleeson, Deputy Judge Advocate General/Operations (DJAG/OPS), Office of the Judge Advocate General before the Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, to which was referred Bill S-10, An Act to implement the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Issue 14 - Evidence - Meeting of October 4, 2012, available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/411%5CAEFA/14EVB-49716-e.HTM (accessed 14 December 2016); see also https://sencanada.ca/en/Content/Sen/Committee/411/AEFA/14mn-49716-e (accessed 10 March 2019);

Photostill of Colonel Patrick Gleeson testifying before the Standing
Committee on on 4 October 2012 (at 17:52/1:23:30).

___________Testimony before the Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Issue 14 - Evidence - Meeting of October 4, 2012, available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/411%5CAEFA/14EVB-49716-e.HTM (accessed 14 December 2016);  CPAC video of the Committee hearing available at https://www.cpac.ca/en/programs/in-committee-from-the-senate-of-canada/episodes/20163840/ (accessed 27 October 2020);

GLOBAL SEMINAR ON MILITARY JUSTICE REFORM, October 18-19, 2013, Yale Law School, Summary Report, 18 p., available at  http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/public/docs/Public_Comment_Unrelated/06-Dec-13/04_GlobSeminar_MJReform_2013_Report.pdf (accessed on 28 October 2014);

GLOBE AND MAIL, THE, "Ask Hellyer to probe report of 1945 trial, killing of 2 Germans", The Globe and Mail (1936-Current), ISSN 0319-0714, 10/06/1966, p. 1; note: "By Special to the Globe and Mail;

OTTAWA--Defense Minister Paul Hellyer has been urged to investigate allegations in the German magazine Der Spiegel
that a Canadian general and other Canadian... (source: http://queensu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.cmd=nextPage%28%29&s.
light=t&s.pn=5&s.q=%22canadian+military+law%22, accessed 15 October 2015)

___________"Murder, Assault Charges Face 3 Korea PPCLI", The Globe and Mail (1936-Current), 08/03/1951, p. 3;

Ottawa, Aug. 2 (CP).-- Three Canadian soldiers face murder and assault charges arising from the death of a Korean man,
the army announced today. The assault... (source: http://queensu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.cmd=nextPage%28%29&s.
light=t&s.pn=5&s.q=%22canadian+military+law%22, accessed 15 October 2015)

___________"Somalia inquiry lawyer removed: chairman cites conflict of interest (Kim Carter)", The Globe and Mail (Index-only), May 15, 1996, p.A4, source: and http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=36&frbg=&indx=351&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=letourneau%20somalia&dstmp=1468164973425 (accessed 10 July 2016); the military lawyer is Kim Carter who retired later as a Colonel; she was a military judge; see infra, under Carter, Kim;

GLOBE EDITORIAL, "Globe editorial: Military suicides: Time to help the soldiers who helped us", The Globe and Mail, 23 November 2016, available at  (accessed 25 November 2016);


"L’adjudant André Gagnon et l’avocat de la défense, major Philippe-Luc Boutin. (Nicolas Laffont/45eNord.ca)"

GODBOUT, Jacques N., "Agression sexuelle contre l’ex caporale Raymond: l’acquittement de l’adjudant Gagnon annulé",  45e Nord.CA, 1er février 2018 disponible à  http://www.45enord.ca/2018/02/justice-militaire-affaire-stephanie-raymond-adudant-andre-gagnon-porte-ouverte-vers-cour-supreme/ (consulté le 3 janvier 2018);

___________"Affaire Stéphanie Raymond: une porte ouverte vers la Cour suprême",  45e Nord.CA, 3 février 2018 disponible à  http://www.45enord.ca/2018/02/justice-militaire-affaire-stephanie-raymond-adudant-andre-gagnon-porte-ouverte-vers-cour-supreme/ (consulté le 3 janvier 2018);

__________ "Dans l’affaire Stéphanie Raymond, l’appel de l’acquittement de l’adjudant Gagnon enfin entendu en septembre",  45e Nord.CA, 19 juin 2017 disponible à  http://www.45enord.ca/2017/06/dans-laffaire-stephanie-raymond-lappel-de-lacquittement-de-ladjudant-gagnon-enfin-entendu-en-septembre/ (consulté le 21 juin 2017);

___________ "Fin de l'enquête sur les accusations d'avoir fermé les yeux sur les abus sexuels des forces afghanes", 45e Nord.CA, 12 avril 2016 disponible à  http://www.45enord.ca/2016/04/fin-de-lenquete-sur-les-accusations-davoir-ferme-les-yeux-sur-les-abus-sexuels-des-forces-afghanes/ (16 avril 2016);

___________"Justice: réaffirmation éclatante de «l’exception militaire» par la Cour suprême aujourd’hui", 45e Nord.CA, 26 juillet 2019, disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2019/07/cour-supreme-sauve-systeme-justice-militaire-beaudry/  (27 juillet2019);


"Même atteint de SSPT, l’adjudant Howard Richmond est déclaré             Joseph Addeman, avocat de la défense (source: globalnews.ca/
coupable du meurtre «prémédité» de sa femme, poignardée à mort en       video/1748544/ottawas-gang-war-getting-more-violent-still-escalating-says-lawyer
juillet 2013. (photo tirée de Facebook)"                                                       (accessed 9 August 2017).

___________"Même atteint de SSPT, l’adjudant Howard Richmond est déclaré coupable du meurtre «prémédité» de sa femme",  45e Nord.CA, 26 novembre 2015 disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2015/11/meme-atteint-de-sspt-ladjudant-howard-richmond-est-declare-coupable-du-meurtre-premedite-de-sa-femme/   (9 August 2017);

Même s’il souffre du syndrome de stress post-traumatique, l’adjudant Howard Richmond a été déclaré coupable de meurtre
prémédité de sa conjointe cet après-midi au terme d’un procès devant juge et jury en Cour supérieure de l’Ontario à Ottawa
après neuf jours de délibérations.


Bien qu’il ait admis qu’il avait tué sa femme dès le début de son procès, il avait plaidé non coupable, son avocat Me Joe
Adelman [sic--Joseph Addelman], mettant son geste sur le compte de son état de stress post-traumatique. L’avocat de la défense soutenait que
l’accusé ne pouvait avoir l’intention de tuer sa femme, puisqu’il avait perdu le sens de la réalité la nuit des événement.

On remarquera le JAG, Blaise Cathcart, rangée de gauche, 1er au fond.

___________"Le ministre chinois de la Défense, Chang Wanquan, signe un accord de coopération avec le Canada",  45e Nord.CA, , disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2013/08/le-ministre-chinois-de-la-defense-chang-wanquan-signe-un-accord-de-cooperation-avec-le-canada/ (29 juin 2017);

__________"Ottawa annonce un pas dans la voie de la réforme du système de justice militaire", 45e Nord.CA, 16 juin 2015, disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2015/06/ottawa-annonce-un-pas-dans-la-voie-de-la-reforme-du-systeme-de-justice-militaire/ (visité 28 novembre 2015);

"Le colonel Gibson, qui vient d'être nommé juge militaire, en compagnie d'avocat de
 plusieurs autre pays, alors qu'il était déployé au Congo comme Juge avocat général (E-Veritas)"

___________"Première nomination à ce poste en six ans, Michael Gibson devient juge militaire", 45e Nord.CA, 5 October 2013, disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2013/10/premiere-nomination-a-ce-poste-en-six-ans-michael-gibson-devient-juge-militaire/ (visité 28 novembre 2015);

__________ "La reine Élizabeth II colonel en chef de la Branche des services juridiques des Forces canadiennes", 45e Nord.CA, 3 juin 2013, disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2013/06/la-reine-elizabeth-ii-colonel-en-chef-de-la-branche-des-services-juridiques-des-forces-canadiennes/ (vérifié le 8 mai 2014);

Sa Majesté la reine Élisabeth II a «gentiment» accepté de devenir le premier colonel en chef de la Branche des services juridiques des Forces canadiennes, annonce aujourd’hui un communiqué de la Défense nationale à Ottawa.

Cette nomination, annoncée le lendemain du 60e anniversaire du couronnement de Sa Majesté à l’abbaye de Westminster constitue, dit le ministère canadien de la Défense « une illustration hautement symbolique du serment qu’a prêté la reine lors de son couronnement. Elle y promettait notamment d’user de ses pouvoirs avec clémence pour établir le droit et la justice dans tous ses jugements tout au long de son règne.»

Jacques N. Godbout,
 source de l'image: https://www.45enord.ca/2015/11/traitements-de-detenus-afghans-par-la-police-militaire-declenchement-dune-enquete-dinteret-public/, visité le 11 novembre 2015
___________"Traitements de détenus adghans par la police militaire: déclenchement d'une enquête d'intérêt public", 45e Nord.CA, 5 novembre 2015, disponible à  http://www.45enord.ca/2015/11/traitements-de-detenus-afghans-par-la-police-militaire-declenchement-dune-enquete-dinteret-public/  (vérifié le 11 novembre2014);

Source de l'image: https://twitter.com/godbouma (vérifié 17 juin 2016)
Marc Godbout

GODBOUT, Marc, "Politique--Détenus afghans : des membres de la Police militaire accusent leurs dirigeants d'entraver l'enquête", 

  Imge source: Amazon.ca, accessed on 10 May 2014

GODEFROY, Andrew B., 1972-, For Freedom and Honour?  The Story of the 25 Canadian Volunteers Executed in the First World War, Nepean (Ontario): CEF Books, 1998, x, 95 p., ISBN: 189697922X;

1. Fear God and honour the King
2. Courts-martial in the field
3. Murder and cowardice
4. The watershed, 1916
5. Deserting His Majesty's Service, 1917
6. Shot like a dog
7. Repeat offenders, 1918
8. Pour encourager les autres
 Epilogue: Forgotten men.
" (source: Canadian Forces Military College Catalogue IRC Web site)

Image source: imjm.ca/location/1772, accessed 8 April 2018
Samuel Godinsky

GODINSKY, Samuel, former member of the OJAG, obituary, The Gazette, Montreal, 18 October 2007, p. B7;

Godinsky, Samuel OBITUARY SAMUEL GODINSKY Died peacefully at home on October 15, 2007 at the age of one hundred and one, after a
wonderful and full life. Beloved husband of the late Vera Raphael Godinsky, cherished father of John, Paul and Jeffrey Godine, and cherished
father-in-law of Frances and Sarala, loved grandfather of Joshua and Laura, Shannon and Dustin, devoted brother of (all late) Kate Colle,
Isadore Godine and Pearl Eidinger. He served as an Acting Judge Advocate General in the RCAF during WWII. He then returned to his law
practice, becoming one of the first and most respected experts in intellectual property law in Montreal. He served the YMHA, including as
President. He helped to negotiate an end to the policy of religion-based restriction on membership of the Protestant School Board of Greater
Montreal, and then became one of the Board's first five Jewish members. Celebration of his life at the Mount Royal Funeral Complex, on
1297 Chemin de la Foret, in Outremont, on Wednesday, October 17 at 2 p.m. The family will be at his home from 7 to 9 p.m. on Wednesday,
October 17 and Thursday, October 18. In lieu of flowers, the family would prefer that contributions in his memory be sent to McGill
University's Faculty of Law, at McGill University, 1430 Peel St., Montreal, QC, H3A 3T3. logo Published in the Montreal Gazette from
10/17/2007 - 10/18/ 2007. Notice - Guest Book

Ian Goertz
GOERTZ, Ian, "NATO in Cyberspace -- How important is the Tallinn Manual 2.0?", Nato Association of Canada web site, available at http://natocouncil.ca/nato-in-cyberspace-how-important-is-the-tallinn-manual-2-0/ (accessed on 16 October 2015)

Image source: mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/info/pubs/annRpt/2016annRpt-eng.aspx?=undefined&wbdisable=true#H_17, accessed 8 July 2017
"From left to right – David Goetz (Senior Counsel), Julianne Dunbar (General
Counsel), Hilary McCormack (Chairperson), BGen Robert Delaney (CFPM),
LCol Brian Frei (Deputy Commander) and Cdr Peter Killaby (