Canadian Military Law -- Part II
Bibliography A to B /
Droit militaire canadien -- Partie II
Bibliographie A à B
sites on Canadian military law
Part II -- Bibliography: A-B--C-D--E-G--H-L--M-R--S-Z
I -- Canadian Military Law --
Inquiry & Government Reaction
- 1995-1997: Somalia Inquiry
- Departmental Reaction to Somalia Inquiry
- Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services
January 1997 to July 1997
- The Special Senate Committee on the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia (April 1997)
- The SReport to the Prime Minister on the Leadership and Management of the Canadian Forces (March 1997)
- Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change in the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces (October 1997 to 1999)
- Bill C-25--An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
(Royal Assent, 10 December 1998)
- 2003 -- Five Year Review of Bill C-25
- 2011 -- Second Five Year Review of Bill C-25
Bills 1999-2012 on National Defence Act
Affairs -- Sexual Misconduct
Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-2017
& DND Web Sites
Regulations and Orders
- Superseded Legislation
Sites of Interest
Bibliography A to
Bibliographie A à B
45E NORD.CA, "Parcourir
Justice/Enquête: Tous les articles concernant les affaires
judiciaires touchant les Forces armées canadiennes. Actuel
grand prévôt: brigadier-général Rob Delaney", disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/category/forces-canadiennes-2/justiceenquete/
(vérifié le 1er janvier 2017)
Image source: in the article
"15519 Captain Sandra S Macleod (Hawes) (RMC 1986)",
everitas, posted by rmcclub, 14 April 2009, available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?m=20090%2Fes_search%2F--&paged=37
(accessed 1 May 2016);
Where do you work? Chilly Beach Studios March Entertainment, Sudbury, ON and part-time as a legal officer with the Office of Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces (International law)
I originally chose the Royal Military College because of the Regular Officer Training Program (ROTP) with the Canadian Forces. Under this program, they paid me to study. It was a great program
which I highly recommend other students to consider.
If your schooling or work was away from your family, what was/is this like? I did two tours with the Canadian Forces away from my family (Bosnia and the Persian Gulf). During Canada’s response
to the 9/11 attacks, I was away from my family for 7 months. It was difficult but we all survived. As I was starting to be away from my family (more and more), this eventually contributed to my decision to take the job here in Sudbury.
[additional research note: the above image of LCdr Macleod also made the front cover of the JAG Les actualités --Newsletter, Volume 1 --2004]:
"204.01.01 Military Justice Review", available at http://www.scribd.com/doc/40085317/204-01-01-Military-Justice-Review
(accessed on 5 May 2012);
"2011 Military Law Conference", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx
(accessed on 30
"Conférence 2011 en droit militaire", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx et http://www.cba.org/pd/details_fr.aspx?id=NA_MIL11 (site visité le 30 avril 2012);
source de l'image: link.library.utoronto.ca/broadsides/digobject.cfm?Idno=CAP08005&Page=0001&Size=4&query=CAP08005&searchtype=Fulltext&strategy=all&lang=all&sort=title&refine=no&photo=on&startrow=1&transcript=off
Les pères de la Confédération avaient compris qu'en demandant à l'Angleterre des libertés plus grandes que celles que les Canadiens
possédaient sous l'Union, ils devaient aussi accepter de plus grandes obligations et en premier lieu celle de pourvoir à la défense
de leur pays en organisant un service militaire pour la protection des intérêts territoriaux et UN SERVICE NAVAL pour la protection
des intérêts maritimes. La première session du premier parlement canadien fut tenue en 1868 et l'une des premières lois qui y furent adoptées fut la suivante : "ACTE CONCERNANT LA MILICE ET LA DÉFENSE DU CANADA." Cette loi fut sanctionnée le 22 mai 1868. Comme on le verra par les citations qui sont faites ci-après, cette loi respectait les prescriptions de l'article 15 de notre constitution
en attribuant au Roi régnant le commandement en chef des milices de terre ET DE MER et de toutes les forces militaires et NAVALES en Canada. Elle décrétait qu'il y aurait un ministre de la milice et de la défense auquel serait attribué la responsabilité et [l'administration des affaires du ressort de la milice, des fortifications des CHALOUPES CANONNIÈRES et des équipages de guerre appartenant au Canada. Elle décrétait de plus que la milice se composerait de tous les habitants mâles du Canada âgés de 18 ans et plus et de moins de 60 ans. Cette loi divisait la milice en MILICE ACTIVE et la MILICE de RÉSERVE. LA MILICE ACTIVE devait se composer de LA MILICE VOLONTAIRE et de LA MILICE RÉGULIÈRE. La milice régulière était celle que l'on pouvait obliger au service. LA MILICE ACTIVE COMPRENAIT AUSSI LA MILICE NAVALE QUI ÉTAIT COMPOSÉE DE MARINS, MATELOTS ET PERSONNES ORDINAIREMENT EMPLOYÉES SUR LES EMBARCATIONS A VOILES OU A VAPEUR NAVIGUANT DANS LES EAUX DE LA PUISSANCE. Dans le cas où on avait besoin de soldats pour l'armée de terre ou de MARINS pour l' ARMÉE NAVALE, si les volontaires ne venaient pas offrir leurs services en-nombre suffisant, la loi décrétait que le recrutement se ferait par le TIRAGE AU SORT. Tous ceux qui faisaient partie de la milice MILITAIRE ET NAVALE (c'est-à-dire tous les hommes de plus de 18 ans et de moins de 60 ans) pouvaient être appelés au TIRAGE AU SORT. C'était le service OBLIGATOIRE auquel tout homme de 18 à 60 pouvait être astreint. 10 La milice militaire et la MILICE NAVALE pouvaient être appelées en service actif par SA MAJESTÉ, le ROI ou la Reine. Voici ce que disait l'article 61 du statut : " SA MAJESTÉ pourra appeler, en tout ou en partie, la milice au service actif, dans ou hors la Puissance, lorsque la chose sera en aucun temps jugée à propos " Cette loi subit en 1883 quelques modifications de détail, et elle fut reproduite dans les statuts du Canada de 1886 sous le chapitre 41. Cette loi de 1886 RESTA EN VIGUEUR JUQU'EN 1904 pour ce qui s'appliquait à LA MILICE DE TERRE et elle resta en vigueur jusqu'au 4 mai 1910 pour tout ce qui concernait LA MILICE ET LES FORCES NAVALES. A l'appui de ce que nous venons d'affirmer, nous citons l'article 136 de la loi 4 Edouard VII, chap. 23, et l'article 63 de la loi 9 et 10 Edouard VII, chap. 43. " 4 Edouard VII, Chap. 23, Sect. 136 LES ACTES SUIVANTS du Parlement du Canada SONT ABROGÉS en ce QU'ILS CONCERNENT LES TROUPES DE TERRE DE LA MILICE ACTIVE OU DE RÉSERVE, savoir le Chap. 41 des Statuts Revisés, intitulé : " Acte concernant la Milice et la Défense du Canada " " 9-10 Ed. VII, Chap. 43, Sect. 53, EST ABROGÉ LE CHAPITRE 41 DES STATUTS REVISÉ8, 1886, intitulé : "Loi concernant la Milice et la Défense du Canada" EN CE QUI CONCERNE LES FORCES NAVALES DE LA MILICE ACTIVE ET DE RÉSERVE.
[extrait pp. 9-10]
Kirby Abbott (right) with Marc Philippe in Somalia, photo reproduced from McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, infra., at p. 156.
ABBOTT, Donald Kirby, "Persons Protected by the IHL in International Armed Conflicts : the Law and Current Conflicts" in Proceedings of the Bruges Colloquium -- Scope and Applicability of International Humanitarian Law, 13th Bruges Coloquium, 18-19 October 2012, Collegium, number 43, Autumn 2013, at pp. 47-58, available at https://www.coleurope.eu/sites/default/files/uploads/page/collegium_43_webversie.pdf (accessed on 3 November 2014);
Abbott, image source: https://www.linkedin.com/pub/kirby-abbott/a1/974/89a?trk=pub-pbmap,
accessed 15 March 2015
___________Mr. Kirby Abbott is also a contributor to the following book: Andrew Carswell, editor, and ICRC, Handbook on international rules governing military operations, Geneva : ICRC, 2013, 459 p. at p. 11 (for the list of contributors), 23 cm (Collection; Reference), ISBN: 9782940396320; Andrew Carswell is a former JAG member; available at https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/publications/icrc-002-0431.pdf (accessed on 2 March 2015);
Image source: http://www.mafhq.mil.my/mpc/index.php/en/joomla-pages-iii/categories-list/36-artikel-visit?start=10 (accessed 1 January 2015)
Kirby Abbott, the Armed and Security Forces Delegate, ICRC,
with the Malaysian Peacekeeping Centre's Commandant on 7 January 2015.
___________notes on Mr. Kirby Abbott:
International Committee of the Red Cross - ICRC-Armed Forces Delegate For South East Asia and the Pacific.
Retired as a Colonel in the Canadian Forces' Office of the Judge Advocate General, and a former Assistant Legal Advisor at NATO Military Headquarters after 25 years of service. Focused on operational and strategic legal advice relating to all aspects of use of force issues (training, planning, execution, post op inquiries/litigation) and strategic legal engagement.
The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Master of Laws (LL.M.) (distinction, Lauterpacht prize in public international program 2000-2001 (source: https://www.linkedin.com/pub/kirby-abbott/a1/974/89a?trk=pub-pbmap, accessed 15 March 2015).
_____________"Terrorists: Criminals, Combatants or ...? The Question of Combatancy", in Canadian Council on International Law, The measures of International Law, Effectiveness, Fairness and Validity, 2004, Proceedings of the annual conference - Canadian Council on International Law: Travaux du congrès annuel - Conseil canadien de droit international Travaux du congrès annuel - Conseil canadien de droit international, Ottawa : Canadian Council on International Law, 2004, at p. 336-385; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (21 January 2012); other reference: "Abbott, Kirby, Lieutenant-Colonel. "'Terrorists: Criminals, Combatants Or .... ?' The Question of Combatancy (Panel D-2)." In The Measure of International Law: Effectiveness, Fairness and Validity - Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Council on International Law, Ottawa, October 24-26, 2002 edited by Canadian Council on International Law, New York: Kluwer Law International, 2004 366-85." (source of that last reference is from LEHRE, Eric J., 1949-, Canada-US Military Interoperability at what Cost Sovereignty?, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 2012, infra);
Image source: http://www.redcross.ca/cmslib/general/depliant_chil190905eng.pdf, accessed 1 May 2016
ABBOTT, LCol Kirby, Legal Director of Training, Canadian Forces' of the JAG and Mr. Geoffrey Corn, Assistant Professor of law, South Texas College of Law, Facilitators, "The impact of the ICRC study in military training", in [Report on the ] Canadian Red Cross, International Conference, Customary International Humanitarian Law: challenges, practices and debates, September29, 30 and October 1, 2005, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, available at http://www.redcross.ca/crc/documents/3-7-3-4_int_crc_mcgill_conference_report_eng.pdf (accessed 1 May 2016);
The last question debated focused on the increasing academic interest and possible reliance on scholarly
writing as potential evidence of customary IHL and the need to increase the dialogue between academia and
the military legal community. Important initiatives, such as this conference were acknowledged for being
essential steps for positive exchanges between academic and military communities as well as the involvement
of military personnel in research institutes and the creation of opportunities for consultations with armed
forces and civil society contributing to government policy decisions. Despite the agreement reached on the
positive aspects of the interaction between academia and armed forces, two difficulties were raised. First the
need to accommodate the strategic necessity of confidentiality of plans, means and methods of warfare and
second, the lack of agreement on the meaning of general legal concepts (e.g. proportionality). In both cases
the analysis cannot be oversimplified as a matter of legality and must be dealt with on a case-by-case basis. [p. 15]
Image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/training-establishments/recruit-school.page, accessed 14 May 2016
Lieutenant-Colonel Dave Abboud
ABBOUD, Dave, Army Command and General Staff Coll Fort Leavenworth, KS, Safeguarding Canadian Arctic Sovereignty Against Conventional Threats, Thesis dissertation, 2009, 95 p.; see bibliography at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/39962427_Safeguarding_Canadian_arctic_sovereignty_against_conventional_threats (accessed 14 May 2016);
The effects of climate change as well as national interests over control of vast amounts of natural resources in the Arctic seem to be destabilizing the geostrategic environment involving the circumpolar states. A traditional conflict scenario in the near future is not out of the question, particularly if the legal framework governing the region, the United Nations Law of the Sea Treaty, proves inadequate to address the full range of issues in the region and fails to resolve territorial claims. Canada has ongoing disputes with the United States, Russia, and Denmark concerning the Arctic region and has recently reaffirmed its commitment to its national sovereignty. The primary research question posed by this thesis is as follows: Does Canada have the necessary military capabilities for Arctic operations to deter and counter conventional threats to its sovereignty in the Arctic? There are three secondary questions: What is the current geostrategic environment in the Arctic region, including the potential for conflict?; What are the national interests, policies, and military capabilities of Canada, the United States, Russia, and Denmark regarding the Arctic?; and After comparing each country's military capabilities for Arctic operations and identifying a gap in Canadian military capabilities, how should Canada proceed to ensure its sovereignty in the Arctic? The results of the comparative analysis of military capabilities for Arctic operations establishes that Canada does not have the necessary military capabilities to deter and counter conventional threats to its sovereignty in the Arctic. Consequently, Canada should leverage the other means of national power, specifically its existing multilateral security and defense agreements, to ensure its sovereignty in the Arctic region. (source: http://www.worldcat.org/title/safeguarding-canadian-arctic-sovereignty-against-conventional-threats/oclc/436205726&referer=brief_results, accessed 2 March 2016);
ABCA [American, British, Canadian, Australian], Coalition Operations handbook, edition 4, 14 April 2008; available at http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/AIWFC/COIN/repository/COH.pdf (accessed 26 September 2015);
accessed 11 February 2015
ABEL, Ali, "Armed Forces lawyers must be prepared for anything, students hear. Major-General Blaise Cathcart presents an alternative career at annual Howard Lecture", 11 February 2015, available at http://www.ucalgary.ca/utoday/issue/2015-02-11/armed-forces-lawyers-must-be-prepared-anything-students-hear, accessed 11 February 2015;
image from the article
___________"Bomb explosion sets career change in motion for Canadian soldier, now a law student. Ryan Shudra balances law studies with role as master corporal with Calgary Highlanders", University of Calgary Today, 18 March 2016, available at https://www.ucalgary.ca/utoday/issue/2016-03-18/bomb-explosion-sets-career-change-motion-canadian-soldier-now-law-student (accessed 14 September 2016);.
Image source: news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/in-flood-ravaged-high-river-canadian-soldiers-find-something-resembling-a-war-zone, accessed 18 September 2016 (photo by Jordan Verlage, Canadian Press)
ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT, Released documents to Mr. Dennis R. Young, Airdrie, Alberta, under NDHQ, Access to Information and Privacy file letter A-2014-00169, 18 August 2014; file available at http://new.nfa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/DND-ATI-Response-Role-in-High-River-Law-Enforcement-Aug-18-2014.pdf (accessed 18 September 2016) and on my hard drive file: MY DOCUMENTS/YoungATI-A-2014-00169.pdf; the released documents show how section 273.6(1) and 273.6(2) of the National Defence Act are to be interpretated; for researchers interested in this file, Mr. Young subsequently wrote to Ms. Suzanne Legault, the Information Comissioner of Canada, letter dated 14 September 2014, available at http://new.nfa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Info-Commissioner-DND-High-River-Role-in-Law-Enforcement-Sept-14-2014.pdf (accessed 18 September 2016);
[The request by Mr. Young read as follows]
Copies of specific records related to the refusal of National Defence personnel to participate in the kicking in of doors to High River homes by the RCMP
even though the RCMP considered this activity as a search of "survivors". Copies of records that show the rationale used to justify the Canadian Armed
Forces personnel to provide transportation to the RCMP officers to the High River homes so they could kick in the doors and seize private property without
warrants. Copies of any records related to this apparent contradiction in the Canadian Force's interpretation of the Request for Assistance from the Alberta
Government and the orders given by the Minister of National Defence and/or their commanders in charge of the High River operation.
John Adams, image source: Google Image, accessed on 4 June 2014
ADAMS, John, "The Government of Canada and Cyber Security :
Security Begins at Home", (2012) 14(2) Journal of Military Strategic Studies 1-27 ;
available at http://www.jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/viewFile/458/454
(accessed on 22 January 2012);
ADAMS-ROY, Jane E., The role of the lawful order in military leadership : necessary but insufficient ... or insufficient but necessary?, [S.l.]: Canadian Forces Leadership Institute, 2002, 38 leaves;
ADMIN, "JAG Deploys at the Law School", Canons of Construction, 10 January 2010;
available at http://www.canonsonline.com/index.php?s=JAG+Deploys
on 16 June 2012);
ADVISORY COMMISSION ON WAR CRIMES, War claims ; report, February 25, 1952, Ottawa : E. Cloutier, Queen's Printer, 1952, ix, 99 p. ; 25 cm; title noted in my research but book not consulted yet (16 February 2017);
AGENCE QMI, "Forces canadiennes: demande d’action collective pour discrimination raciale", Journal de Montréal, 21 décembre 2016; disponible à http://www.journaldemontreal.com/2016/12/21/forces-canadiennes-demande-daction-collective-pour-discrimination-raciale (vérifié le 21 décembre 2016);
Les Forces canadiennes sont visées par une demande d’action collective, cette fois pour une question de discrimination raciale.
Deux hommes noirs et un autochtone soutiennent avoir été victimes d’insultes, de situations de harcèlement et de menaces «violentes» qui ont été «tolérées ou ignorées» alors qu’ils servaient dans l’armée, selon le document juridique déposé en Cour fédérale à Halifax en Nouvelle-Écosse, le 14 décembre dernier.
«Quand des personnes s'enrôlent dans les Forces canadiennes, elles s'attendent à servir, à promouvoir et à protéger les idéaux qui nous sont chers et dont nous profitons en tant que Canadiens, soit l'égalité, la justice fondamentale et la dignité humaine», a mentionné Me Scott Campbell, avocat représentant les trois plaignants, dans un communiqué publié mercredi.
Library of Congress
AHMAD, Tariq with the assistance of Law Library intern Ashley Munro, "Military Justice System: Adjudication of Sexual Offenses: Canada", Library of Congress, Law Library. Research and Reports, Current legal Topic, 2013, available at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/militaryjustice/canada.php (accessed on 4 December 2013); see also http://www.loc.gov/law/help/militaryjustice/2013-009638-final-report.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);
ALBERTA, Justice and Solicitor General, Crown Prosecutors'
Manual, "Visiting military personnel in Alberta", 20 May 2008;
available at https://justice.alberta.ca/programs_services/criminal_pros/crown_prosecutor/Pages/visiting_military_personnel.aspx
(accessed 28 October 2015);
Foreign military personnel, their dependant(s), and, in some cases, their civilian staff present in Canada in connection with their official duties, are subject to the criminal jurisdiction of both the Canadian civil (i.e. civilian) court and of their military courts.
Pursuant to Part II of the Visiting Forces Act R.S. c. V-6, the civil courts have the primary right to exercise jurisdiction in respect of any act or omission constituting an offence against any law in force in Canada alleged to have been committed by a member of a visiting force or a dependant, except the offence involves the property or security of the designated state, the person or property of another member of the visiting force, or a dependant, or an act done or anything omitted in the performance of official duty. In such cases, the visiting force’s service courts have the primary right to exercise jurisdiction.
Provision exists for the state having primary jurisdiction to waive its jurisdiction in favour of the other state. Canada's treaty obligations to NATO and the general principle of comity of nations require that sympathetic consideration be given to request from a foreign state for such a waiver.
ALDERSON, Emily, "The challenge of knowing what a full-time combatant is", CBA National, 3 August 2016, available at http://nationalmagazine.ca/Blog/August-2016/The-challenge-of-knowing-what-a-full-time-combatta.aspx (accessed 8 August 2016);
____________ "The independence of the military and criminal prosecutions", blog post, CBA, www.nationalmagazine.ca/Blog/June 9 2016, available at http://www.nationalmagazine.ca/Blog/June-2016/The-independence-of-the-military-and-criminal-pros.aspx (accessed 21 June 2016);
Image source: https://www.lakeheadu.ca/users/A/ralford, accessed 28 May 2016
ALFORD, Ryan Patrick, "War with ISIL: Should Parliament Decide?", (2015) 20 Review of Constitutional Studies 118-144; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2704527 (accessed 28 May 2016);
accessed 6 November 2015
Colonel P.C. (Peter) Allan
ALLAN, Lieutenant-Colonel Peter, "Canada's National Security
Framework: Fragile Fortress on a Formidible Foundation?", Canadian
Forces College, JCSP 35, April 2009, ii, 87 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/295/286/allanp.pdf
(accessed 6 November 2015);
Source de l'image: https://www.blogger.com/profile/02306961203553865645 (visité 24 septembre 2016)
ALLARD, Pierre, "La justice militaire sous l’œil de la Charte -- The JAGged eye" (novembre 2000) 9(7) National 28-31 et 52; note: revue publiée par le Comité des communications de l’Association du Barreau canadien;
Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/matt-alle-5a61a138, accessed 24 September 2016
ALLE, Matthew (Matt), Breaking Tradition: A Look at Crisis
Management Mechanisms in the Federal Government, University
of Ottawa, prepared for Prof. Zussman, 7/21/2012, ii, 46 p.;
available at https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/bitstream/handle/10393/23866/ALLE%2c%20Matthew%2020125.pdf?sequence=1
(accessed on 25 February 2014);
Image source: http://djcil.law.duke.edu/, accessed 12 February 2015
ALLEMAN, Lindsy Nicole, "Who is in charge, and who should be? The Disciplinary Role of the Commander in military justice systems", (2006) 16 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 169-192; available at http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?16+Duke+J.+Comp.+&+Int%27l+L.+169 (accessed on 11 July 2008); deals in part with Canadian law;
"Alternative Service in the Second World War: Conscientious Objectors in Canada 1939-1945", web site, available at http://www.alternativeservice.ca/history/history2.htm (accessed 27 May 2016);
accessed on 6 November 2013
AMARAL, Rui, Eat your weakest man : inside the Canadian Airborne Regiment, Calgary : Bunker to Bunker Pub., 2000. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references, ISBN: 1894255097;
Image source: internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Case/966/Amnesty-International-Canada-v-Canada/, accessed 24 April 2017
Amnesty International Canada and British Columbia Civil Liberties
Association v. Chief of the Defence Staff for the Canadian Forces
et. al., Court File No. T–324–07, Respondent’s Factum 83 (Jan. 18,
2008), available at:
www.bccla.org/antiterrorissue/factumcrown.pdf; see http://www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Case/966/Amnesty-International-Canada-v-Canada/ (accessed 24 April 2017);
"Amnesty International Canada and British Columbia Civil Liberties
Association (Appellants) v. Chief of the Defence Staff for the Canadian Forces, Minister of National Defence and Attorney General of Canada (Respondents)", available at http://www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Case/966/Amnesty-International-Canada-v-Canada/ (accessed on 1 October 2016)
ANDRAS, J.W., "Military Law: Army Act as Applied to Canadian
Contingent Special Regulations Affecting Forces in the Colonies --
Civil Rights Carefully Guarded", The
Globe (1844-1936), ISSN
0839-3680, 10/18/1899, p. 2; source of information: catalogue of
Queen's University; text not consulted;
It may be Interesting to some of your readers to know under what authority military law may be exercised and discipline maintained In the force which has volunteered from Canada for service in the Transvaal.
(source: http://queensu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.cmd=goToPage%282%29&s.light=t&s.q=canada+military+law, accessed 17 September 2014)
Image source: www.amazon.com/Politics-Civil-Military-Cooperation-Afghanistan-Rethinking/dp/1137003340/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8, accessed 6 March 2016
ANKERSEN, Christopher, The politics of civil-military cooperation: Canada in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan, Houndsmills, Basingstroke, Hampshire : Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, ix, 233 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm (series; Rethinking peace and conflict;
1. Introduction: the politics of civil-military cooperation -- 2. Missing pieces: thinking about civil-military cooperation -- 3. The evolution of civil-military cooperation in peace and war -- 4. A Clausewitzian framework for analysis -- 5. The people: ambivalent supporters -- 6. The government: delicious ambiguity -- 7. The military: bmbitious institution, ad lib individuals -- 8. Putting it all together: building an effective strategic narrative -- 9. Conclusion: the many whys of civil-military cooperation. (Source: Hollis catalogue)
"LES AVOCATS SONT peu nombreux dans l'armée
En Afghanistan, ils sont trois à occuper cette fonction et c'est Michel Tremblay qui les dirige.
On le voit ici en compagnie d'Ahmadzai, cet enfant de 12 ans qui a reçu par erreur une balle en pleine tête en provenance d'une arme canadienne.(Photo: Julie Roy)"
ANONYME, "Michel Tremblay, avocat: au nom des conventions et de la justice. En Afghanistan", 30 janvier 2008, disponible à http://www.lelacstjean.com/faits-divers/2010/7/27/michel-tremblay-avocat-au-nom-des-conv-1621521.html (vérifié le 24 décembre 2016);
ANONYMOUS, "Arms Trade Treaty Signed but not by Canada", (16 February 2015) 19(4) Canadian Mennonite 26; available at http://www.canadianmennonite.org/sites/default/files/past-issues/19-04small_468_2015-02-16.pdf (accessed 21 August 2016);
The Arms Trade Treaty became international law on Dec. 24, 2014. Sadly, the Government of Canada was absent from the Christmas
Eve celebration. Canada participated in negotiations for the treaty and voted to approve the text in the UN General Assembly in April
2013, but subsequently failed to sign it, becoming the only member of NATO that has failed to do so.
"Anthrax Vaccine Abstainer still Persecuted by JAG -- Kipling's Court Martial" (shipped September 1999), Esprit de Corps, vol. 7, issue 4, p. 7;
ANTONYSHYN, David, "Biography", available at http://www.iap-association.org/getattachment/Conferences/Annual-Conferences/21st-Annual-Conference-2016/Monday,-12-September-2016/21AC_SIGM_bio_David_Antonyshyn.pdf.aspx (accessed 4 November 2016);
David Antonyshyn, source of image: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/david-antonyshyn/53/249/a3, accessed on 5 April 2014
accessed on 2 December 2014
___________"Conscription and conscientious objection in
Canada", (December/Décembre 2001) Sword &
Scale -- Salut militaire 5 and 6; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd
19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Conscription et objection de conscience au Canada", (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 5; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd (site visité le 19 avril 2012);
___________"Message from the Chair" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://web.archive.org/web/20070515000335/www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2006/news.aspx (accessed
on 24 April 2012);
___________"Mot du président" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20070518052202/http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2006/nouvelles.aspx#article6 (site visité le 24 avril 2012);
___________"Message from the Chair" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2007/news.aspx#top
25 April 2012);
___________"Mot du président" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2007/nouvelles.aspx#article6 (site visité le 25 avril 2012);
__________"Private Military and Security Companies", Speaker
Text, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War,
19th Congress, Quebec City, 2012, available at http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_texts%20of%20speakers.php
(accessed on 24 August 2013);
___________"Short Biographical Note Lieutenant Colonel David
Antonyshyn", available at: http://www.iihl.org/iihl/Documents/Courte%20note%20biographique%20lieutenant%20colonel%20David%20Antonyshyn%203%20Sep%202013%20%28bilingue%29.pdf,
accessed 3 November 2015;
___________"The Use and Status of Private Military and Security Companies -Practical Experiences from the US and Canada", in Stanislas Horvat and Marco Benatar, eds., L'interopérabilité juridique et la garantie du respect du droit applicable dans le cadre des déploiements multinationaux, Texte du Congrès / Legal Interoperability and Ensuring Observance of the Law Applicable in Multinational Deployments, Bruxelles: Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre, 2013 (collection; Recueils de la Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre; 19) at pp. 300 to 310; notes:19eCongrès international 19th International Congress , s QUÉBEC (Canada)1 - 5 mai/May 2012; available at http://www.academia.edu/3656564/LInteroperabilite_juridique_et_la_garantie_du_respect_du_droit_applicable_dans_le_cadre_des_deploiements_multinationaux_Legal_Interoperability_and_Ensuring_Observance_of_the_Law_Applicable_in_Multinational_Deployments (accessed on 28 February 2014);
ANTONYSHYN, David, Jan Grofe and Don Hubert, Canada Beyond the Law? The Regulation of Canadian Private Military and Securities Companies Operating Abroad, PRI-WAR Report -- Canada, National Reports series 03/09; available at http://priv-war.eu/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/nr-03-09-can.pdf (accessed on 2 April 2012); also published in Christine Bakker and Mirko Sossai, eds., Multilevel Regulation of Military and Security Contractors : The Interplay between international, European and domestic norms, Oxford/Portland, Hart Publishing, 2012, xxxviii, 625 p. ; 24 cm, at pp. 301-310; (series; Studies in International Law), available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?id=-I16BAAAQBAJ&pg=PT308&lpg=PT308&dq=%22The+Code+of+Service+Discipline%22&source=bl&ots=xatOniiqIv&sig=E-ay078b1rTnAXTrdkXWyneG32Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjc2bfRh7DPAhVD2B4KHc0xCGU4FBDoAQhKMAk#v=onepage&q=%22The%20Code%20of%20Service%20Discipline%22&f=false (accessed 27 September 2016);
APPLETON, Ross, "Major-General Henry Smith: The Royal Canadian
Who Became JAG", available at http://www.theroyalcanadianregiment.ca/downloads/MGenHSmith_JAG.pdf
(accessed on 11 December 2011); see also http://www.theroyalcanadianregiment.ca/individual_submissions/MGenSmith.html;
see also at http://www.cba.org/CBA/sections_military/newsletters2013/jag.aspx
(accessed on 28 August 2013);
APPOLLONI, Andrew E., "Message from the Chair" (March/Mars 2010)
Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2010/2010-02_military.aspx
(accessed on 29 April 2012);
APPOLLONI, Andrew, "Mot du président" (March/Mars 2010) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/pdf/03-10-salut_militaire.pdf (site visité le 29 avril 2012);
___________"Military Law -- Andrew Appolloni", available at https://www.cba.org/abc/sections_military_f/pdf/Military_RtC_2010.pdf
(accessed on 15 November 2014);
ARCHAMBAULT, Peter Michael, Mutiny
the Imperial Tradition: The Canadian Naval Mutinies of 1949 and
the Experience of Mutiny in the Royal Navy, Thesis
(M.A.), University of New Brunswick, 1992;
ARCHEION, Ontario's Archival Information Network, "Canada.
Office of the Judge Advocate General", available at http://www.archeion.ca/canada-office-of-judge-advocate-general;isaar?sf_culture=pt&limit=20
(accessed 17 November 2015);
The establishment of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (Army) was authorized by the Canadian Expeditionary Force Routine Order No. 327 in 1911. It consisted of the Judge Advocate General, the President of the Pensions and Claims Board, an Executive Officer, a Secretary and a Chief Clerk. In 1917, following the passing of the National Defence Act, the Office of the Judge Advocate General became part of the Department of National Defence. Its terms of reference were to supervise and control the administration of Naval, Army and Air Force Law, to advise on all matters leading up to the convening of Courts Martial and the review of proceedings, to deal with the recording of proceedings of Courts Martial and their final disposition, to assist the Minister in the formulation of any advice it may be necessary to give the Governor in Council with regard to the proceedings of General Courts Martial, to advise on and perform certain duties in relation to matters of a legal nature within the Department of National Defence and to revise and amend the Naval, Military and Air Force Law and regulations, when and as required to do so. The Judge Advocate General was also legal advisor to the Defence Research Board following its creation in 1947. The JAG reported to the Deputy Minister and had three Deputies, one Naval, one Army and one Air Force officer. In the 1950s, the office of the JAG was divided by the following functional aspects: international and general, legislation, special projects, claims, pensions, real property, patents and inventions, courts martial, and estates and administration. Representatives of the JAG in the field could be legal officers of any of the three Services and served all three Services in the area to which they are assigned. The Assistant Judge Advocates General in the field were effectively legal advisers of the local Flag Officers, General Officers Commanding or Air Officers Commanding in their respective areas. In addition to the Assistant Judge Advocates General for regions within Canada (Pacific, Prairie, Central, Eastern and Atlantic), there existed a Senior Legal Advisor Europe (SLEA). In 1958, eight naval, 38 army and 35 air force legal officers were employed on the staff of the JAG and staffs of service headquarters and commands. In the early-1960s, there were 46 positions for lawyers on the establishment of the JAG's office and 23 legal positions on service establishments. Until 1998 or 1999, the JAG's functions remained essentially unchanged. However, at that time, the function of Department of National Defence (DND) and Canadian Forces (CF) Legal Advisor (LA) was created. The DND/CF LA is a unit of the Department of Justice that provides legal advice to the Department and Forces on matters other than military law and the military justice system, in accordance with the Department of Justice Act. The JAG remains responsible for matters involving military legal components.
____________Canada. Office of the Judge Advocate General. Senior Legal Advisor Europe, available at http://www.archeion.ca/canada-office-of-judge-advocate-general-senior-legal-advisor-europe (accessed 22 December 2015);
The Senior Legal Advisor Europe (SLAE), was a regional organization of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG), which was responsible for the legal duties required to be performed for the Department of National Defence, the Army, the RCN, the RCAF and the Defence Research Board. Some of the particularities of the European component of the JAG included trying courts martial for matters handled in civil courts when occurring in Canada since the National Defence Act extended criminal jurisdiction to forces deployed overseas and their dependants. The lengthy Canadian presence in Germany during the Cold War permitted the Canadian Armed Forces to become accustomed to handling serious civil crimes by courts marital instead of civil courts. As well, in Europe, certain of the JAG's representatives were appointed by the Governor-in-Council to act as courts for the purposes of the Canadian Citizenship Act. In addition to its duties with Canadian Forces units in Europe, the SLAE was responsible for providing legal advice to Canadian authorities at the various North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Headquarters in Europe, under certain circumstances. The Assistant Judge Advocate General (AJAG) Europe was also responsible for providing legal services to elements of the Canadian Forces serving with the United Nations in Europe. As of August 1993, the office of the SLAE was still in existence with its location at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Lahr, in Germany. The last of the Canadian Forces pulled out of Germany in 1994.
___________see the result of the search for "Judge advocate General" for the repository of NDHQ Directorate of History and Heritage, Ottawa see http://www.archeion.ca/;search?query=judge+advocate+general (access on 25 February 2012); here is a description of the four fonds:
ARCHER, G., "The Humanitarian Yardstick within the Law of Armed Conflict", Canadian Forces College , AMSP (2000), AMSC 5, 28 p., available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/265/archer.pdf (accessed 2 February 2017);
Sheila Archer, photo source: http://cla-ace.ca/what-we-do/student-chapters/cla-conference-2007/, accessed on 14 April 2014
ARCHER, Sheila, Lieutenant Commander, "Being a JAG Officer",
April 2000, available at http://www.cba.org/dev/BC/bartalk_95_00/04_00/guest_archer.aspx
(accessed on 31 May 2012);
___________"Current detention challenges faced by NATO" in Marco Odello and Gian Luca Beruto, eds., Global Violence: consequences and responses; forty years of excellence in humanitarian dialogue; the 40th anniversary of the International Institute of humanitarian law; Round Table on Current Problems in International Humanitarian Law, Sanremo, 9-11 September 2010 , Milano: Angeli, 2011, 224 p., at pp.135-142, ISBN: 9788856837711; partially available at http://books.google.ca/books?id=Th2EtKVsILUC&pg=PA135&lpg=PA135&dq=canadian+forces+%22office+of+the+judge+advocate+general+%22&source=bl&ots=2HxoW5_Chg&sig=dXjCDz1xikrUlN-
Oe5s1bEZwaWI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ANIBULrGLoKm6wHs_IXdBg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=canadian%20forces%20%22office%20of%20the%20judge%20advocate%20general%20%22&f=false (accessed on 14 July 2012);
___________"Lecture -- The Structure and Services of the Office of the Judge Advocate General", The Canadian Bar Association, Public Sector Lawyers Section Meeting (Remote), 8 May 2014; see http://www.cbapd.org/details_en.aspx?id=BC_PUB0514R, accessed 12 February 2015;
Commander Archer was called to the BC Bar in 1991. She worked as Crown Counsel for several years before joining the Canadian Forces. As a member of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) her postings as legal advisor have included Kosovo, the Persian Gulf and Afghanistan. Cdr Archer was the Senior Legal Advisor to the Commander of the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command, who oversees all overseas deployments of the Canadian Forces. She also attended the NATO Defence College in Rome and was the Assistant Legal Advisor at NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe.
Cdr Archer's presentation will provide an overview of the structure and services of the JAG. She will describe the position of Judge Advocate General, including the specific duties and functions assigned under the National Defence Act. Her presentation will reflect how the lawyers in the Office of the Judge Advocate General fulfill the JAG mission in support of the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence by delivering independent, operationally focussed, solution oriented legal advice and services across the full spectrum of military law, and by assisting the Judge Advocate General in his responsibility to superintend the administration of military justice.
The vision for the JAG team is to be an agile military team of world class, operationally focussed, globally deployable and networked legal professionals, proudly contributing to a disciplined force and mission success in a manner that reflects Canadian values and the rule of law. Cdr Archer will describe who makes up the Office of the JAG, how the Office of the JAG is structured, the range of work and the services provided in advising on military justice, operational law and military administrative law at home in Canada and on deployed military missions elsewhere in the world.(source: http://www.cbapd.org/details_en.aspx?id=BC_PUB0514R, accessed 12 February 2015)
ARCHIVES CANADA, CAIN No. 211742, Title: Office of the Judge Advocate General fonds, Repository: NDHQ Direcrtorate of History and Heritage, reference code CA ON00093 2002/23; to reach NDHQ Directorate of History and Heritage, 613-998-7602, 613-990-8579, email@example.com; Notes: "On October 20, 2001, the Canadian Council of Archives launched the Canadian Archival Information Network, an electronic initiative designed to provide online access to holdings in over 800 archival institutions across the country. Known initially as CAIN, the network has now become Archives Canada (ARCHIVESCANADA.ca)" (source: http://www.archivescanada.ca/english/about.html, accessed on 25 February 2012); Canadian Council of Archives, 130 Albert Street, Suite 501, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5G4, Toll free 1-866-254-1403, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
Le 17 février 2015, Tsahal a accueilli une conférence de trois jours pour discuter du droit international dans les conflits armés contemporains, avec des participants venant des quatre coins du monde. Ce groupe international, composé d’avocats militaires, d’experts dans le domaine du droit militaire, de conseillers juridiques pour des organisations internationales, a discuté des difficultés opérationnelles et des défis posés par les conflits armés contemporains.
Guerres asymétriques, combats urbains et ennemi mêlé à la population civile sont les défis majeurs dans les conflits actuels. Ces problèmes sont communément rencontrés par les armées des différents pays démocratiques engagés dans des conflits à travers le monde.
Afin de discuter de ces défis et de leurs possibles solutions, Tsahal a accueilli sa première Conférence Légale Internationale sur le Droit International dans les Conflits Armés Contemporains, présidée par l’Avocat Militaire Général de Tsahal, le général de division Dan Efroni.
Pendant trois jours, la conférence a permis de faciliter les discussions entre les participants [...]
This thesis examines how and why two amateur videos, broadcast across Canada in 1995, contributed
to the disbandment of the Canadian Airborne Regiment. A brief history of the Airborne highlights
discipline problems that were known to exist before the videos were broadcast. Common assumptions
about images, particularly amateur video images, are explored. The concept of the "media event" is
used to show how mediation magnified the videos' impact. A detailed examination of the videos and
their constructions as news stories demonstrates how narrative frames and the newsmaking process
in general shaped what the public saw. A general content analysis of the media coverage surrounding
the videos shows how a moral panic developed when Canadian values were threatened. It is argued
that the videos and reaction to them shed more light on attitudes Canadians wanted to keep hidden
than they did on any secrets the military harboured. [Source: AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada]
Vol 16 No 1 - The Artillery Corps In Afghanistan
Vol 15 No 1 - Counter-Improvised Explosive Devices (CIED)
Vol 14 No 1 - Interior Close Quarter Battle (ICQB) Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP)
Vol 13 No 1 - Convoy and VIP Escort
Vol 11 No 1 - Fratricide
Vol 10 No 2 - Tactical Combat Casualty Care: A Proposal
Vol 10 No 1 - Stress Injury and Operational Deployments
Vol 9 No 3 - The LAV III and LEOPARD C2 MAIS Trial
Vol 9 No 2 - Training for Urban Operations
Vol 9 No 1 - Military Observers
Vol 8 No 3 - Initial Deployments
Vol 8 No 2 - Negotiations During Peace Support Operations
Vol 8 No 1 - Humint During Peace Support Operations
Vol 7 No 1 - Rules of Engagement Training
Vol 6 No 4 - Using TACOPSCF To Enhance Our Training
Vol 6 No 3 - The After Action Review Learning More From Our Training
Vol 6 No 2 - The CF Code of Conduct
Vol 6 No 1 - Physical Fitness Training
Vol 5 No 3 - Lessons Learned in Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC)
Vol 5 No 2 - Lessons Learned - Leadership in a Mixed Gender Environment
Vol 5 No 1 - Manoeuvrist Approach To Operations and Mission Command
Vol 4 No 4 - OPERATION ASSISTANCE
Vol 4 No 3 - Media Relations
Vol 4 No 2 - The Law of Armed Conflict, Peace Support Operations and You
Vol 4 No 1 - Operations in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia
Vol 3 No 2 - Training For Operations
Vol 3 No 1 - Training For Operations
Vol 2 - Mine Warfare During Peace Support Operations
Vol 1 - Convoy Operations
[...] Il faut avant tout que le système de justice garantisse : 1 - que les victimes puissent dénoncer sans crainte de représailles; 2 - que personne ne puisse influencer l'enquête policière et un éventuel procès.
Mais le fait est que la justice militaire ne peut garantir ni l'un ni l'autre.
C'est le fond du problème : l'existence de deux systèmes de justice parallèles, un pour l'armée et un pour le reste de la société, qui ne répondent pas aux mêmes normes.
Lors de leur témoignage, les militaires ont vanté leur système de justice, «égal sinon meilleur que la justice civile». Sérieusement?
Un système dans lequel un officier, et non un juge, a le pouvoir de décider si une agression sexuelle mérite une enquête policière, une sanction administrative ou rien du tout?
Un système qui permet la tenue de 2000 «procès sommaires» par année, tranchés là encore par un officier de la chaîne de commandement, sans aucun droit d'appel et qui, dans 97 % des cas, débouche sur une condamnation? Un système où le vice-chef d'état-major a le droit d'intervenir dans une enquête?
Ce système est inadéquat et dépassé. Tous les citoyens, militaires ou non, doivent être protégés également par les mêmes lois, mais la nature même de la justice militaire fait en sorte qu'on ne peut assurer aux victimes, femmes ou hommes, qu'elles pourront dénoncer sans crainte.
Le Lieutenant-colonel Jean-Michel Cambron, Assistant du Juge-avocat général, Région de l'Est
Le Major Adam Van Der Linde, Service canadien des poursuites militaires
Me Éric Charland, Bureau des Services juridiques des pensions
Modérateur: Me Pascal Lévesque, doctorant en droit, Université Queen's
Pourquoi les crimes commis par des militaires ne sont pas traités devant les tribunaux ordinaires? Le concept de dommages collatéraux vise-t-il à occulter les décès de civils? Un militaire mécontent au travail a-t-il des recours? Peut-il démissionner? À la fin de cette séance, les participants pourront décrire le droit militaire canadien dans ses grandes lignes. Chaque conférencier présentera l'un des trois 'piliers' de ce droit spécialisé: la justice militaire, le droit administratif militaire et le droit opérationnel militaire. À l'aide d'anecdotes, ils viseront à le vulgariser et à déconstruire certains mythes. (source: http://www.cbapd.org/details_fr.aspx?id=QC_ABC161013, accessed 10 September 2016)
Le 16 février, l’Association du Barreau de l’Ontario tenait son institut annuel et offrait son traditionnel petit-déjeuner bilingue avec comme conférencier, le colonel à la retraite Me Michel Drapeau. Ce dernier a entretenu son auditoire de la
réalité peu connue de la vie en milieu militaire et du droit qui s’y rattache
- current member of the Advisory Council on federal strategy against Gender-based violence, see http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1095599&tp=930, accessed 28 July 2016;
- member of the JAG Court Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-17, see http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law/court-martial-comprehensive-review.page, accessed 28 July 2016;
This paper seeks to understand the dilemmas and constraints facing leaders as they seek to manage their military’s participation in multilateral operations. The problem of caveats—national restrictions—has been a central concern in Afghanistan, limiting the ability of various countries to contribute to the effort. We develop some implications from principal-agent theory to understand the challenges facing civilian and military leaders. We then focus primarily on the case of Canada in Afghanistan since it has participated in both the unilateral ad hoc Operation Enduring Freedom and the multilateral, NATO International Security Assistance Force. We consider how command and control have evolved over time with commanders on the ground having varying levels of discretion and authority. We find that the key influence on any military officer is the home country, even if the troop contributing nation has the most robust rules of engagement and delegates the most authority to the operational commanders. All coalitions are, ultimately, of the willing. (source: http://research.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/0/8/9/0/p208903_index.html, accessed 29 December 2015).
This article analyzes the Canadian government’s use of military force to suppress the anti-conscription Easter Riots that occurred in Quebec City between 28 March and 1 April 1918. The riots demonstrated French-Canadian dissatisfaction with the national war effort and the introduction of conscription, and exacerbated nationwide fears that a state of rebellion existed in the French-speaking province of Quebec. The Canadian government’s reaction was immediate and firm; martial law was proclaimed, habeas corpus was suspended, and over six thousand English-speaking soldiers were deployed to Quebec during and after the riots to maintain order and enforce conscription, the last of these troops leaving the province in early 1919. The Easter Riots were extremely violent, causing important destruction of property and over 150 civilian and military casualties, including at least four dead when soldiers opened fire on rioters. This article will demonstrate the extent to which the Canadian government apprehended insurrection in Quebec during the First World War and how determined it was under difficult wartime conditions to prevent the rise of a major national crisis. (source: http://muse.jhu.edu/article/254872, accessed 7 October 2016)
AVINS, Alfred, "The Testing of the Prolonged Absence Rule in
Military Desertion by Questionnaire" (1963-64) 6 The Criminal
Law Quarterly 116-144;
Michelle Bailey, image source: http://www.wkfamilylawyers.com/our-lawyers/michelle-bailey.html,
accessed 11 February 2015
BAILEY, Michelle, “Book Notes: Another Kind of Justice: Canadian Military Law from Confederation to Somalia by Chris Madsen…”, (2001) 64(2) Sasktachewan Law Review 645-646;
James Wilks, right, with his defence counsel.
BAILEY, Sue, "Former medical technician who examined military recruits faces more charges", CTV News London, 11 September 2015, available at https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/SearchResults?bsi=540&kn=painters+Canada&pics=on&sortby=0&xpod=on&prevpage=18 (accessed 9 January 2017);
Source de l'image: http://www.journaladsum.com/ftp/journaux/Archives/2008/VOL_37_NO_08_ADSUM_2008-09-24.pdf, visité 10 septembre 2015
BAILLARGEON, Simon, "La justice militaire se rapproche du système judiciaire civil', ADSUM le journal bimensuel du SQFT FOI (est), Région de Québec, mercredi, 24 septembre 2008, p. 4; disponible à http://www.journaladsum.com/ftp/journaux/Archives/2008/VOL_37_NO_08_ADSUM_2008-09-24.pdf (vérifié le 4 mars 2012); article traite des modifications apportées à la Loi sur la défense nationale suite au projet de loi C-60;
Image source: http://www.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/en/dynamic-article.page?doc=canadian-safety-and-security-program/hzvlql9b, accessed 24 November 2015
BANDALI, F., L. Bruyn, R. Vokac, R. Keeble, R. Zobarich, N. Berger, L. Rehak & T. Lamoureux, CF Procedures and Practices Involving Information Aggregation, Guelph: Human Systems, 2007; DRDC Toronto No. CR 2007-049, contract number W7711-037911/001/TOR, call-up number 7911-06; Project manager: Ron Boothby; available at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA477143 (accessed on 31 July 2012);
Maj Peter Barber (photo source: (March-April 1997) 2 Office
of the Judge Advocate General -- Newsletter at p. 11
BARBER, Peter, "Exchange Posting -- Canada/New Zealand // Séjour en Nouvelle-Zélande", (March-April 1997) 2 Office of the Judge Advocate General -- Newsletter 1-11 (Article 1) / Cabinet du Juge-Avocat Général -- Bulletin d'actualités 1-11 (article 1);
Me Guy Cournoyer avec le Brigadier-général Pierre Boutet;
source: http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol34/no13/justicemilitaire.html (visité le 14 janvier 2015)
BARIBEAU, Louis, "Congrès du Barreau du Québec -- Prendre le
temps -- Charlevoix 2002 -- Compte rendu des activités de
formation : Justice militaire", (1er août 2002) 34(13) Journal
du Barreau - Supplément sur le congrès aux pp. iv-v; note de
recherche: les pariticipants étaient Me Guy Cournoyer et le
Brigadier général Me Pierre G. Boutet; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/publications/journal/vol34/no13/justicemilitaire.html
(vérifié le 11 juillet 2008); voir aussi http://www.barreau.qc.ca/publications/journal/vol34/no13/justicemilitaire.html
(véridfié le 2 mars 2011);
Photo de André Dufour dans l'article (photographe: Steven Leblanc)
___________"Ateliers -- Que font les avocats dans l'armée?",
(juillet 2008) 40(7) Journal du
Barreau 13; notes; photo du Lieutenant-colonel André
Dufour et une autre de l'adjudant-chef Pierre Marchand et du major
Sébastien Bouchard; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol40/200807.pdf
(vérifié le 5 mars 2012);
Image Source: http://www.armycadethistory.com/colonels_in_chief.htm, accessed 30 May 2016
BARIL, Maurice, "The Role of the CDS in
Relations with Parliament January 27, 2000 Speaking Notes for
General Maurice Baril Chief of the Defence Staff Conference of Defence Associations Annual Seminar, Ottawa, Ontario", available at http://web.archive.org/web/20010620183435/http://www.dnd.ca/eng/archive/speeches/27janBaril_s_e.htm (accessed 22 May 2016);
BARNES, Ashley and Christopher Waters, "The Arctic Environment
and International Humanitarian Law", (July 4, 2012). (2011) 49 Canadian
International Law 213, available at SSRN: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2100623
(accessed on 15 March 2015);
While the law of the sea is rightly viewed as the most suitable international legal regime for the settlement of disputes in the Arctic, the militarisation of this region in an era of climate change is also observable. Yet curiously, scant attention has been paid to the constraints International Humanitarian Law (IHL) would impose on armed conflict in the Arctic, as unlikely as such conflict may be. These include the specific prohibition on causing widespread, long-term and severe environmental damage under Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; as well as the related obligation to have “due regard” for the natural environment, as referred to in, for example, the San Remo Manual on Naval Warfare. Similarly, environmental factors must play into military assessments of targets based on the general principles of IHL related to targeting. The authors explore how these various legal obligations could be applied in the Arctic context. Referring to the scientific literature, they suggest that, due to the particularly vulnerable nature of this regional environment, many traditional war-fighting techniques would lead to damage that is not legally permissible. This conclusion should provide an additional incentive to policy makers to demilitarize the Arctic and to solve peacefully any disputes which may arise over sovereignty, navigation or resources. (source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2100623 (accessed on 15 March 2015)
BARNES, R.F. (Roby); right row, last person; photo taken in the Federal Republic of Germany, circa 1981-82; Roby Barnes was a major and a member of the Senior Legal Adviser Europe office in Lahr; in front of him is Cathy Barnes, his wife (left row, last person); Roby subsequently became a military judge with the JAG and did several courts martial; Just Letellier is the first person on the left row; Just Letellier also sat as a judge at courts martial;
BARNES, Colonel Roland Frank, "Roland Frank Barnes 'Great Defender' left mark", The Ottawa Citizen, Sunday, 6
December 1998; reproduced in (Jul-Dec 1998) 4(1) JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin
d'actualités; he died on 26 November 1998 at Vancouver;
he was 69; former Colonel in the Office of the Judge Advocate
General; Senior Legal Advisor Europe for several years in Lahr, Federal Republic of Germany; sat in Lahr for many years as Judge for courts martial;
BARNETT, Laura, "Afghanistan: The rule of law", Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Information and Research Service, 24 Ocftober 2007, 6 p. (series; Info Series; publication PRB-07-17E); available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2007/lop-bdp/prb/PRB0717-e.pdf (accessed 30 May 2016);
BARREAU DU QUÉBEC, "Programme Congrès du Barreau du Québec, 29, 30 et 31 mai 2008 Québec -- Atelier 28 Droit militaire", disponible à http://congres.barreau.qc.ca/2008/atelier-28.html (vérifié le 4 mars 2012); notes: les conférenciers: Lieutenant-colonel André Dufour, Major Sébastien Bouchard, Forces canadiennes et l'Adjudant-chef Pierre Marchand;
Source of image: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=123639, accessed 28 December 2015
BARRIS, Ted, "What veterans really need", National Post, 8 November 2012; available at http://news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/ted-barris-what-veterans-really-need (accessed 27 December 2015); article on veterans and Jeff Peck
At the final dinner of a tour of the Vimy and Normandy battlefields I led last April, Jeff Peck, one of the Canadian veterans in our tour group, rose to address his fellow travellers. He asked if he might offer a toast to soldiers past and present. In mid-sentence he broke down.
“I cry a lot these days,” he said. “I admit it.”
It was almost 10 years to the day Peck, now 32, lost comrades at a place called Tarnak Farm (five kilometres from the Kandahar base) in Afghanistan. His Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry unit was wrapping up night training at this desert location on April 17, 2002, when an American F-16 pilot, thinking he was under attack from the ground, fired a 500-pound, laser-guided bomb at his suspected enemy. It killed four Canadians, men in Peck’s sister platoon.
“I’d like to say [the experience] affected me for the best. I’d be lying,” he told me in 2004. “It [was] hard on my family. It hurt my marriage.
Specifically, it forced Peck to look at the darker side of humankind. It removed any sense of optimism about the world. And, he admitted to me, it made him less patient with others particularly back in Canada. He couldn’t talk or show any emotion to his parents, his siblings, not even his spouse. He recognized he was being more selfish, unwilling to take on his wife’s problems in addition to his own. Their marriage broke up.
“I realize those experiences – positive and negative – made me who I am,” Afghanistan vet Jeff Peck said recently in anticipation of Remembrance Day observances. He eventually remarried and has two young sons. While he once contemplated leaving army service, he now has his law degree and serves as a major with the office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) in the Canadian Forces.
“I think I’m in a really comfortable space now,” he said.
BAXTER, James, "Defence ombudsman defies brass, holds news conference: 100-day report largely devoid of substance", National Post, Sep 24, 1999, p.A6;
Investigations Unit, has been embroiled in a very public struggle with Brigadier General Jerry Pitzul, the judge advocate general, over the role and powers...
Description: Andre Marin unveiled a report card on his office's activities since it was officially established in June. The 100-day report was largely devoid of substance, but the fact that Mr. Marin could attract a full house of journalists carried a message in itself observers said. Mr. Marin's report was a two-page synopsis of how his office had cleared away 299 cases from a backlog of 604. But, Mr. [Scott Taylor] said, the real news is that Mr. Marin decided to ignore the warnings of top military brass and hold the news conference. "Even by [issuing this report] and holding this press conference, they will view it as an act of defiance." During the year-long consultations leading to Mr. Marin's receiving his mandate in June, Gen. [Jerry Pitzul] is reported to have recommended that the ombudsman be encouraged not to have dealings with journalists, filing instead an annual report detailing the office's successes and failures. Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=18&frbg=&indx=171&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=%22pitzul%22%20general&dstmp=1491123354958, accessed 2 April 2017);
Deborah Bayley, image source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/deborah-bayley/8b/867/80a, accessed on 5 November 2014
BAYLEY, Deborah, "Six Degrees of Separation: Canadian Accessory
Liability in Afghan War Crimes", available at http://cda-cdai.ca/cdai/uploads/cdai/2010/07/bayley2010.pdf
(accessed on 17 April 2012);
BC Civil Liberties Association (BCCLA), "New Release --
BCCLA demands real justice for Canadian Soldiers", 1 March 2011,
available at http://www.bccla.org/pressreleases/11soldiers.pdf
(accessed on 3 June 2011);
___________"Troops: Fairness for Canadian Soldiers -- Bill C-41", 14 p., available at http://bccla.org/our_work/supporting-the-troops-fairness-for-canadas-soldiers/ (accessed on 3 June 2011);
Image source: alertpress.org/volume-2.html, accessed 16 February 2017
BEACH, Laura, "Canadian Academic Institutions, The Weapons Industry, and Militarist Ideology", in Maximilian C. Forte, ed., The New Imperalism, Volume II, Interventionalism, Information Warfare and the Military-Academic Complex, Montreal: Alert Press, 2011; article available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=ei9uAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA15&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=3#v=onepage&q&f=false(accessed 16 February 2017);
Brent Beardsley, image source Google Image, accessed on 25 April 2014
BEARDSLEY, Brent, "What Type of Warriors are We?", (May 1999)
2(2) Canadian Army Journal 25-28;
(accessed on 29 February 2012); see also at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/D12-9-2-2E.pdf
(accessed 12 February 2015);
Direction de l'instruction de l'armée de terre, "De la Direction de l'instruction de l'armée de terreStratégie d'instruction de l'armée de terre sur le droit des conflits armés", 2(2) Le Journal de l'Armée du Canada13-15; disponible à http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/caj/documents/vol_02/iss_2/CAJ_vol2.2_05_f.pdf (vérifié le 29 février 2012);
accessed 12 February 2015
BEATON, Virginia, "Sailor awarded top prize by Canadian Bar Association", (Fall 2011) 5(3) Crowsnest 17; available at http://hqrcna.com/files/Crowsnest_ENGLISH_for_web.pdf (accessed on 7 May 2012); Notes: "Crowsnest is published quarterly on the authority of the Commander Royal Canadian Navy, Vice-Admiral Paul Maddison. Comments are welcome and can be sent to: Directorate of Navy Public Affairs"; about Lieutenant (Navy) Darren Vallentgoed;
Livre de Claude Beauregard, source de l'image: http://www.septentrion.qc.ca/catalogue/guerre-et-censure-au-canada, site visit/ le 16 avril 2014
BEAUREGARD, Claude, 1957-, Guerre
au Canada, 1939-1945, Sillery, Québec : Septentrion,
1998, notes: Présenté à l'origine comme thèse (Ph.D. de
l'auteur--Université Laval) sous le titre: Guerre et censure, 1995;
Ce petit livre issu d’une thèse de doctorat comporte quatre chapitres portant respectivement sur:
1. La mise en place de la censure depuis la Grande Guerre, la règlementation, le Comité de coordination de la censure, etc.
2. La censure de la presse: organisation, fondements de la coopération entre la presse et la censure, les difficultés dans l’application de la censure, les relations tendues entre les censeurs et la presse, etc.
3. La censure militaire: la censure de la correspondance des troupes en Europe et au Canada, les correspondants de guerre et la censure, la propagande et la censure, etc.4. La censure des communications personnelles et le renseignement: la réorganisation de la censure en 1942 et sa centralisation, censure postale et des communications, activités politiques des femmes et censure, considérations sur la censure des communications personnelles [Source: http://www.lequebecetlesguerres.org/guerre-et-censure-au-canada-1939-1945-de-claude-beauregard/, accessed on 16 April 2014]
BELANGER, Andrea, "Military Law: Where do I find it?", 26 May
2008; Andrea Belanger is the JAG Librarian; available at http://www.callacbd.ca/conferences/2008/presentations/belanger.ppt
on 9 January 2012);
BÉLANGER, Nicolas, "Le tribunal militaire de 1837-38", (1999) 5(2) Histoire Québec 4-10; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/culture/hq1056841/hq1058813/11382ac.pdf (vérifié le 6 décembre 2011);
Image source: https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/en/french-studies/stephanie-h-belanger-phd-associate-professor, accessed 9 September 2015
BÉLANGER, Stéphanie A.H., "Military Ethics and well-being : a soldier' journey", (February 2015) 1(1) Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health (JMVFH) ; available at http://digital.utpjournals.com/i/466831-volume-1-issue-1-february-2015 (accessed 9 September 2015);
BÉLANGER, Yves, "Un Julievillois au Tribunal de guerre de La Haye: Le militaire Jean Caron effectue un stage de six mois en Hollande", L'information de Ste-Julie, 30 octobre 1999; aussi publié dans (October-December 1999) 4 JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités 32;
BELCHER, Colonel Eric, "Critical Mission : Rules of Engagement Development and Dissemination at the Operational Level of Command", AMSC 8 (Advanced Military Studies Course 8), Canadian Forces College, October 2005, 26 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/268/belcher.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2012);
BELKIN, Aaron and Jason McNichol, "Homosexual Personnel
Policy in the Canadian Forces: Did Lifting the Gay Ban Undermine
Military Performance?", (2001) 56 International Journal, Canada's Journal of Global
Policy Analysis 73-88; available at http://aaronbelkin.org/pdfs/articles/Homsexual%20Personnel%20in%20Canadian%20Forces.pdf
(accessed on 25 April 2014); also available at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/002070200105600105 (accessed 26 January 2017);
BELLEVANCE, Joël-Denis, "Détenus afghans: des policiers militaires crient au camouflage: (Ottawa) Geste sans précédent, des membres de la police militaire qui ont servi en Afghanistan réclament que toute la lumière soit faite sur les abus qui auraient été infligés aux détenus afghans qui étaient sous leur garde entre 2010 et 2011, LA PRESSE .CA, Exclusif, Publié le 15 juin 2016 à 05h00. Mis à jour à 08h36; disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/dossiers/le-canada-en-afghanistan/201606/14/01-4991927-detenus-afghans-des-policiers-militaires-crient-au-camouflage.php (vérifié 15 juin 2016);
Charles H. Belzile, image source: http://www.qor.com/history/famous_members.html, accessed on 23 April 2014
BELZILE, Charles-Henri ("Charlie"), Lieutenant-General (Retired), 1933-2016, "Military Justice and Discipline" (1997) 12 Vanguard, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 12-15; this article is reproduced in JAG Newsletter: Office of the Judge Advocate General, vol. 1, Jan/Feb 1998, as article 4 in Part II of the Newsletter; available at http://www.lareau-law.ca/Belzile33.pdf (posted 27 December 2016);
___________Testimony on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts:
- before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs, meeting 61, 11 May 1998, see minutes and evidence;
- before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Issue 39, 29 October 1998, see minutes and evidence;
of Robert F. Benson, image source: www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=22438#.VUE_dpNmqSg
BENSON, Robert F., biographical notes on a former JAG officer in the seventies and early eighties; Bob worked at the AJAG office in Halifax and at NDHQ/DPLS;
Canadian legal expert takes top ethics post at UN3 May 2007 – A Canadian lawyer with extensive experience in governmental ethics has been appointed Director of the United Nations Ethics Office, a key element of reform of the Organization mandated by the 2005 World Summit, a UN spokesperson announced today.
Robert F. Benson served as the Interim Ethics Commissioner in the Canadian Parliament and, prior to that, was Deputy Ethics Counsellor within the Canadian Government. Mr. Benson succeeds Nancy Hurtz-Soyka who has been the Interim Director of the Ethics Office since its inception in early 2006. ..../
Mr. Benson started work at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 1 May. (source of information: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=22438#.VUE_dpNmqSg, accessed on 29 April 2015)
David Jay Bercuson, source of photo: https://cmss.ucalgary.ca/cmss/profiles/david-j-bercuson, accessed on 6 April 2014
BERCUSON, David Jay, 1945-, Significant incident: Canada's
army, the Airnorne, and the murder in Somalia, Toronto:
M&S (McClelland and Stewart), c1996, vii, 263 p., ISBN:
Image source: Google image, accessed 29 December 2015
BERCUSON, David J., J.L. Granatstein, with Nancy Pearson Mackie, Lessons Learned? What Canada Should Learn from Afghanistan, Calgary: Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, October 2011, viii, 43 p., available at http://www.operationspaix.net/DATA/DOCUMENT/3908~v~Lessons_Learned__What_Canada_Should_Learn_from_Afghanistan.pdf (accessed 29 December 2015);
Exactly as it had done in the Balkans, Ottawa had imposed caveats from the very beginning of the Afghan operation. During the initial deployment of 3PPCLI Battle Group under LCol
Pat Stogran in early 2002, any mission which might risk collateral damage had to be approved by Ottawa before it was undertaken. In other words, Stogran’s ability to deploy and employ
his troops was significantly restricted by the government’s caveats. And although he was supposed to clear his Canadian troops’ operations with VAdm Greg Maddison, the Vice Chief of
the Defence Staff in Ottawa, MGen Andrew Leslie in Kabul in 2003-04 did so only when he believed it absolutely necessary: it was, he said, better to act first rather than to be trapped on
the telephone. That he could so act marked a major change from the troubled Balkan missions of the 1990s when CF officers need to check with headquarters and the Judge Advocate
Generalbefore almost every action. But when he became ISAF commander shortly thereafter, Gen Hillier realized that he simply could not use his Canadian troops as his “go-to guys”
because the contingent commander, faced with NDHQ’s tightening of the caveat rules, needed Ottawa’s approval “of almost every detail,” a process that took 12 to 72 hours. This would
change: one hard lesson learned in Afghanistan was that an able enemy and the threat of casualties demanded quick action, innovation, and risk-taking. Though the caveats were removed
when Canada deployed to Kandahar in early 2006, Ottawa ought to have been completely aware of the difficulties that national caveats could cause in multilateral missions. [pp. 10-11. footnotes
___________"Up from the Ashes: The Re-Professionalization of the Canadian Forces after the Somalia Affair", (2009) 9(3) Canadian Military Journal; available at http://www.journal.dnd.ca/vo9/no3/06-bercuson-eng.asp (accessed on 5 January 2012);
___________"Renaître de ses cendres: la reprofessionnalisation des forces armées canadiennes après l'affaire somalienne", (2009) 9(3) Revue militaire canadienne, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo9/no3/06-bercuson-fra.asp (vérifié le 5 janvier 2012);
BERGERON, Patrice, "Armée: l'obéissance n'est plus nécessairement
privilégiée", LaPresse.ca, 10 mai 2009; disponible à http://www.cyberpresse.ca/actualites/dossiers/le-canada-en-afghanistan/200905/10/01-855129-armee-lobeissance-nest-plus-necessairement-privilegiee.php
(vérifié le 29 avril 2012); interview avec le major Nadine Fortin,
avec le capitaine de corvette John Mckee, avocat militaire; source
de la photo:
____________"L'insurrection rend la tâche des avocats militaires beaucoup plus difficile", LaPresse.ca, 11 mai 2009; disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/dossiers/le-canada-en-afghanistan/200905/11/01-855418-linsurrection-rend-la-tache-des-avocats-militaires-beaucoup-plus-difficile.php (vérifié le 3 January 2015); interview avec le capitaine de corvette John McKee, avocat militaire;
BERGMAN, B. (Brian) and L. (Luke) Fisher, "A Night of Terror: The Shocking Account of How Canadian Soldiers Tortured and Killed a Somali", (28 March 1994) Maclean's 26-28 (volume 107, issue 13);
Geneviève Bernatchez, source of Geneviève Bernatchez, image source: www.youtube.com/watch?v=2FREPy6S_x0, accessed 15 January 2017
structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page --accessed 21 March 2014
BERNATCHEZ, Geneviève, one of the authors of the book MILCW --Manual on International Law
applicable to Cyber Warfare,[the
Manual] to be published in 2013, Cambridge University Press; see
2012 draft at http://issuu.com/nato_ccd_coe/docs/tallinn_manual_draft?mode=window&backgroundColor=%23222222
(accessed on 2 December 2012);
___________Biographical notes on Geneviève Bernatchez taken from CCDCOE, NATO cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, circa 2012, available at http://ccdcoe.org/cycon/469.html (accessed on 3 June 2012);
(Navy) Geneviève Bernatchez
enrolled in the Canadian Forces in 1987 and served
as a Maritime Surface Officer in a variety of operational
and staff positions until her transfer to the Office of the
Judge Advocate General in 1997. She is the Deputy Judge
Advocate General/ Operations. She oversees the provision of
legal advice and services to the Department of National
Defence and the Canadian forces for all matters of
operational and international law related to domestic and
international operations. She has a Bachelor of Laws degree
from the Université de Montréal (1991) and has been awarded
a Masters Degree in International Law, with a specialization
in National Security Law, from Georgetown University,
Washington D.C. (USA.) (2009, with Honours). She has been a
member of the Barreau du Québec since 1993.
source for Captain(Navy) Geneviève Bernatchez: /www.google.com,
image source, 17 July 2015,
©Photo gracieuseté Sergent Dan Shouinard, Direction des affaires publiques de l’Armée © 2015 DND-MDN Canada
___________"The Implementation of the Doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect in Libya", text of speaker, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, 19th Congress, Quebec City, 2012, available at http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_texts%20of%20speakers.php and http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_texts%20of%20speakers.php (accessed on 24 August 2013);
__________"A Nation's right to self-defence" (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1 and 6; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd (accessed on 19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Le droit de légitime défense d'un pays" (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd (site visité le 19 avril 2012);
Image source: http://ottawacitizen.com/author/leeberthiaume, accessed 26 September 2016
BERTHIAUME, Lee, "Canadian Forces have trouble tracking military sexual offence convictions: Six teams of three investigators trained specifically to deal with sexual crimes have been deployed across the country to deal with Canadian Forces cases", The Canadian Press, published in Toronto Metro, 25 September 2016, available at http://www.metronews.ca/news/canada/2016/09/25/canadian-forces-have-trouble-tracking-military-sexual-offence-convictions.html (accessed 26 September 2016);
___________"Canadian military creates special team to investigate sex crimes. A team of investigators to handle sexual crimes have been given specialized training to better investigate crimes and support victims, officials said. They will be deployed to six locations across Canada",The Canadian Press, published in .thestar.com, 27 September 2016, available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2016/09/27/canadian-military-creates-special-team-to-investigate-sex-crimes.html (accessed on 28 September 2016);
Photo by Adrian Wyld, The Canadian Press
Major-General Michael Rouleau, center, and his defence counsel Major
Luc Boutin, right
___________"General fined $2Gs for firing weapon", Waterloo Chronicle, 12 October 2016, available at http://www.waterloochronicle.ca/news-story/6906305-general-fined-2-000-for-accidental-gunshot-in-iraq/ (accessed 12 October 2016);
___________"Government settles with cadets in deadly 1974 grenade blast", CTV News, 9 March 2017; available at http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/government-settles-with-cadets-in-deadly-1974-grenade-blast-1.3318173 (accessed 10 March 2017);
___________ "Military police, prosecutors call for more rights for victims of crime", from the Canadian Press, Posted Sep 23, 2016, available at http://www.680news.com/2016/09/23/military-police-prosecutors-call-for-more-rights-for-victims-of-crime/ (accessed 26 September 2016);
Véronique Bérubé, source de l'image: Google Image, vérifié le 5 juin 2014
BÉRUBÉ, Véronique, "Au coeur de la tourmente", Hebdo Rive Nord . com, publié
le 4 décembre 2006; disponible à http://www.hebdorivenord.com/Societe/Monde/2006-12-04/article-1077064/Au-c%26oelig%3Bur-de-la-tourmente/1
(vérifié le 16 janvier 2012); article sur le militaire
Mario Denis Paillé du Cabinet du JAG;
BESWETHERICK, Bill, "CF Grievance Process: Change, But Not
Necessarily Improvement", (shipped in October 2000), vol. 8, issue
3, Esprit de Corps, pp. 11-12;
Bibliography on "Canada's Security Policy, available at http://docs.exdat.com/docs/index-58142.html (accessed on 6 January 2012); IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION
BICKELL, F.R., "Report on Canadian Military Law", (1960) 1 Recueils de la Société internationale de Droit pénal militaire et de Droit de la guerre 85; notes: F.R. Bickell, at the time, was a major, Deputy Judge Advocate;
Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/ashleybickerton, accessed 7 September 2015
Ashley Jennifer Bickerton
BICKERTON, Ashley Jennifer, ‘Good Soldiers’, ‘Bad Apples’ and
the ‘Boys’ Club’: Media Representations of Military Sex Scandals
and Militarized Masculinities, Thesis submitted to the
Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for a doctoral degree in Women’s Studies,
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BLACK, Christopher, "Canada's Military Operations are Illegal Under Canadian Law", nsbc international, 5 October 2015, available at http://nsnbc.me/2015/10/05/canadas-military-operations-are-illegal-under-canadian-law/ (accessed 31 October 2015);
The deployment of Canadian Forces overseas to take part in operations in Syria, Iraq, Libya, Ukraine and Yugoslavia have been and are illegal under Article 31 of the National Defence Act yet not one of the major parties has ever raised this issue in parliament nor have any of the media addressed it any of their coverage of these multiple operations. One has to wonder why it is that the rest of us are required to obey to the laws of Canada but the federal government leadership itself and the Armed Forces are not.
Source of image: http://www.starnews.ca/news/image_2cb1cf0a-cd33-11e1-8a68-0019bb30f31a.html, accessed 27 September 2016
LCol Michael Blackburn, center, 22 June 2012
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Description: A sample of offenders in the Canadian army and matched and random control groups were compared on the MMPI, personality inventory, attitude scales and a biographical questionnaire. An item analysis yielded 151 highly discriminative items. The MMPI was found to differentiate offenders from non-offenders (CR 3 or more) on 7 scales. In general, it was possible to distinguish between the majority of offenders and non-offenders after offences had been committed. The results show some promise for early identification of offenders. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx=1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=%22canada+military+law%22&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe,( accessed 18 August 2016)
___________The Prediction of military Deliquency, Ph.D. thesis in Philosophy, Scholl of Psychology, University of Ottawa, 1956, xv, 145 leaves, available at http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/handle/10393/21066 and http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/bitstream/handle/10393/21066/DC53527.PDF?sequence=1 (accessed on 29 September 2013);
Description: [Andre Marin] and the JAG are at odds over how to interpret that section of his mandate. The JAG believes the current wording of Marin's mandate gives it a blanket exemption from his investigations. "The way they interpret it now is: any work they do is not open to scrutiny," said one source. Notes of a meeting between Judge Advocate General Gerry Pitzul and Marin said that the senior JAG officer warned the incoming ombudsman against speaking to the media and taking an adversarial approach. Marin declined the JAG's offers to function as his legal advisers. While Marin retains the right to seek legal advice from them, he chose instead to appoint his own in-house legal adviser. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=10&frbg=&indx=91&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=ottawa%20JAG%20&dstmp=1471597099375, accessed 19 August 2016)
Description: The submission by Canada's leading association of lawyers also calls for major improvements to the military justice system. The CBA says the military justice system has a credibility problem, often violates the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and that certain of its key actors -- namely judges and defence lawyers -- are not impartial or independent enough compared to those in the civilian criminal justice system. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx=1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=edmonton+%22Military++Law%22&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe, accessed 22 August 2016)
Description: [Andre Marin] was appointed to the job after heading the Ontario Special Investigations Unit, the Toronto-based agency that investigates police shootings and other violent incidents involving the province's law enforcement agencies. While in that position, Marin was tough and outspoken, and often aired his views candidly in the media. [Gerry Pitzul] also suggested that Marin use his office as his legal adviser, saying he did not "necessarily see a conflict using the JAG," an apparent reference to the fact the JAG reports directly to the military's chain of command. Marin eventually declined Pitzul's offer and later chose to rely on in-house legal advice, appointing staffer Barbara Finlay from the Ottawa Crown attorney's office, as his legal adviser. Marin also retains the right to contract out legal advice as needed. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=5&frbg=&indx=41&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=ottawa%20JAG%20&dstmp=1471596574716, accessed 19 August 2016)
___________"Internal battle rages over Forces ombudsman: Marin accuses DND legal branch of waste, delays", The Ottawa Citizen, 14 May 2001, pp. A1 and A5; see reply by Pizul, "Setting the record straight on the Forces ombudsman", infra;
Description: [Andre Marin] was appointed to the job after heading the Ontario Special Investigations Unit, the Toronto-based agency that investigates police shootings and other violent incidents involving the provinces law enforcement agencies. While in that position, Marin was tough and outspoken, and often aired his views candidly in the media. [Gerry Pitzul] also suggested that Marin use his office as his legal adviser, saying he did not necessarily see a conflict using the JAG, an apparent reference to the fact the JAG reports directly to the militarys chain of command. Marin eventually declined Pitzuls officer and later chose to rely on in-house legal advice, appointing staffer Barbara Finlay from the Ottawa Crown attorneys office, as his legal adviser. Marin also retains the right to contract out legal advice as needed. Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved
Description: [Andre Marin] and the JAG are at odds over how to interpret that section of his mandate. The JAG believes the current wording of Marin's mandate gives it a blanket exemption from his investigations. "The way they interpret it now is: any work they do is not open to scrutiny," said one source. Marin, meanwhile, believes he has the right to investigate the JAG, as long as he does not infringe solicitor-client privilege. Marin will ask that the provision be reworked to clarify what he sees as his right to investigate complaints against military lawyers, especially the JAG. In the run-up to the announcement of his mandate, Marin clashed with senior Forces brass -- notably the JAG -- who resent his attempts to grab the power he feels his office needs to investigate complaints of military corruption. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=4&fn=search&indx=31&vl(13699712UI6)=Year&dscnt=0&vl(1UIStartWith0)=contains&vl(1UIStartWith2)=contains&vid=01LOC&mode=Advanced&vl(D13699709UI3)=all_items&vl(boolOperator1)=AND&tab=default_tab&vl(13699711UI6)=00&vl(D13699706UI0)=any&vl(freeText1)=Marin&dstmp=1471597642906&vl(13699710UI6)=00&frbg=&vl(13699715UI6)=Year&vl(D13699705UI1)=any&vl(D13699708UI4)=all_items&vl(13699714UI6)=00&vl(1UIStartWith1)=contains&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&vl(480887489UI2)=any&vl(boolOperator0)=AND&Submit=Search&vl(D13699707UI5)=all_items&vl(boolOperator2)=AND&vl(freeText2)=&vl(13699713UI6)=00&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Blanchfield%2C%20Mike, accessed 19 August 2016);
___________"Military law review slammed as 'whitewash'. Bar association says military justice system has 'credibility problem' ", The Ottawa Citizen, Friday, June 27, 2003, p. A3; see response of the Canadian Bar Review in a letter dated 27 June 2003, available at http://www.cba.org/cba/submissions/pdf/03-28-2-eng.pdf
"The Stinging criticism [by the Canadian Bar Association] of the military handling of its review of provisions of the National Defence Act is contained in the bar association's 101-page brief submitted to Judge Lamer."
Description: When Mr. [Andre Marin] makes the request at a press conference today, it will once again bring him into conflict with the branch of the military that has posed the most resistance to his efforts to investigate Forces personnel -- the Judge Advocate General (JAG), the military's legal branch. Mr. Marin and the JAG are at odds over how to interpret that section of his mandate. The JAG believes the current wording of Mr. Marin's mandate gives it a blanket exemption from his investigations. "The way they interpret it now is: Any work they do is not open to scrutiny," said one source. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=6&fn=search&indx=51&vl(13699712UI6)=Year&dscnt=0&vl(1UIStartWith0)=contains&vl(1UIStartWith2)=contains&vid=01LOC&mode=Advanced&vl(D13699709UI3)=all_items&vl(boolOperator1)=AND&tab=default_tab&vl(13699711UI6)=00&vl(D13699706UI0)=any&vl(freeText1)=Marin&dstmp=1471598202893&vl(13699710UI6)=00&frbg=&vl(13699715UI6)=Year&vl(D13699705UI1)=any&vl(D13699708UI4)=all_items&vl(13699714UI6)=00&vl(1UIStartWith1)=contains&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&vl(480887489UI2)=any&vl(boolOperator0)=AND&Submit=Search&vl(D13699707UI5)=all_items&vl(boolOperator2)=AND&vl(freeText2)=&vl(13699713UI6)=00&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Blanchfield%2C%20Mike, accessed 19 August 2016);
Description: In 1994, the elder Marin headed a review of the military police system and raised serious questions about their accountability and the influence of commanding officers over investigations. The younger Marin followed in his father's footsteps when he submitted his battle plan for the new office of ombudsman to [Art Eggleton] on Jan. 20. The Police Association of Ontario used its 1997 conference to call for Marin's head. It didn't like Marin speaking out publicly about high-profile cases. The association accused his office of leaking information to the media. Toronto lawyer Clayton Ruby says Marin is unworthy of accolades because he cleared the backlog by "taking all the old complaints and dumping them. He achieved that by prosecuting no one." (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=4&fn=search&indx=31&vl(13699712UI6)=Year&dscnt=0&vl(1UIStartWith0)=contains&vl(1UIStartWith2)=contains&vid=01LOC&mode=Advanced&vl(D13699709UI3)=all_items&vl(boolOperator1)=AND&tab=default_tab&vl(13699711UI6)=00&vl(D13699706UI0)=any&vl(freeText1)=Marin&dstmp=1471597642906&vl(13699710UI6)=00&frbg=&vl(13699715UI6)=Year&vl(D13699705UI1)=any&vl(D13699708UI4)=all_items&vl(13699714UI6)=00&vl(1UIStartWith1)=contains&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&vl(480887489UI2)=any&vl(boolOperator0)=AND&Submit=Search&vl(D13699707UI5)=all_items&vl(boolOperator2)=AND&vl(freeText2)=&vl(13699713UI6)=00&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Blanchfield%2C%20Mike, accessed 19 August 2016);
The departing chair of the Military Police Complaints Commission [former JAG officer Peter Tinsley] has taken the Harper government to task for refusing to renew
his term in the middle of a major public inquiry into the Afghan detainee controversy.
In my view the national defence of Canada is not the responsibility of the Canadian Armed Forces, or of the Department of National Defence or directly of Parliament. In effect, the defence of Canada is the responsibility of the people; and the members of Parliament, as representatives of the people, are therefore accountable to the people of Canada for the national defence of the country and for the operation of all the instruments, organizations, units and individuals who give effect to that defence.
The National Defence Act, in my view, therefore is an instrument of delegation. Its purpose is to explain to individuals who daily manage and direct the defence of Canada their responsibilities, their terms of reference and the degree of authority that Parliament allows these individuals to have in all circumstances.
When I speak to officers, often I ask them what is the basis for military operations in Canada. Naturally they will say that getting the mission done, taking care of the job, tactical necessity and so on is the basis for military operations. But I try to explain to them that in my view the basis for military operations really is the law. The commanding concept here is what we refer to as lawful command. So the National Defence Act sets out lawful command. It dictates who has authority for whom, who can decide what and how the defence department and the armed forces will be organized and commanded.
Douglas L. Bland and Roy Rempel express grave concerns over the lack of interest the Canada’s Parliament has shown in defence policy and foreign affairs since the post-Cold War era began. They suggest that perhaps this tendency towards disengagement is the product of British tradition, in which defence decisions were left in the hands of the Crown. As Bland and Rempel explain, there has been little debate in the House of Commons around these issues over the years, and a clear direction still has yet to be truly established for those who are required to make decisions today (generally senior military officials). As far as Bland and Rempel are concerned, change is absolutely required; Parliament, they argue, has not used Parliamentary Committees as effectively as possible, and they are really too divided along party lines to debate in a real or useful fashion.
At a time when concerns over terrorism prevail, the authors suggest that the Government of Canada cannot afford to ignore security concerns with the hope or understanding that they will be looked after by others. According to the authors, despite potential threats to Canada’s security, little has been said about defence in the House of Commons. Bland and Rempel further argue that the federal government has largely ignored suggestions presented by informed military officials, and is making what they view as irresponsible decisions in this arena. Further to this latter point, they suggest the deployment of Canadian Forces to Afghanistan serves as one such example.
Bland and Rempel then examine the Westminster system and how defence decisions are made more closely, the role of Parliamentary Committees and debates, and how money designated for military spending is allocated. They compare the Westminster system to the Norwegian and German Parliamentary systems, and how defence-related affairs are overseen in each of these traditions.
Finally, the authors make explicit suggestions to Canadian Parliamentarians. Many of Bland and Rempel’s prescriptions reference the use of Parliamentary Committees, and the resources allocated to them. According to the authors, there are clear steps which, if taken, will introduce the appropriate level of stewardship to Canadian defence policy. (source: http://www.policy.ca/policy-directory/Detailed/A-Vigilant-Parliament_-Building-Competence-for-Effective-Parliamentary-Oversight-of-National-Defence-196.html, accessed 6 March 2015; NOW AVAILABLE AT http://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/research/national-security-and-interoperability/a-vigilant-parliament-building-competence-for-effective-parliamentary-oversight-of-national-defence-and-the-canadian-armed-forces/pmvol5no1.pdf, accessed 1 January 2016);
These are among the most important and topical subjects in the
field of international law today. They illustrate the importance
of respect for, and dissemination of, international humanitarian
law to the promotion of the rule of law in the international
- Board of Inquiry into In-theatre Handling of Detainees, 6 February 2009, Part I at http://www.crs.forces.gc.ca/boi-ce/rp/detainees/ihd-tdt/part1-partie1-eng.aspx and Part II at http://www.crs.forces.gc.ca/boi-ce/rp/detainees/ihd-tdt/part2-partie2-eng.aspx (accessed 3 March 2017);
___________"Message from the Editor" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2007/news.aspx#top (accessed on 25 April 2012);
___________"Mot du rédacteur" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2007/nouvelles.aspx#article7 (site visité le 25 avril 2012);
___________"Word from the Editor"
(April/Avril 2008) Sword
& Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2008/news.aspx
(accessed on 26 April 2012);
___________"Mot du rédacteur en chef" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2008/nouvelles.aspx#article9 (site visité le 26 avril 2012);
BOIVIN LAFLEUR, Eliane, Military
Training and the Law of Armed Conflict: How International Law
is Applied and Enforced in the Canadian Forces,
Osgoode Hall Law School, LL.M. thesis, mentioned at McGill Law
Revue de droit de McGill, Volume 58, numéro 4, juin 2013; see abstract at http://glsa.osgoode.yorku.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Online-Abstracts-E-Book-2012.pdf (accessed 28 September 20176); research note: I did not find the thesis in the University catalogue;
Bolt, image source: http://www.airfieldinformationexchange.org/community/
showthread.php?7-REDENHALL-Lt-Joseph-Phillips-Memorial/page2 accessed on 18 November 2014
BOLT, Captain Alexander (Alex) W., biographical notes, source: https://www.lakeheadu.ca/academics/departments/history/events/details/node/28375, accessed 27 December 2015;
Based in Winnipeg as the Assistant Judge Advocate General for the Prairie Region, LCol Bolt leads a team providing legal advice and services to Canadian
Armed Forces units in Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Western Ontario, including the Headquarters of 1 Canadian Air Division and Canadian NORAD region.
A graduate of the University of Toronto Law School, he was called to the Ontario bar in 2000, and holds a LL.M. with an international law specialism from
the University of Cambridge. Prior to taking up his current duties, LCol Bolt served in a variety of positions within the Office of the JAG, including as Director
of International and Operational Law. He has twice deployed as legal advisor in support of operational units: in Bosnia and in Afghanistan.
Image source: https://www.google.com (image sedarch), accessed 4 May 2016
___________"The 'convention' to consult parliament on decisions to deploy the military : a political mirage?", in, sous la direction de, Michel Bédard et Philippe Lagassé, The Crown and Parliament = La Couronne et le Parlement, Montréal : Éditions Yvon Blais, 2015 aux pp. 145-172; available at http://cspg-gcep.ca/pdf/the_crown_and_parliament_la_couronne_et_le_parlement_chapter_6.pdf (accessed 11 August 2016);
___________ "Crown Prerogative Decisions to Deploy the Canadian Forces Internationally: A Fitting Mechanism for a Liberal Democracy" in D. Michael Jackson and Philippe Lagassé, eds., Canada and the Crown: Essays on Constitutional Monarchy, Montreal and Kingston: Institute for Intergovernmental Relations and McGill Queen's University Press, 2013, at pp. 219-236;
___________ "The Crown Prerogative as Applied to Military Operations", Ottawa, Office of the Judge Advocate General, Strategic Legal paper Series Issue 2; available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/oplaw-loiop/slap-plsa-2/index-eng.asp (accessed on 14 January 2013) and http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/strategic-legal-paper-2-crown-prerogative.pdf (accessed on 28 January 2014);
Table of Contents
____________"L'application de la prérogative de la couronne dans le cadre d’opérations militaires", Ottawa: Série de documents juridiques stratégiques du cabinet du juge-avocat général –Fascicule 2, 2008; disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/oplaw-loiop/slap-plsa-2/index-fra.asp (vérifié le 14 janvier 2013) et http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/fr/jag/document-juridique-2-prerogative-de-couronne.pdf;
Table des matières
___________The Crown Prerogative in Canada and its use in the Context of International Military Deployments, Office of the Judge Advocate General Strategic Legal Paper Series–Issue 2 (A-LG-007-SLA/AF-002) (4 June 2008); available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/oplaw-loiop/slap-plsa-2/chap1-2-eng.asp);
____________"Developments in Science and Technology and Implications for IHL", The Human Rights Research and Education Centre, , 6 June 2014, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJCJIGGUrv4 (accessed on 8 November 2014);
___________"A Legal History of the Missions in Bosnia and
Herzegovina", (2004) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter
31-36; résumé en français à la p. 31;
Watkin on the---Source:(2007) 1 JAG
Les actualités Newsletter 81;
cover of the JAG magazine
___________"Stanley Cup Visits JAG / La coupe Stanley visite le JAG", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 81;
___________"Treaties and Treaty Making", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 79-80;
Image source: http://www.brill.com/international-humanitarian-law-and-changing-technology-war
(accessed 15 March 2015)
____________"The Use of Autonomous Weapons and the Role of the Legal Advisor", in Dan Saxon, ed., International Humanitarian law and the Changing Technology of War, Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013, xviii, 358 p.,at pp. 123-150, ISBN: 978-90-04-22948-8 (hardback) and 978-90-04-22949-5 (e-book); available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=S9vJ05wWFU8C&pg=PA135&lpg=PA135&dq=Green+%22role+of+legal+advisers%22&source=bl&ots=iUJpPmQ9cK&sig=Hzw9OM82j1C6OVZfUt-t0OJ0vf4&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi6nNipzJfKAhVGQCYKHS-BDoc4ChDoAQgaMAA#v=onepage&q=Green%20%22role%20of%20legal%20advisers%22&f=false (accessed 7 January 2016);
___________"Vessels and aircraft: Where the LOAC differs" (May/Mai 2002) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3 and 8; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125112748/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaleapril2002.pdf (accessed on 19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Le droit des conflits armés, sur mer et dans les airs" (May/Mai 2002) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125112748/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaleapril2002.pdf (site visité le 19 avril 2012);
Image source: http://www.dcaf.ch/Publications/Comparative-Perspective-of-Ombudsman-Institutions-for-the-Armed-Forces, accessed 23 November 2015
Description: In one instance, the March 18, 1918, execution of Pte. Arthur Charles Degasse, the firing squad was commanded by Capt. Georges Vanier -- a future governor-general. Mr. [Ron Duhamel] said in an interview that the government's position, which is also supported by the Royal Canadian Legion, is simply that execution for disciplinary offences constitutes "harsh treatment" of young soldiers. He says the decision "does not condemn the culture" of military justice that prevailed during the First World War, but will "soften what occurred for the families who remain." In June, a monument was unveiled in rural Britain to commemorate the executed soldiers. It features the statue of a blindfolded soldier with his hands tied behind his back, surrounded by pine markers for each of the hundreds of Commonwealth soldiers who faced a firing squad, including the 23 Canadians. (source: Description: In one instance, the March 18, 1918, execution of Pte. Arthur Charles Degasse, the firing squad was commanded by Capt. Georges Vanier -- a future governor-general. Mr. [Ron Duhamel] said in an interview that the government's position, which is also supported by the Royal Canadian Legion, is simply that execution for disciplinary offences constitutes "harsh treatment" of young soldiers. He says the decision "does not condemn the culture" of military justice that prevailed during the First World War, but will "soften what occurred for the families who remain." In June, a monument was unveiled in rural Britain to commemorate the executed soldiers. It features the statue of a blindfolded soldier with his hands tied behind his back, surrounded by pine markers for each of the hundreds of Commonwealth soldiers who faced a firing squad, including the 23 Canadians., accessed 18 August 2016)
Lise, Boulanger, source: twitter.com/boulanger_lise Source: www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/docs/bilingualism_cf_vol2_f.pdf at p. 270
BOULANGER, Lise, research note: former LCol with the JAG office and first female military judge;
BOULDEN, Jane, "Calling out the troops: the National Defence Act and how it's used"; title noted in my research but article not consulted (3 July 2016);
Henri Bourassa, image source: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=29278404, accessed on 26 April 2014
BOURASSA, Henri, 1868-1952, La Conscription, Montréal:
Éditions du Devoir, 1917; disponible à https://archive.org/details/cu31924030734697
(vérifié 25 mai 2015);
___________ Le projet de loi
navale : sa nature, ses conséquences : discours prononcé au
Monument national, le 20 janvier 1910 / Henri Bourassa,
[Montréal : Le Devoir, 1910?], 37 p. ; 22 cm;
Photo of Stéphane Bourgon, photo reproduced from http://journalquebecpresse.org/modules/news/article.php?storyid=775 (accessed on 31 March 2014)
BOURGON, Stéphane, 1961-, "Judgments, Decisions and Other Relevant Materials Issued by International Courts and Other International Bodies on Human Rights", (2003) 1(1) Journal of International Criminal Justice 245-256;
___________ La pénalisation des infractions au droit international humanitaire, thèse LL.M., Université de Montréal, 1998, xix, 137 f..; Me Bourgon est un ancien officier du JAG; email@example.com;
___________“Military Organisation, Rank Structure and Operations - Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the Military”, The Seventh Defence Symposium, Association , Association of Defence Counsel Practising Before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, ADC-ICTY, 2012, available at http://adc-icty.org/home/news/adc-news-2012.html (accessed 20 December 2015);
On 12 April 2012, Defence Counsel and former military legal advisor to the Canadian Armed Forces Stéphane Bourgon conducted a lecture titled “Military Organisation, Rank Structure and Operations - Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the Military” in the ICTY Pressroom.
*During the lecture Bourgon discussed the intricacies of military organization, focusing on the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS). He explained the military ranking system, detailing the differences between commissioned and non-commssioned officers, providing a breakdown of military units and command structure and discussing the usefulness of organisational charts as well as the Principles of War.
___________"Notes biographiques", disponible à http://www.nato-pa.int/default.asp?CAT2=1486&CAT1=24&CAT0=2&COM=1526&MOD=0&SMD=0&SSMD=0&STA=&ID=0&PAR=0&LNG=1 (accessed 9 August 2016);
Diplômé du Collège Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean, Stéphane Bourgon a servi au sein des Forces armées canadiennes, d’abord en tant qu’Officier de logistique puis à titre de Conseiller juridique (JAG), pendant plus de 20 ans. Il s’est alors spécialisé en droit pénal / criminel ainsi qu’en droit international humanitaire (droit de la guerre).
En 1995 le Major Bourgon a fait partie d’un groupe d’experts internationaux chargé d’enseigner le droit international humanitaire aux officiers supérieurs du Burundi.
En 1996, le Major Bourgon est nommé Conseiller juridique auprès du Commandant de la 2ième Brigade multinationale en Bosnie- Herzégovine, dans le cadre des opérations de la Force de mise en oeuvre de l'OTAN (Implementation Force ou IFOR).
De retour au Canada, M Bourgon complète sa maîtrise en droit international (LL.M.) puis se joint en septembre 1998, au Bureau du Procureur du Tribunal pénal international pour l'ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY) à titre de Conseiller juridique – droit international.
En novembre 1999, il est sélectionné pour occuper le poste de Chef de cabinet auprès du Président du Tribunal international, S.E. Monsieur le Juge Claude Jorda de France, poste qu’il occupe jusqu’au 31 décembre 2001.
Stéphane Bourgon retourne alors à la pratique du droit, étant assigné par le Greffier du TPIY à titre de Conseil de la Défense du Général Hadžihasanović, anciennement Chef d’État-major de l’Armée de la République de Bosnie Herzegovine. À ce jour, il a été impliqué à titre de Conseil de la Défense dans sept procès devant le TPIY. Il a représenté entre autres, le Commandant en chef de l’armée de Bosnie Herzégovine, le Général Delić et il est présentement Conseil de la Défense pour l’un des sept accusés dans le cadre du méga procès lié au génocide qui se serait produit à Srebrenica.
En octobre 2003, puis de nouveau en 2004, Stéphane Bourgon est élu Président de l’Association des Conseils de la Défense pratiquant près le TPIY, représentant alors plus de 200 avocats.
En parallèle à sa carrière de juriste, Stéphane Bourgon enseigne le droit pénal international à l’Académie des droits de l’homme et du droit international humanitaire (ADH) à Genève, il poursuit des études de troisième cycle à l'Université de Clermond – Ferrand en France et il est membre de plusieurs organismes à vocation juridique et humanitaire dont le Barreau pénal international (BPI) et l’Association internationale des avocats de la défense (AIAD).
Stéphane Bourgon est également un conférencier assidu sur plusieurs sujets dont entres autres, la justice pénale internationale, la responsabilité du commandement, le droit applicable à la conduite des hostilités et les droits des accusés, victimes et témoins en droit pénal international.
Image source: http://www.amazon.co.uk, accessed 12 February 2015
___________"La responsabilité des commandants militaires et la mise en oeuvre du droit international humanitaire", dans, sous la direction de, de Katia Boustany et Daniel Dormoy, Perspectives humanitaires entre conflits, droit(s) et action / Réseau Vitoria, Bruxelles: Bruylant, 2002, 332 p., aux pp. 156-178 (Collection de droitinternational; 51), (Collection de droit international (Bruxelles, Belgique);51), ISBN: 2802717421; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, FTXGeneral, KZ 6515 .P47 2002;
Mark Bourrie, image source: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/canada/canadian-reporter-used-as-spy-for-china-283035.html?editor, accessed on 26 April 2014
BOURRIE, Mark, "Canadian JAG officers go to war", (November 2001)
41 Law Times 3;
Source de l'image: sqdi.org/fr/category/activites/conference-katia-boustany/, vérifié 24 avril 2017
Katia Boustany, 1951-2004
BOUSTANY, Katia, "Brocklebank: A Questionable Decision of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada", (1998)1 Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 371-374. doi:10.1017/S1389135900000258; titre not/ dans mes recherches mais article non consulté;
During the Canadian mission in Somalia pursuant to resolution 794 (1992) of the Security Council, a stunning incident occurred involving some
Canadian soldiers who tortured to death a sixteen-year-old unarmed Somali civilian. The victim was captured during the night of 16 March 1993
while attempting an intrusion into the camp of Belet Huen. Shidane Arone did not offer any resistance and was entrusted to chief corporal Matchee
to be kept in custody in a bunker designed for this purpose. This is where the unfortunate Somali had to endure frightful ill-treatment, mainly at
canadaa-hreffn01-ref-typefnadiv/1E29C71F5AA1FFB2420508F97DB9EE9D, accessed 24 April 2017]
Pierre Boutet, photo reproduced from the back dust jacket of McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, infra.
BOUTET, Pierre, "Military Justice: A Progress Report on Current Concerns and Directions for Reform", MJ031A, mentioned in footnote 34, p. 45 of the Report of the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services, 25 March 1997, supra; Brigadier-General Boutet was the Judge Advocate General from 3 May 1993 to 14 April 1998;
___________Member of the "Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone", Special Court for Sierra Leone, available at http://www.rscsl.org/RSCSL-Roster_of_Judges.html (accessed 21 December 2016);
___________ Quelques photos de Pierre Boutet provenant du JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités, volume 1, janvier-février 1998
Pierre Boutet, image source: http://www.rscsl.org/Trial_Chamber_I.html , accessed on 8 November 2014
__________"Summary Trial Reform: AFC Progress Report - Overheads", MJ031B, mentioned in footnote 33, p. 45 of the Report of the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services, 25 March 1997, supra;
The Roster of Judges consists of no fewer than 16 Judges, ten of whom are appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations and six by the Government of Sierra Leone. The Judges appoint the President of the Special Court, who may assign Judges to a Trial Chamber or an Appeals Chamber, should the need arise.
Justice Pierre G. Boutet served as a Judge of the Special Court for Sierra Leone from 2002 to 2009. Prior to his appointment as a Special Court Judge, Justice Pierre G. Boutet had served in the Canadian Forces as a Legal Officer occupying various positions and completed his career at the rank of Brigadier-General. In 1982, Justice Boutet became a Military Judge, assumed the position of Deputy Chief Military Trial Judge in 1986 and was appointed Chief Military Trial Judge in 1987. As a Judge, he participated in and presided over numerous trials in Canada and in many other parts of the world, particularly in Europe and the Middle East. In 1993, on promotion, he became the Judge Advocate General (JAG) of the Canadian Forces and was responsible for the provision of legal advice and legal services to the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces. He used his position to increase awareness of international humanitarian law in the Canadian Forces and in Canada. He has been a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War since 1996. He was appointed a Judge of the Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone in 2013.
___________Témoignage du Bgen Pierre Boutet devant le Comité permanent de la défense nationale et des anciens combattants, mardi le 12 mai 1998, disponible à http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=f&Mode=1&Parl=36&Ses=1&DocId=1038724 (vérifié le 21 décembre 2016);
Pierre Boutet, on the right, Quebec City, 2012, image source: http://www.ismllw.org/Gallery/?dir=2012-05%20Quebec%20City
___________"Thème: Soutien militaire aux autorités civiles / Subject: Military support to civil authorities", in Societé internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre Congrès international (15e: 2000, Lillehammer, Norvège, 6-10 juin 2000) / International Society of Military Law and the Law of War (Fifteenth International Congress, Lillehammer (Norway) – 6-10 June 2000), Soutien militaire aux autorités civiles, Bruxelles / Military support to civil authorities, La Société, 2001 (Collection; Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre. Recueils de la Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre; 15) / (series; Recueils of the International Society of Military Law and the Law of War; 15); titre noté dans mes recherches mais document non consulté (17 July 2008);
accessed on 24 November 2014
BOUVIER, Patrick, 1976-, "Ambiguïtés et justice militaire
canadienne : brève analyse des failles dans l’application du Army
Act (1914-1918)", (printemps-été 2004) 12(3) Bulletin
d’histoire politique 133-143; titre noté
dans mes recherches mais article non consulté;
(source de l'image: http://www.amazon.fr/D%C3%A9serteurs-insoumis-canadiens-militaire-1914-1918/dp/2922865193,
8 avril 2914)
___________Déserteurs et insoumis : les Canadiens français et la justice militaire, 1914-1918, Outremont, Québec : Athéna, 2003, 149 p., (Collection; Collection Histoire militaire), ISBN: 2922865193; note: "Tiré d'un mémoire de maîtrise en histoire intitulé Première guerre mondiale, justice militaire et désertion des Canadiens français."--Verso de p. de t.; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, MRT General, D 639 .D53 B68 2003; titre noté dans mes recherches mais livre pas encore consulté (18 mars 2004);
___________Première guerre mondiale, justice militaire et désertion des canadiens français, Montréal : Université du Québec à Montréal, 2003, vi, 136 f., mémoire de maîtrise en histoire; thèse sous la direction de Robert Comeau;
Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/bradley-bouzane-58bb452b, accessed 24 September 2016
BOUZANE, Bradley, "Court martial process party [sic] unconstitutional : decision", National Post, 2 June 2011, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/06/02/court-martial-process-party-unconsitutional-decision/ (accessed on 10 May 2012); deals with the Leblanc decision and interview with Drapeau;
of image of Boyle`s book: http://www.amazon.com/The-Rest-Story-According-Boyle/dp/1894263499,
accessed on 9 November 2014
BOYLE, Everett, The
Rest of the Story According to Boyle, Burnstown
(Ontario): General House Store Publishing House, , 297 p.,
23 cm., ISBN: 1894263499 (pbk.); available in part at http://books.google.cpa/books?id=Dtak4aDaQ8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:rest+intitle:of+intitle:the+intitle:story+intitle:according+intitle:to+intitle:boyle&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-4HrTqPyG-rk0QHTnMzICQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=intitle%3Arest%20intitle%3Aof%20intitle%3Athe%20intitle%3Astory%20intitle%3Aaccording%20intitle%3Ato%20intitle%3Aboyle&f=false
(accessed on 16 December 2011);
James W.J. Bowden, image source: https://twitter.com/JWJBowden, accessed on 9 November 2014
BOWDEN, James W. J., "The Demise of Responsible Government
and the Crown Prerogative on Defence -- Perilous of Responsible
Government and the Crown Prerogative on Defence", Parliamentum, posted on 26
February 2012; available at http://parliamentum.org/2012/02/26/crown-prerogative-on-defence/
(accessed on 12 March 2012);
BRADLEY, J. Peter and Shaun P. Tymchuk, "Assessing and Managing Ethical Risk in Defence", (Autumn 2013) 13(4) Canadian Military Journal 6-16; available at : http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol13/no4/PDF/CMJ134E.pdf, accessed 2 November 2015;
BRADLEY, J. Peter and Shaun P. Tymchuk, "Évaluer et gérer le risque éthique à la défense", (automne 2013) 13(4) Revue militaire canadienne 6-16; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol13/no4/PDF/CMJ134F.pdf (vérifié 2 novembre 2015);
Peter Bradley, image source: http://www.rmc.ca/aca/mpl-pml/per/bradley-p-eng.php, accessed on 26 April 2014
BRADLEY, Peter, "Is Battlefield Mercy Killing Morally
Military Journal, vol. 11, number 1, available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo11/no1/04-bradley-eng.asp
(accessed on 21 January 2012);
BRADLEY, Peter, "Est-il justifiable du point de vue moral d'achever un blessé par pitié sur le champ de bataille?", Revue militaire canadienne, vol. 11, numéro 1, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo11/no1/04-bradley-fra.asp (vérifié le 21 janvier 2012);
___________"Just Following Orders is not Sufficient: How to Make Ethical Decisions", (summer 2012) 14(2) The Canadian Army Journal; available at http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/caj/documents/vol_14/iss_2/CAJ_Vol14.2_07_e.pdf (accessed on 2 August 2012);
___________"Obéir n'est pas tout: Comment prendre des décisions éthiques", (été 2012) 14(2) Le Journal de l'Armée du Canada; disponible à http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/caj/documents/vol_14/iss_2/CAJ_Vol14.2_07_f.pdf (vérifié le 2 août 2012);
BRADY, Brian H., "The North Atlantic Treaty Organization Legal
Advisor: A Primer", (October 2013) The Army Lawyer 4-25;
available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/10-2013.pdf
(accessed 13 February 2015);
BRAHAM, Mike, "Endeavouring to Protect Life and Property: A
Canadian Approach to Integrated and Comprehensive Emergency
Management", (Winter 1996) 11(2) The Australian Journal
of Emergency Management 14-26;
BRAIS, Colonel Guy Laurent, 1946-2015, "The Canadian Military Justice
System / Le système canadien de justice militaire" (Winter
1999 hiver), 23(3) Provincial
Judges' Journal des juges provinciaux 8-17; text in
English and French; Guy Brauis died on 5 October 2015 in Montréal;
Source de la photo: http://mountroyalcem.com/obituaries/index.php/page/detailed/fr/1164
__________Décès de Guy Brais, 1946-2015, le 5 octobre 2015; voir l'avis de décès à http://www.lenecrologue.com/obituary/deceased/477607 et http://mountroyalcem.com/obituaries/index.php/page/detailed/fr/1164 (visité le 9 octobre 2015);
___________Photo of Guy Brais:
BRANNAGAN, Craig, "The Copenhagen Process on the Handling of
Detainees in International Military Operations: A Canadian
Perspective on the Challenges and Goals of Humane Warfare",
(Winter 2010) 15(3) Journal of
Conflict & Security Law 501-532;
AbstractThe face of war has changed significantly since the end of the Second World War, and it will in all likelihood continue to do so. The apparent historical trend of warfare has shifted from the international, to the internal, to the internationalized. Yet despite the constant evolution in the kinds of wars that humans and States wage against one another, international law—and international humanitarian law (IHL), in particular—has remained relatively ineffective in keeping pace with the legal demands of post-modern warfare. To date, the emergence of terrorist cells, ‘enemy combatants’, and other strictly non-State actors involved in armed conflicts around the globe have proved to be elusive categories to the antiquated legal distinctions present in the vast body of IHL, grounded primarily upon the four Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols. The Copenhagen Process on the Handling of Detainees in International Military Operations is a promising attempt to remedy this seeming legal vacuum. Comparing and contrasting the practices of the Canadian and Danish military forces handling of detainees while operating in Afghanistan, this article suggests that the Copenhagen Process, although not a ‘perfect’ system of inclusivity and transparency, is nevertheless a meritorious development in the evolution of IHL that should be supported by all those with an interest in preserving the dignity and well-being of those most deleteriously affected by the threats of warfare—the human beings on the ground.
(source: http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/3/501.abstract?sid=bb52b0ee-8ae9-4ac8-9ec0-7f6f65a802af, accessed on 14 May 2014);
BRANNAGAN, Craig, Christopher Water, "ICRC Privilege in Canada", (2016) Canadian Yearbook of International Law;
This article explores whether the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) enjoys testimonial privilege before Canadian courts. The authors argue that there is strong evidence to suggest that customary international law requires that the ICRC be granted a privilege not to testify or disclose confidential information in domestic court proceedings. Such a privilege, they argue, is entailed by the ICRC’s mandate to engage in international humanitarian law protection activities using confidential means. Given that customary international law forms part of the common law in Canada, the authors argue that this privilege should be recognized by Canadian courts despite its potentially uneasy fit with traditional Canadian evidence law. [source: http://www.uwindsor.ca/law/857/icrc-privilege-canada, accessed 29 September 2016]
Cet article cherche à savoir si le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR) bénéficie d’un privilège de ne pas témoigner devant les tribunaux canadiens. Les auteurs font valoir qu’il existe de fortes raisons de croire que le droit international coutumier exige que le CICR soit accordé un privilège ni de témoigner ni de divulguer des informations confidentielles devant les instances nationales. Un tel privilège, affirment-ils, découle du mandat du CICR de se livrer à des activités de protection, en vertu du droit international humanitaire, à l’aide de moyens confidentiels. Étant donné que le droit international coutumier fait partie de la common law au Canada, les auteurs affirment que ce privilège devrait être reconnu par les tribunaux canadiens en dépit du fait qu’il soit potentiellement mal-adapté au droit canadien de la preuve existant. [source: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/canadian-yearbook-of-international-law-annuaire-canadien-de-droit-international/article/icrc-privilege-in-canada/FBAFBA42A8C87ABCED8B158232FBB218, accessed 29 September 2016]
Image source: , accessed 24 September 2016
BRATT, Duane, "Review Essay. Crisis in the Canadian Military: Bercusson, David. Significant Incident: Canada's Army, the Airborne, and the Murder in Somalia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996. Taylor, Scott and Brian Nolan. Tarnished Brass: Crime and Corruption in the Canadian Military. Toronto: Lester, 1996", (Fall 1997) 17(2) The Journal of Conflict Studies; available at http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/JCS/article/view/11758/12536 (accessed on 6 January 2012);
BREAN, Joseph, "Queen cannot send Canadian troops to war, Attorney General says in letter aimed at settling longstanding dispute", National Post, 3 December 2014, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/queen-cannot-send-canadian-troops-to-war-attorney-general-says-in-letter-aimed-at-settling-longstanding-dispute (accessed 1 April 2017);
J. Brennan, image source: http://www.thestar.com/authors.brennan_richard.html,
accessed 13 February 2015
BRENNAN, Richard J., "Military told to heed abuse claims", published 25 February 2010, available at http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2010/02/25/military_told_to_heed_abuse_claims.html (accessed 13 February 2015);
OTTAWA–Canadian military brass were told it was a crime to ignore allegations of prisoner abuse and that it was their duty to investigate it, according to a top secret document revealed to the Toronto Star.
Buried in documents withheld from a special parliamentary committee by the Conservative government, the May 22, 2007 five-page memo from the Judge Advocate General (JAG), Brig.-Gen. Ken Watkin, followed on the heels of a series of media reports and diplomatic dispatches alleging serious prisoner abuse.
In the widely distributed memo, which was sent to then-chief of defence staff Gen. Rick Hillier and Lt.-Gen. Michel Gauthier, now both retired, Watkin stated that senior officials ignore warnings of prisoner torture at their own peril.
"Military commanders who know, or are criminally negligent in failing to know, that a transferred detainee would be subjected to such abuse have the obligation to take all necessary and reasonable measures within their power to prevent or repress the commission of such abuse. They may also be subject to criminal liability for failing to submit the matter to competent authorities for investigation and prosecution," Watkin, the military's top lawyer, wrote.
___________"Ottawa moves to block hearing on detainees; Goes to court to halt Afghan prisoner probe" 14 April 2008 Toronto Star p. A3;
BREWSTER, Murray, "Allegations against military's No. 2 spelled out after months of rumours. Search warrant shows Norman was under RCMP covert surveillance for months prior to suspension", CBC News Politics, 6 April 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/norman-rcmp-investigation-1.4059398 (accessed 27 April 2017);
___________"Analysis. Off-the-books notes between vice-admiral and shipyard boss in 'legal grey zone,' expert says. Unsealed search warrant a watershed in leak investigation — and possibly in Vice-Admiral Norman's career", CBC News Politics, 27 April 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/norman-vice-admiral-rcmp-davie-search-1.4087662?cmp=news-digests-cbc-news-politics (accessed 28 April 2017);
__________"Canada to join global Arms Trade Treaty under legislation tabled Thursday", CBC News/Politics, 13 April 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/arms-trade-treaty-1.4070539 (accessed 14 April 2017);
___________ "Commons committee demands service record change for LGBTQ kicked out of the Forces. Issue of LGBTQ treatment by military part of wider government apology, Sajjan suggests", CBC News, 25 October 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/lgbtq-military-discharges-1.3820957 (accessed 26 October 2016); see House of Commons Defence Committee;
Image source: www.google.com (image search) and www.pressrush.com/author/7208017/murray-brewster, accessed 15 September 2016
Murray Brewster, journalist
___________ "Despite 2013 discharge, ex-soldier faces charges for taunting junior officer", Global News, 6 January 2016; available at http://globalnews.ca/news/2437167/despite-2013-discharge-ex-soldier-faces-charges-for-taunting-junior-officer/ (accessed 6 January 2016);
___________"DND leak investigation started under Tories, expanded under Liberals. Expert says where Liberals and secrets are concerned it's 'meet the new boss, same as the old boss'", CBC News/Politics, 15 March 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/norman-secrecy-investigation-1.4024459 (accessed 16 March 2017);
___________"Ethics watchdog won't investigate Sajjan over Afghan detainee inquiry decision. Liberals, who championed Afghan detainee inquiry in opposition, now say probe not needed", CBC News/Politics, 8 March 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/afghan-detainees-sajjan-inquiry-1.4014013 (accessed 8 March 2017);
___________"Ex-soldier acquitted before military court martial, but faces $8,000 legal bill", National Newswatch, 18 March 2017, available at http://www.nationalnewswatch.com/2016/03/18/ex-soldier-acquitted-before-military-court-martial-but-faces-8000-legal-bill-3/#.WM2F8me1uUk (accessed 18 March 2017);
A former army warrant officer, accused of mouthing a schoolyard taunt to a junior officer at an official dinner, was acquitted of disciplinary charges before a court martial
on Thursday, but has been left holding thousands of dollars in private legal bills.
Wade Pear, a veteran of multiple ground tours in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Cyprus, was tried before the military tribunal, even though he's been a civilian for two-and-a-half years.
Pear says up to $8,000 in private legal fees were run up trying to defend himself during the 39 month ordeal. He said he turned to outside lawyers because he didn't trust the military
system to act in his best interests, but eventually had to accept a uniformed lawyer who "did a great job."
The military justice system was able to go after him, despite his September 2013 release from service, because of a Supreme Court decision last fall that gives uniformed prosecutors
unlimited discretion on when to proceed with a case.
His military lawyers argued the trial of a civilian, more than three years after the incidents and more than two years since his retirement, was unacceptable. They said since Pear faced
disciplinary action rather than criminal charges, there was no public interest.
A court martial was originally scheduled for April 2013, while he was still in uniform, but was postponed. He accepted his retirement a few months later and ended his 26-year military
career partly because of the way he felt "shunned" in the aftermath of the mess dinner.
___________"Exclusive. Smoother military exit system for soldiers still years away, documents show. Minister blames backlog on previous 'more teeth, less tail' cuts at National Defence", CBC News/Politics, 16 December 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-release-overhaul-1.3899044 (accessed 16 December 2016);
___________"Former NDP MP calls out Sajjan on decision not to call Afghan detainee inquiry: Craig Scott believes defence minister has information about war-time treatment of prisoners", CBC News Politics, 30 November 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/sajjan-conflict-detainees-1.3874480 (accessed 1 December 2016);
___________"Hillier warns against civil servants directing military operations", The Globe and Mail, 11 October 2016, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/hillier-warns-against-civil-servants-directing-military-operations/article1214753/ (accessed 16 November 2016);
Retired general Rick Hillier says a policy paper is circulating around senior levels of the Harper government that suggests the Clerk of the Privy Council and the deputy minister of defence take a greater role to "guide" the military.
The former chief of defence staff writes, in a new postscript for the softcover edition of his memoirs, that there is a growing movement within the federal government to establish a system of micro-management that could extend from the highest reaches of Ottawa all the way down to individual combat units.
The paper was produced within the last year and has been the subject of some discussion, according to Mr. Hillier, and would give senior bureaucrats greater powers than those set down in the National Defence Act.
Military and political science historian Desmond Morton said Mr. Hillier's warning about the creeping centralization of authority should be heeded because of the "control freak" reflex of the current government.
Mr. Hillier also took a swipe at parliamentarians for last year's investigation of torture claims in Afghan prisons and what the government knew about it. He accused all parties of being uninterested in the facts and declared soldiers "would be run over in a heartbeat if those involved thought it would give them a few more votes."
Excessive government secrecy over documents fuelled the debate, Mr. Hillier added.
Mr. Morton said the former general's fear about bureaucrats who know nothing about the military is well-founded, because unlike previous generations they've not been educated or exposed to the culture.
He blamed that on the Liberals who killed off the National Defence College, an institution with a sizable civilian enrolment, but said Mr. Hillier has alienated them further with bellicose rhetoric.
___________"Military angry it couldn't court-martial navy spy -- Gaps in intelligence made public", The Ottawa Citizen, Monday, 23 September 2013 at p. A4; about convicted spy, Jeffrey Paul Delisle, a former CF intelligence officer and a "newly declassified military assessment";
___________"Military steamed about not being able to court martial Jeffrey Delisle: documents", CTV News, The Canadian Press, 22 September 2013; available at http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/military-steamed-about-not-being-able-to-court-martial-jeffrey-delisle-documents-1.1465584 (accessed on 14 December 2013);
___________"Military watchdog limits investigation of complaint into Afghan prisoner abuse. Canada's treatment of detainees is being probed once again after an anonymous tip", CBC News/ Politics, 2 March 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/afghan-prisoner-inquiry-1.4007552 (accessed 3 March 2017);
___________"No need for inquiry into Afghan detainee torture, Liberals say. No need to find out who knew what and when, federal government says in response to e-petition", CBC News/Politics, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/afghan-canada-prisoners-1.3640411 (accessed 3 March 2017);
Photo of "Doug Elliott, a longtime gay rights activist and Toronto lawyer, is leading the case"
___________"Ottawa faces class-action lawsuit over fired LGBT civil servants. Statements of claim filed in Ontario and Quebec asking for a minimum of $600 million"", CBC News/ Politics, 1 November 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/lgbtq-class-action-lawsuit-1.3830310 (accessed 1 April 2017); includes VIDEO with lawyer Doug Elliott;
A report presented to the Liberals last June by the human rights group Egale, which Elliott helped author, urged the government to examine
how to compensate those who had suffered past discrimination. The organization said such a plan could involve individual compensation,
funding for programs and services, or a mixture of both.
Last week, the House of Commons defence committee voted unanimously for the Liberal government to order the military ombudsman
to investigate amend the service records of LGBT ex-military members who were given dishonourable discharges because of their sexual
___________"RCMP allege Vice-Admiral Norman fed cabinet secrets to Quebec shipbuilder. RCMP detail cosy, back channel relationship in shipbuilding leaks, with admiral referred to as 'our friend", CBC, 26 April 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/beta/news/politics/norman-leaks-inestigation-1.4085703 (accessed 27 April 2017);
____________"Red Cross repeatedly warned Canada of Afghan prison abuse: documents", The Canadian Press, Dec 2, 2009, available at (accessed 1 April 2017);
At one of the meetings, on June 2, 2006, at Kandahar Airfield, a military lawyer, the RCMP officer in charge of training Afghan police and some of Canada's diplomatic staff were all advised about potential torture at the hands of Afghan prison officials. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=1&frbg=&&indx=1&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&mode=Basic&vid=01LOC&ct=search&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&vl(freeText0)=%22military%20lawyer%22%20canada&dum=true&dstmp=1471640121231, accessed 19 August 2016);
___________"Senators issue warning over potential Mali peacekeeping mission: Liberal government must seek approval of Parliament before deployment takes place, senators say", CBC News, 28 November 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/senate-un-peacekeeping-1.3870950 (accessed 1 December 2016);
___________"Wounded soldiers face extra bureaucratic hurdle on way to benefits. Forces ombudsman says system of determining benefits 'defies logic' and must be changed", CBC News / Politics; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/veterans-benefits-determination-1.3760860 (accessed 16 December 2016);
Image source: linkedin.com/in/kiera-bridley-574a1a5b, accessed 28 February 2017
BRIDLEY, Kiera, Allied Unshackling: British, Canadian, and American Prisoner of War Diplomacy during the Shackling Reprisals, 1942-43, A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts In History Minnesota State University, Mankato Mankato, Minnesota. May 2014, iv, 83 leaves; available at http://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1290&context=etds (accessed 28 February 2017);
Prisoner of war studies have largely focused their research on the experiences of
the men and women within their captor countries. A lthough some country-specific work
has been done regarding prisoner of war policy, there has been a significant gap in
research regarding prisoner of war policy during the Second World War. This research
focuses on the convergence of prisoner of war policy and diplomatic relations between
Great Britain, Canada, and the United States during the shackling reprisals with Germany
from 1942-43. The shackling reprisals represented the first conjunction of the three
nations in diplomatic relations with Germany over the issue of prisoner of war policy. In
addition, as the first instance of prisoner of war diplomacy with Germany for both the
United States and Canada, the shackling reprisals signified the entrance of the Canadian
and United States governments into prisoner of war diplomacy with Germany during the
Second World War. The shackling of prisoners of war became a source of tension
between the Allies because of the nature of each nation’s role in the incident and
conflicting perspectives of the three governments on the issue. Through the examination
of the Canadian, British, and United States’ foreign correspondence, domestic and
individual leaders’ accounts, as well as the provisions of the prisoner of war conventions
in effect at the time, a detailed analysis of the interaction of the three governments over
prisoner of war policy and diplomacy during the shackling reprisals will be
accomplished. During the shackling reprisals, prisoner of war policy was based on the
relationships between the British, Canadian, and United States governments, individual
leaders and their respective interests. This work adds yet another dimension to the
fragmentary field of prisoner of war and military history by focusing on the top tiers of
British, Canadian, and United States military and government, ultimately fueling further
research in international POW studies.
Image source: (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 19
From the left: Bill Graham, David Bright and Jerry
Pitzul, 27 October 2005
BRIGHT, David, Louis-Vincent D’Auteuil, and Kathy Pentz, “Canada’s Military-Citizens:The Intersection of Military and Civilian Laws: Concurrent Jurisdiction between Military and Civilian Justice Systems”, Address delivered at the Nova Scotia Military Law Section, Canadian Bar Association Conference, Halifax, 1 December 2011), unpublished, cited in SAMSON, J. Jason, Changing Tactics : Rehabilitating Canadian Justice for
Traumatized Veterans, LL.M. thesis, Dalhousie University,
2012, xi, 201 leaves, at pp. 150 and 196;
BROCK, Major Barry, "Leadership, Command and the Canadian Charter
of Rights and Freedoms", Canadian Staff College, 1989; cited in
Martin Friedland's study for the Commission of Inquiry, Controlling
Misconduct in the Military: a Study prepared for the Commission
of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia,
supra, at p. 171, note 224;
Image source: www.dartefuneralhome.com/tribute/details/1312/Robert_George_Malcomson/obituary.html, accessed 27 December 2015
Robert George Malcomson, 1949-2009
BROCK UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES, "Robert George Malcomson Papers 1790s-2009 (non-inclusive) RG 200", Inventory: "2.11 RG 217 E627 box 001 no. 108, Richard C. Pomeroy, RG 53 Records of the Office of the Judge, Advocate General Court Marshal case file 1809- 1894 box 12 file G9", as seen at https://dr.library.brocku.ca/bitstream/handle/10464/3091/Robert%20Malcomson%20Papers%20RG%20200.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed 27 December 2015);
Brode Patrick, image source: http://www.osgoodesociety.ca/Author%20_Biographies/Brode_Patrick.html, accessed on 26 April 2014
BRODE, Patrick, 1950-, "Bruce Macdonald and the Drafting of
Canada's War Crimes Regulations -- 1945", (1995) 24 Law Society Gazette (Law
Society of Upper Canada) 274-282; also published in (March-April 1998) vol. 2, JAG Newsletter;
book image from http://www.osgoodesociety.ca/Books/Casual_Slaughters.html,
accessed on 26 April 2014
___________Casual Slaughters and Accidental Judgments : Canadian War Crimes Prosecutions, 1944-1948, Toronto ; Buffalo : Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press, c1997, xix, 290 p.,  p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.; available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=6z9EDAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT6&dq=%22Judge+Advocate+General%22+Canada&ots=tZ5a9_rhc6&sig=NjATSXGZrXLSVEHrH8O5ap444hU#v=onepage&q=%22Judge%20Advocate%20General%22%20Canada&f=false (accessed 11 August 2016);
Jean-Paul Brodeur, photo reproduced from http://fr.canoe.ca/infos/societe/archives/2010/04/20100427-170736.html (accessed on 31 March 2014)
BRODEUR, Jean-Paul, 1944-2010, "Force policière et force
militaire", in Frédéric Lemieux, 1975-, et Benoît Dupont,
1972-, sous la direction de, La
militarisation des appareils policiers, [Sainte-Foy,
Québec] : Presses de l'Université Laval, 2005, xii, 268 p. :
ill. ; 23 cm; -268, chapitre 2, aux pp. 41-56, ISBN:
2763782345; disponible à http://books.google.ca/books?id=t7LdP9sFe-0C&pg=PA41&lpg=PA41&dq=%22revue+Ethique+publique%22+brodeur&source=bl&ots=B_JeulxsCM&sig=4zsYY7udlXYkqOMRLi0CpVLP9Bw&hl=en&ei=U5TXTtWDHurp0QGTh-HpDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
(vérifié le 1er décembre 2011);
___________"Maintien et imposition de la paix en Somalie", (Partie 1) à http://conflits.revues.org/686 (Partie 2) à http://conflits.revues.org/688?lang=en#text (Partie 3) à http://conflits.revues.org/690 (vérifié, 28 aout 2015);
BRONSON CONSULTING GROUP, External Review of Defence Counsel
Services -- Final Report, Ottawa, 15 September 2009, 62
p.; this document is available to the public, see Department of
National Defence, Access to Information and Privacy file
A-2011-01559/ATIP (Analyst), dated 26 March 2012); Bronson
Consulting Group is located at 6 Monkland Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario,
Letter from DND Access to Information and Privacy Section and the Executive Summary of the Report (pp. 1-5 of the Report)
___________External Review of the Canadian Military Prosecution Service -- Final Report, Ottawa, 31 March 2008, 87 p. and Appendices A to N (further 35 p.); this Bronson Report was authored by Andrejs Berzins, Q.C. and Malcolm Lindsay, Q.C.; this document is referred to in the Annual Report of the Judge Advocate General, 2009-2010, at p. 41, note 3; this document is available to the public, see Department of National Defence, Access to Information and Privacy file A-2011-01559/ATIP (Analyst), dated 26 March 2012); Bronson Consulting Group is located at 6 Monkland Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 1Y9;
Letter from DND Access to Information and Privacy Section and the Executive Summary of the Report (pp. 8-17 of the Report)
BROSSEAU, Cédric, Le Canada face à l'Empire: La crise navale de 1910, maîtrise en histoire, Faculté des études supérieures et postdoctorales, Université d'Ottawa, 2010, vii, 179 p.; disponible à https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/handle/10393/28639 (vérifié le 24 février 2014);
La société canadienne s'enflamme en 1910 à la suite de l'introduction, par le premier ministre Sir Wilfrid Laurier, d'un projet de loi voulant l'organisation d'un service naval canadien. Que ce soit à la Chambre des communes, en assemblées populaires, en famille ou dans les médias, la défense maritime du Canada retient dorénavant l'attention des Canadiens. Présente au Canada sporadiquement depuis la Confédération, cette question, devenue fondamentale suite à l'émergence de nouvelles puissances militaires remettant en cause la domination de l'Empire britannique, force le Dominion à agir. Après des années de tentatives évitées ou avortées, la question se pause directement : autonomie nationale ou participation impériale? Le débat qui en découle, la crise navale de 1910, divise profondément la société canadienne. Limitée trop souvent à un antagonisme entre Canadiens français et Canadiens anglais par l'historiographie, cette crise traverse aisément les frontières ethniques traditionnelles du pays. En effet, elle résulte principalement d'un affrontement entre autonomistes et impérialistes, chacun avançant un programme spécifique quant à l'avenir souhaité du Dominion. Grandement intéressée par la question, la population s' active et intervient au sien du débat via diverses organisations populaires, en écrivant à ses représentants politiques et en participant à des assemblées publiques. Les médias sont eux aussi captivés, les journaux du pays abordant abondamment le sujet pendant la crise. Ainsi, cette dernière s'avère une véritable crise nationale, les tendances autonomistes et impérialistes s'étalant sur l'ensemble du territoire tout en divisant presque également le peuple canadien. (source de la citation: https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/28639, visité le 8 janvier 2015)
BROWN, D.W., Lieutenant-Colonel, "Real Problems in the Virtual World: International Law Priorities Regarding Cyber-Conflict", Canadian Forces College, JCSP 42, Exercise Solo Flight, 2016, 27 leaves, available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/318/305/Brown.pdf (accessed 15 August 2016);
Image source: www.canadianlawyermag.com/legalfeeds/blog/Jennifer-Brown.html, accessed 15 September 2016
BROWN, Jennifer, "JAG offers lessons learned to in-house counsel", 22 April 2013, available athttp://www.canadianlawyermag.com/4623/JAG-offers-lessons-learned-to-in-house-counsel.html (accessed 16 April 2016);
Currently in his third year of a four-year appointment, Cathcart shared his formula for success.
Lesson 1: Find and recruit the right people
“This may sound trite but the obviousness of this rule leads to a risk that we treat recruiting and hiring as a routine practice and not what it truly is, which is the first step in building our organization for tomorrow. We need to treat every new hire as if they are one day going run the organization. We should do our best to hire those who demonstrate potential as lawyers, as managers, and importantly as leaders,” he said.
Lesson 2: Invest in the education and training of your people
“Seek and identify future stars from within. Our succession plan is designed to continually develop the legal officers.” Some officers in the JAG office receive fully subsidized education at the masters-degree level in international, air and space, and constitutional law. About 25 per cent of all officers in the JAG have post-grad degrees in law.
Lesson 3: Build a strong team
“One of the sure-fire ways to get dedicated and high-performance people is create an atmosphere of mutual support and confidence,” said Cathcart. “This is especially important when your team is small or geographically dispersed.”
Lesson 4: Know the client and the business
“For me and my team the client is the Crown; the executive branch of the Canadian government. We have to understand their goals.”
Lesson 5: Trust your people
“There’s always a risk that a young legal officer alone halfway around the world in the middle of the night is going to make a mistake. That is unavoidable but can be mitigated by applying lessons 1 to 4.
BROWN, Richard, "The Militia and French Canada 1760-1855", 4
December 2010; available at http://richardjohnbr.blogspot.ca/2010/12/militia-and-french-canada-1760-1855.html
(accessed on 1 May 2014);
Capt Bob Holman, left, receiving his CD from LCol Fraser Brownlee
BROWNLEE, Fraser, Note: LCol F. Brownlee giving the CD medal to Captain Robin Frazer Holman, a MLTP officer studying at Queen's University School, "Personnel: Honours & Awards", (July to December 1998 4(1) JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités du JAG;
Photo source: https://twitter.com/jimbronskill, accessed 27 May 2016
BROWNSKILL, Jim, "Canada's electronic spy agency broke privacy law by sharing info: watchdog", Toronto Sun, 28 January 2016; available at http://www.torontosun.com/2016/01/28/canadas-electronic-spy-agency-broke-privacy-law-by-sharing-info-watchdog (accessed 27 May 2016);discusses rtestimony of Jean-Pierre Plouffe, a former JAG officer;
___________"Murray vented frustration, defensiveness -- experts; ADMIRAL'S ANGER", Edmonton Journal, Jan 30, 1997, p. A.3;
Description: An air of calm returned to the proceedings Wednesday following the previous day's dust-up between Vice-Admiral Larry Murray and inquiry chairman Gilles Letourneau -- a remarkable verbal altercation that observers say the acting chief of defence staff likely regrets. Letourneau reprimanded Murray for giving lengthy, detailed answers to what the chair considered straightforward questions about why the officer delayed ordering a military police probe of the 1993 fatal shooting of a Somali civilian. Some observers believe Murray, looking tired and drawn, simply let loose after months of watching military personnel under his command face very pointed questions from commissioners and lawyers. His predecessor, Gen. Jean Boyle, was subjected to more than a week of tough questioning and resigned as chief of defence staff after appearing weak and brow-beaten in the eyes of many. [source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=4&frbg=&indx=31&fn=search&dscnt=1&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Gilles%20Letourneau%20military&dstmp=1475765713416, accessed 6 October 2016; Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved]
accessed 16 May 2016
BRUYEA, Sean, "How Ottawa Controls #Veterans #Canada - By Sean BRUYEA - Advocacy Advisor for Veterans Canada", available at http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sp5p2d (accessed 9 January 2017);
____________ Remembrance Forgotten: Seventy Years of Neglect and Our Obligation to Canadian Forces Veterans, thesis, 2016; available at http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/34775 (accessed 11 August 2016);
Military service places demands upon serving members unparalleled in civilian life. Serving in the Canadian Forces (CF) is no different. The sacrifice required to wear a CF uniform extends far beyond the commonly understood injuries and fatalities of military combat, peacekeeping and routine training accidents. Like all militaries, the CF employs complex cultural, psychological and socialization processes that molds and reconditions civilians into highly disciplined and moralized individuals willing to enter harm’s way and kill or be killed. Although these complex processes may be beneficial to military objectives, they can be highly detrimental to successful reintegration into civilian society. Yet Canada has never articulated a tangible universal obligation to assist CF veterans in overcoming or compensating for the consequences of military service. Do we have a universal obligation to our CF veterans? Why? What would be the nature of a universal obligation to our CF veterans? This thesis seeks to answer these questions. Contrary to popular perception, military life is a moral life. Such morality is the bitter enemy of duplicitous rhetoric and government inaction. These deeply indoctrinated moral values are also the measuring stick for the highly unequal sacrifice that CF members have endured on behalf of Canada and Canadians and the complete absence of any obligation we have reciprocated for their service. For these reasons and more, as a nation and as individuals, we have a substantive universal obligation to all our CF veterans to comprehensively assist them in making their life out of uniform at least as successful and rewarding as it was in military service.
BRYDEN, Joan, "[Defence Minister David Collenette says Canada's tarnished...]", CanWest News, Aug 1, 1996, p.1;
Description: Defence Minister [David Collenette] said Thursday he believes the system needs to be changed, starting with a thorough review by a parliamentary committee. Scott Taylor, publisher of Esprit de Corps magazine and one of the fiercest critics of the system, said reform of the military's brand of justice is long overdue. He suggested Collenette has finally agreed to a review only because the abuse of the system has become too evident to ignore. What's it mean: Collenette is responding to mounting evidence from the Somalia scandal that the military justice system is neither independent nor impartial and is ill-equipped to handle serious criminal cases.
___________"Minister Wants Overhaul of Military Justice System", The Ottawa Citizen, 2 August 1996, p. A4;
Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/rachael-bryson-182b5897, accessed 15 August 2016
BRYSON, Rachael, The Impacts of Unification and Civilianization on the Culture of the Canadian Forces, 1968-1993, A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of masters of strategic studies, Calgary: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, September 2012, 96 leaves; available at http://theses.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/11023/209/4/Ucalgary_2012_Bryson_Rachael.pdf (accessed on 2 may 2014);
In 1993 the Canadian Forces faced a crisis that reached across all levels of the institution when the events of the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia became publicknowledge. The report forthcoming from the civilian Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia uncovered a deeply flawed organization, rife with
personnel unfit for duty, a dearth of leadership, and lacking organizational direction. One of the major questions that arose within public and academic discourse following the release of the report was how the Canadian Forces had reached this point of crisis.
This thesis argues that two major institutional changes- unification in 1968 and civilianization in 1972- had profoundly negative impacts on the culture of the Canadian Forces,and are key to understanding the military’s fall from grace. Using the theory of sociological neo-institutionalism to understand change within military organizations, this thesis will demonstrate a strong correlation between unification, civilianization, and the cultural changes experienced by the Canadian Forces during this period. Leadership will be used as a qualitative indicator for measuring the changes in the military’s culture.
BUDNICK, Sharon, "Military Justice in Action: New Book blueprint
for modernizing military law justice", Esprit de Corps --
Canadian Military Than & Now, volume 22, number 6, p. 48; on Drapeau and Létourneau's book;
BURCHETT, Bruce M. (Bruce Myatt), 1947-, Race
and the AWOL offender : the effect of the defendant's race on
the outcome of courts-martial involving absence without leave,
thesis (Ph.D.)--Carleton University, 1984; deals with US AWOL; available at https://curve.carleton.ca/c9f57a93-289a-4b56-986c-22ca42d64a6d (accessed 15 August 2016);
BURCHILL, Heather, "Nova Scotia's Law Week 2010 -- Bringing
Military Law to the Community", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx
(accessed on 30
BURCHILL, Heather, "La semaine du droit en Nouvelle-Écosse", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx et http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#article9 (site visité le 30 avril 2012);
BUREAU OF PENSIONS ADVOCATES, Veterans Affairs Canada, see http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/about-us/organization/bureau-pensions-advocates/team (accessed 17 September 2016);
BUREAU DE SERVICES JURIDIQUES DES PENSIONS, Anciens Combattants Canada, voir http://www.veterans.gc.ca/fra/about-us/organization/bureau-pensions-advocates/team (accessed 17 September 2016)
The BPA Team
The Bureau operates under the direction of the Executive Director and Chief Pensions Advocate and is assisted by two Directors; Director,
Legal Operations and Director, Strategic Planning and Management Support. BPA also has 14 Offices across Canada, each staffed by at least
one lawyer, as well as an Appeal Unit in Charlottetown comprised of a team of lawyers. All Pensions Advocates are lawyers and members of
their respective law societies.
Équipe du BSJP
Le Bureau est dirigé par le directeur exécutif et chef avocat-conseil des pensions, qui est épaulé par deux directeurs, à savoir le directeur, Opérations
juridiques, et le directeur, Planification stratégique et Soutien de gestion. Le BSJP se compose également de 14 bureaux de district, répartis à travers le
Canada, dont chacun comprend au moins un avocat. Il compte ausssi une unité d’appel située à Charlottetown, qui comprend une équipe d’avocats. Les
avocats des pensions sont tous membres de leur barreau provincial respectif.
BURGESS, Mark, "Military shouldn't investigate sexual assaults in
Canadian Forces, say experts", The Hill Times on Line,
published on 06/02/2014; available at http://www.hilltimes.com/news/news/2014/06/02/military-shouldnt-investigate-sexual-assaults-in-canadian-forces-say-experts/38662?page_requested=1
(accessed on 7 June 2014);
Image https://www.facebook.com/annemarie.burns.374, accessed 15 August 2016
Anne-Marie Burns with child
BURNS, Anne-Marie, La sous-traitance d'activités militaires par l'État au secteur privé : une entorse aux règles du droit international humanitaire, mémoire de thèse pour le grade LL.M., Université Laval, 2011, x, 163 p., disponible à [Consulter le document] (vérifié le 28 février 2012);
BURT, Alfred LeRoy, 1888-1971, "The happy days of the military regime" in The French Canadians, 1759-1766, Vancouver : Copp Clark Pub., c1966, at pp. 34-42; article noted in my research but not consulted yet (7 October 2015); note: "A.L. Burt, The old Province of Quebec, (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1933), pp.13-56";
BUTTON, Maj. T.J., "Targeted Killings and International Humanitarian Law", JCSP 40, Exercise Solo Flight, 2014, 13 pages; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/301/305/Button.pdf (accessed 2 February 2017);
image source: http://188.8.131.52/Laurentian/Home/Departments/Georgian/Meet+our+Faculty/Dr.+Daniel+Byers.htm?Laurentian_Lang=en-CA,
accessed 10 February 2015
BYERS, Daniel Thomas, 1968-, Mobilizing Canada : the National Resources Mobilization Act, the Department of National Defence, and compulsory military service in Canada, Ph.D. thesis in History, McGill University, 2000; available at http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/view/action/singleViewer.do?dvs=1324081606028~338&locale=en_US&show_metadata=false&VIEWER_URL=/view/action/singleViewer.do?&DELIVERY_RULE_ID=6&adjacency=N&application=DIGITOOL-3&frameId=1&usePid1=true&usePid2=true (accessed on 15 December 2011)
Table of Contents
List of Tables and Figures
Part 1: The Historical Legacy
1 Conscription and Canadian History, 1627-1939
Part 2: The National Resources Mobilization Act and the Rise of the Big Army
2 Mobilizing Canada: The Creation of the Thirty-Day Training System, 1939-40
3 Enshrining the NRMA: Compulsory Military Service, 1940-41
4 Creating the "Big Army": Conscription and Army Expansion, 1941-43
Part 3: Canadian Conscripts and Their Experiences during the War
5 Canada’s Zombies, Part 1: A Statistical Portrait
6 Canada’s Zombies, Part 2: Life in Uniform
Part 4: The Fall of the Big Army
7 "No stone … Unturned": The Failure of Conscription and the Big Army, 1943-44
8 Revolt or Realization? The NRMA and the Conscription Crisis of 1944
Part 5: The Aftermath
Epilogue: Conscription and Canadians in the Second World War
Appendix 1: The National Resources Mobilization Act, 1940
Archival Sources Consulted
[source: http://www.ubcpress.ca/search/title_book.asp?BookID=299175030, accessed 3 June 2016]
BYERS, Michael, "Affidavit." In Report Filed in Federal Court, Amnesty International Canada and British Colombia Civil Liberties Association v Chief of the Defence Staff for the Canadian Forces, Minister of National Defence and Attorney General of Canada, Court File Number T-324-07, 2007, http://www.bccla.org/antiterrorissue/afghan_detainee_litigation.html; researh note: title noted in my research but affidavit not consulted yet (7 September 2016);
___________ "Canada's Retreat from Laws of War: Why do we
still collude with torturers?, 25 Nov 2005, TheTypee.ca, available
(accessed on 21 December 2011);
___________"Canadian Armed Forces under US Command", Report commissioned by the Simons Centre for Peace and Disarmament Studies, Liu Centre for the Study of Global Issues University of British Columbia Final Report, 06 May 2002; available at http://liu.xplorex.com/sites/liu/files/Publications/25Apr2002CanadianArmedForces.pdf (accessed on 21 May 2012); with the same title in (2002) 58 International Journal 89-114, available at http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/faculty_scholarship/2881/ (accessed 7 January 2016);
___________"[Legal Opinion on the December 18, 2005] Arrangement for the Transfer of Detainees Between the Canadian Forces and the Ministry of Defence of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan", 7 April 2006, Amnesty International Canada v. Canada .  F.C. 336 (Can.), see footnote 191 of the article John B. Bellinger III and Vijay M. Padmanabhan, "Detention Operations in Contemporary Conflicts : Four Challenges for the Geneva Conventions and Other Existing law", (2011) 105 The American Journal of International Law 201 available at p. 235;
___________"Transfer of detainees is complicity in torture. The world's most respected human rights organization has just accused this country of complicity in torture. Canadians should hang their heads in shame", www.thestar.com/opinion, Toronto Star, 14 November 2007; available at https://www.thestar.com/opinion/2007/11/14/transfer_of_detainees_is_complicity_in_torture.html (accessed 8 October 2016);
___________"Transferring to Torture: Canada Human Rights and Detainees", available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-fezviKVpo (accessed 7 October 2016); Michael Byers in the video is introduced by Gail Davidson;
Michael Byers examines whether the transfer of people captured in Afghanistan by the Canadian Armed Forces to Afghan authorities violated international law including the Geneva Conventions, the Convention against Torture and the Rome Statute. Michael Byers was the Canada Research Chair in Global Politics at UBC. He writes speaks and teaches about the use of military forces, human rights, terrorism and international law. Professor Byers is the author of many books including War Law: Understanding International Law and Armed Conflict.
___________War Law: Understanding International Law and Armed Conflict, Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 2005, 224 p.;
BYERS, Michael and William A Schabas,"Canadian War Criminals? (27 April 2007B) The Tyee <http://thetyee.ca/Views/2007/04/27/WarCrime/
BYERS, R.B. (Roddick Beaumont), "The Canadian Military and the use of Force: End of an Era?", (1975) 30 International Journal 284-298;
___________"Perceptions of Parliamentary Surveillance of the Executive: The Case of Canadian Defence Policy", (1972) 5 Canadian Journal of Political Science 234-250;
.estimony before the Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans
Affairs on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts, meeting 61, 11 May 1998, see minutes and evidence;
____________"Reorganization of the Canadian Armed Forces: Parliamentary, Military and Interest Group Perceptions", Carleton University, 1971, thesis, Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Political Science, 464 leaves; available at https://curve.carleton.ca/theses/21366 (accessed on 8 January 2015);
Mr. David Price (Compton—Stanstead, PC): Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Chief Justice Dickson and General Belzile, welcome to our committee. We're honoured to have you here, particularly since you can give us a lot more in-depth insight into this bill that we are studying. You are the experts in it.
I wanted to follow up on a question that Mr. Proud started with. You seem generally satisfied with the bill as it stands, but maybe what I'm looking for is—I'll give you an example. In chapter 1 of your report you state:
We have not been persuaded that it is workable or desirable to design a system of military justice that functions radically differently depending on the particular context
Instinctively I agree with this, and the arguments you found that were most convincing of this— In line with that, it's my impression that Bill C-25 moves military justice a little closer to the civilian courts. Is that what you intended?
Mr. Brian Dickson: Yes, it was, in part because of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which affects not only non-military people but also military people. It's something that we were thinking about every day, particularly in the drafting of these reports. So the more we can bring it, from a practical point of view, in line with the civilian practice, I think the better, but recognizing that the Canadian Forces, whether army, navy or air force, are likely to be serving in other parts of the world, and those facts have to be taken into account.