Canadian Military Law -- Part II
Bibliography A to B /
Droit militaire canadien -- Partie II
Bibliographie A à B
sites on Canadian military law
Part II -- Bibliography: A-B--C-D--E-G--H-L--M-R--S-Z
I -- Canadian Military Law --
Inquiry & Government Reaction
- 1995-1997: Somalia Inquiry
- Departmental Reaction to Somalia Inquiry
- Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services
January 1997 to July 1997
- The Special Senate Committee on the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia (April 1997)
- The Report to the Prime Minister on the Leadership and Management of the Canadian Forces (March 1997)
- Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change in the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces (October 1997 to 1999)
- Bill C-25--An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
(Royal Assent, 10 December 1998)
- 2003 -- Five Year Review of Bill C-25
- 2011 -- Second Five Year Review of Bill C-25
Bills 1999-2012 on National Defence Act
Affairs -- Sexual Misconduct
Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-2017
& DND Web Sites
Regulations and Orders
- Superseded Legislation
Sites of Interest
Bibliography A to
Bibliographie A à B
source: davidprattandassociates.com/jerry-pitzul/, accessed 11 May
45E NORD.CA, La rédaction, "Lancement
d’un projet proposé par Roméo Dallaire d’aide en matière de
justice pénale pour les vétérans", 4 mai 2017, disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/2017/05/un-projet-pilote-daide-en-matiere-de-justice-pour-les-veterans-lancee-en-nouvelle-ecosse/
(vérifié le 11 mai 2017);
Le ministre des Anciens Combattants et ministre associé de la Défense nationale, Kent Hehr, s’est joint aujourd’hui à Pamela S. Williams,
juge en chef de la Cour provinciale et du tribunal de la famille de la Nouvelle-Écosse, afin de lancer un partenariat visant à appuyer les
vétérans qui ont des démêlés avec le système de justice pénale de cette province, tel que proposé par le lieutenant-général (ret) et ancien
sénateur Roméo Dallaire.
L’initiative proposée par le général à la retraite qui aura bientôt 71 ans et qui est toujours très impliqué dans les causes qui lui tiennent à
cœur comme les enfants-soldats et le sort des vétérans, pourrait ensuite être étendue à l’ensemble du pays.
En 2015, Anciens Combattants Canada a reçu une proposition du Lgén (retraité) Roméo Dallaire dans laquelle il demandait au Ministère
de lancer un projet pilote visant à vérifier la faisabilité d’un programme d’aide en matière de justice pour les vétérans au Canada. Depuis
ce temps, le Mgén (ret) Jerry Pitzul travaille de près avec la province de la Nouvelle-Écosse et le Ministère afin de
déterminer la portée d’un tel projet.
L’initiative d’aide en matière de justice pour les vétérans annoncée aujourd’huki est le premier projet de ce type au Canada. Le but de
cette initiative est de mieux identifier et retracer les vétérans et leur éviter l’incarcération. Le ministre Hehr dit croire que la mise en
œuvre de ce projet en Nouvelle-Écosse lui permettra d’établir des ententes similaires avec les provinces et les territoires du Canada.
45E NORD.CA, "Parcourir
Justice/Enquête: Tous les articles concernant les affaires
judiciaires touchant les Forces armées canadiennes. Actuel
grand prévôt: brigadier-général Rob Delaney", disponible à http://www.45enord.ca/category/forces-canadiennes-2/justiceenquete/
(vérifié le 1er janvier 2017)
Image source: in the article
"15519 Captain Sandra S Macleod (Hawes) (RMC 1986)",
everitas, posted by rmcclub, 14 April 2009, available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?m=20090%2Fes_search%2F--&paged=37
(accessed 1 May 2016);
Where do you work? Chilly Beach Studios March Entertainment, Sudbury, ON and part-time as a legal officer with the Office of Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces (International law)
I originally chose the Royal Military College because of the Regular Officer Training Program (ROTP) with the Canadian Forces. Under this program, they paid me to study. It was a great program
which I highly recommend other students to consider.
If your schooling or work was away from your family, what was/is this like? I did two tours with the Canadian Forces away from my family (Bosnia and the Persian Gulf). During Canada’s response
to the 9/11 attacks, I was away from my family for 7 months. It was difficult but we all survived. As I was starting to be away from my family (more and more), this eventually contributed to my decision to take the job here in Sudbury.
[additional research note: the above image of LCdr Macleod also made the front cover of the JAG Les actualités --Newsletter, Volume 1 --2004]:
"204.01.01 Military Justice Review", available at http://www.scribd.com/doc/40085317/204-01-01-Military-Justice-Review
(accessed on 5 May 2012);
"2011 Military Law Conference", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx
(accessed on 30
"Conférence 2011 en droit militaire", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx et http://www.cba.org/pd/details_fr.aspx?id=NA_MIL11 (site visité le 30 avril 2012);
source de l'image: link.library.utoronto.ca/broadsides/digobject.cfm?Idno=CAP08005&Page=0001&Size=4&query=CAP08005&searchtype=Fulltext&strategy=all&lang=all&sort=title&refine=no&photo=on&startrow=1&transcript=off
Les pères de la Confédération avaient compris qu'en demandant à l'Angleterre des libertés plus grandes que celles que les Canadiens
possédaient sous l'Union, ils devaient aussi accepter de plus grandes obligations et en premier lieu celle de pourvoir à la défense
de leur pays en organisant un service militaire pour la protection des intérêts territoriaux et UN SERVICE NAVAL pour la protection
des intérêts maritimes. La première session du premier parlement canadien fut tenue en 1868 et l'une des premières lois qui y furent adoptées fut la suivante : "ACTE CONCERNANT LA MILICE ET LA DÉFENSE DU CANADA." Cette loi fut sanctionnée le 22 mai 1868. Comme on le verra par les citations qui sont faites ci-après, cette loi respectait les prescriptions de l'article 15 de notre constitution
en attribuant au Roi régnant le commandement en chef des milices de terre ET DE MER et de toutes les forces militaires et NAVALES en Canada. Elle décrétait qu'il y aurait un ministre de la milice et de la défense auquel serait attribué la responsabilité et [l'administration des affaires du ressort de la milice, des fortifications des CHALOUPES CANONNIÈRES et des équipages de guerre appartenant au Canada. Elle décrétait de plus que la milice se composerait de tous les habitants mâles du Canada âgés de 18 ans et plus et de moins de 60 ans. Cette loi divisait la milice en MILICE ACTIVE et la MILICE de RÉSERVE. LA MILICE ACTIVE devait se composer de LA MILICE VOLONTAIRE et de LA MILICE RÉGULIÈRE. La milice régulière était celle que l'on pouvait obliger au service. LA MILICE ACTIVE COMPRENAIT AUSSI LA MILICE NAVALE QUI ÉTAIT COMPOSÉE DE MARINS, MATELOTS ET PERSONNES ORDINAIREMENT EMPLOYÉES SUR LES EMBARCATIONS A VOILES OU A VAPEUR NAVIGUANT DANS LES EAUX DE LA PUISSANCE. Dans le cas où on avait besoin de soldats pour l'armée de terre ou de MARINS pour l' ARMÉE NAVALE, si les volontaires ne venaient pas offrir leurs services en-nombre suffisant, la loi décrétait que le recrutement se ferait par le TIRAGE AU SORT. Tous ceux qui faisaient partie de la milice MILITAIRE ET NAVALE (c'est-à-dire tous les hommes de plus de 18 ans et de moins de 60 ans) pouvaient être appelés au TIRAGE AU SORT. C'était le service OBLIGATOIRE auquel tout homme de 18 à 60 pouvait être astreint. 10 La milice militaire et la MILICE NAVALE pouvaient être appelées en service actif par SA MAJESTÉ, le ROI ou la Reine. Voici ce que disait l'article 61 du statut : " SA MAJESTÉ pourra appeler, en tout ou en partie, la milice au service actif, dans ou hors la Puissance, lorsque la chose sera en aucun temps jugée à propos " Cette loi subit en 1883 quelques modifications de détail, et elle fut reproduite dans les statuts du Canada de 1886 sous le chapitre 41. Cette loi de 1886 RESTA EN VIGUEUR JUQU'EN 1904 pour ce qui s'appliquait à LA MILICE DE TERRE et elle resta en vigueur jusqu'au 4 mai 1910 pour tout ce qui concernait LA MILICE ET LES FORCES NAVALES. A l'appui de ce que nous venons d'affirmer, nous citons l'article 136 de la loi 4 Edouard VII, chap. 23, et l'article 63 de la loi 9 et 10 Edouard VII, chap. 43. " 4 Edouard VII, Chap. 23, Sect. 136 LES ACTES SUIVANTS du Parlement du Canada SONT ABROGÉS en ce QU'ILS CONCERNENT LES TROUPES DE TERRE DE LA MILICE ACTIVE OU DE RÉSERVE, savoir le Chap. 41 des Statuts Revisés, intitulé : " Acte concernant la Milice et la Défense du Canada " " 9-10 Ed. VII, Chap. 43, Sect. 53, EST ABROGÉ LE CHAPITRE 41 DES STATUTS REVISÉ8, 1886, intitulé : "Loi concernant la Milice et la Défense du Canada" EN CE QUI CONCERNE LES FORCES NAVALES DE LA MILICE ACTIVE ET DE RÉSERVE.
[extrait pp. 9-10]
"The Abbaye Ardenne Case. Trial of SS Brigadefuhrer Kurt Meyer, Canaddian Military Court, Aurich, Germany, 10th-28, December, 1945, Law-Reports of Trials of War Criminals, The United Nations War Crimes Commission, Volume IV, London, HMSO, 1948, available at https://archive.li/jvbfr (accessed 17 July 2017); see also http://www.worldcourts.com/imt/eng/decisions/1945.12.28_Canada_v_Meyer.pdf;
Kirby Abbott (right) with Marc Philippe in Somalia, photo reproduced from McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, infra., at p. 156.
ABBOTT, Donald Kirby, "Persons Protected by the IHL in International Armed Conflicts : the Law and Current Conflicts" in Proceedings of the Bruges Colloquium -- Scope and Applicability of International Humanitarian Law, 13th Bruges Coloquium, 18-19 October 2012, Collegium, number 43, Autumn 2013, at pp. 47-58, available at https://www.coleurope.eu/sites/default/files/uploads/page/collegium_43_webversie.pdf (accessed on 3 November 2014);
Abbott, image source: https://www.linkedin.com/pub/kirby-abbott/a1/974/89a?trk=pub-pbmap,
accessed 15 March 2015
___________Mr. Kirby Abbott is also a contributor to the following book: Andrew Carswell, editor, and ICRC, Handbook on international rules governing military operations, Geneva : ICRC, 2013, 459 p. at p. 11 (for the list of contributors), 23 cm (Collection; Reference), ISBN: 9782940396320; Andrew Carswell is a former JAG member; available at https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/publications/icrc-002-0431.pdf (accessed on 2 March 2015);
Image source: http://www.mafhq.mil.my/mpc/index.php/en/joomla-pages-iii/categories-list/36-artikel-visit?start=10 (accessed 1 January 2015)
Kirby Abbott, the Armed and Security Forces Delegate, ICRC,
with the Malaysian Peacekeeping Centre's Commandant on 7 January 2015.
___________notes on Mr. Kirby Abbott:
International Committee of the Red Cross - ICRC-Armed Forces Delegate For South East Asia and the Pacific.
Retired as a Colonel in the Canadian Forces' Office of the Judge Advocate General, and a former Assistant Legal Advisor at NATO Military Headquarters after 25 years of service. Focused on operational and strategic legal advice relating to all aspects of use of force issues (training, planning, execution, post op inquiries/litigation) and strategic legal engagement.
The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Master of Laws (LL.M.) (distinction, Lauterpacht prize in public international program 2000-2001 (source: https://www.linkedin.com/pub/kirby-abbott/a1/974/89a?trk=pub-pbmap, accessed 15 March 2015).
_____________"Terrorists: Criminals, Combatants or ...? The Question of Combatancy", in Canadian Council on International Law, The measures of International Law, Effectiveness, Fairness and Validity, 2004, Proceedings of the annual conference - Canadian Council on International Law: Travaux du congrès annuel - Conseil canadien de droit international Travaux du congrès annuel - Conseil canadien de droit international, Ottawa : Canadian Council on International Law, 2004, at p. 336-385; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (21 January 2012); other reference: "Abbott, Kirby, Lieutenant-Colonel. "'Terrorists: Criminals, Combatants Or .... ?' The Question of Combatancy (Panel D-2)." In The Measure of International Law: Effectiveness, Fairness and Validity - Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Council on International Law, Ottawa, October 24-26, 2002 edited by Canadian Council on International Law, New York: Kluwer Law International, 2004 366-85." (source of that last reference is from LEHRE, Eric J., 1949-, Canada-US Military Interoperability at what Cost Sovereignty?, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 2012, infra);
Image source: http://www.redcross.ca/cmslib/general/depliant_chil190905eng.pdf, accessed 1 May 2016
ABBOTT, LCol Kirby, Legal Director of Training, Canadian Forces' of the JAG and Mr. Geoffrey Corn, Assistant Professor of law, South Texas College of Law, Facilitators, "The impact of the ICRC study in military training", in [Report on the ] Canadian Red Cross, International Conference, Customary International Humanitarian Law: challenges, practices and debates, September29, 30 and October 1, 2005, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, available at http://www.redcross.ca/crc/documents/3-7-3-4_int_crc_mcgill_conference_report_eng.pdf (accessed 1 May 2016);
The last question debated focused on the increasing academic interest and possible reliance on scholarly
writing as potential evidence of customary IHL and the need to increase the dialogue between academia and
the military legal community. Important initiatives, such as this conference were acknowledged for being
essential steps for positive exchanges between academic and military communities as well as the involvement
of military personnel in research institutes and the creation of opportunities for consultations with armed
forces and civil society contributing to government policy decisions. Despite the agreement reached on the
positive aspects of the interaction between academia and armed forces, two difficulties were raised. First the
need to accommodate the strategic necessity of confidentiality of plans, means and methods of warfare and
second, the lack of agreement on the meaning of general legal concepts (e.g. proportionality). In both cases
the analysis cannot be oversimplified as a matter of legality and must be dealt with on a case-by-case basis. [p. 15]
Image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/training-establishments/recruit-school.page, accessed 14 May 2016
Lieutenant-Colonel Dave Abboud
ABBOUD, Dave, Army Command and General Staff Coll Fort Leavenworth, KS, Safeguarding Canadian Arctic Sovereignty Against Conventional Threats, Thesis dissertation, 2009, 95 p.; see bibliography at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/39962427_Safeguarding_Canadian_arctic_sovereignty_against_conventional_threats (accessed 14 May 2016);
The effects of climate change as well as national interests over control of vast amounts of natural resources in the Arctic seem to be destabilizing the
geostrategic environment involving the circumpolar states. A traditional conflict scenario in the near future is not out of the question, particularly if
the legal framework governing the region, the United Nations Law of the Sea Treaty, proves inadequate to address the full range of issues in the region
and fails to resolve territorial claims. Canada has ongoing disputes with the United States, Russia, and Denmark concerning the Arctic region and has
recently reaffirmed its commitment to its national sovereignty. The primary research question posed by this thesis is as follows: Does Canada have the
necessary military capabilities for Arctic operations to deter and counter conventional threats to its sovereignty in the Arctic? There are three secondary
questions: What is the current geostrategic environment in the Arctic region, including the potential for conflict?; What are the national interests, policies,
and military capabilities of Canada, the United States, Russia, and Denmark regarding the Arctic?; and After comparing each country's military capabilities
for Arctic operations and identifying a gap in Canadian military capabilities, how should Canada proceed to ensure its sovereignty in the Arctic? The
results of the comparative analysis of military capabilities for Arctic operations establishes that Canada does not have the necessary military capabilities to
deter and counter conventional threats to its sovereignty in the Arctic. Consequently, Canada should leverage the other means of national power, specifically
its existing multilateral security and defense agreements, to ensure its sovereignty in the Arctic region.
(source: http://www.worldcat.org/title/safeguarding-canadian-arctic-sovereignty-against-conventional-threats/oclc/436205726&referer=brief_results, accessed 2 March 2016);
ABCA [American, British, Canadian, Australian], Coalition Operations handbook, edition 4, 14 April 2008; available at http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/AIWFC/COIN/repository/COH.pdf (accessed 26 September 2015);
accessed 11 February 2015
ABEL, Ali, "Armed Forces lawyers must be prepared for anything, students hear. Major-General Blaise Cathcart presents an alternative career at annual Howard Lecture", 11 February 2015, available at http://www.ucalgary.ca/utoday/issue/2015-02-11/armed-forces-lawyers-must-be-prepared-anything-students-hear, accessed 11 February 2015;
image from the article
___________"Bomb explosion sets career change in motion for Canadian soldier, now a law student. Ryan Shudra balances law studies with role as master corporal with Calgary Highlanders", University of Calgary Today, 18 March 2016, available at https://www.ucalgary.ca/utoday/issue/2016-03-18/bomb-explosion-sets-career-change-motion-canadian-soldier-now-law-student (accessed 14 September 2016);.
Image source: news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/in-flood-ravaged-high-river-canadian-soldiers-find-something-resembling-a-war-zone, accessed 18 September 2016 (photo by Jordan Verlage, Canadian Press)
ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT, Released documents to Mr. Dennis R. Young, Airdrie, Alberta, under NDHQ, Access to Information and Privacy file letter A-2014-00169, 18 August 2014; file available at http://new.nfa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/DND-ATI-Response-Role-in-High-River-Law-Enforcement-Aug-18-2014.pdf (accessed 18 September 2016) and on my hard drive file: MY DOCUMENTS/YoungATI-A-2014-00169.pdf; the released documents show how section 273.6(1) and 273.6(2) of the National Defence Act are to be interpretated; for researchers interested in this file, Mr. Young subsequently wrote to Ms. Suzanne Legault, the Information Comissioner of Canada, letter dated 14 September 2014, available at http://new.nfa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Info-Commissioner-DND-High-River-Role-in-Law-Enforcement-Sept-14-2014.pdf (accessed 18 September 2016);
[The request by Mr. Young read as follows]
Copies of specific records related to the refusal of National Defence personnel to participate in the kicking in of doors to High River homes by the RCMP
even though the RCMP considered this activity as a search of "survivors". Copies of records that show the rationale used to justify the Canadian Armed
Forces personnel to provide transportation to the RCMP officers to the High River homes so they could kick in the doors and seize private property without
warrants. Copies of any records related to this apparent contradiction in the Canadian Force's interpretation of the Request for Assistance from the Alberta
Government and the orders given by the Minister of National Defence and/or their commanders in charge of the High River operation.
ACHESON SWEENEY FOLEY SAHOTA--PERSONAL INJURY EXPERTS, British Columbia, "CAF Sexual Harassment/Assault Class Action", web page, available at http://www.achesonlaw.ca/class-action/ (accessed 4 June 2017)
Leading personal injury law firm Acheson Sweeney Foley Sahota LLP files proposed class action
lawsuit alleging sexual harassment and assault of female and LGBTQ members of the Canadian Armed Forces.
Nicola Peffers, who trained and deployed out of CFB Esquimalt, is the first of many members of this class action
The purpose of this lawsuit is to change this culture systemic abuse and to provide survivors with a safe, open and
confidential space to speak their truth. We owe our service members better when they proudly sign up to serve their
nation, and receive abuse and assault in return.
John Adams, image source: Google Image, accessed on 4 June 2014
ADAMS, John, "The Government of Canada and Cyber Security :
Security Begins at Home", (2012) 14(2) Journal of Military Strategic Studies 1-27 ;
available at http://www.jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/viewFile/458/454
(accessed on 22 January 2012);
Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/jane-adams-roy-5a380126, accessed 8 July 2017
ADAMS-ROY, Jane E., The role of the lawful order in military leadership : necessary but insufficient ... or insufficient but necessary?, [S.l.]: Canadian Forces Leadership Institute, 2002, 38 leaves;
ADMIN, "JAG Deploys at the Law School", Canons of Construction, 10 January 2010;
available at http://www.canonsonline.com/index.php?s=JAG+Deploys
on 16 June 2012);
Admiral Memorandum on Naval Court-Martial Procedure, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1937, 185pp with changes in packet inside back cover. Text clean. Size: 4to - over 9¾" - 12" tall. Bookseller Inventory # 011969 at From DBookmahn's Used and Rare Military Books (Burke, VA, U.S.A.);
seen at https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=22419665505&searchurl=kn%3Dmilitary%2Blaw%2Bcanada%26sortby%3D1 (accessed 12 October 2017);
ADVISORY COMMISSION ON WAR CRIMES, CANADA, Ilsley, J.L. (James Lorimer), 1894-1967, War claims; report, February 25, 1952, also known as the Ilsley report on war claims, Ottawa : E. Cloutier, Queen's Printer, 1954, ix, 99 p., xi-xxii; 25 cm; title noted in my research but book not consulted yet (16 February 2017); copy at University of Ottawa, Library Annex, call number: UB 375 .C3 C34 1954;
AGENCE QMI, "Forces canadiennes: demande d’action collective pour discrimination raciale", Journal de Montréal, 21 décembre 2016; disponible à journaldequebec.com/2016/12/21/forces-canadiennes-demande-daction-collective-pour-discrimination-raciale (vérifié le 21 décembre 2016);
Les Forces canadiennes sont visées par une demande d’action collective, cette fois pour une question de discrimination raciale.
Deux hommes noirs et un autochtone soutiennent avoir été victimes d’insultes, de situations de harcèlement et de menaces «violentes» qui ont été «tolérées ou ignorées» alors qu’ils servaient dans l’armée, selon le document juridique déposé en Cour fédérale à Halifax en Nouvelle-Écosse, le 14 décembre dernier.
«Quand des personnes s'enrôlent dans les Forces canadiennes, elles s'attendent à servir, à promouvoir et à protéger les idéaux qui nous sont chers et dont nous profitons en tant que Canadiens, soit l'égalité, la justice fondamentale et la dignité humaine», a mentionné Me Scott Campbell, avocat représentant les trois plaignants, dans un communiqué publié mercredi.
Library of Congress
AHMAD, Tariq with the assistance of Law Library intern Ashley Munro, "Military Justice System: Adjudication of Sexual Offenses: Canada", Library of Congress, Law Library. Research and Reports, Current legal Topic, 2013, available at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/militaryjustice/canada.php (accessed on 4 December 2013); see also http://www.loc.gov/law/help/militaryjustice/2013-009638-final-report.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014);
Cpl. Jeffrey Kroetsch, a cook at the Edmonton Garrison Combined Mess, serving with 1 Service Battalion,
testified Wednesday at his court martial proceedings after pleading to one charge of stealing and one charge
of fraud a day earlier.
His pleas for help, as he spiralled into a whirl of alcohol abuse and drug dependence, went unanswered,
Kroetsch told his defence lawyer, Maj. A. [Alexandre] Gelinas-Proulx.
Kroetsch told prosecutor Maj. G.J. [Greg J.] Moorehead that he pleaded guilty to the theft and fraud because he wanted
to be accountable for his actions.
Image source: canada.com/health/Sheldon+Alberts+Amputation+gangrene+daily+reality+Canadian+field+hospital+Haiti/4020426/story.html, accessed 12 May 2017
Foreign military personnel, their dependant(s), and, in some cases, their civilian staff present in Canada in connection with their official duties, are subject to the criminal jurisdiction of both the Canadian civil (i.e. civilian) court and of their military courts.
Pursuant to Part II of the Visiting Forces Act R.S. c. V-6, the civil courts have the primary right to exercise jurisdiction in respect of any act or omission constituting an offence against any law in force in Canada alleged to have been committed by a member of a visiting force or a dependant, except the offence involves the property or security of the designated state, the person or property of another member of the visiting force, or a dependant, or an act done or anything omitted in the performance of official duty. In such cases, the visiting force’s service courts have the primary right to exercise jurisdiction.
Provision exists for the state having primary jurisdiction to waive its jurisdiction in favour of the other state. Canada's treaty obligations to NATO and the general principle of comity of nations require that sympathetic consideration be given to request from a foreign state for such a waiver.
The Liberal government has been under fire from human rights groups, and members of its own caucus, over its announcement two weeks ago that
Canadian troops operating in Afghanistan would release captives into U.S. custody, even though the United States is treating prisoners as "unlawful
combatants" rather than prisoners of war. The United States has promised to provide detainees, including hundreds held at the U.S. base in Guantanamo
Bay, Cuba, with humane treatment. Canada refuses to extradite criminals to the United States if they face the death penalty. But because the captives
were turned over on foreign soil -- and under rules of international law -- Mr. [Jean Chretien] said Canada is not obligated to seek assurances from the
United States that the prisoners will not face capital punishment.
© ProQuest LLC All rights reserved, accessed 12 May 2017 at http://hollis.harvard.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=TN_proquest329979537&indx=36&recIds=TN_proquest
ALDERSON, Emily, "The challenge of knowing what a full-time combatant is", CBA National, 3 August 2016, available at http://nationalmagazine.ca/Blog/August-2016/The-challenge-of-knowing-what-a-full-time-combatta.aspx (accessed 8 August 2016);
____________ "The independence of the military and criminal prosecutions", blog post, CBA, www.nationalmagazine.ca/Blog/June 9 2016, available at http://www.nationalmagazine.ca/Blog/June-2016/The-independence-of-the-military-and-criminal-pros.aspx (accessed 21 June 2016);
ALEXANDER, Maurice, Lieutenant-Colonel, C.M.G., former JAG officer, see notes at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Alexander (accessed 9 November 2017);
Family and education
Maurice Alexander was born into a Jewish family, the son of L G Alexander JP. He was educated at McGill University in Montreal where he was a Gold Medallist of the Literary Society. He obtained BA and BCL degrees. He does not seem to have ever married.
Alexander went in for the law. He was called to the bar of Quebec in 1910 and became a member of the firm of Davidson, Wainwright, Alexander and Elder barristers of Montreal.
In 1911, he was commissioned as a lieutenant of the Grenadier Guards, Canada, rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel by 1916. He served in the European theatre from 1914 to 1917 as a member of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. In 1916 he was appointed to the post of Deputy Judge Advocate-General, and stepped up to the full role in 1917. He was mentioned in despatches and in 1917 he won the CMG.
In 1918 he entered the service of the Overseas Department of the Foreign Office and acted as First Secretary at the British Embassy in Washington from 1919–20. He returned to the United Kingdom to practice law and was called to English Bar at the Middle Temple in 1920 and was appointed to North Eastern Circuit. In 1922 he was appointed King’s Counsel by the government of Canada.
Alexander also had private business interests. He was a director of the Elkington Co., Ltd, of Birmingham and London.
Image source: https://www.lakeheadu.ca/users/A/ralford, accessed 28 May 2016
ALFORD, Ryan Patrick, "War with ISIL: Should Parliament Decide?", (2015) 20 Review of Constitutional Studies 118-144; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2704527 (accessed 28 May 2016);
accessed 6 November 2015
Colonel P.C. (Peter) Allan
ALLAN, Lieutenant-Colonel Peter, "Canada's National Security
Framework: Fragile Fortress on a Formidible Foundation?", Canadian
Forces College, JCSP 35, April 2009, ii, 87 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/295/286/allanp.pdf
(accessed 6 November 2015);
Source de l'image: https://www.blogger.com/profile/02306961203553865645 (visité 24 septembre 2016)
ALLARD, Pierre, "La justice militaire sous l’œil de la Charte -- The JAGged eye" (novembre 2000) 9(7) National 28-31 et 52; note: revue publiée par le Comité des communications de l’Association du Barreau canadien;
Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/matt-alle-5a61a138, accessed 24 September 2016
ALLE, Matthew (Matt), Breaking Tradition: A Look at Crisis
Management Mechanisms in the Federal Government, University
of Ottawa, prepared for Prof. Zussman, 7/21/2012, ii, 46 p.;
available at https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/bitstream/handle/10393/23866/ALLE%2c%20Matthew%2020125.pdf?sequence=1
(accessed on 25 February 2014);
Image source: http://djcil.law.duke.edu/, accessed 12 February 2015
ALLEMAN, Lindsy Nicole, "Who is in charge, and who should be? The Disciplinary Role of the Commander in military justice systems", (2006) 16 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 169-192; available at http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?16+Duke+J.+Comp.+&+Int%27l+L.+169 (accessed on 11 July 2008); deals in part with Canadian law;
"Alternative Service in the Second World War: Conscientious Objectors in Canada 1939-1945", web site, available at http://www.alternativeservice.ca/history/history2.htm (accessed 27 May 2016);
accessed on 6 November 2013
AMARAL, Rui, Eat your weakest man : inside the Canadian Airborne Regiment, Calgary : Bunker to Bunker Pub., 2000. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references, ISBN: 1894255097 and 978-1894255097;
Une personne a trouvé cela utile.
[Review by Kurt H. Edwards]
Commentaires de clients les plus utiles sur Amazon.comAmazon.com: 1 commentairesAn interesting viewpoint from a soldier's soldierle 29 février 2008 - Publié sur Amazon.comI see that no-one has rated this book yet. It's been a few years since I've read it, but I'll give this a try.
Rui was a member during the unit's troubles in in Somalia. He tries to explain the role of the Airborne as an outlet for the most extreme of soldiers -
a place where they could practice battlecraft on an ongoing basis in preparation for the nastiest of military operations. He then paints a picture of a
catastrophic failure of leadership - assignment of senior officers based on Canadian politics instead of ability, assignment of the airborne to operations
for which they were not trained and had no fundamental affinity, utterly incompetent leadership on the ground, and the craven cover-up and
blame-shifting by senior officers when the inevitable occurred. His account jibes well with others I've heard - the airborne was a tool that any
sovereign nation would have been glad to have in it's military kit that the Canadian government, through lack of care and understanding, blunted,
bent, broke and threw away. Rui's inside perspective is facinating; I give the book only three of 5 stars because though Rui tells a hell of a story,
he doesn't back it up with external sources and could have been more clear about what he merely implied in many places. Still, it was a fun read
and I recommended it to anyone interested in understanding the role, structure and mechanics of "extreme" units like the SAS, Rangers, and the
Airborne, and the need for the correct care and feeding of these kinds of organization.
[source: amazon.ca/Eat-your-weakest-man-Canadian/dp/1894255097, accessed 13 November 2017]
Image source: internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Case/966/Amnesty-International-Canada-v-Canada/, accessed 24 April 2017
Amnesty International Canada and British Columbia Civil Liberties
Association v. Chief of the Defence Staff for the Canadian Forces
et. al., Court File No. T–324–07, Respondent’s Factum 83 (Jan. 18,
2008), available at:
www.bccla.org/antiterrorissue/factumcrown.pdf; see http://www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Case/966/Amnesty-International-Canada-v-Canada/ (accessed 24 April 2017);
"Amnesty International Canada and British Columbia Civil Liberties
Association (Appellants) v. Chief of the Defence Staff for the Canadian Forces, Minister of National Defence and Attorney General of Canada (Respondents)", available at http://www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Case/966/Amnesty-International-Canada-v-Canada/ (accessed on 1 October 2016)
ANDRAS, J.W., "Military Law: Army Act as Applied to Canadian
Contingent Special Regulations Affecting Forces in the Colonies --
Civil Rights Carefully Guarded", The
Globe (1844-1936), ISSN
0839-3680, 10/18/1899, p. 2; source of information: catalogue of
Queen's University; text not consulted;
It may be Interesting to some of your readers to know under what authority military law may be exercised and discipline maintained In the force which
has volunteered from Canada for service in the Transvaal (source: http://queensu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.cmd=goToPage%282%29&s.light=t&s.q=canada+military+law, accessed 17 September 2014)
ANGLIN, Arthur, 1893-1974, see biographical notes at www.billanglin.com/story4pt4.html (accessed 7 September 2017);
In 1919 he studied town planning at the University of London before returning to North America to study at Harvard. He obtained a bachelor of arts
degree from Harvard College, specializing in civic government and school administration and later lecturing there for three years in those subjects
while obtaining his law degree from Harvard Law School. He graduated in 1923, having specialized in public utilities and other branches of administrative
law, about which he prepared a textbook later used at the University of Toronto.
On the outbreak of the Second World War he went overseas as a staff officer with the First Canadian Division. He became deputy judge advocate-general
in London with the rank of brigadier, being invested by King George VI as a member of the Order of the British Empire at a wartime ceremony in Buckingham Palace.
In 1948 Judge Anglin was appointed to the trial division (Queen's Bench) and Divorce Court of the New Brunswick Supreme Court and remained on the bench
until his retirement in 1968 at the age of 75.
___________ An introduction to Canadian administrative law/ Canadian Administrative Law,
Thesis--Law School of Harvard University, 1923, 167 leaves; Note:Typescript; copy at the following libraries: University of Victoria, Diana M. Priestly Law Library; University of Toronto, Bora Laskin Law Library and Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, Library;
Image source: www.amazon.com/Politics-Civil-Military-Cooperation-Afghanistan-Rethinking/dp/1137003340/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8, accessed 6 March 2016
ANKERSEN, Christopher, The politics of civil-military cooperation: Canada in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan, Houndsmills, Basingstroke, Hampshire : Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, ix, 233 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm (series; Rethinking peace and conflict;
1. Introduction: the politics of civil-military cooperation -- 2. Missing pieces: thinking about civil-military cooperation -- 3. The evolution of civil-military cooperation in peace and war -- 4. A Clausewitzian framework for analysis -- 5. The people: ambivalent supporters -- 6. The government: delicious ambiguity -- 7. The military: bmbitious institution, ad lib individuals -- 8. Putting it all together: building an effective strategic narrative -- 9. Conclusion: the many whys of civil-military cooperation. (Source: Hollis catalogue)
Summary: Civil-military cooperation is a hallmark of contemporary military operations. Images of soldiers digging wells or helping to open schools
characterize our view of what goes on in places such as Afghanistan. This book demonstrates that these operations overseas are indeed about winning
hearts and minds - just not the ones we normally expect. By examining Canada's civil-military cooperation efforts in Kosovo, Bosnia, and Afghanistan
through the lens of Clausewitz's 'Remarkable Trinity', Ankersen shows that military action is the product of influences from the government, the armed
forces, and the people at home. Drawing on interviews with politicians and practitioners, as well as first-hand field research, this book provides an in-depth
examination of the important domestic relationships that drive overseas military activity. It highlights that contemporary civil-military relations are not
only about soldiers following orders, but also negotiations, vested interests and contested group identities.
(Source: http://hollis.harvard.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=HVD_ALEPH014226052&indx=30&recIds=HVD_ALEPH014226052&recIdxs=29&elementId=29&renderMode=poppedOut&displayMode=full&frbrVersion=2&pcAvailabiltyMode=true&query=any%2Ccontains%2Cmilitary+law+Canada&vl(51615747UI0)=any&vl(1UI0)=contains&dscnt=0&search_scope=everything&scp.scps=scope%3A%28HVD_FGDC%29%2Cscope%3A%28HVD%29%2Cscope%3A%28HVD_VIA%29%2Cprimo_central_multiple_fe&mode=Basic&vid=HVD&onCampus=false&institution=HVD&bulkSize=30&highlight=true&tab=everything&displayField=all&vl(freeText0)=military%20law%20Canada&dstmp=1494663767133, accessed 13 May 2017)
"LES AVOCATS SONT peu nombreux dans l'armée
En Afghanistan, ils sont trois à occuper cette fonction et c'est Michel Tremblay qui les dirige.
On le voit ici en compagnie d'Ahmadzai, cet enfant de 12 ans qui a reçu par erreur une balle en pleine tête en provenance d'une arme canadienne.(Photo: Julie Roy)"
ANONYME, "Michel Tremblay, avocat: au nom des conventions et de la justice. En Afghanistan", 30 janvier 2008, disponible à http://www.lelacstjean.com/faits-divers/2010/7/27/michel-tremblay-avocat-au-nom-des-conv-1621521.html (vérifié le 24 décembre 2016);
ANONYMOUS, "Arms Trade Treaty Signed but not by Canada", (16 February 2015) 19(4) Canadian Mennonite 26; available at http://www.canadianmennonite.org/sites/default/files/past-issues/19-04small_468_2015-02-16.pdf (accessed 21 August 2016);
The Arms Trade Treaty became international law on Dec. 24, 2014. Sadly, the Government of Canada was absent from the Christmas
Eve celebration. Canada participated in negotiations for the treaty and voted to approve the text in the UN General Assembly in April
2013, but subsequently failed to sign it, becoming the only member of NATO that has failed to do so.
"Anthrax Vaccine Abstainer still Persecuted by JAG -- Kipling's Court Martial" (shipped September 1999), Esprit de Corps, vol. 7, issue 4, p. 7;
ANTONYSHYN, David, "Biography", available at http://www.iap-association.org/getattachment/Conferences/Annual-Conferences/21st-Annual-Conference-2016/Monday,-12-September-2016/21AC_SIGM_bio_David_Antonyshyn.pdf.aspx (accessed 4 November 2016);
David Antonyshyn, source of image: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/david-antonyshyn/53/249/a3, accessed on 5 April 2014
accessed on 2 December 2014
___________"Conscription and conscientious objection in
Canada", (December/Décembre 2001) Sword &
Scale -- Salut militaire 5 and 6; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd
19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Conscription et objection de conscience au Canada", (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 5; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd (site visité le 19 avril 2012);
___________"Message from the Chair" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://web.archive.org/web/20070515000335/www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2006/news.aspx (accessed
on 24 April 2012);
___________"Mot du président" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20070518052202/http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2006/nouvelles.aspx#article6 (site visité le 24 avril 2012);
___________"Message from the Chair" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2007/news.aspx#top
25 April 2012);
___________"Mot du président" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2007/nouvelles.aspx#article6 (site visité le 25 avril 2012);
___________ notes on David Antonyshyn from 2017 Canadian Council on International Law (CIL), 2017 CCIL Conference November 2-3 in Ottawa, “Canada at 150: The Return of History for International Law”, 2017 Speaker Biographies, Keynote Speakers, available at http://www.ccil-ccdi.ca/speakerbios, accessed 26 October 2017:
Colonel David Antonyshyn (Moderator, Speaker) joined the Canadian Armed Forces 1990 as a reservist. He practiced law in general
private practice before joining the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) in 1998. Colonel Antonyshyn holds a Master of Laws
from the Faculty of Law of the University of Ottawa, with a focus on international human rights law, the law of armed conflict and
international humanitarian law, an international criminal law. He has deployed twice to Bosnia, once as a legal advisor to the Canadian
Contingent of NATO’s Stabilization Force (SFOR) and once as a legal advisor to the Commander and staff of SFOR. His career includes
serving as Defence Counsel in the Directorate of Defence Counsel Services, Legal Advisor to Joint Task Force 2, as legal advisor in the
Strategic Joint Staff, as Director in the Directorate of International and Operational Law, as Assistant Director of Military Prosecutions
and most recently became the Deputy Judge Advocate General Military Justice. (E)
__________"Private Military and Security Companies", Speaker Text, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, 19th Congress, Quebec City, 2012, available at http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_texts%20of%20speakers.php and http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_textes%20des%20orateurs/03%20Lieutenant-Colonel%20Antonyshyn.pdf (accessed on 24 August 2013);
Image source: forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/dmp-annual-report-2016-17.pdf, accessed 22 August 2017
From the left: Major Kerr, Colonel MacGregor and
Lieutenant-Colonel Antonyshyn at the SCC in Cawthorne
___________"Short Biographical Note Lieutenant Colonel David Antonyshyn", available at: http://www.iihl.org/iihl/Documents/Courte%20note%20biographique%20lieutenant%20colonel%20David%20Antonyshyn%203%20Sep%202013%20%28bilingue%29.pdf, accessed 3 November 2015;
___________"The Use and Status of Private Military and Security Companies -Practical Experiences from the US and Canada", in Stanislas Horvat and Marco Benatar, eds., L'interopérabilité juridique et la garantie du respect du droit applicable dans le cadre des déploiements multinationaux, Texte du Congrès / Legal Interoperability and Ensuring Observance of the Law Applicable in Multinational Deployments, Bruxelles: Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre, 2013 (collection; Recueils de la Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre; 19) at pp. 300 to 310; notes:19eCongrès international 19th International Congress , s QUÉBEC (Canada)1 - 5 mai/May 2012; available at http://www.academia.edu/3656564/LInteroperabilite_juridique_et_la_garantie_du_respect_du_droit_applicable_dans_le_cadre_des_deploiements_multinationaux_Legal_Interoperability_and_Ensuring_Observance_of_the_Law_Applicable_in_Multinational_Deployments (accessed on 28 February 2014);
ANTONYSHYN, David, Jan Grofe and Don Hubert, Canada Beyond the Law? The Regulation of Canadian Private Military and Securities Companies Operating Abroad, PRI-WAR Report -- Canada, National Reports series 03/09; available at http://priv-war.eu/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/nr-03-09-can.pdf (accessed on 2 April 2012); also published in Christine Bakker and Mirko Sossai, eds., Multilevel Regulation of Military and Security Contractors : The Interplay between international, European and domestic norms, Oxford/Portland, Hart Publishing, 2012, xxxviii, 625 p. ; 24 cm, at pp. 301-310; (series; Studies in International Law), available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?id=-I16BAAAQBAJ&pg=PT308&lpg=PT308&dq=%22The+Code+of+Service+Discipline%22&source=bl&ots=xatOniiqIv&sig=E-ay078b1rTnAXTrdkXWyneG32Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjc2bfRh7DPAhVD2B4KHc0xCGU4FBDoAQhKMAk#v=onepage&q=%22The%20Code%20of%20Service%20Discipline%22&f=false (accessed 27 September 2016);
APPLETON, Ross, "Major-General Henry Smith: The Royal Canadian
Who Became JAG", available at http://www.theroyalcanadianregiment.ca/downloads/MGenHSmith_JAG.pdf
(accessed on 11 December 2011); see also http://www.theroyalcanadianregiment.ca/individual_submissions/MGenSmith.html;
see also at http://www.cba.org/CBA/sections_military/newsletters2013/jag.aspx
(accessed on 28 August 2013);
APPOLLONI, Andrew E., "Message from the Chair" (March/Mars 2010)
Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2010/2010-02_military.aspx
(accessed on 29 April 2012);
APPOLLONI, Andrew, "Mot du président" (March/Mars 2010) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/pdf/03-10-salut_militaire.pdf (site visité le 29 avril 2012);
___________"Military Law -- Andrew Appolloni", available at https://www.cba.org/abc/sections_military_f/pdf/Military_RtC_2010.pdf
(accessed on 15 November 2014);
ARCHEION, Ontario's Archival Information Network, "Canada.
Office of the Judge Advocate General", available at http://www.archeion.ca/canada-office-of-judge-advocate-general;isaar?sf_culture=pt&limit=20
(accessed 17 November 2015);
The establishment of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (Army) was authorized by the Canadian Expeditionary Force Routine Order No. 327 in
1911. It consisted of the Judge Advocate General, the President of the Pensions and Claims Board, an Executive Officer, a Secretary and a Chief Clerk. In
1917, following the passing of the National Defence Act, the Office of the Judge Advocate General became part of the Department of National Defence.
Its terms of reference were to supervise and control the administration of Naval, Army and Air Force Law, to advise on all matters leading up to the
convening of Courts Martial and the review of proceedings, to deal with the recording of proceedings of Courts Martial and their final disposition, to
assist the Minister in the formulation of any advice it may be necessary to give the Governor in Council with regard to the proceedings of General Courts
Martial, to advise on and perform certain duties in relation to matters of a legal nature within the Department of National Defence and to revise and amend
the Naval, Military and Air Force Law and regulations, when and as required to do so. The Judge Advocate General was also legal advisor to the Defence
Research Board following its creation in 1947. The JAG reported to the Deputy Minister and had three Deputies, one Naval, one Army and one Air Force
officer. In the 1950s, the office of the JAG was divided by the following functional aspects: international and general, legislation, special projects, claims,
pensions, real property, patents and inventions, courts martial, and estates and administration. Representatives of the JAG in the field could be legal officers
of any of the three Services and served all three Services in the area to which they are assigned. The Assistant Judge Advocates General in the field were
effectively legal advisers of the local Flag Officers, General Officers Commanding or Air Officers Commanding in their respective areas. In addition to the
Assistant Judge Advocates General for regions within Canada (Pacific, Prairie, Central, Eastern and Atlantic), there existed a Senior Legal Advisor Europe
(SLEA). In 1958, eight naval, 38 army and 35 air force legal officers were employed on the staff of the JAG and staffs of service headquarters and commands.
In the early-1960s, there were 46 positions for lawyers on the establishment of the JAG's office and 23 legal positions on service establishments. Until 1998
or 1999, the JAG's functions remained essentially unchanged. However, at that time, the function of Department of National Defence (DND) and Canadian
Forces (CF) Legal Advisor (LA) was created. The DND/CF LA is a unit of the Department of Justice that provides legal advice to the Department and Forces
on matters other than military law and the military justice system, in accordance with the Department of Justice Act. The JAG remains responsible for matters
involving military legal components.
____________Canada. Office of the Judge Advocate General. Senior Legal Advisor Europe, available at http://www.archeion.ca/canada-office-of-judge-advocate-general-senior-legal-advisor-europe (accessed 22 December 2015);
The Senior Legal Advisor Europe (SLAE), was a regional organization of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG), which was responsible
for the legal duties required to be performed for the Department of National Defence, the Army, the RCN, the RCAF and the Defence Research Board.
Some of the particularities of the European component of the JAG included trying courts martial for matters handled in civil courts when occurring in
Canada since the National Defence Act extended criminal jurisdiction to forces deployed overseas and their dependants. The lengthy Canadian presence
in Germany during the Cold War permitted the Canadian Armed Forces to become accustomed to handling serious civil crimes by courts marital instead
of civil courts. As well, in Europe, certain of the JAG's representatives were appointed by the Governor-in-Council to act as courts for the purposes of
the Canadian Citizenship Act. In addition to its duties with Canadian Forces units in Europe, the SLAE was responsible for providing legal advice to
Canadian authorities at the various North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Headquarters in Europe, under certain circumstances. The Assistant
Judge Advocate General (AJAG) Europe was also responsible for providing legal services to elements of the Canadian Forces serving with the United
Nations in Europe. As of August 1993, the office of the SLAE was still in existence with its location at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Lahr, in Germany.
The last of the Canadian Forces pulled out of Germany in 1994.
___________see the result of the search for "Judge advocate General" for the repository of NDHQ Directorate of History and Heritage, Ottawa see http://www.archeion.ca/;search?query=judge+advocate+general (access on 25 February 2012); here is a description of the four fonds:
ARCHER, G., "The Humanitarian Yardstick within the Law of Armed Conflict", Canadian Forces College , AMSP (2000), AMSC 5, 28 p., available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/265/archer.pdf (accessed 2 February 2017);
Sheila Archer, photo source: http://cla-ace.ca/what-we-do/student-chapters/cla-conference-2007/, accessed on 14 April 2014
ARCHER, Sheila, Lieutenant Commander, "Being a JAG Officer",
April 2000, available at http://www.cba.org/dev/BC/bartalk_95_00/04_00/guest_archer.aspx
(accessed on 31 May 2012);
___________"Current detention challenges faced by NATO" in Marco Odello and Gian Luca Beruto, eds., Global Violence: consequences and responses; forty years of excellence in humanitarian dialogue; the 40th anniversary of the International Institute of humanitarian law; Round Table on Current Problems in International Humanitarian Law, Sanremo, 9-11 September 2010 , Milano: Angeli, 2011, 224 p., at pp.135-142, ISBN: 9788856837711; partially available at http://books.google.ca/books?id=Th2EtKVsILUC&pg=PA135&lpg=PA135&dq=canadian+forces+%22office+of+the+judge+advocate+general+%22&source=bl&ots=2HxoW5_Chg&sig=dXjCDz1xikrUlN-
Oe5s1bEZwaWI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ANIBULrGLoKm6wHs_IXdBg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=canadian%20forces%20%22office%20of%20the%20judge%20advocate%20general%20%22&f=false (accessed on 14 July 2012);
Cmdr Sheila Archer, image source: telegraphjournal.com/telegraph-journal/story/49896346/victims-of-sexual-abuse?source=story-related, accessed 17 November 2017
___________"Lecture -- The Structure and Services of the Office of the Judge Advocate General", The Canadian Bar Association, Public Sector Lawyers Section Meeting (Remote), 8 May 2014; see http://www.cbapd.org/details_en.aspx?id=BC_PUB0514R, accessed 12 February 2015;
___________photos, source: (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter at pp. 1-2;Agenda
Commander Archer was called to the BC Bar in 1991. She worked as Crown Counsel for several years before joining the Canadian Forces. As a member of the Office of the
Judge Advocate General (JAG) her postings as legal advisor have included Kosovo, the Persian Gulf and Afghanistan. Cdr Archer was the Senior Legal Advisor to the
Commander of the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command, who oversees all overseas deployments of the Canadian Forces. She also attended the NATO Defence College
in Rome and was the Assistant Legal Advisor at NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe.
Cdr Archer's presentation will provide an overview of the structure and services of the JAG. She will describe the position of Judge Advocate General, including the specific
duties and functions assigned under the National Defence Act. Her presentation will reflect how the lawyers in the Office of the Judge Advocate General fulfill the JAG
mission in support of the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence by delivering independent, operationally focussed, solution oriented legal advice
and services across the full spectrum of military law, and by assisting the Judge Advocate General in his responsibility to superintend the administration of military justice.
The vision for the JAG team is to be an agile military team of world class, operationally focussed, globally deployable and networked legal professionals, proudly contributing
to a disciplined force and mission success in a manner that reflects Canadian values and the rule of law. Cdr Archer will describe who makes up the Office of the JAG, how the
Office of the JAG is structured, the range of work and the services provided in advising on military justice, operational law and military administrative law at home in Canada
and on deployed military missions elsewhere in the world.(source: http://www.cbapd.org/details_en.aspx?id=BC_PUB0514R, accessed 12 February 2015)
ARCHIVES CANADA, CAIN No. 211742, Title: Office of the Judge
Advocate General fonds, Repository: NDHQ Direcrtorate of History
and Heritage, reference code CA ON00093 2002/23; to reach NDHQ
Directorate of History and Heritage,
613-998-7602, 613-990-8579, email@example.com; Notes: "On October 20, 2001, the Canadian Council of Archives launched the Canadian Archival Information Network, an electronic initiative designed to provide online access to holdings in over 800 archival institutions across the country. Known initially as CAIN, the network has now become Archives Canada (ARCHIVESCANADA.ca)" (source: http://www.archivescanada.ca/english/about.html, accessed on 25 February 2012); Canadian Council of Archives, 130 Albert Street, Suite 501, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5G4, Toll free 1-866-254-1403, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
Le 17 février 2015, Tsahal a accueilli une conférence de trois jours pour discuter du droit international dans les conflits armés contemporains, avec
des participants venant des quatre coins du monde. Ce groupe international, composé d’avocats militaires, d’experts dans le domaine du droit militaire,
de conseillers juridiques pour des organisations internationales, a discuté des difficultés opérationnelles et des défis posés par les conflits armés contemporains.
Guerres asymétriques, combats urbains et ennemi mêlé à la population civile sont les défis majeurs dans les conflits actuels. Ces problèmes sont communément
rencontrés par les armées des différents pays démocratiques engagés dans des conflits à travers le monde.
Afin de discuter de ces défis et de leurs possibles solutions, Tsahal a accueilli sa première Conférence Légale Internationale sur le Droit International dans les
Conflits Armés Contemporains, présidée par l’Avocat Militaire Général de Tsahal, le général de division Dan Efroni.
Pendant trois jours, la conférence a permis de faciliter les discussions entre les participants [...]
This thesis examines how and why two amateur videos, broadcast across Canada in 1995, contributed
to the disbandment of the Canadian Airborne Regiment. A brief history of the Airborne highlights
discipline problems that were known to exist before the videos were broadcast. Common assumptions
about images, particularly amateur video images, are explored. The concept of the "media event" is
used to show how mediation magnified the videos' impact. A detailed examination of the videos and
their constructions as news stories demonstrates how narrative frames and the newsmaking process
in general shaped what the public saw. A general content analysis of the media coverage surrounding
the videos shows how a moral panic developed when Canadian values were threatened. It is argued
that the videos and reaction to them shed more light on attitudes Canadians wanted to keep hidden
than they did on any secrets the military harboured. [Source: AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada]
Vol 16 No 1 - The Artillery Corps In Afghanistan
Vol 15 No 1 - Counter-Improvised Explosive Devices (CIED)
Vol 14 No 1 - Interior Close Quarter Battle (ICQB) Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP)
Vol 13 No 1 - Convoy and VIP Escort
Vol 11 No 1 - Fratricide
Vol 10 No 2 - Tactical Combat Casualty Care: A Proposal
Vol 10 No 1 - Stress Injury and Operational Deployments
Vol 9 No 3 - The LAV III and LEOPARD C2 MAIS Trial
Vol 9 No 2 - Training for Urban Operations
Vol 9 No 1 - Military Observers
Vol 8 No 3 - Initial Deployments
Vol 8 No 2 - Negotiations During Peace Support Operations
Vol 8 No 1 - Humint During Peace Support Operations
Vol 7 No 1 - Rules of Engagement Training
Vol 6 No 4 - Using TACOPSCF To Enhance Our Training
Vol 6 No 3 - The After Action Review Learning More From Our Training
Vol 6 No 2 - The CF Code of Conduct
Vol 6 No 1 - Physical Fitness Training
Vol 5 No 3 - Lessons Learned in Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC)
Vol 5 No 2 - Lessons Learned - Leadership in a Mixed Gender Environment
Vol 5 No 1 - Manoeuvrist Approach To Operations and Mission Command
Vol 4 No 4 - OPERATION ASSISTANCE
Vol 4 No 3 - Media Relations
Vol 4 No 2 - The Law of Armed Conflict, Peace Support Operations and You
Vol 4 No 1 - Operations in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia
Vol 3 No 2 - Training For Operations
Vol 3 No 1 - Training For Operations
Vol 2 - Mine Warfare During Peace Support Operations
Vol 1 - Convoy Operations
[...] Il faut avant tout que le système de justice garantisse : 1 - que les victimes puissent dénoncer sans crainte de représailles; 2 - que personne ne puisse influencer
l'enquête policière et un éventuel procès.
Mais le fait est que la justice militaire ne peut garantir ni l'un ni l'autre.
C'est le fond du problème : l'existence de deux systèmes de justice parallèles, un pour l'armée et un pour le reste de la société, qui ne répondent pas aux mêmes normes.
Lors de leur témoignage, les militaires ont vanté leur système de justice, «égal sinon meilleur que la justice civile». Sérieusement?
Un système dans lequel un officier, et non un juge, a le pouvoir de décider si une agression sexuelle mérite une enquête policière, une sanction administrative ou rien du tout?
Un système qui permet la tenue de 2000 «procès sommaires» par année, tranchés là encore par un officier de la chaîne de commandement, sans aucun droit d'appel et qui,
dans 97 % des cas, débouche sur une condamnation? Un système où le vice-chef d'état-major a le droit d'intervenir dans une enquête?
Ce système est inadéquat et dépassé. Tous les citoyens, militaires ou non, doivent être protégés également par les mêmes lois, mais la nature même de la justice militaire fait
en sorte qu'on ne peut assurer aux victimes, femmes ou hommes, qu'elles pourront dénoncer sans crainte.
Le Lieutenant-colonel Jean-Michel Cambron, Assistant du Juge-avocat général, Région de l'Est
Le Major Adam Van Der Linde, Service canadien des poursuites militaires
Me Éric Charland, Bureau des Services juridiques des pensions
Modérateur: Me Pascal Lévesque, doctorant en droit, Université Queen's
Pourquoi les crimes commis par des militaires ne sont pas traités devant les tribunaux ordinaires? Le concept de dommages collatéraux vise-t-il à occulter
les décès de civils? Un militaire mécontent au travail a-t-il des recours? Peut-il démissionner? À la fin de cette séance, les participants pourront décrire le
droit militaire canadien dans ses grandes lignes. Chaque conférencier présentera l'un des trois 'piliers' de ce droit spécialisé: la justice militaire, le droit
administratif militaire et le droit opérationnel militaire. À l'aide d'anecdotes, ils viseront à le vulgariser et à déconstruire certains mythes.
(source: http://www.cbapd.org/details_fr.aspx?id=QC_ABC161013, accessed 10 September 2016)
Le 16 février, l’Association du Barreau de l’Ontario tenait son institut annuel et offrait son traditionnel petit-déjeuner bilingue avec comme conférencier,
le colonel à la retraite Me Michel Drapeau. Ce dernier a entretenu son auditoire de la
réalité peu connue de la vie en milieu militaire et du droit qui s’y rattache
Lieutenant‐Commander Kathryn (Kat) Aubrey‐Horvath was born and raised in Ottawa, Ontario.
She received her Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Political Science from Acadia University in 2004,
and her Juris Doctor (Dean’s List) from Queen’s University in 2008. While at Queen’s, she also
obtained a certificate in Public International Law with First Class Honours from Bader International
Study Centre in Sussex, UK. In 2010, LCdr Aubrey‐Horvath was accepted as a Stanford Program in
International Legal Studies (SPILS) Fellow, and while at Stanford, she was also selected as a
Stanford Centre on International Conflict and Negotiation (SCICN) Fellow. She graduated from
Stanford Law School with a Master of the Science of Law (JSM) in 2011.
Prior to joining the Canadian Forces in 2011, LCdr Aubrey‐Horvath worked abroad in field of
international law in several positions, including for the Global Commission on Elections, Democracy
and Security based in California, with the Co‐Prosecutors’ Office at the Extraordinary Chambers in
the Courts of Cambodia (Khmer Rouge Tribunal) in Phnom Penh, for Geneva for Human Rights
at UN Headquarters in Geneva, and in the Office of the Attorney General in The Gambia, West
Africa. She has also worked domestically as a legal and legislative advisor to Members of Parliament
and a Senator, and for the law firm of Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP.
Upon joining the Office of the Judge Advocate General, LCdr Aubrey‐Horvath was posted to the
Directorate of International and Operational Law, where she served from 2012 to 2014. She was
posted to her current position at the Military Law Centre in July 2014.
[source: cdp-hrc.uottawa.ca/sites/cdp-hrc.uottawa.ca/files/allbios_ihl2016.pdf, accessed 12 November 2017]
- current member of the Advisory Council on federal strategy against Gender-based violence, see http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1095599&tp=930, accessed 28 July 2016;
- member of the JAG Court Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-17, see http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law/court-martial-comprehensive-review.page, accessed 28 July 2016;
We also concluded that, while the Royal Military College of Canada took action when serious incidents were reported, the number of
investigations and incidents of misconduct involving senior Officer Cadets showed that it needed to improve military training.
We also found that there was no clear measurable standard for leadership qualities and ethical military behaviour that graduates were
required to demonstrate before receiving their commissions.
Overall, we found that the Royal Military College of Canada did not provide Officer Cadets with adequate training in leadership and
in the proper conduct expected of future officers. While the Royal Military College of Canada took action when incidents were reported,
we found that the number of misconduct incidents that involved senior Officer Cadets showed that the Royal Military College of Canada
had not prepared them to serve as role models for their peers.
[source: oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/att__e_42694.html, accessed 30 November 2017]
This paper seeks to understand the dilemmas and constraints facing leaders as they seek to manage their military’s participation in multilateral operations. The problem of
caveats—national restrictions—has been a central concern in Afghanistan, limiting the ability of various countries to contribute to the effort. We develop some implications
from principal-agent theory to understand the challenges facing civilian and military leaders. We then focus primarily on the case of Canada in Afghanistan since it has
participated in both the unilateral ad hoc Operation Enduring Freedom and the multilateral, NATO International Security Assistance Force. We consider how command and
control have evolved over time with commanders on the ground having varying levels of discretion and authority. We find that the key influence on any military officer is the
home country, even if the troop contributing nation has the most robust rules of engagement and delegates the most authority to the operational commanders. All coalitions
are, ultimately, of the willing. (source: http://research.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/0/8/9/0/p208903_index.html, accessed 29 December 2015).
This article analyzes the Canadian government’s use of military force to suppress the anti-conscription Easter Riots that occurred in Quebec City between 28 March
and 1 April 1918. The riots demonstrated French-Canadian dissatisfaction with the national war effort and the introduction of conscription, and exacerbated nationwide
fears that a state of rebellion existed in the French-speaking province of Quebec. The Canadian government’s reaction was immediate and firm; martial law was
proclaimed, habeas corpus was suspended, and over six thousand English-speaking soldiers were deployed to Quebec during and after the riots to maintain order
and enforce conscription, the last of these troops leaving the province in early 1919. The Easter Riots were extremely violent, causing important destruction of property
and over 150 civilian and military casualties, including at least four dead when soldiers opened fire on rioters. This article will demonstrate the extent to which the
Canadian government apprehended insurrection in Quebec during the First World War and how determined it was under difficult wartime conditions to prevent the rise
of a major national crisis. (source: http://muse.jhu.edu/article/254872, accessed 7 October 2016)
AVINS, Alfred, "The Testing of the Prolonged Absence Rule in
Military Desertion by Questionnaire" (1963-64) 6 The Criminal
Law Quarterly 116-144;
source: ca.linkedin.com/in/%C3%A9lisabeth-baby-cormier-728ba1a0 (consulté le 27 octobre 2017)
BABY-CORMIER, Élisabeth, avocate et membre du JAG;
Officier légal at Canadian Armed Forces | Forces armées canadiennes, Enseignante en techniques juridiques at CDI College Past Avocate at Ministère de la Justice du Québec, Avocate at Lemieux, Parent, Théberge, société nominale d'avocats, Enseignante pour le... Education Université Laval, École du Barreau, Université Laval
[Source: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/dir/Elisabeth/Cormier, consulté le 27 octobre 2017]
Michelle Bailey, image source: http://www.wkfamilylawyers.com/our-lawyers/michelle-bailey.html,
accessed 11 February 2015
BAILEY, Michelle, “Book Notes: Another Kind of Justice: Canadian Military Law from Confederation to Somalia by Chris Madsen…”, (2001) 64(2) Sasktachewan Law Review 645-646;
James Wilks, right, with his defence counsel, David Hodson.
BAILEY, Sue, "Former medical technician who examined military recruits faces more charges", CTV News London, 11 September 2015, available at https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/SearchResults?bsi=540&kn=painters+Canada&pics=on&sortby=0&xpod=on&prevpage=18 (accessed 9 January 2017);
Source de l'image: http://www.journaladsum.com/ftp/journaux/Archives/2008/VOL_37_NO_08_ADSUM_2008-09-24.pdf, visité 10 septembre 2015
BAILLARGEON, Simon, "La justice militaire se rapproche du système judiciaire civil', ADSUM le journal bimensuel du SQFT FOI (est), Région de Québec, mercredi, 24 septembre 2008, p. 4; disponible à http://www.journaladsum.com/ftp/journaux/Archives/2008/VOL_37_NO_08_ADSUM_2008-09-24.pdf (vérifié le 4 mars 2012); article traite des modifications apportées à la Loi sur la défense nationale suite au projet de loi C-60;
BAKER, Mike, Deputy Judge Advocate, CFB Comox, see https://ca.linkedin.com/in/mike-baker-61069538 (accessed 17 June 2017);
Image source: http://www.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/en/dynamic-article.page?doc=canadian-safety-and-security-program/hzvlql9b, accessed 24 November 2015
BANDALI, F., L. Bruyn, R. Vokac, R. Keeble, R. Zobarich, N. Berger, L. Rehak & T. Lamoureux, CF Procedures and Practices Involving Information Aggregation, Guelph: Human Systems, 2007; DRDC Toronto No. CR 2007-049, contract number W7711-037911/001/TOR, call-up number 7911-06; Project manager: Ron Boothby; available at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA477143 (accessed on 31 July 2012);
BAR OF MONTREAL, Concours Visez Droit, "Debating Competition, ***Edition 2017*** For or Against? Abolition of the Military Justice System", Note: "The semi-finals and final will be held on March 29, 2017 at the Montreal Courthouse", see http://www.barreaudemontreal.qc.ca/loads/Affiches/2017-Aff_DebatsOratoires_ang.pdf (accessed 5 August 2017);
Maj Peter Barber (photo source: (March-April 1997) 2 Office
of the Judge Advocate General -- Newsletter at p. 11
BARBER, Peter, "Exchange Posting -- Canada/New Zealand // Séjour en Nouvelle-Zélande", (March-April 1997) 2 Office of the Judge Advocate General -- Newsletter 1-11 (Article 1) / Cabinet du Juge-Avocat Général -- Bulletin d'actualités 1-11 (article 1);
Me Guy Cournoyer avec le Brigadier-général Pierre Boutet;
source: http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol34/no13/justicemilitaire.html (visité le 14 janvier 2015)
BARIBEAU, Louis, "Congrès du Barreau du Québec -- Prendre le
temps -- Charlevoix 2002 -- Compte rendu des activités de
formation : Justice militaire", (1er août 2002) 34(13) Journal
du Barreau - Supplément sur le congrès aux pp. iv-v; note de
recherche: les pariticipants étaient Me Guy Cournoyer et le
Brigadier général Me Pierre G. Boutet; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/publications/journal/vol34/no13/justicemilitaire.html
(vérifié le 11 juillet 2008); voir aussi http://www.barreau.qc.ca/publications/journal/vol34/no13/justicemilitaire.html
(véridfié le 2 mars 2011);
Photo de André Dufour dans l'article (photographe: Steven Leblanc)
___________"Ateliers -- Que font les avocats dans l'armée?",
(juillet 2008) 40(7) Journal du
Barreau 13; notes; photo du Lieutenant-colonel André
Dufour et une autre de l'adjudant-chef Pierre Marchand et du major
Sébastien Bouchard; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol40/200807.pdf
(vérifié le 5 mars 2012);
Image Source: http://www.armycadethistory.com/colonels_in_chief.htm, accessed 30 May 2016
BARIL, Maurice, "The CDS' action Plan in response to the Report of the Special
Review Group , Operation Harmony (Rotation Two)", 2000, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030424145515/http://www.forces.gc.ca:80/site/reports/CDS/jan01_e.htm (accessed 7 May 2017);
1. On 30 May 2000 the Canadian Forces National Investigation Service (CFNIS) made public the results of its investigation (ref. A) concerning
alleged misconduct of Canadian Forces members serving in the Canadian Contingent United Nations Protection Force in Croatia, Operation
HARMONY (Rotation Two). With respect to the coffee incident, the conclusion of the CFNIS investigators was that the events were not amenable
to action under the Code of Service Discipline given the three-year limitation that applied at the time. Furthermore, they also concluded that there
was not sufficient evidence to refer these matters for prosecution under the Criminal Code of Canada. As indicated in my press conference of 01
June 2000, I established a Special Review Group to examine the CFNIS report and provide recommendations for further action within 14 days.
a. SRG Recommendation 1: The CFNIS investigation report shall be referred to a local Crown Attorney to consider whether criminal charges should
be laid against the individuals who have been identified as having tampered with WO (retired) Stopford's coffee.
Comment: In respect to this recommendation, due to the limitations in effect at the time under the National Defence Act, the military justice system
cannot be engaged to resolve these issues. Therefore, if further action is to be taken, it must be carried out in the context of the civilian criminal justice
system. I have requested the Director of Military Prosecutions to forward the CFNIS investigation to provincial prosecutorial authorities for review
and action, as appropriate.
OPI: Director Military Prosecutions
h. SRG Recommendation 8: Canadian Forces members must be provided with a better awareness of the law and how it applies to the Chain of Command.
Comment: Significant steps have been taken over the past three years to increase legal training throughout the Canadian Forces. In 1998 a legal training
and education strategy was developed for both the law of armed conflict and the administration of discipline/military justice. Doctrine manuals designed
for training at all rank levels have been developed and made available to the CF training system. A specific module dealing with command responsibility
has been incorporated into the Advanced Military Studies Course. The relationship between the maintenance of discipline and the conduct of effective
operations is part of the LOAC course and the CFCSC "Law and Operations module." The importance of legal training and education in future officer
development has been addressed in the JAG submission on "Law and Professional Officer Development 2020". A particularly important goal is to establish
a legal office dedicated to developing and providing legal education within the Canadian Forces College system (i.e. Canadian Forces College, Canadian
Forces Command and Staff College, Royal Military College, Leadership Institute). The Office of the Judge Advocate General will ensure the issue of how
the law applies to the exercise of command and leadership is incorporated into training and education for Canadian Forces members.
OPI: Judge Advocate General
___________ "The Role of the CDS in
Relations with Parliament January 27, 2000 Speaking Notes for
General Maurice Baril Chief of the Defence Staff Conference of Defence Associations Annual Seminar, Ottawa, Ontario", available at http://web.archive.org/web/20010620183435/http://www.dnd.ca/eng/archive/speeches/27janBaril_s_e.htm (accessed 22 May 2016);
Image source: http://www.uwindsor.ca/law/cwaters/, accessed 8 July 2017
BARNES, Ashley and Christopher Waters, "The Arctic Environment
and International Humanitarian Law", (July 4, 2012). (2011) 49 Canadian
International Law 213, available at SSRN: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2100623
(accessed on 15 March 2015);
While the law of the sea is rightly viewed as the most suitable international legal regime for the settlement of disputes in the Arctic, the militarisation of this region in an era of
climate change is also observable. Yet curiously, scant attention has been paid to the constraints International Humanitarian Law (IHL) would impose on armed conflict in the
Arctic, as unlikely as such conflict may be. These include the specific prohibition on causing widespread, long-term and severe environmental damage under Additional Protocol I
to the Geneva Conventions; as well as the related obligation to have “due regard” for the natural environment, as referred to in, for example, the San Remo Manual on Naval Warfare.
Similarly, environmental factors must play into military assessments of targets based on the general principles of IHL related to targeting. The authors explore how these various
legal obligations could be applied in the Arctic context. Referring to the scientific literature, they suggest that, due to the particularly vulnerable nature of this regional environment,
many traditional war-fighting techniques would lead to damage that is not legally permissible. This conclusion should provide an additional incentive to policy makers to demilitarize
the Arctic and to solve peacefully any disputes which may arise over sovereignty, navigation or resources.
(source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2100623 (accessed on 15 March 2015)
BARNES, R.F. (Roby); right row, last person; photo taken in the Federal Republic of Germany, circa 1981-82; Roby Barnes was a major and a member of the Senior Legal Adviser Europe office in Lahr; in front of him is Cathy Barnes, his wife (left row, last person); Roby subsequently became a military judge with the JAG and did several courts martial; Just Letellier is the first person on the left row; Just Letellier also sat as a judge at courts martial;
BARNES, Colonel Roland Frank, 28 July 1929-26 November 1998, "Roland Frank Barnes 'Great Defender' left mark", The Ottawa Citizen, Sunday, 6
December 1998; reproduced in (Jul-Dec 1998) 4(1) JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin
d'actualités; he died on 26 November 1998 at Vancouver;
he was 69; former Colonel in the Office of the Judge Advocate
General; Senior Legal Advisor Europe for several years in Lahr, Federal Republic of Germany; sat in Lahr for many years as Judge for courts martial; see also https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=26364103 (accessed 27 October 2017);
In two lengthy trials, Lt.-Cmdr. Barnes in 1965 successfully defended a Canadian
airman charged with murdering his wife and two daughters.
BARNETT, Laura, "Afghanistan: The rule of law", Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Information and Research Service, 24 Ocftober 2007, 6 p. (series; Info Series; publication PRB-07-17E); available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2007/lop-bdp/prb/PRB0717-e.pdf (accessed 30 May 2016);
BARREAU DU QUÉBEC, "Programme Congrès du Barreau du Québec, 29, 30 et 31 mai 2008 Québec -- Atelier 28 Droit militaire", disponible à http://congres.barreau.qc.ca/2008/atelier-28.html (vérifié le 4 mars 2012); notes: les conférenciers: Lieutenant-colonel André Dufour, Major Sébastien Bouchard, Forces canadiennes et l'Adjudant-chef Pierre Marchand;
Source of image: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=123639, accessed 28 December 2015
BARRIS, Ted, "What veterans really need", National Post, 8 November 2012; available at http://news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/ted-barris-what-veterans-really-need (accessed 27 December 2015); article on veterans and Jeff Peck
At the final dinner of a tour of the Vimy and Normandy battlefields I led last April, Jeff Peck, one of the Canadian veterans in our tour group, rose to address
his fellow travellers. He asked if he might offer a toast to soldiers past and present. In mid-sentence he broke down.
“I cry a lot these days,” he said. “I admit it.”
It was almost 10 years to the day Peck, now 32, lost comrades at a place called Tarnak Farm (five kilometres from the Kandahar base) in Afghanistan. His
Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry unit was wrapping up night training at this desert location on April 17, 2002, when an American F-16 pilot,
thinking he was under attack from the ground, fired a 500-pound, laser-guided bomb at his suspected enemy. It killed four Canadians, men in Peck’s sister platoon.
“I’d like to say [the experience] affected me for the best. I’d be lying,” he told me in 2004. “It [was] hard on my family. It hurt my marriage.
Specifically, it forced Peck to look at the darker side of humankind. It removed any sense of optimism about the world. And, he admitted to me, it made him
less patient with others particularly back in Canada. He couldn’t talk or show any emotion to his parents, his siblings, not even his spouse. He recognized he
was being more selfish, unwilling to take on his wife’s problems in addition to his own. Their marriage broke up.
“I realize those experiences – positive and negative – made me who I am,” Afghanistan vet Jeff Peck said recently in anticipation of Remembrance Day
observances. He eventually remarried and has two young sons. While he once contemplated leaving army service, he now has his law degree and serves
as a major with the office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) in the Canadian Forces.
“I think I’m in a really comfortable space now,” he said.
Image source: ipolitics.ca/author/jbaxter/, accessed 8 July 2017
BAXTER, James, "Defence ombudsman defies brass, holds news conference: 100-day report largely devoid of substance", National Post, Sep 24, 1999, p.A6;
Investigations Unit, has been embroiled in a very public struggle with Brigadier General Jerry Pitzul, the judge advocate general, over the role and powers...
Description: Andre Marin unveiled a report card on his office's activities since it was officially established in June. The 100-day report was largely devoid of
substance, but the fact that Mr. Marin could attract a full house of journalists carried a message in itself observers said. Mr. Marin's report was a two-page
synopsis of how his office had cleared away 299 cases from a backlog of 604. But, Mr. [Scott Taylor] said, the real news is that Mr. Marin decided to ignore
the warnings of top military brass and hold the news conference. "Even by [issuing this report] and holding this press conference, they will view it as an act
of defiance." During the year-long consultations leading to Mr. Marin's receiving his mandate in June, Gen. [Jerry Pitzul] is reported to have recommended
that the ombudsman be encouraged not to have dealings with journalists, filing instead an annual report detailing the office's successes and failures.
Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=
18&frbg=&indx=171&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=%22pitzul%22%20general&dstmp=1491123354958, accessed 2 April 2017);
Deborah Bayley, image source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/deborah-bayley/8b/867/80a, accessed on 5 November 2014
BAYLEY, Deborah, "Six Degrees of Separation: Canadian Accessory
Liability in Afghan War Crimes", available at http://cda-cdai.ca/cdai/uploads/cdai/2010/07/bayley2010.pdf
(accessed on 17 April 2012);
BC Civil Liberties Association (BCCLA), "New Release --
BCCLA demands real justice for Canadian Soldiers", 1 March 2011,
available at http://www.bccla.org/pressreleases/11soldiers.pdf
(accessed on 3 June 2011);
___________"Troops: Fairness for Canadian Soldiers -- Bill C-41", 14 p., available at http://bccla.org/our_work/supporting-the-troops-fairness-for-canadas-soldiers/ (accessed on 3 June 2011);
Image source: alertpress.org/volume-2.html, accessed 16 February 2017
BEACH, Laura, "Canadian Academic Institutions, The Weapons Industry, and Militarist Ideology", in Maximilian C. Forte, ed., The New Imperalism, Volume II, Interventionalism, Information Warfare and the Military-Academic Complex, Montreal: Alert Press, 2011; article available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=ei9uAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA15&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=3#v=onepage&q&f=false(accessed 16 February 2017);
Brent Beardsley, image source Google Image, accessed on 25 April 2014
BEARDSLEY, Brent, "What Type of Warriors are We?", (May 1999)
2(2) Canadian Army Journal 25-28;
(accessed on 29 February 2012); see also at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/D12-9-2-2E.pdf
(accessed 12 February 2015);
Direction de l'instruction de l'armée de terre, "De la Direction de l'instruction de l'armée de terreStratégie d'instruction de l'armée de terre sur le droit des conflits armés", 2(2) Le Journal de l'Armée du Canada13-15; disponible à http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/caj/documents/vol_02/iss_2/CAJ_vol2.2_05_f.pdf (vérifié le 29 février 2012);
accessed 12 February 2015
BEATON, Virginia, "Sailor awarded top prize by Canadian Bar
Association", (Fall 2011) 5(3) Crowsnest
17; available at http://hqrcna.com/files/Crowsnest_ENGLISH_for_web.pdf
(accessed on 7 May 2012); Notes: "Crowsnest is published
quarterly on the authority of the Commander Royal Canadian Navy,
Vice-Admiral Paul Maddison. Comments are welcome and can be sent
to: Directorate of Navy Public Affairs"; about Lieutenant (Navy)
BEAUCHAMP, Denis, Major, "The Fundamentals of Canadian Defence Ethics", August 1997, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20000819003242/http://www.dnd.ca:80/CRS/ETHICS/fundamental_e.htm (accessed 6 May 2017);
BEAUDOIN, Jason, research note: "IT Project Officer at The Office of the Chief Military Judge...February 2014--Present (3 years 6 months)", source https://ca.linkedin.com/in/jason-beaudoin-37669520 (accessed 31 July 2017);
BEAULIEU, Mylène, avocate, membre du Bureau du Juge-avocat général depuis janvier 2016, voir https://ca.linkedin.com/in/myl%C3%A8ne-beaulieu-0831a776 (accès le 27 juin 2017);
Livre de Claude Beauregard, source de l'image: http://www.septentrion.qc.ca/catalogue/guerre-et-censure-au-canada, site visit/ le 16 avril 2014
BEAUREGARD, Claude, 1957-, Guerre
au Canada, 1939-1945, Sillery, Québec : Septentrion,
1998, notes: Présenté à l'origine comme thèse (Ph.D. de
l'auteur--Université Laval) sous le titre: Guerre et censure, 1995;
Ce petit livre issu d’une thèse de doctorat comporte quatre chapitres portant respectivement sur:
1. La mise en place de la censure depuis la Grande Guerre, la règlementation, le Comité de coordination de la censure, etc.
2. La censure de la presse: organisation, fondements de la coopération entre la presse et la censure, les difficultés dans
l’application de la censure, les relations tendues entre les censeurs et la presse, etc.
3. La censure militaire: la censure de la correspondance des troupes en Europe et au Canada, les correspondants de guerre4. La censure des communications personnelles et le renseignement: la réorganisation de la censure en 1942 et sa centralisation,
et la censure, la propagande et la censure, etc.
censure postale et des communications, activités politiques des femmes et censure, considérations sur la censure des
communications personnelles [Source: http://www.lequebecetlesguerres.org/guerre-et-censure-au-canada-1939-1945-de-claude-beauregard/, accessed on 16 April 2014]
BELANGER, Andrea, "Military Law: Where do I find it?", 26 May
2008; Andrea Belanger is the JAG Librarian; available at http://www.callacbd.ca/conferences/2008/presentations/belanger.ppt
on 9 January 2012); also available at http://www.lareau-law.ca/Belanger8.pdf (accessed 16 November 2017);
BÉLANGER, Nicolas, "Le tribunal militaire de 1837-38", (1999) 5(2) Histoire Québec 4-10; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/culture/hq1056841/hq1058813/11382ac.pdf (vérifié le 6 décembre 2011); voir aussi http://www.1837.qc.ca/1837.pl?out=article&pno=n279 (vérifié le 23 octobre 2017);
Image source: https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/en/french-studies/stephanie-h-belanger-phd-associate-professor, accessed 9 September 2015
BÉLANGER, Stéphanie A.H., "Military Ethics and well-being : a soldier' journey", (February 2015) 1(1) Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health (JMVFH) ; available at http://digital.utpjournals.com/i/466831-volume-1-issue-1-february-2015 (accessed 9 September 2015);
BÉLANGER, Yves, "Un Julievillois au Tribunal de guerre de La Haye: Le militaire Jean Caron effectue un stage de six mois en Hollande", L'information de Ste-Julie, 30 octobre 1999; aussi publié dans (October-December 1999) 4 JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités 32;
BELCHER, Colonel Eric, "Critical Mission : Rules of Engagement Development and Dissemination at the Operational Level of Command", AMSC 8 (Advanced Military Studies Course 8), Canadian Forces College, October 2005, 26 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/268/belcher.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2012);
BELKIN, Aaron and Jason McNichol, "Effects of the 1992 Lifting of Restrictions on Gay and Lesbian Service in the Canadian Forces: Appraising the Evidence", Palm Center White Paper, 1 April 2000, available at http://archive.palmcenter.org/publications/dadt/effects_of_the_1992_lifting_of_restrictions_on_gay_and_lesbian_service_in_the_canadian_forces_appraising_the_e (accessed 10 May 2017);
___________ "Homosexual Personnel Policy in the Canadian Forces: Did Lifting the Gay Ban Undermine Military Performance?", (2001) 56 International Journal, Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis 73-88; available at http://aaronbelkin.org/pdfs/articles/Homsexual%20Personnel%20in%20Canadian%20Forces.pdf (accessed on 25 April 2014); also available at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/002070200105600105 (accessed 26 January 2017);
Joël-Denis Bellevance La photo ci-haut vient de plus.lapresse.ca/screens/8fbcb779-f7e2-43e7-bf1f-13153481ce98%7C.n~q5ZOjulf-.html (site visité le 8 août 2017)
BELLEVANCE, Joël-Denis, "Détenus afghans: des policiers militaires crient au camouflage: (Ottawa) Geste sans précédent, des membres de la police militaire qui ont servi en Afghanistan réclament que toute la lumière soit faite sur les abus qui auraient été infligés aux détenus afghans qui étaient sous leur garde entre 2010 et 2011, LA PRESSE .CA, Exclusif, Publié le 15 juin 2016 à 05h00. Mis à jour à 08h36; disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/dossiers/le-canada-en-afghanistan/201606/14/01-4991927-detenus-afghans-des-policiers-militaires-crient-au-camouflage.php (vérifié 15 juin 2016);
BELLEY-MURRAY, Katerine, "Me Boutin représente « Terminator » ", Le Quotidien, 9 septembre 2015, disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/le-quotidien/actualites/201509/08/01-4898771-me-boutin-represente-terminator-.php (vérifié le 9 mai 2017);
Le Congolais Bosco Ntaganda a fait de Me Boutin et de Me Stéphane Bourgon, aussi un Québécois, ses avocats devant la CPI.
Cela l'a mené en Bosnie, au Rwanda, en Croatie, à Haïti, au Honduras et en Afghanistan, en outre, où il a travaillé pour les Forces.
Et maintenant, aux Pays-Bas, à la CPI. Dans deux ans, quand le procès de Ntaganda sera terminé, c'est ailleurs que Me Boutin exercera
« Je suis spécialisé en droit criminel. Je vais donc travailler aux palais de justice à Alma, Chicoutimi et Roberval », dit-il, avec un
enthousiasme non feint.
Charles H. Belzile, image source: http://www.qor.com/history/famous_members.html, accessed on 23 April 2014
BELZILE, Charles-Henri ("Charlie"), Lieutenant-General (Retired), 1933-2016, "Military Justice and Discipline" (1997) 12 Vanguard, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 12-15; this article is reproduced in JAG Newsletter: Office of the Judge Advocate General, vol. 1, Jan/Feb 1998, as article 4 in Part II of the Newsletter; available at http://www.lareau-law.ca/Belzile33.pdf (posted 27 December 2016);
___________Testimony on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts:
- before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs, meeting 61, 11 May 1998, see minutes and evidence;
- before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Issue 39, 29 October 1998, see minutes and evidence;
of Robert F. Benson, image source: www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=22438#.VUE_dpNmqSg
BENSON, Robert F., biographical notes on a former JAG officer in the seventies and early eighties; Bob worked at the AJAG office in Halifax and at NDHQ/DPLS;
Canadian legal expert takes top ethics post at UN3 May 2007 – A Canadian lawyer with extensive experience in governmental ethics has been appointed Director of the United Nations Ethics Office,
a key element of reform of the Organization mandated by the 2005 World Summit, a UN spokesperson announced today.
Robert F. Benson served as the Interim Ethics Commissioner in the Canadian Parliament and, prior to that, was Deputy Ethics Counsellor within the
Canadian Government. Mr. Benson succeeds Nancy Hurtz-Soyka who has been the Interim Director of the Ethics Office since its inception in early 2006. ..../
Mr. Benson started work at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 1 May.
(source of information: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=22438#.VUE_dpNmqSg, accessed on 29 April 2015)
David Jay Bercuson, source of photo: https://cmss.ucalgary.ca/cmss/profiles/david-j-bercuson, accessed on 6 April 2014
BERCUSON, David Jay, 1945-, Significant incident: Canada's
army, the Airnorne, and the murder in Somalia, Toronto:
M&S (McClelland and Stewart), c1996, vii, 263 p., ISBN:
Image source: Google image, accessed 29 December 2015
BERCUSON, David J., J.L. Granatstein, with Nancy Pearson Mackie, Lessons Learned? What Canada Should Learn from Afghanistan, Calgary: Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, October 2011, viii, 43 p., available at http://www.operationspaix.net/DATA/DOCUMENT/3908~v~Lessons_Learned__What_Canada_Should_Learn_from_Afghanistan.pdf (accessed 29 December 2015);
Exactly as it had done in the Balkans, Ottawa had imposed caveats from the very beginning of the Afghan operation. During the initial deployment
of 3PPCLI Battle Group under LCol Pat Stogran in early 2002, any mission which might risk collateral damage had to be approved by Ottawa
before it was undertaken. In other words, Stogran’s ability to deploy and employ his troops was significantly restricted by the government’s caveats.
And although he was supposed to clear his Canadian troops’ operations with VAdm Greg Maddison, the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff in Ottawa,
MGen Andrew Leslie in Kabul in 2003-04 did so only when he believed it absolutely necessary: it was, he said, better to act first rather than to be trapped on
the telephone. That he could so act marked a major change from the troubled Balkan missions of the 1990s when CF officers need to check with
headquarters and the Judge Advocate Generalbefore almost every action. But when he became ISAF commander shortly thereafter, Gen Hillier
realized that he simply could not use his Canadian troops as his “go-to guys” because the contingent commander, faced with NDHQ’s tightening of the
caveat rules, needed Ottawa’s approval “of almost every detail,” a process that took 12 to 72 hours. This would change: one hard lesson learned in
Afghanistan was that an able enemy and the threat of casualties demanded quick action, innovation, and risk-taking. Though the caveats were removed
when Canada deployed to Kandahar in early 2006, Ottawa ought to have been completely aware of the difficulties that national caveats could cause in
multilateral missions. [pp. 10-11. footnotes omitted]
___________"Up from the Ashes: The Re-Professionalization of the Canadian Forces after the Somalia Affair", (2009) 9(3) Canadian Military Journal; available at http://www.journal.dnd.ca/vo9/no3/06-bercuson-eng.asp (accessed on 5 January 2012);
___________"Renaître de ses cendres: la reprofessionnalisation des forces armées canadiennes après l'affaire somalienne", (2009) 9(3) Revue militaire canadienne, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo9/no3/06-bercuson-fra.asp (vérifié le 5 janvier 2012);
------ Source de l'image: ca.linkedin.com/in/patrice-bergeron-284551a8, visité le 26 juillet 2017
BERGERON, Patrice, "Armée: l'obéissance n'est plus nécessairement
privilégiée", LaPresse.ca, 10 mai 2009; disponible à http://www.cyberpresse.ca/actualites/dossiers/le-canada-en-afghanistan/200905/10/01-855129-armee-lobeissance-nest-plus-necessairement-privilegiee.php
(vérifié le 29 avril 2012); interview avec le major Nadine Fortin,
avec le capitaine de corvette John Mckee, avocat militaire; source
de la photo:
____________"L'insurrection rend la tâche des avocats militaires beaucoup plus difficile", LaPresse.ca, 11 mai 2009; disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/dossiers/le-canada-en-afghanistan/200905/11/01-855418-linsurrection-rend-la-tache-des-avocats-militaires-beaucoup-plus-difficile.php (vérifié le 3 January 2015); interview avec le capitaine de corvette John McKee, avocat militaire;
Brian Bergman, source of photo:
BERGMAN, B. (Brian) and L. (Luke) Fisher, "A Night of Terror: The Shocking Account of How Canadian Soldiers Tortured and Killed a Somali", (28 March 1994) Maclean's 26-28 (volume 107, issue 13);
Geneviève Bernatchez, source of Geneviève Bernatchez, image source: www.youtube.com/watch?v=2FREPy6S_x0, accessed 15 January 2017
structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page --accessed 21 March 2014
BERNATCHEZ, Geneviève, one of the authors of the book MILCW --Manual on International Law
applicable to Cyber Warfare,[the
Manual] to be published in 2013, Cambridge University Press; see
2012 draft at http://issuu.com/nato_ccd_coe/docs/tallinn_manual_draft?mode=window&backgroundColor=%23222222
(accessed on 2 December 2012);
___________Biographical notes on Geneviève Bernatchez taken from CCDCOE, NATO cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, circa 2012, available at http://ccdcoe.org/cycon/469.html (accessed on 3 June 2012);
(Navy) Geneviève Bernatchez
enrolled in the Canadian Forces in 1987 and served
as a Maritime Surface Officer in a variety of operational
and staff positions until her transfer to the Office of the Judge Advocate General in 1997. She is the Deputy Judge Advocate General/ Operations. She
oversees the provision of legal advice and services to the Department of National Defence and the Canadian forces for all matters of operational and
international law related to domestic and international operations. She has a Bachelor of Laws degree from the Université de Montréal (1991) and has
been awarded a Masters Degree in International Law, with a specialization in National Security Law, from Georgetown University, Washington D.C.
(USA.) (2009, with Honours). She has been a member of the Barreau du Québec since 1993.
image source: canadianlawyermag.com/legalfeeds/3900/first-female-judge-advocate-general-appointed-to-canadian-armed-forces.html
"Deputy Minister of National Defence John Forster;
Minister of National Defence Harjit Singh Sajjan; Judge Advocate General Geneviève Bernatchez;
Major-General Blaise Cathcart, former judge advocate general; and General Jonathan Vance, chief
of defence staff, stand together during the change of appointment ceremony for the JAG." (Written by Alexia Kapralos)
___________Biographical notes on Geneviève Bernatchez from http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/judge-advocate-general-bio.page (accessed 29 June 2017);
Commodore Geneviève Bernatchez, CD - Biography
Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Armed Forces
A native of Gaspé (Québec), Commodore Bernatchez enrolled in the Canadian Naval Reserve in 1987 at Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship DONNACONA
(Montréal). She was awarded her Bridge Watchkeeping Certificate as a Maritime Surface Officer at a time when the Navy was introducing women to
combat arms. During her ten years with the Naval Reserve, she proudly served in a variety of command, training and staff positions.
In 1997, Commodore Bernatchez transferred to the Regular Force and joined the Office of the Judge Advocate General. Her career with the Office
reflects diverse appointments and responsibilities involving the provision of legal advice and services in the areas of operational, military justice
and administrative law. She has also been the Special Assistant to two successive Judge Advocate General and has worked with
the Department of Justice Canada as Deputy Legal Advisor (Military) and Director of Legal Advisory Services.
Commodore Bernatchez deployed with the Canadian Forces Air Component during the Kosovo conflict in 1999, and was involved in the oversight,
coordination and provision of legal services to Canadian Armed Forces expeditionary and domestic operations from 2000 to 2005. Upon promotion
to the rank of Captain (Navy) in 2010, she was the Deputy Judge Advocate General for Operations. As such, she was the senior legal officer
responsible for the provision of operational and international legal advice and services to the Department of National Defence and the Canadian
Armed Forces during a period of exceptionally high operational tempo that included contributing to international peace and security through missions
in Afghanistan and Libya, defending North America in conjunction with the United States, supporting major national events such as the 2010 Olympic
Games in Vancouver as well as responding to natural disasters in Canada and abroad. It is also during that time that she co-authored the “Tallinn Manual
on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare”, the first published manual on the legal framework supporting cyber conflicts.
From 2012 to 2014, Commodore Bernatchez was the Chief of Staff to the Judge Advocate General and led the delivery of corporate services and policy
development in a challenging time of change and renewal. In the summer of 2014, she took on the responsibilities of Deputy Judge Advocate General
for Regional Services where she oversaw the delivery of legal advisory services across the full spectrum of military law in support of the Canadian
Armed Forces’ chain of command in North America and Europe.
Commodore Bernatchez holds a Masters of International Legal Studies degree, with a specialization in National Security Law, from Georgetown University
(Washington D.C.), a Bachelor of Laws from the Université de Montréal and a Diplôme d’Études Collégiales in Administration from the Collège
Jean-de-Brébeuf (Montréal). She has been a member of the Barreau du Québec since 1993.
She is married to Jean, who has also chosen a career dedicated to the service of Canada. Geneviève and her husband are proud parents to Guillaume and
Charlotte. As Geneviève’s professional responsibilities have increased over the years, so as her appreciation for simple things like spending time with her
family and friends and giving back to the community through her volunteer work.
source for Captain(Navy) Geneviève Bernatchez: /www.google.com,
image source, 17 July 2015,
©Photo gracieuseté Sergent Dan Shouinard, Direction des affaires publiques de l’Armée © 2015 DND-MDN Canada
___________"The Implementation of the Doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect in Libya", text of speaker, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, 19th Congress, Quebec City, 2012, available at http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_texts%20of%20speakers.php and http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2012_05_01_Quebec_texts%20of%20speakers.php (accessed on 24 August 2013);
___________New Judge Advocate General, Government of Canada, News release, 20 June 2017 under the title "Minister Of National Defence Appoints A New Judge Advocate General", available at https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/news/2017/06/minister_of_nationaldefenceappointsanewjudgeadvocategeneral.html (accessed 21 June 2017);
June 20, 2017 – Ottawa – National Defence / Canadian Armed Forces
The military justice system is an important part of ensuring that our women and men in uniform receive fairToday Defence Minister Harjit S. Sajjan is pleased to announce the appointment of Captain (Navy) Geneviève
and equal treatment while serving our country.
Bernatchez as the fifteenth Judge Advocate General (JAG) of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and the first
woman to hold this position. Captain (Navy) Bernatchez will be promoted to the rank of Commodore and succeed
Major-General Blaise Cathcart who will retire later this year. A formal change of appointment ceremony will take
place on June 27, 2017 in Ottawa.
Captain (Navy) Bernatchez is the first woman to be appointed as Judge Advocate General.
Captain (Navy) Bernatchez enrolled in the Canadian Naval Reserve in 1987 and transferred to Regular Force in 1997 where she joined the Office of the JAG.
She was promoted to the rank of Captain (Navy) in 2010, serving as Deputy Judge Advocate General for Operations.
Captain (Navy) Bernatchez served subsequently as the Chief of Staff to the Judge Advocate General and most recently held the position of Deputy Judge Advocate General/Regional Services.
She has deployed in support of CF operations during the Kosovo conflict and, as the Deputy Judge Advocate General/Operations, was the senior legal officer responsible for the provision of operational and international legal advice to the Department of National Defence/Canadian Armed Forces for all missions including Afghanistan and Libya.
She is a co-author of the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare (the “Tallinn Manual”, Cambridge University Press, 2013), the first published manual on the legal framework supporting cyber conflict.
Photographer: MCpl Vincent Carbonneau, Rideau HallReference: GG02-2017-0296-015
___________photo of Commodore Geneviève Bernatchez, speaking at "Canadian Forces Morale and Welfare Services Executive Women’s Breakfast at Rideau Hall on August 18, 2017" and hosted by Her Excellency Sharon Johnston, see https://www.gg.ca/gallery.aspx?id=11700 and https://www.gg.ca/gallery.aspx?id=11700 (accessed 29 August 2017);
Commodore Geneviève Bernatchez, the first woman Judge Advocate General, discussed the mental health challenges
and everyday stressors she faced while climbing the ranks in the legal system and working on sexual misconduct cases.
___________Testimony before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence:
- 30 October 2017 about the order in council re her appointment to the position of Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces; see http://www.ourcommons.ca/Committees/en/NDDN/Meetings (accessed 1 November 2017) and http://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/NDDN/meeting-66/evidence (accessed 10 November 2017); IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION;
Cmdre Geneviève Bernatchez (Judge Advocate General, Department of National Defence):
I understand that you have been provided a copy of my biography, so my intention is to briefly identify the role and function of the Judge Advocate General and my vision for the office and the work we do.
I am appointed as the Judge Advocate General to perform two distinct roles as set out in the National Defence Act. First, I have the responsibility of superintending the administration of military justice in the Canadian Armed Forces. Second, I act as legal adviser to the Governor General, the Minister of National Defence, the department, and the Canadian Armed Forces in matters relating to miliary law.Canadian military law includes military justice, as well as the law pertaining to the governance, administration, and activities of the Canadian Armed Forces. Together, as a team, members of the Office of the Judge Advocate General act with purpose. We enable the provision of client-focused, timely, options-oriented, and operationally driven legal advice and services in support of the Government of Canada and defence priorities and objectives.
To that end, we work in close collaboration with our colleagues in other departments, including our colleagues in the Department of Justice, as well as the legal services of the Privy Council Office and Global Affairs Canada.Under my command, the office will continue to play a key role in helping decision-makers understand and place into context the legal aspects of their activities.
The Office of the Judge Advocate General is made up of of 200 regular force and 48 reserve force legal officers, seven senior non-commissioned officers, and 91 civilian support personnel serving across Canada and abroad. The Office of the JAG is composed of the directorate of military prosecutions, the directorate of defence counsel services, as well as the following five divisions: military justice, administrative law, operational law, regional services, and the chief of staff.
In 2010, 29% of our lawyers were women. Today, 35% are. It is important to highlight that half of our new legal officers are women. As you may be aware, about half of the lawyers who now enter the legal profession in Canada are women. This demonstrates that our current numbers are reflective of the broader Canadian legal profession.
The areas of law for which the Judge Advocate General is responsible include military justice, military administrative law, and operational and international law.
Military administrative law also forms part of the legal backbone of the Canadian Armed Forces. My administrative law division provides strategic legal support to the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence on a wide range of matters dealing with all aspects of a military member's career, from recruitment to release and transition to civilian life. As the overarching priorities of Canada's new defence policy relate to the care and support of Canadian Armed Forces members, my administrative law division plays an important role in supporting the chief of military personnel in the implementation of the policy's objectives. The administrative law division is also continuously involved in providing legal advice and services in support of a range of strategic priorities, including the implementation of Operation Honour.Last but not least, my operational and international law division provides legal support to the Canadian Armed Forces and the department in relation to the conduct of domestic and international operations. The practice of operational law is something that truly makes the practice of military law different from that of our civilian colleagues, particularly in the deployed context.
There are currently 19 overseas missions supported by deployed legal officers or with personnel from my operational and international law division. Further, over the last several months, our legal officers have advised on domestic operations such as the Canadian Armed Forces deployments to assist Canadian civilian authorities in their emergency responses to ice storms in New Brunswick, to floods in Quebec and Ontario, and to wildfires in British Columbia.
As we know, Bill C-15 represented significant modernization of the military justice system and had several clauses and several aspects to it that need to be implemented once the bill received royal assent in 2013. The bill incorporated recommendations that had been made by the Right Honourable Antonio Lamer in his 2003 report, as well as recommendations that had been made by the Senate committee in 2009.
It presented a gargantuan task for lawyers to be able to draft the regulations that would put Bill C-15 into force, and our team at the Office of the Judge Advocate General worked relentlessly over the course of the last several years to try to not only draft the regulations that needed to be put in place as a first order of business but also to look at the second, third, and fourth degrees of effect of having legislation that was modifying other aspects of the regulatory scheme of the Queen's Regulations and Orders.
I'm very pleased to tell the committee today that this gargantuan task, this adventure, is coming to fruition. We're looking at the finalization of this process. We remain extremely committed to seeing it come into force in the next little while.
My predecessor mandated a court martial comprehensive review. It pertained to the court martial system, and extensive consultation occurred. The team that carried out the review also did a fantastic job at comparative analysis.
When I took on the position of Judge Advocate General, I had an opportunity to look at the draft report with my military justice division. There were some aspects of it that I wanted to have clarified, because I was brand new at the job and needed a little bit of time to better understand certain aspects. The team was mandated to provide to me on July 21 a draft interim report for me to review.
We are currently in the process of reviewing this report, which I think will not only form the basis of a great opportunity to engage in a dialogue with parliamentarians, the Canadian public, and members of the Canadian Armed Forces as to what the Canadian military justice system is and where it should go, but will also enable me to formulate policy and legal analysis recommendations to the Minister of National Defence and the chief of the defence staff toward the modernization of this piece of the military justice system.
I would very much like to be able to put as much of it as possible on my website soon. There are certain aspects of the report, though, that I think will be classified under solicitor-client privilege because they contain either legal advice or policy analysis for recommendations to the minister.....
My default position will be to communicate as much as possible to the public, to engage them in that dialogue, and to ensure that we get the feedback we require in order to advance in it while protecting the pieces of it that I need to protect because of professional obligations.
- 20 September 2011, briefing on Libya, available at http://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/41-1/NDDN/meeting-2/evidence (accessed 1 November 2017);
__________"A Nation's right to self-defence" (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1 and 6; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd (accessed on 19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Le droit de légitime défense d'un pays" (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd (site visité le 19 avril 2012);
Image source: http://ottawacitizen.com/author/leeberthiaume, accessed 26 September 2016
BERTHIAUME, Lee, "Canadian Forces have trouble tracking military sexual offence convictions: Six teams of three investigators trained specifically to deal with sexual crimes have been deployed across the country to deal with Canadian Forces cases", The Canadian Press, published in Toronto Metro, 25 September 2016, available at http://www.metronews.ca/news/canada/2016/09/25/canadian-forces-have-trouble-tracking-military-sexual-offence-convictions.html (accessed 26 September 2016);
___________"Canadian military creates special team to investigate sex crimes. A team of investigators to handle sexual crimes have been given specialized training to better investigate crimes and support victims, officials said. They will be deployed to six locations across Canada",The Canadian Press, published in .thestar.com, 27 September 2016, available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2016/09/27/canadian-military-creates-special-team-to-investigate-sex-crimes.html (accessed on 28 September 2016);
Photo by Adrian Wyld, The Canadian Press
Major-General Michael Rouleau, center, and his defence counsel Major
Luc Boutin, right
___________"General fined $2Gs for firing weapon", Waterloo Chronicle, 12 October 2016, available at http://www.waterloochronicle.ca/news-story/6906305-general-fined-2-000-for-accidental-gunshot-in-iraq/ (accessed 12 October 2016);
___________"Government settles with cadets in deadly 1974 grenade blast", CTV News, 9 March 2017; available at http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/government-settles-with-cadets-in-deadly-1974-grenade-blast-1.3318173 (accessed 10 March 2017);
___________ "Military police, prosecutors call for more rights for victims of crime", from the Canadian Press, Posted Sep 23, 2016, available at http://www.680news.com/2016/09/23/military-police-prosecutors-call-for-more-rights-for-victims-of-crime/ (accessed 26 September 2016);
Colonel Robert Delaney, Provost Marshal
___________"Provost marshal defends military police after scathing report", The Ottawa Citizen, 12 March 2017; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/provost-marshal-defends-military-police-after-scathing-report (accessed 2 July 2017);
Véronique Bérubé, source de l'image: Google Image, vérifié le 5 juin 2014
BÉRUBÉ, Véronique, "Au coeur de la tourmente", Hebdo Rive Nord . com, publié
le 4 décembre 2006; disponible à http://www.hebdorivenord.com/Societe/Monde/2006-12-04/article-1077064/Au-c%26oelig%3Bur-de-la-tourmente/1
(vérifié le 16 janvier 2012); article sur le militaire
Mario Denis Paillé du Cabinet du JAG;
BESWETHERICK, Bill, "CF Grievance Process: Change, But Not
Necessarily Improvement", (shipped in October 2000), vol. 8, issue
3, Esprit de Corps, pp. 11-12;
Bibliography on "Canada's Security Policy, available at http://docs.exdat.com/docs/index-58142.html (accessed on 6 January 2012); IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION
BICKELL, F.R., "Report on Canadian Military Law", (1960) 1 Recueils de la Société internationale de Droit pénal militaire et de Droit de la guerre 85; notes: F.R. Bickell, at the time, was a major, Deputy Judge Advocate;
Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/ashleybickerton, accessed 7 September 2015
Ashley Jennifer Bickerton
BICKERTON, Ashley Jennifer, ‘Good Soldiers’, ‘Bad Apples’ and
the ‘Boys’ Club’: Media Representations of Military Sex Scandals
and Militarized Masculinities, Thesis submitted to the
Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for a doctoral degree in Women’s Studies,
Institute of Feminist and Gender Studies Faculty of Social
Sciences University of Ottawa, 2015, v, 564 leaves; available
(accessed 7 September 2015);
Image source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Mowat_Biggar, accessed 12 October 2017
Oliver Mowatt Biggar
BIGGAR, Oliver Mowatt, 1876-1948, Judge Advocate General, in World War I Canadian Generals, 125 pages at p. 69; available at http://www.blatherwick.net/documents/General%20%26%20Flag%20Officers%20WWI%20and%20WWII/01%20World%20War%20I%20Canadian%20Generals.pdf (accessed 12 October 2017);
Colonel Oliver Mowat BIGGAR,CMG, KC
Born:11/10/1876 Toronto, Ontario
Married: 1908 Toronto, Ontario Muriel Elizabeth Whitney
Died: 03/09/1948 Ottawa, Ontario
05/06/1943 CMG Chairman Cdn Section Joint Board Defense
Commander Legion of Merit USA
1913 KC King’s Council (Alberta)
1920 KC King’s Council (Canada)
1901 Lawyer Graduate Osgoode Hall & University of Toronto
1903 Lawyer Edmonton, Alberta (called to Alberta Bar)
1911 Board of Governors University of Alberta
1914 End Board of Governors End Term on Board of Governors U. of Alberta
1919 Chief Cdn Legal Advisor Peace Conference in Paris & Versailles
1919 British Secretary War Guilt Commission
1920 Vice Chairman Air Board- Organized Canada’s Air Department
1920 Chief Electoral Officer House of Commons; 1st Chief Electoral Officer
1927 Chief Electoral Officer End term
1940 Co-Chair Canada- US Defence Board
1942 Head Canadian Censorship Board
1942 Member Wartime Information Board
1945 Retired Turned over his duties to General McNaughton
1903 Lieutenant Edmonton Fusiliers
1915 Major Member Military Service Council
1917 Major AJAG for MD #13 Alberta
01/1918 Lieutenant-Colonel Judge Advocate General (JAG)
1920 Lieutenant-Colonel Retire
After practising law in Edmonton for twelve years, he joined the
Canadian Army in 1915 and became the Judge Advocate General for
Canada in 1918. He was a member of the Canadian delegation to the
Versailles Peace Conference in 1918-19. In derogation to standard
practice, Colonel Biggar, then Parliamentary Counsel of the House of
Commons, was designated in the Elections Act as the first holder of
the office, a feature that suggests that his appointment may have
been part and parcel of an all-party package. His salary was made
equal to that of a judge of the Supreme Court of Canada, a position
that at that time commanded a salary of $12,000. Ironically, Biggar quit in
1927 after having supervised three general elections, because he expected to
make even more money by moving to the lucrative practice of patent law. To this
day, he remains the only Chief Electoral Officer having a legal background.
Source: archeion.ca/uploads/r/law-society-of-upper-canada-archives/8/7/87002/2009029-01P.jpg, accessed 9 October 2017
Stanley Biggs, first row, second from the left
BIGGS, Stanley, 1913-2008, former JAG officer; see http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/thestar/obituary.aspx?n=stanley-c-biggs&pid=117505874 (accessed 9 October 2017);
Stanley C. Biggs
STANLEY C. BIGGS QC, LSM, JD, LL.B 1913 - 2008 The family of Stanley Champion Biggs mourns his passing on June 8th, 2008, after a short illness. Stan was
born in Toronto in 1913 and was called to the Bar in 1939, then immediately enlisted in the army. As a 2nd lieutenant, later promoted to captain with the Queen's
Own Rifles of Canada, he fought on the beaches of Normandy on D-Day 1944 and saw 86 days of front-line action until wounded in the leg. During convalescence,
he continued on in England as a military lawyer for the Judge Advocate's General Branch and later was attached to British counsel during the famous Lord Haw-Haw
treason trials. After the war, he successfully developed his law practice back in Toronto following the footsteps of his father and grandfather. For over 50 years, he
continued practising the law he loved. In 1995, Stan received the Law Society Medal for distinguished service from the Law Society of Upper Canada. Meanwhile,
he was also busy with his growing family as well as becoming involved in his community: in professional associations; as a school trustee; and as honorary solicitor
for several prominent charitable organizations. He was a keen golfer and squash player. Stan also was an early environmentalist, starting in the late 1940s to re-forest
land northwest of Toronto, eventually planting over 150,000 trees. ....
----------------- image source: commonlaw.uottawa.ca/en/people/bindman-stephen, accessed 18 August 2017
Ross Hainsworth, image Stephen Bindman
BINDMAN, Stephen, "[ For the first time, a Canadian military... ]", CanWest News, Jun 2, 1991, p.1; following his conviction, Hainsworth appealed and a new trial was ordered. He had a second court martial.
Description: Capt. Ross Hainsworth, legal officer at CFB Cold Lake in Alberta, pleaded guilty last week to a charge of fraud
against the government at a court martial before three officers. According to a statement of evidence presented at his court
martial at CFB Trenton, Hainsworth was defending a Toronto corporal in February who was charged with aggravated assault.
The corporal was eventually convicted and sentenced to four months in jail and an internal investigation was begun into
[source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved; available at : http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?
fraud&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe, accessed 18 August 2017]
BISAL, Marvin (Marv), 1932-2009, "Obituary", Time Colonist; available at http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/timescolonist/obituary.aspx?n=marvin-allen-emery-bisal&pid=136177376 (accessed 2 November 2015); another obituary with colour photo at http://www.mccallgardens.com/obituaries/marvin-allen-emery-bisal-c-d-ll-b (accessed 19 September 2017); Marv Bisal was a JAG officer and a military judge;
BLACK, Christopher, "Canada's Military Operations are Illegal Under Canadian Law", nsbc international, 5 October 2015, available at http://nsnbc.me/2015/10/05/canadas-military-operations-are-illegal-under-canadian-law/ (accessed 31 October 2015);
The deployment of Canadian Forces overseas to take part in operations in Syria, Iraq, Libya, Ukraine and Yugoslavia have been and are illegal under Article 31 of the National Defence Act yet not one of the major parties has ever raised this issue in parliament nor have any of the media addressed it any of their coverage of these multiple operations. One has to wonder why it is that the rest of us are required to obey to the laws of Canada but the federal government leadership itself and the Armed Forces are not.
Source of image: http://www.starnews.ca/news/image_2cb1cf0a-cd33-11e1-8a68-0019bb30f31a.html, accessed 27 September 2016
LCol Michael Blackburn, center, 22 June 2012
BLACKBURN, M.O. (Michael), "Perfect Storm Rising : Québec Separation and the Threat of Civil Conflict in Canada", Canadian Forces College, JCSP 33, Master of Defence Studies, 23 April 2007, available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/293/286/blackburn.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2014);
Image source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk, accessed 22 January 2016
BLACKETT, Jeff, His Honour, Judge Advocate General of Her Majesty's Armed Forces (UK), "The Role and Function of the UK Judge Advocate General and the barriers that were overcome in civilianizing parts of the Service Justice System" in Michel
Drapeau Law Office, ed., Winds
of Change: Conference and Debate on
Canadian Military Law, [Ottawa:]
Michel Drapeau Law Office, 2016, 102 p., at pp. 57-63, NOTES: Conference held at the
University of Ottawa, 13 November
2015; "For the first time
an international academic conference on military law was held in Canada at the University of Ottawa with the focus on reform and comparative law" (Gilles Létourneau, Preface, p. 7); "(Organizing Committee for the Conference: Michel W. Drapeau, Joshua M. Juneau, Walter Semianiw and Sylvie Corbin)"; Speech transcribed by Joshua M. Juneau, p. 31; available at mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2015-Conference-Proceedings.pdf (accessed 20 January 2016);
Fred Blair, photo reproduced from http://kuny.ca/temp/english/AtB-BM_Blair.html,
accessed 31 March 2014
BLAIR, C.F., "Military Efficiency and Military Justice: Peaceful
Co-Existence?" (1993) 42 University of New Brunswick Law
BLAIR, William Robert Nelson, "A Comparative Study of Disciplinary Offenders and Non-Offenders in the Canadian Army, 1948", (1950) 4(2) Canadian Journal of Psychylogy 49-62;
Description: A sample of offenders in the Canadian army and matched and random control groups were compared on the MMPI, personality inventory, attitude scales
and a biographical questionnaire. An item analysis yielded 151 highly discriminative items. The MMPI was found to differentiate offenders from non-offenders (CR 3 or more)
on 7 scales. In general, it was possible to distinguish between the majority of offenders and non-offenders after offences had been committed. The results show some promise
for early identification of offenders. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default
_tab&indx=1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=%22canada+military+law%22&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe,( accessed 18 August 2016)
___________The Prediction of military Deliquency, Ph.D. thesis in Philosophy, Scholl of Psychology, University of Ottawa, 1956, xv, 145 leaves, available at http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/handle/10393/21066 and http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/bitstream/handle/10393/21066/DC53527.PDF?sequence=1 (accessed on 29 September 2013);
Description: [Andre Marin] and the JAG are at odds over how to interpret that section of his mandate. The JAG believes the current wording of Marin's
mandate gives it a blanket exemption from his investigations. "The way they interpret it now is: any work they do is not open to scrutiny," said one source.
Notes of a meeting between Judge Advocate General Gerry Pitzul and Marin said that the senior JAG officer warned the incoming ombudsman against
speaking to the media and taking an adversarial approach. Marin declined the JAG's offers to function as his legal advisers. While Marin retains the right
to seek legal advice from them, he chose instead to appoint his own in-house legal adviser. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+
accessed 19 August 2016)
Description: The submission by Canada's leading association of lawyers also calls for major improvements to the military justice system. The CBA
says the military justice system has a credibility problem, often violates the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and that certain of its key actors -- namely
judges and defence lawyers -- are not impartial or independent enough compared to those in the civilian criminal justice system. (source:
rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=edmonton+%22Military++Law%22&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe, accessed 22 August 2016)
Description: [Andre Marin] was appointed to the job after heading the Ontario Special Investigations Unit, the Toronto-based agency that investigates police shootings and other violent incidents involving the province's law enforcement agencies. While in that position, Marin was tough and outspoken, and often aired his views candidly in the media. [Gerry Pitzul] also suggested that Marin use his office as his legal adviser, saying he did not "necessarily see a conflict using the JAG," an apparent reference to the fact the JAG reports directly to the military's chain of command. Marin eventually declined Pitzul's offer and later chose to rely on in-house legal advice, appointing staffer Barbara Finlay from the Ottawa Crown attorney's office, as his legal adviser. Marin also retains the right to contract out legal advice as needed. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=5&frbg=&indx=41&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=ottawa%20JAG%20&dstmp=1471596574716, accessed 19 August 2016)
___________"Internal battle rages over Forces ombudsman: Marin accuses DND legal branch of waste, delays", The Ottawa Citizen, 14 May 2001, pp. A1 and A5; see reply by Pizul, "Setting the record straight on the Forces ombudsman", infra;
Description: [Andre Marin] was appointed to the job after heading the Ontario Special Investigations Unit, the Toronto-based agency that investigates police shootings and other violent incidents involving the provinces law enforcement agencies. While in that position, Marin was tough and outspoken, and often aired his views candidly in the media. [Gerry Pitzul] also suggested that Marin use his office as his legal adviser, saying he did not necessarily see a conflict using the JAG, an apparent reference to the fact the JAG reports directly to the militarys chain of command. Marin eventually declined Pitzuls officer and later chose to rely on in-house legal advice, appointing staffer Barbara Finlay from the Ottawa Crown attorneys office, as his legal adviser. Marin also retains the right to contract out legal advice as needed. Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved
Description: [Andre Marin] and the JAG are at odds over how to interpret that section of his mandate. The JAG believes the current wording of Marin's mandate gives it a blanket exemption from his investigations. "The way they interpret it now is: any work they do is not open to scrutiny," said one source. Marin, meanwhile, believes he has the right to investigate the JAG, as long as he does not infringe solicitor-client privilege. Marin will ask that the provision be reworked to clarify what he sees as his right to investigate complaints against military lawyers, especially the JAG. In the run-up to the announcement of his mandate, Marin clashed with senior Forces brass -- notably the JAG -- who resent his attempts to grab the power he feels his office needs to investigate complaints of military corruption. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=4&fn=search&indx=31&vl(13699712UI6)=Year&dscnt=0&vl(1UIStartWith0)=contains&vl(1UIStartWith2)=contains&vid=01LOC&mode=Advanced&vl(D13699709UI3)=all_items&vl(boolOperator1)=AND&tab=default_tab&vl(13699711UI6)=00&vl(D13699706UI0)=any&vl(freeText1)=Marin&dstmp=1471597642906&vl(13699710UI6)=00&frbg=&vl(13699715UI6)=Year&vl(D13699705UI1)=any&vl(D13699708UI4)=all_items&vl(13699714UI6)=00&vl(1UIStartWith1)=contains&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&vl(480887489UI2)=any&vl(boolOperator0)=AND&Submit=Search&vl(D13699707UI5)=all_items&vl(boolOperator2)=AND&vl(freeText2)=&vl(13699713UI6)=00&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Blanchfield%2C%20Mike, accessed 19 August 2016);
___________"Military law review slammed as 'whitewash'. Bar association says military justice system has 'credibility problem' ", The Ottawa Citizen, Friday, June 27, 2003, p. A3; see response of the Canadian Bar Review in a letter dated 27 June 2003, available at http://www.cba.org/cba/submissions/pdf/03-28-2-eng.pdf
"The Stinging criticism [by the Canadian Bar Association] of the military handling of its review of provisions of the National Defence Act is contained in the bar association's 101-page brief submitted to Judge Lamer."
Description: When Mr. [Andre Marin] makes the request at a press conference today, it will once again bring him into conflict with the branch of the military that has posed the most resistance to his efforts to investigate Forces personnel -- the Judge Advocate General (JAG), the military's legal branch. Mr. Marin and the JAG are at odds over how to interpret that section of his mandate. The JAG believes the current wording of Mr. Marin's mandate gives it a blanket exemption from his investigations. "The way they interpret it now is: Any work they do is not open to scrutiny," said one source. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=6&fn=search&indx=51&vl(13699712UI6)=Year&dscnt=0&vl(1UIStartWith0)=contains&vl(1UIStartWith2)=contains&vid=01LOC&mode=Advanced&vl(D13699709UI3)=all_items&vl(boolOperator1)=AND&tab=default_tab&vl(13699711UI6)=00&vl(D13699706UI0)=any&vl(freeText1)=Marin&dstmp=1471598202893&vl(13699710UI6)=00&frbg=&vl(13699715UI6)=Year&vl(D13699705UI1)=any&vl(D13699708UI4)=all_items&vl(13699714UI6)=00&vl(1UIStartWith1)=contains&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&vl(480887489UI2)=any&vl(boolOperator0)=AND&Submit=Search&vl(D13699707UI5)=all_items&vl(boolOperator2)=AND&vl(freeText2)=&vl(13699713UI6)=00&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Blanchfield%2C%20Mike, accessed 19 August 2016);
Description: In 1994, the elder Marin headed a review of the military police system and raised serious questions about their accountability and the influence of commanding officers over investigations. The younger Marin followed in his father's footsteps when he submitted his battle plan for the new office of ombudsman to [Art Eggleton] on Jan. 20. The Police Association of Ontario used its 1997 conference to call for Marin's head. It didn't like Marin speaking out publicly about high-profile cases. The association accused his office of leaking information to the media. Toronto lawyer Clayton Ruby says Marin is unworthy of accolades because he cleared the backlog by "taking all the old complaints and dumping them. He achieved that by prosecuting no one." (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=4&fn=search&indx=31&vl(13699712UI6)=Year&dscnt=0&vl(1UIStartWith0)=contains&vl(1UIStartWith2)=contains&vid=01LOC&mode=Advanced&vl(D13699709UI3)=all_items&vl(boolOperator1)=AND&tab=default_tab&vl(13699711UI6)=00&vl(D13699706UI0)=any&vl(freeText1)=Marin&dstmp=1471597642906&vl(13699710UI6)=00&frbg=&vl(13699715UI6)=Year&vl(D13699705UI1)=any&vl(D13699708UI4)=all_items&vl(13699714UI6)=00&vl(1UIStartWith1)=contains&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&vl(480887489UI2)=any&vl(boolOperator0)=AND&Submit=Search&vl(D13699707UI5)=all_items&vl(boolOperator2)=AND&vl(freeText2)=&vl(13699713UI6)=00&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Blanchfield%2C%20Mike, accessed 19 August 2016);
The departing chair of the Military Police Complaints Commission [former JAG officer Peter Tinsley] has taken the Harper government to task for refusing to renew
his term in the middle of a major public inquiry into the Afghan detainee controversy.
In my view the national defence of Canada is not the responsibility of the Canadian Armed Forces, or of the Department of National Defence or directly of Parliament. In effect, the defence of Canada is the responsibility of the people; and the members of Parliament, as representatives of the people, are therefore accountable to the people of Canada for the national defence of the country and for the operation of all the instruments, organizations, units and individuals who give effect to that defence.
The National Defence Act, in my view, therefore is an instrument of delegation. Its purpose is to explain to individuals who daily manage and direct the defence of Canada their responsibilities, their terms of reference and the degree of authority that Parliament allows these individuals to have in all circumstances.
When I speak to officers, often I ask them what is the basis for military operations in Canada. Naturally they will say that getting the mission done, taking care of the job, tactical necessity and so on is the basis for military operations. But I try to explain to them that in my view the basis for military operations really is the law. The commanding concept here is what we refer to as lawful command. So the National Defence Act sets out lawful command. It dictates who has authority for whom, who can decide what and how the defence department and the armed forces will be organized and commanded.
Douglas L. Bland and Roy Rempel express grave concerns over the lack of interest the Canada’s Parliament has shown in defence policy and foreign affairs since the post-Cold War era began. They suggest that perhaps this tendency towards disengagement is the product of British tradition, in which defence decisions were left in the hands of the Crown. As Bland and Rempel explain, there has been little debate in the House of Commons around these issues over the years, and a clear direction still has yet to be truly established for those who are required to make decisions today (generally senior military officials). As far as Bland and Rempel are concerned, change is absolutely required; Parliament, they argue, has not used Parliamentary Committees as effectively as possible, and they are really too divided along party lines to debate in a real or useful fashion.
At a time when concerns over terrorism prevail, the authors suggest that the Government of Canada cannot afford to ignore security concerns with the hope or understanding that they will be looked after by others. According to the authors, despite potential threats to Canada’s security, little has been said about defence in the House of Commons. Bland and Rempel further argue that the federal government has largely ignored suggestions presented by informed military officials, and is making what they view as irresponsible decisions in this arena. Further to this latter point, they suggest the deployment of Canadian Forces to Afghanistan serves as one such example.
Bland and Rempel then examine the Westminster system and how defence decisions are made more closely, the role of Parliamentary Committees and debates, and how money designated for military spending is allocated. They compare the Westminster system to the Norwegian and German Parliamentary systems, and how defence-related affairs are overseen in each of these traditions.
Finally, the authors make explicit suggestions to Canadian Parliamentarians. Many of Bland and Rempel’s prescriptions reference the use of Parliamentary Committees, and the resources allocated to them. According to the authors, there are clear steps which, if taken, will introduce the appropriate level of stewardship to Canadian defence policy. (source: http://www.policy.ca/policy-directory/Detailed/A-Vigilant-Parliament_-Building-Competence-for-Effective-Parliamentary-Oversight-of-National-Defence-196.html, accessed 6 March 2015; NOW AVAILABLE AT http://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/research/national-security-and-interoperability/a-vigilant-parliament-building-competence-for-effective-parliamentary-oversight-of-national-defence-and-the-canadian-armed-forces/pmvol5no1.pdf, accessed 1 January 2016);
These are among the most important and topical subjects in the
field of international law today. They illustrate the importance
of respect for, and dissemination of, international humanitarian
law to the promotion of the rule of law in the international
CHIEF OF STAFF AND SPECIAL ADVISOR
Mr. Stanley Blythe has been the Chief of Staff and Special Advisor
to the Chair of the Military Police Complaints Commission since
August 2003. In this capacity, he manages both the Chair’s office
and the communications function, as well as leading a variety
of strategic projects for the Commission.
Mr. Blythe is a graduate of the Royal Military College and the
University of Alberta Law School. He subsequently completed
a Master of Laws degree at the University of Ottawa, focusing
on constitutional law and human rights.
Prior to joining the Commission, Mr. Blythe worked as the first
Court Martial Administrator for the Canadian Forces, where he
managed the office of the Chief Military Judge and convened
Before entering the federal Public Service, Mr. Blythe was a member
of the Canadian Forces for 31 years, including many years as a naval
officer, serving primarily in destroyers on Canada’s East coast. As
a legal officer in the Forces, he worked in various fields including
human rights law and information law.
Mr. Blythe has taught courses and delivered presentations to a
variety of institutions and organizations on subjects including ethics,
information technology security, employment equity, harassment
prevention and criminal law.
- Board of Inquiry, Death of Major Hess-Von Kruedener, 2006, available at http://www.crs-csex.forces.gc.ca/boi-ce/rp/von-kruedener/index-eng.aspx (accessed 30 April 2017); the legal advisor was Major M.J. Dow;
- Board of Inquiry, Detainee Incident, 2010 available at http://www.crs-csex.forces.gc.ca/boi-ce/rp/detainees/convening-convocation-eng.aspx (accessed 30 April 2017); the legal advisor was LCdr D.T. Reeves, AJAG (Halifax);
- Board of Inquiry, HMCS Chicoutimi, December 2004, available at http://www.crs-csex.forces.gc.ca/boi-ce/rp/hmcs-ncsm/rp/index-eng.aspx#p3 (accessed 30 April 2017); the legal advisors designated to the BOI were Commander J.B.M. Pelletier and Lieutenant-Commander T. Flavin;
- Board of Inquiry into In-theatre Handling of Detainees, 6 February 2009, Part I at http://www.crs.forces.gc.ca/boi-ce/rp/detainees/ihd-tdt/part1-partie1-eng.aspx and Part II at http://www.crs.forces.gc.ca/boi-ce/rp/detainees/ihd-tdt/part2-partie2-eng.aspx (accessed 3 March 2017);
BOIVIN, Matthieu, "Attouchements sexuels sur un cadet: le juge renvoie les avocats faire leurs devoirs", Le Soleil, 23 octobre 2010, disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/le-soleil/justice-et-faits-divers/201010/22/01-4335354-attouchements-sexuels-sur-un-cadet-le-juge-renvoie-les-avocats-faire-leurs-devoirs.php (vérifié le 1er mai 2017); cour martiale de Maxime Paradis;
L'avocat de la poursuite, le major Alexandra St-Amant, et de la défense, le capitaine de corvette Mark Létourneau, ont présenté Paradis,
aujourd'hui âgé dans la mi-vingtaine, comme un homme qui n'avait eu que cet écart de conduite au cours de sa carrière militaire et qui
n'a aucun antécédent judiciaire.
___________"Message from the Editor" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2007/news.aspx#top (accessed on 25 April 2012);
___________"Mot du rédacteur" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2007/nouvelles.aspx#article7 (site visité le 25 avril 2012);
___________"Word from the Editor"
(April/Avril 2008) Sword
& Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2008/news.aspx
(accessed on 26 April 2012);
___________"Mot du rédacteur en chef" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2008/nouvelles.aspx#article9 (site visité le 26 avril 2012);
Bolt, image source: http://www.airfieldinformationexchange.org/community/
showthread.php?7-REDENHALL-Lt-Joseph-Phillips-Memorial/page2 accessed on 18 November 2014
BOLT, Captain Alexander (Alex) W., biographical notes, source: https://www.lakeheadu.ca/academics/departments/history/events/details/node/28375, accessed 27 December 2015;
Based in Winnipeg as the Assistant Judge Advocate General for the Prairie Region, LCol Bolt leads a team providing legal advice and services to Canadian
Armed Forces units in Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Western Ontario, including the Headquarters of 1 Canadian Air Division and Canadian NORAD region.
A graduate of the University of Toronto Law School, he was called to the Ontario bar in 2000, and holds a LL.M. with an international law specialism from
the University of Cambridge. Prior to taking up his current duties, LCol Bolt served in a variety of positions within the Office of the JAG, including as Director
of International and Operational Law. He has twice deployed as legal advisor in support of operational units: in Bosnia and in Afghanistan.
Image source: https://www.google.com (image sedarch), accessed 4 May 2016
___________"The 'convention' to consult parliament on decisions to deploy the military : a political mirage?", in, sous la direction de, Michel Bédard et Philippe Lagassé, The Crown and Parliament = La Couronne et le Parlement, Montréal : Éditions Yvon Blais, 2015 aux pp. 145-172; available at http://cspg-gcep.ca/pdf/the_crown_and_parliament_la_couronne_et_le_parlement_chapter_6.pdf (accessed 11 August 2016);
[On the significance of the words "active service"]
The simple and overriding fact here is that there has been no consistent practice of consulting the Parliament on deployment deci-
sions. Sometimes it is done, sometimes not; when it is done different mechanisms are used. Generally speaking, governments from 1950
to 1992 used the National Defence Act mechanism of placing members of the military on “active service”.57 This mechanism has a statute-
based Commons debate requirement,58 and was used from Korea, through a 1964 Order-in- Council on Cyprus, in the early 1990s on Iraq,
to the deployment in Somalia. Importantly, and contrary to the views of some,59 there is no relevant legal significance to these active service
designations; 60 the governments of the relevant day used them to enable Commons debate only: throughout this period and into the present,
all regular force military members were and are on active service “for all purposes”.61
57. RSC 1985, c N-5 s 31(1) (section 31(1) [NDA] reads: “The Governor in Council may place the Canadian Forces or any component, unit
or other element thereof or any officer or non-commissioned member thereof on active service anywherein or beyond Canada...”)
58. See NDA s 32.
59. See e.g. dissenting opinion of J DeP Wright J in Aleksic v Canada (Attorney General) (2002), 215 DLR (4th) 720 at 724, (Ont Div Ct).
60. Being placed on active service simply means that a number of disciplinary and other consequences are brought into existence with respect
to the member: see NDA ss 30(1) and 77, 88, 97. A member can be placed on active service without being deployed, and a deployed CAF
member need not be placed on active service.
61. The current Order-in- Council is P.C. 1989- 583 (6 April 1989), which is merely the last in an unbroken line of designations from P.C. 1950-
4365 of 9 Sep 1950 at the time of participation in the Korea action.
Image source: cba.org/Sections/Military-Law/Galleries/Photo-Gallery/2014/Legality-of-Armed-Intervention-Use-of-Drones?image=3D14759350757, accessed 25 June 2017
LCol A. Bolt
___________ "Crown Prerogative Decisions to
Deploy the Canadian Forces Internationally: A Fitting Mechanism
for a Liberal Democracy" in D. Michael Jackson and Philippe
Lagassé, eds., Canada and the Crown: Essays on
Constitutional Monarchy, Montreal and Kingston: Institute
for Intergovernmental Relations and McGill Queen's University
Press, 2013, at pp. 219-236;
___________ "The Crown Prerogative as Applied to Military Operations", Ottawa, Office of the Judge Advocate General, Strategic Legal paper Series Issue 2; available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/oplaw-loiop/slap-plsa-2/index-eng.asp (accessed on 14 January 2013) and http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/strategic-legal-paper-2-crown-prerogative.pdf (accessed on 28 January 2014);
Table of Contents
____________"L'application de la prérogative de la couronne dans le cadre d’opérations militaires", Ottawa: Série de documents juridiques stratégiques du cabinet du juge-avocat général –Fascicule 2, 2008; disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/oplaw-loiop/slap-plsa-2/index-fra.asp (vérifié le 14 janvier 2013) et http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/fr/jag/document-juridique-2-prerogative-de-couronne.pdf;
Table des matières
___________The Crown Prerogative in Canada and its use in the Context of International Military Deployments, Office of the Judge Advocate General Strategic Legal Paper Series–Issue 2 (A-LG-007-SLA/AF-002) (4 June 2008); available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/oplaw-loiop/slap-plsa-2/chap1-2-eng.asp);
____________"Developments in Science and Technology and Implications for IHL", The Human Rights Research and Education Centre, , 6 June 2014, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJCJIGGUrv4 (accessed on 8 November 2014);
___________"A Legal History of the Missions in Bosnia and
Herzegovina", (2004) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter
31-36; résumé en français à la p. 31;
Watkin on the---Source:(2007) 1 JAG
Les actualités Newsletter 81;
cover of the JAG magazine
___________"Stanley Cup Visits JAG / La coupe Stanley visite le JAG", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 81;
___________"Treaties and Treaty Making", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 79-80;
Image source: http://www.brill.com/international-humanitarian-law-and-changing-technology-war
(accessed 15 March 2015)
____________"The Use of Autonomous Weapons and the Role of the Legal Advisor", in Dan Saxon, ed., International Humanitarian law and the Changing Technology of War, Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013, xviii, 358 p.,at pp. 123-150, ISBN: 978-90-04-22948-8 (hardback) and 978-90-04-22949-5 (e-book); available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=S9vJ05wWFU8C&pg=PA135&lpg=PA135&dq=Green+%22role+of+legal+advisers%22&source=bl&ots=iUJpPmQ9cK&sig=Hzw9OM82j1C6OVZfUt-t0OJ0vf4&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi6nNipzJfKAhVGQCYKHS-BDoc4ChDoAQgaMAA#v=onepage&q=Green%20%22role%20of%20legal%20advisers%22&f=false (accessed 7 January 2016);
___________"Vessels and aircraft: Where the LOAC differs" (May/Mai 2002) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3 and 8; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125112748/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaleapril2002.pdf (accessed on 19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Le droit des conflits armés, sur mer et dans les airs" (May/Mai 2002) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125112748/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaleapril2002.pdf (site visité le 19 avril 2012);
Image source: http://www.dcaf.ch/Publications/Comparative-Perspective-of-Ombudsman-Institutions-for-the-Armed-Forces, accessed 23 November 2015
Description: In one instance, the March 18, 1918, execution of Pte. Arthur Charles Degasse, the firing squad was commanded by Capt. Georges Vanier -- a future governor-general. Mr. [Ron Duhamel] said in an interview that the government's position, which is also supported by the Royal Canadian Legion, is simply that execution for disciplinary offences constitutes "harsh treatment" of young soldiers. He says the decision "does not condemn the culture" of military justice that prevailed during the First World War, but will "soften what occurred for the families who remain." In June, a monument was unveiled in rural Britain to commemorate the executed soldiers. It features the statue of a blindfolded soldier with his hands tied behind his back, surrounded by pine markers for each of the hundreds of Commonwealth soldiers who faced a firing squad, including the 23 Canadians. (source: Description: In one instance, the March 18, 1918, execution of Pte. Arthur Charles Degasse, the firing squad was commanded by Capt. Georges Vanier -- a future governor-general. Mr. [Ron Duhamel] said in an interview that the government's position, which is also supported by the Royal Canadian Legion, is simply that execution for disciplinary offences constitutes "harsh treatment" of young soldiers. He says the decision "does not condemn the culture" of military justice that prevailed during the First World War, but will "soften what occurred for the families who remain." In June, a monument was unveiled in rural Britain to commemorate the executed soldiers. It features the statue of a blindfolded soldier with his hands tied behind his back, surrounded by pine markers for each of the hundreds of Commonwealth soldiers who faced a firing squad, including the 23 Canadians., accessed 18 August 2016).
The interpreter counting (in Pashtou) the money given to a villager during a shura aimed at compensating the villager for losses he sustained.
Left to right; Maj Bouchard, Capt Sylvain Falle from the Battle Group and Capt Catherine Larose from Public Affairs.
Maj Sebastien Bouchard, from the Office of the Judge Advocate General, meets with villagers from the province to distribute money for claims
against the Crown.
About 2,500 Canadian Forces (CF) members are currently serving as part of Joint Task Force Afghanistan. They play a key role in the NATO-led
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission to improve security in Afghanistan and assist in rebuilding the country.
L'interprête compte en langue Pashtou l'argent donné au villageois lors de la Shura qui a pour but de dédommager le villagois des pertes subies par
le villageois. De gauche à droite; Maj Bouchard, Capt Sylvain Falle du Groupement tactique et Capt Catherine Larose des Affaires publiques.
Le major Sebastien Bouchard, du cabinet du Juge Avocat Général rencontre des villageois de la province afin de rendre des sommes pour certaines
réclamations contre la couronne.
Environ 2 500 membres des Forces canadiennes (FC) sont actuellement déployés au sein de la Force opérationnelle interarmées en Afghanistan. Ces
derniers jouent un rôle important dans la mission de la Force internationale d'assistance à la sécurité (FIAS) menée par l'OTAN visant à améliorer la
sécurité en Afghanistan et à aider à la reconstruction du pays.
Lise, Boulanger, source: twitter.com/boulanger_lise Source: www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/docs/bilingualism_cf_vol2_f.pdf at p. 270
BOULANGER, Lise, research note: former LCol with the JAG office and first female military judge;
BOULDEN, Jane, "Calling out the troops: the National Defence Act and how it's used"; title noted in my research but article not consulted (3 July 2016);
Henri Bourassa, image source: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=29278404, accessed on 26 April 2014
BOURASSA, Henri, 1868-1952, La Conscription, Montréal:
Éditions du Devoir, 1917; disponible à https://archive.org/details/cu31924030734697
(vérifié 25 mai 2015);
___________ Le projet de loi
navale : sa nature, ses conséquences : discours prononcé au
Monument national, le 20 janvier 1910 / Henri Bourassa,
[Montréal : Le Devoir, 1910?], 37 p. ; 22 cm;
BOURASSA, Kevin, Joe Varnell, "Canadian military approves gay marriage Staid establishment confirms compliance with law", Equal Marriage for same-sex couples, 19 January 2005, available at http://www.samesexmarriage.ca/advocacy/mil190105.htm (accessed 31 October 2017);
Photo of Stéphane Bourgon, photo reproduced from http://journalquebecpresse.org/modules/news/article.php?storyid=775 (accessed on 31 March 2014)
BOURGON, Stéphane, 1961-, "Judgments, Decisions and Other Relevant Materials Issued by International Courts and Other International Bodies on Human Rights", (2003) 1(1) Journal of International Criminal Justice 245-256;
___________ La pénalisation des infractions au droit international humanitaire, thèse LL.M., Université de Montréal, 1998, xix, 137 f..; Me Bourgon est un ancien officier du JAG; email@example.com;
___________“Military Organisation, Rank Structure and Operations - Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the Military”, The Seventh Defence Symposium, Association , Association of Defence Counsel Practising Before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, ADC-ICTY, 2012, available at http://adc-icty.org/home/news/adc-news-2012.html (accessed 20 December 2015);
On 12 April 2012, Defence Counsel and former military legal advisor to the Canadian Armed Forces Stéphane Bourgon conducted a lecture titled “Military Organisation, Rank Structure and Operations - Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the Military” in the ICTY Pressroom.
*During the lecture Bourgon discussed the intricacies of military organization, focusing on the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS). He explained the military ranking system, detailing the differences between commissioned and non-commssioned officers, providing a breakdown of military units and command structure and discussing the usefulness of organisational charts as well as the Principles of War.
___________"Notes biographiques", disponible à http://www.nato-pa.int/default.asp?CAT2=1486&CAT1=24&CAT0=2&COM=1526&MOD=0&SMD=0&SSMD=0&STA=&ID=0&PAR=0&LNG=1 (accessed 9 August 2016);
Diplômé du Collège Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean, Stéphane Bourgon a servi au sein des Forces armées canadiennes, d’abord en tant qu’Officier de logistique puis à titre de Conseiller juridique (JAG), pendant plus de 20 ans. Il s’est alors spécialisé en droit pénal / criminel ainsi qu’en droit international humanitaire (droit de la guerre).
En 1995 le Major Bourgon a fait partie d’un groupe d’experts internationaux chargé d’enseigner le droit international humanitaire aux officiers supérieurs du Burundi.
En 1996, le Major Bourgon est nommé Conseiller juridique auprès du Commandant de la 2ième Brigade multinationale en Bosnie- Herzégovine, dans le cadre des opérations de la Force de mise en oeuvre de l'OTAN (Implementation Force ou IFOR).
De retour au Canada, M Bourgon complète sa maîtrise en droit international (LL.M.) puis se joint en septembre 1998, au Bureau du Procureur du Tribunal pénal international pour l'ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY) à titre de Conseiller juridique – droit international.
En novembre 1999, il est sélectionné pour occuper le poste de Chef de cabinet auprès du Président du Tribunal international, S.E. Monsieur le Juge Claude Jorda de France, poste qu’il occupe jusqu’au 31 décembre 2001.
Stéphane Bourgon retourne alors à la pratique du droit, étant assigné par le Greffier du TPIY à titre de Conseil de la Défense du Général Hadžihasanović, anciennement Chef d’État-major de l’Armée de la République de Bosnie Herzegovine. À ce jour, il a été impliqué à titre de Conseil de la Défense dans sept procès devant le TPIY. Il a représenté entre autres, le Commandant en chef de l’armée de Bosnie Herzégovine, le Général Delić et il est présentement Conseil de la Défense pour l’un des sept accusés dans le cadre du méga procès lié au génocide qui se serait produit à Srebrenica.
En octobre 2003, puis de nouveau en 2004, Stéphane Bourgon est élu Président de l’Association des Conseils de la Défense pratiquant près le TPIY, représentant alors plus de 200 avocats.
En parallèle à sa carrière de juriste, Stéphane Bourgon enseigne le droit pénal international à l’Académie des droits de l’homme et du droit international humanitaire (ADH) à Genève, il poursuit des études de troisième cycle à l'Université de Clermond – Ferrand en France et il est membre de plusieurs organismes à vocation juridique et humanitaire dont le Barreau pénal international (BPI) et l’Association internationale des avocats de la défense (AIAD).
Stéphane Bourgon est également un conférencier assidu sur plusieurs sujets dont entres autres, la justice pénale internationale, la responsabilité du commandement, le droit applicable à la conduite des hostilités et les droits des accusés, victimes et témoins en droit pénal international.
Image source: http://www.amazon.co.uk, accessed 12 February 2015
___________"La responsabilité des commandants militaires et la mise en oeuvre du droit international humanitaire", dans, sous la direction de, de Katia Boustany et Daniel Dormoy, Perspectives humanitaires entre conflits, droit(s) et action / Réseau Vitoria, Bruxelles: Bruylant, 2002, 332 p., aux pp. 156-178 (Collection de droitinternational; 51), (Collection de droit international (Bruxelles, Belgique);51), ISBN: 2802717421; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, FTXGeneral, KZ 6515 .P47 2002;
Mark Bourrie, image source: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/canada/canadian-reporter-used-as-spy-for-china-283035.html?editor, accessed on 26 April 2014
BOURRIE, Mark, "Canadian JAG officers go to war", (November 2001)
41 Law Times 3;
Source de l'image: sqdi.org/fr/category/activites/conference-katia-boustany/, vérifié 24 avril 2017
Katia Boustany, 1951-2004
BOUSTANY, Katia, "Brocklebank: A Questionable Decision of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada", (1998) 1 Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 371-374. doi:10.1017/S1389135900000258; titre not/ dans mes recherches mais article non consulté;
During the Canadian mission in Somalia pursuant to resolution 794 (1992) of the Security Council, a stunning incident occurred involving some
Canadian soldiers who tortured to death a sixteen-year-old unarmed Somali civilian. The victim was captured during the night of 16 March 1993
while attempting an intrusion into the camp of Belet Huen. Shidane Arone did not offer any resistance and was entrusted to chief corporal Matchee
to be kept in custody in a bunker designed for this purpose. This is where the unfortunate Somali had to endure frightful ill-treatment, mainly at
canadaa-hreffn01-ref-typefnadiv/1E29C71F5AA1FFB2420508F97DB9EE9D, accessed 24 April 2017]
Pierre Boutet, photo reproduced from the back dust jacket of McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, infra.
BOUTET, Pierre, "Military Justice: A Progress Report on Current Concerns and Directions for Reform", MJ031A, mentioned in footnote 34, p. 45 of the Report of the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services, 25 March 1997, supra; Brigadier-General Boutet was the Judge Advocate General from 3 May 1993 to 14 April 1998;
___________Member of the "Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone", Special Court for Sierra Leone, available at http://www.rscsl.org/RSCSL-Roster_of_Judges.html (accessed 21 December 2016);
___________ Quelques photos de Pierre Boutet provenant du JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités, volume 1, janvier-février 1998
Pierre Boutet, image source: http://www.rscsl.org/Trial_Chamber_I.html , accessed on 8 November 2014
__________"Summary Trial Reform: AFC Progress Report - Overheads", MJ031B, mentioned in footnote 33, p. 45 of the Report of the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services, 25 March 1997, supra;
The Roster of Judges consists of no fewer than 16 Judges, ten of whom are appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations and six by the Government of Sierra Leone. The Judges appoint the President of the Special Court, who may assign Judges to a Trial Chamber or an Appeals Chamber, should the need arise.
Justice Pierre G. Boutet served as a Judge of the Special Court for Sierra Leone from 2002 to 2009. Prior to his appointment as a Special Court Judge, Justice Pierre G. Boutet had served in the Canadian Forces as a Legal Officer occupying various positions and completed his career at the rank of Brigadier-General. In 1982, Justice Boutet became a Military Judge, assumed the position of Deputy Chief Military Trial Judge in 1986 and was appointed Chief Military Trial Judge in 1987. As a Judge, he participated in and presided over numerous trials in Canada and in many other parts of the world, particularly in Europe and the Middle East. In 1993, on promotion, he became the Judge Advocate General (JAG) of the Canadian Forces and was responsible for the provision of legal advice and legal services to the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces. He used his position to increase awareness of international humanitarian law in the Canadian Forces and in Canada. He has been a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War since 1996. He was appointed a Judge of the Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone in 2013.
___________Témoignage du Bgen Pierre Boutet devant le Comité permanent de la défense nationale et des anciens combattants, mardi le 12 mai 1998, disponible à http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=f&Mode=1&Parl=36&Ses=1&DocId=1038724 (vérifié le 21 décembre 2016);
Pierre Boutet, on the right, Quebec City, 2012, image source: http://www.ismllw.org/Gallery/?dir=2012-05%20Quebec%20City
___________"Thème: Soutien militaire aux autorités civiles / Subject: Military support to civil authorities", in Societé internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre Congrès international (15e: 2000, Lillehammer, Norvège, 6-10 juin 2000) / International Society of Military Law and the Law of War (Fifteenth International Congress, Lillehammer (Norway) – 6-10 June 2000), Soutien militaire aux autorités civiles, Bruxelles / Military support to civil authorities, La Société, 2001 (Collection; Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre. Recueils de la Société internationale de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre; 15) / (series; Recueils of the International Society of Military Law and the Law of War; 15); titre noté dans mes recherches mais document non consulté (17 July 2008);
Image Source: theadvocatesforhumanrights.org/slideshow/94847115867c4470acd2a16ee835da1e/sierra_leone_photo_gallery, accessed 12 October 2017
The Special Court for Sierra Leone; Pierre Boutet, second from the left
____________"Un travail axé sur le compromis" un reportage sur Pierre Boutet de Radio-Canada, publié 8 avril 2009, disponible à http://beta.radio-canada.ca/nouvelles/International/2009/04/08/006-entrevue-juge-boutet.shtml (vérifié le 19 septembre 2017);
accessed on 24 November 2014
BOUVIER, Patrick, 1976-, "Ambiguïtés et justice militaire
canadienne : brève analyse des failles dans l’application du Army
Act (1914-1918)", (printemps-été 2004) 12(3) Bulletin
d’histoire politique 133-143; titre noté
dans mes recherches mais article non consulté;
(source de l'image: http://www.amazon.fr/D%C3%A9serteurs-insoumis-canadiens-militaire-1914-1918/dp/2922865193,
8 avril 2914)
___________Déserteurs et insoumis : les Canadiens français et la justice militaire, 1914-1918, Outremont, Québec : Athéna, 2003, 149 p., (Collection; Collection Histoire militaire), ISBN: 2922865193; note: "Tiré d'un mémoire de maîtrise en histoire intitulé Première guerre mondiale, justice militaire et désertion des Canadiens français."--Verso de p. de t.; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, MRT General, D 639 .D53 B68 2003; titre noté dans mes recherches mais livre pas encore consulté (18 mars 2004);
___________Première guerre mondiale, justice militaire et désertion des canadiens français, Montréal : Université du Québec à Montréal, 2003, vi, 136 f., mémoire de maîtrise en histoire; thèse sous la direction de Robert Comeau;
Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/bradley-bouzane-58bb452b, accessed 24 September 2016
BOUZANE, Bradley, "Court martial process party [sic]
unconstitutional : decision", National Post, 2 June 2011,
available at http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/06/02/court-martial-process-party-unconsitutional-decision/
(accessed on 10 May 2012); deals with the Leblanc decision and
interview with Drapeau;
Image source: www.archives.mcgill.ca/public/exhibits/mcgillremembers/results.asp?id=376, accessed 15 August 2017
Wilfrid Bovey, Montreal
Gazette, 13 February 1942
BOVEY, Wilfrid, 1882-1956, "Brass Hats in Red Tape", Legion Magazine, 4 June 2015; available at https://legionmagazine.com/en/2015/06/brass-hats-in-red-tape/ (accessed 15 August 2017);
By the end of 1915 the Canadian forces in Britain had become so large that Sir Sam Hughes decided on another step. Completely on his own
authority, he set up what he named the “Sub-Militia Council”. The Militia Council of those days was a highly honoured body consisting of the
Chief of the General Staff, the Adjutant-General, Quartermaster-General, etc. The Minister decided that the Sub-Militia Council should have its
“acting Chief of the General Staff”, “acting Adjutant-General”, “acting Quartermaster-General”, “acting Director of Supply and Transport”, and
even an “acting Deputy Minister” who was chairman. My job in those days was to be “acting Assistant Adjutant-General”. The Minister took
over a large new building in London named Argyll House in which to house the large staff which these new officers would need.
Such a headquarters was indeed necessary to ensure at least some Canadian control of Canadian troops in Britain. Its authority was rather
shadowy; it really had no legal status and some quaint things happened. When all the “acting” appointments were decided upon they had
to get into the London Gazette to have any force. I was handed a list of the names on an unsigned piece of paper and told to “put these
through”. Quite naturally, I said that it could not be done without the Minister’s authority. The officer who had handed it to me finally
took it away and brought it back marked “O.K., S.H.”. He said as he did so, “Of course if you were to make a mistake and make us
‘confirmed’ instead of ‘acting’ we would not say anything.”
“Sir”, said I, the acting A.A.G., “we don’t make mistakes.” “We” did not. The Minister’s initials satisfied the British Eastern Command
and the acting appointments went through.
As might have been expected, there were muddles very soon between the two Canadian offices. I was once sent for by Sir George Perley,
the Canadian High Commissioner to Britain, and found him sitting at his desk. Opposite him was Sir Max Aitken, now Lord Beaverbrook,
who had in front of him a cable from the Minister (who had returned to Canada), reading: “Carson has appointed Maurice Alexander Assistant
Judge Advocate-General, Macrae has appointed John Lash Deputy Judge Advocate-General, see Perley and straighten this out.”
The two Judge Advocates were young lawyers, the first from Montreal, the second from Toronto. Macrae was the “acting Deputy Minister.”
The tangle certainly needed “straightening out”, for when one Judge Advocate had a certain officer put in close arrest the other, who was a
personal friend, had him released! John Lash carried on and later came to France as a “Court Martial Officer” and Alexander joined the
staff of the British Foreign Office. He later became a junior Treasury Counsel in England and a great friend of Lloyd George, the wartime
Prime Minister, who, I believe, found Alexander very helpful in solving some of his personal problems.
Not long after we heard that Sir George Perley had been appointed Minister of Overseas Military Forces of Canada, a position in which he
was later succeeded by Sir Edward Kemp, and very soon the Argyll House headquarters was completely and officially reorganized. We
were told later that Sir Sam Hughes was considered to have greatly exceeded his powers, mainly by setting up his Sub-Militia Council.
Sam Hughes had been eclipsed. But no condemnation, justified or not, of these later actions should make us forget the tremendous service
he rendered in getting so many Canadians overseas at so unbelievable a speed.
of image of Boyle`s book: http://www.amazon.com/The-Rest-Story-According-Boyle/dp/1894263499,
accessed on 9 November 2014
BOYLE, Everett, The
Rest of the Story According to Boyle, Burnstown
(Ontario): General House Store Publishing House, , 297 p.,
23 cm., ISBN: 1894263499 (pbk.); available in part at http://books.google.cpa/books?id=Dtak4aDaQ8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:rest+intitle:of+intitle:the+intitle:story+intitle:according+intitle:to+intitle:boyle&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-4HrTqPyG-rk0QHTnMzICQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=intitle%3Arest%20intitle%3Aof%20intitle%3Athe%20intitle%3Astory%20intitle%3Aaccording%20intitle%3Ato%20intitle%3Aboyle&f=false
(accessed on 16 December 2011);
James W.J. Bowden, image source: https://twitter.com/JWJBowden, accessed on 9 November 2014
BOWDEN, James W. J., "The Demise of Responsible Government
and the Crown Prerogative on Defence -- Perilous of Responsible
Government and the Crown Prerogative on Defence", Parliamentum, posted on 26
February 2012; available at http://parliamentum.org/2012/02/26/crown-prerogative-on-defence/
(accessed on 12 March 2012);
BRADLEY, J. Peter and Shaun P. Tymchuk, "Assessing and Managing Ethical Risk in Defence", (Autumn 2013) 13(4) Canadian Military Journal 6-16; available at : http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol13/no4/PDF/CMJ134E.pdf, accessed 2 November 2015;
BRADLEY, J. Peter and Shaun P. Tymchuk, "Évaluer et gérer le risque éthique à la défense", (automne 2013) 13(4) Revue militaire canadienne 6-16; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol13/no4/PDF/CMJ134F.pdf (vérifié 2 novembre 2015);
Peter Bradley, image source: http://www.rmc.ca/aca/mpl-pml/per/bradley-p-eng.php, accessed on 26 April 2014
BRADLEY, Peter, "Is Battlefield Mercy Killing Morally
Military Journal, vol. 11, number 1, available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo11/no1/04-bradley-eng.asp
(accessed on 21 January 2012);
BRADLEY, Peter, "Est-il justifiable du point de vue moral d'achever un blessé par pitié sur le champ de bataille?", Revue militaire canadienne, vol. 11, numéro 1, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo11/no1/04-bradley-fra.asp (vérifié le 21 janvier 2012);
___________"Just Following Orders is not Sufficient: How to Make Ethical Decisions", (summer 2012) 14(2) The Canadian Army Journal; available at http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/caj/documents/vol_14/iss_2/CAJ_Vol14.2_07_e.pdf (accessed on 2 August 2012);
___________"Obéir n'est pas tout: Comment prendre des décisions éthiques", (été 2012) 14(2) Le Journal de l'Armée du Canada; disponible à http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/caj/documents/vol_14/iss_2/CAJ_Vol14.2_07_f.pdf (vérifié le 2 août 2012);
BRADY, Brian H., "The North Atlantic Treaty Organization Legal
Advisor: A Primer", (October 2013) The Army Lawyer 4-25;
available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/10-2013.pdf
(accessed 13 February 2015);
Image source: https://twitter.com/mattbraga, accessed 21 June 2017
BRAGA, Matthew, "How, when and where can Canada's digital spies hack? Government makes some suggestions in CSE Act", CBC News Technology & Science, 20 June 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/bill-c59-cse-act-spies-canada-hacking-foreign-cyber-ops-1.4169689 (accessed 21 June 2017);
The Canadian government is proposing new legislation that, for the first time, would explicitly define how and when the country's digital
spies can hack into computer networks and infrastructure around the world.
If accepted, the Communications Security Establishment Act would expand the spy agency's mandate to include two types of "foreign
cyber operations" — attack and defence — and introduce new authorizations that would codify many of the operations the agency
BRAHAM, Mike, "Endeavouring to Protect Life and Property: A Canadian Approach to Integrated and Comprehensive Emergency Management", (Winter 1996) 11(2) The Australian Journal of Emergency Management 14-26;
BRAIN, Robert, member of the Ontario Bar and of the OJAG as part of the reserve force; see biographical notes at http://www.zsa.ca/blog/2014/06/8-questions-with-robert-brain/#.WZC3KcaQyUl (accessed 13 August 2017);
Robert Brain is the Vice President and General Counsel of the Legal Department for the Domestic and International Operations of Redknee
Solutions Inc. (TSX:RKN) (“Redknee”). Mr. Brain oversees the delivery of all legal services in support of all Redknee business activities
throughout the world, which includes but is not limited to: Corporate Governance and Regulatory Compliance, Mergers and Acquisitions,
Contract review and negotiation, Intellectual Property, Employment, and Litigation matters. As part of his role with Redknee, Mr. Brain is
a member of the Senior Leadership Team and part of a plethora of Committees. Mr. Brain also currently works with Office of the Judge
Advocate General, as a senior Military Lawyer.
[source: zsa.ca/blog/2014/06/8-questions-with-robert-brain/#.WjAK53lryUk, accessed 12 December 2017]
BRAIS, Colonel Guy Laurent, 1946-2015, "The Canadian Military Justice
System / Le système canadien de justice militaire" (Winter
1999 hiver), 23(3) Provincial
Judges' Journal des juges provinciaux 8-17; text in
English and French; Guy Brauis died on 5 October 2015 in Montréal;
Source de la photo: http://mountroyalcem.com/obituaries/index.php/page/detailed/fr/1164
__________Décès de Guy Brais, 1946-2015, le 5 octobre 2015; voir l'avis de décès à http://www.lenecrologue.com/obituary/deceased/477607 et http://mountroyalcem.com/obituaries/index.php/page/detailed/fr/1164 (visité le 9 octobre 2015);
___________Photo of Guy Brais:
BRANNAGAN, Craig, "The Copenhagen Process on the Handling of
Detainees in International Military Operations: A Canadian
Perspective on the Challenges and Goals of Humane Warfare",
(Winter 2010) 15(3) Journal of
Conflict & Security Law 501-532;
AbstractThe face of war has changed significantly since the end of the Second World War, and it will in all likelihood continue to do so. The apparent historical trend of warfare has shifted from the international, to the internal, to the internationalized. Yet despite the constant evolution in the kinds of wars that humans and States wage against one another, international law—and international humanitarian law (IHL), in particular—has remained relatively ineffective in keeping pace with the legal demands of post-modern warfare. To date, the emergence of terrorist cells, ‘enemy combatants’, and other strictly non-State actors involved in armed conflicts around the globe have proved to be elusive categories to the antiquated legal distinctions present in the vast body of IHL, grounded primarily upon the four Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols. The Copenhagen Process on the Handling of Detainees in International Military Operations is a promising attempt to remedy this seeming legal vacuum. Comparing and contrasting the practices of the Canadian and Danish military forces handling of detainees while operating in Afghanistan, this article suggests that the Copenhagen Process, although not a ‘perfect’ system of inclusivity and transparency, is nevertheless a meritorious development in the evolution of IHL that should be supported by all those with an interest in preserving the dignity and well-being of those most deleteriously affected by the threats of warfare—the human beings on the ground.
(source: http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/3/501.abstract?sid=bb52b0ee-8ae9-4ac8-9ec0-7f6f65a802af, accessed on 14 May 2014);
BRANNAGAN, Craig, Christopher Water, "ICRC Privilege in Canada", (2016) Canadian Yearbook of International Law;
This article explores whether the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) enjoys testimonial privilege before Canadian courts. The authors argue that there is strong evidence to suggest that customary international law requires that the ICRC be granted a privilege not to testify or disclose confidential information in domestic court proceedings. Such a privilege, they argue, is entailed by the ICRC’s mandate to engage in international humanitarian law protection activities using confidential means. Given that customary international law forms part of the common law in Canada, the authors argue that this privilege should be recognized by Canadian courts despite its potentially uneasy fit with traditional Canadian evidence law. [source: http://www.uwindsor.ca/law/857/icrc-privilege-canada, accessed 29 September 2016]
Cet article cherche à savoir si le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR) bénéficie d’un privilège de ne pas témoigner devant les tribunaux canadiens. Les auteurs font valoir qu’il existe de fortes raisons de croire que le droit international coutumier exige que le CICR soit accordé un privilège ni de témoigner ni de divulguer des informations confidentielles devant les instances nationales. Un tel privilège, affirment-ils, découle du mandat du CICR de se livrer à des activités de protection, en vertu du droit international humanitaire, à l’aide de moyens confidentiels. Étant donné que le droit international coutumier fait partie de la common law au Canada, les auteurs affirment que ce privilège devrait être reconnu par les tribunaux canadiens en dépit du fait qu’il soit potentiellement mal-adapté au droit canadien de la preuve existant. [source: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/canadian-yearbook-of-international-law-annuaire-canadien-de-droit-international/article/icrc-privilege-in-canada/FBAFBA42A8C87ABCED8B158232FBB218, accessed 29 September 2016]
Image source: , accessed 24 September 2016
BRATT, Duane, "Review Essay. Crisis in the Canadian Military: Bercusson, David. Significant Incident: Canada's Army, the Airborne, and the Murder in Somalia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996. Taylor, Scott and Brian Nolan. Tarnished Brass: Crime and Corruption in the Canadian Military. Toronto: Lester, 1996", (Fall 1997) 17(2) The Journal of Conflict Studies; available at http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/JCS/article/view/11758/12536 (accessed on 6 January 2012);
BREAN, Joseph, "Queen cannot send Canadian troops to war, Attorney General says in letter aimed at settling longstanding dispute", National Post, 3 December 2014, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/queen-cannot-send-canadian-troops-to-war-attorney-general-says-in-letter-aimed-at-settling-longstanding-dispute (accessed 1 April 2017);
J. Brennan, image source: http://www.thestar.com/authors.brennan_richard.html,
accessed 13 February 2015
BRENNAN, Richard J., "Military told to heed abuse claims", published 25 February 2010, available at http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2010/02/25/military_told_to_heed_abuse_claims.html (accessed 13 February 2015); also available at http://archive.fo/QOGML (accessed 17 July 2017);
OTTAWA–Canadian military brass were told it was a crime to ignore allegations of prisoner abuse and that it was their duty to investigate it, according to a top secret document revealed to the Toronto Star.
Buried in documents withheld from a special parliamentary committee by the Conservative government, the May 22, 2007 five-page memo from the Judge Advocate General (JAG), Brig.-Gen. Ken Watkin, followed on the heels of a series of media reports and diplomatic dispatches alleging serious prisoner abuse.
In the widely distributed memo, which was sent to then-chief of defence staff Gen. Rick Hillier and Lt.-Gen. Michel Gauthier, now both retired, Watkin stated that senior officials ignore warnings of prisoner torture at their own peril.
"Military commanders who know, or are criminally negligent in failing to know, that a transferred detainee would be subjected to such abuse have the obligation to take all necessary and reasonable measures within their power to prevent or repress the commission of such abuse. They may also be subject to criminal liability for failing to submit the matter to competent authorities for investigation and prosecution," Watkin, the military's top lawyer, wrote.
___________"Ottawa moves to block hearing on detainees; Goes to court to halt Afghan prisoner probe" 14 April 2008 Toronto Star p. A3;
BREWSTER, Murray, "Allegations against military's No. 2 spelled out after months of rumours. Search warrant shows Norman was under RCMP covert surveillance for months prior to suspension", CBC News Politics, 6 April 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/norman-rcmp-investigation-1.4059398 (accessed 27 April 2017);
__________"Analysis. Conflicting accounts of Harjit Sajjan's role revive ex-MP's conflict of interest allegations. A former NDP MP is questioning Sajjan's comments about treatment of prisoners during the Afghan war", CBC News Politics, 1 May 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/sajjan-conflict-of-interest-1.4092808 (accessed 2 May 2017);
___________"Analysis. Off-the-books notes between vice-admiral and shipyard boss in 'legal grey zone,' expert says. Unsealed search warrant a watershed in leak investigation — and possibly in Vice-Admiral Norman's career", CBC News Politics, 27 April 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/norman-vice-admiral-rcmp-davie-search-1.4087662?cmp=news-digests-cbc-news-politics (accessed 28 April 2017);
__________"Canada to join global Arms Trade Treaty under legislation tabled Thursday", CBC News/Politics, 13 April 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/arms-trade-treaty-1.4070539 (accessed 14 April 2017);
___________ "Commons committee demands service record change for LGBTQ kicked out of the Forces. Issue of LGBTQ treatment by military part of wider government apology, Sajjan suggests", CBC News, 25 October 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/lgbtq-military-discharges-1.3820957 (accessed 26 October 2016); see House of Commons Defence Committee;
Image source: www.google.com (image search) and www.pressrush.com/author/7208017/murray-brewster, accessed 15 September 2016
Murray Brewster, journalist
___________ "Despite 2013 discharge, ex-soldier faces charges for taunting junior officer", Global News, 6 January 2016; available at http://globalnews.ca/news/2437167/despite-2013-discharge-ex-soldier-faces-charges-for-taunting-junior-officer/ (accessed 6 January 2016);
___________"DND leak investigation started under Tories, expanded under Liberals. Expert says where Liberals and secrets are concerned it's 'meet the new boss, same as the old boss'", CBC News/Politics, 15 March 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/norman-secrecy-investigation-1.4024459 (accessed 16 March 2017);
___________"Ethics watchdog won't investigate Sajjan over Afghan detainee inquiry decision. Liberals, who championed Afghan detainee inquiry in opposition, now say probe not needed", CBC News/Politics, 8 March 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/afghan-detainees-sajjan-inquiry-1.4014013 (accessed 8 March 2017);
___________"Ex-soldier acquitted before military court martial, but faces $8,000 legal bill", National Newswatch, 18 March 2017, available at http://www.nationalnewswatch.com/2016/03/18/ex-soldier-acquitted-before-military-court-martial-but-faces-8000-legal-bill-3/#.WM2F8me1uUk (accessed 18 March 2017);
A former army warrant officer, accused of mouthing a schoolyard taunt to a junior officer at an official dinner, was acquitted of disciplinary charges before a court martial
on Thursday, but has been left holding thousands of dollars in private legal bills.
Wade Pear, a veteran of multiple ground tours in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Cyprus, was tried before the military tribunal, even though he's been a civilian for two-and-a-half years.
Pear says up to $8,000 in private legal fees were run up trying to defend himself during the 39 month ordeal. He said he turned to outside lawyers because he didn't trust the military
system to act in his best interests, but eventually had to accept a uniformed lawyer who "did a great job."
The military justice system was able to go after him, despite his September 2013 release from service, because of a Supreme Court decision last fall that gives uniformed prosecutors
unlimited discretion on when to proceed with a case.
His military lawyers argued the trial of a civilian, more than three years after the incidents and more than two years since his retirement, was unacceptable. They said since Pear faced
disciplinary action rather than criminal charges, there was no public interest.
A court martial was originally scheduled for April 2013, while he was still in uniform, but was postponed. He accepted his retirement a few months later and ended his 26-year military
career partly because of the way he felt "shunned" in the aftermath of the mess dinner.
___________"Exclusive. Smoother military exit system for soldiers still years away, documents show. Minister blames backlog on previous 'more teeth, less tail' cuts at National Defence", CBC News/Politics, 16 December 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-release-overhaul-1.3899044 (accessed 16 December 2016);
___________"Former NDP MP calls out Sajjan on decision not to call Afghan detainee inquiry: Craig Scott believes defence minister has information about war-time treatment of prisoners", CBC News Politics, 30 November 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/sajjan-conflict-detainees-1.3874480 (accessed 1 December 2016);
___________"Hillier warns against civil servants directing military operations", The Globe and Mail, 11 October 2016, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/hillier-warns-against-civil-servants-directing-military-operations/article1214753/ (accessed 16 November 2016);
Retired general Rick Hillier says a policy paper is circulating around senior levels of the Harper government that suggests the Clerk of the Privy Council and the deputy minister of defence take a greater role to "guide" the military.
The former chief of defence staff writes, in a new postscript for the softcover edition of his memoirs, that there is a growing movement within the federal government to establish a system of micro-management that could extend from the highest reaches of Ottawa all the way down to individual combat units.
The paper was produced within the last year and has been the subject of some discussion, according to Mr. Hillier, and would give senior bureaucrats greater powers than those set down in the National Defence Act.
Military and political science historian Desmond Morton said Mr. Hillier's warning about the creeping centralization of authority should be heeded because of the "control freak" reflex of the current government.
Mr. Hillier also took a swipe at parliamentarians for last year's investigation of torture claims in Afghan prisons and what the government knew about it. He accused all parties of being uninterested in the facts and declared soldiers "would be run over in a heartbeat if those involved thought it would give them a few more votes."
Excessive government secrecy over documents fuelled the debate, Mr. Hillier added.
Mr. Morton said the former general's fear about bureaucrats who know nothing about the military is well-founded, because unlike previous generations they've not been educated or exposed to the culture.
He blamed that on the Liberals who killed off the National Defence College, an institution with a sizable civilian enrolment, but said Mr. Hillier has alienated them further with bellicose rhetoric.
___________"Military angry it couldn't court-martial navy spy -- Gaps in intelligence made public", The Ottawa Citizen, Monday, 23 September 2013 at p. A4; about convicted spy, Jeffrey Paul Delisle, a former CF intelligence officer and a "newly declassified military assessment";
"Brig.-Gen. Rob Delaney [CF Provost Marshal ]says it will be
difficult to arrange a legislative fix that would satisfy Ottawa,
all provinces and territories. (Murray Brewster/CBC News)"
___________"Military cops struggle to enforce mental health laws--MPs had to call local officers for help 10 times over 18 months in Western Canada", CBC News Politics, 27 July 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-police-provinces-1.4223219?cmp=news-digests-cbc-news-politics (accessed 28 July 2017);
___________"Military steamed about not being able to court martial Jeffrey Delisle: documents", CTV News, The Canadian Press, 22 September 2013; available at http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/military-steamed-about-not-being-able-to-court-martial-jeffrey-delisle-documents-1.1465584 (accessed on 14 December 2013);
___________"Military watchdog limits investigation of complaint into Afghan prisoner abuse. Canada's treatment of detainees is being probed once again after an anonymous tip", CBC News/ Politics, 2 March 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/afghan-prisoner-inquiry-1.4007552 (accessed 3 March 2017);
___________"No need for inquiry into Afghan detainee torture, Liberals say. No need to find out who knew what and when, federal government says in response to e-petition", CBC News/Politics, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/afghan-canada-prisoners-1.3640411 (accessed 3 March 2017);
Photo of "Doug Elliott, a longtime gay rights activist and Toronto lawyer, is leading the case"
___________"Ottawa faces class-action lawsuit over fired LGBT civil servants. Statements of claim filed in Ontario and Quebec asking for a minimum of $600 million"", CBC News/ Politics, 1 November 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/lgbtq-class-action-lawsuit-1.3830310 (accessed 1 April 2017); includes VIDEO with lawyer Doug Elliott;
A report presented to the Liberals last June by the human rights group Egale, which Elliott helped author, urged the government to examine
how to compensate those who had suffered past discrimination. The organization said such a plan could involve individual compensation,
funding for programs and services, or a mixture of both.
Last week, the House of Commons defence committee voted unanimously for the Liberal government to order the military ombudsman
to investigate amend the service records of LGBT ex-military members who were given dishonourable discharges because of their sexual
___________"RCMP allege Vice-Admiral Norman fed cabinet secrets to Quebec shipbuilder. RCMP detail cosy, back channel relationship in shipbuilding leaks, with admiral referred to as 'our friend", CBC, 26 April 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/beta/news/politics/norman-leaks-inestigation-1.4085703 (accessed 27 April 2017);
____________"Red Cross repeatedly warned Canada of Afghan prison abuse: documents", The Canadian Press, Dec 2, 2009, available at (accessed 1 April 2017);
At one of the meetings, on June 2, 2006, at Kandahar Airfield, a military lawyer, the RCMP officer in charge of training Afghan police and some of
Canada's diplomatic staff were all advised about potential torture at the hands of Afghan prison officials. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo
default_tab&vl(freeText0)=%22military%20lawyer%22%20canada&dum=true&dstmp=1471640121231, (accessed 19 August 2016);
___________"Senators issue warning over potential Mali peacekeeping mission: Liberal government must seek approval of Parliament before deployment takes place, senators say", CBC News, 28 November 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/senate-un-peacekeeping-1.3870950 (accessed 1 December 2016);
___________"Sexual-misconduct lawsuit against Armed Forces alleges 'reckless' conduct: 3 former military members spell out allegations of sexual assault and institutional indifference", CBC --Politics, 12 December 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-misconduct-lawsuits-1.3893499 (accessed 2 October 2017);
___________"Wounded soldiers face extra bureaucratic hurdle on way to benefits. Forces ombudsman says system of determining benefits 'defies logic' and must be changed", CBC News / Politics; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/veterans-benefits-determination-1.3760860 (accessed 16 December 2016);
Image source: linkedin.com/in/kiera-bridley-574a1a5b, accessed 28 February 2017
BRIDLEY, Kiera, Allied Unshackling: British, Canadian, and American Prisoner of War Diplomacy during the Shackling Reprisals, 1942-43, A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts In History Minnesota State University, Mankato Mankato, Minnesota. May 2014, iv, 83 leaves; available at http://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1290&context=etds (accessed 28 February 2017);
Prisoner of war studies have largely focused their research on the experiences of
the men and women within their captor countries. A lthough some country-specific work
has been done regarding prisoner of war policy, there has been a significant gap in
research regarding prisoner of war policy during the Second World War. This research
focuses on the convergence of prisoner of war policy and diplomatic relations between
Great Britain, Canada, and the United States during the shackling reprisals with Germany
from 1942-43. The shackling reprisals represented the first conjunction of the three
nations in diplomatic relations with Germany over the issue of prisoner of war policy. In
addition, as the first instance of prisoner of war diplomacy with Germany for both the
United States and Canada, the shackling reprisals signified the entrance of the Canadian
and United States governments into prisoner of war diplomacy with Germany during the
Second World War. The shackling of prisoners of war became a source of tension
between the Allies because of the nature of each nation’s role in the incident and
conflicting perspectives of the three governments on the issue. Through the examination
of the Canadian, British, and United States’ foreign correspondence, domestic and
individual leaders’ accounts, as well as the provisions of the prisoner of war conventions
in effect at the time, a detailed analysis of the interaction of the three governments over
prisoner of war policy and diplomacy during the shackling reprisals will be
accomplished. During the shackling reprisals, prisoner of war policy was based on the
relationships between the British, Canadian, and United States governments, individual
leaders and their respective interests. This work adds yet another dimension to the
fragmentary field of prisoner of war and military history by focusing on the top tiers of
British, Canadian, and United States military and government, ultimately fueling further
research in international POW studies.
BRIGHT, David, "Military law : the march to uniformed justice", in 2007 National Criminal Law Program : substantive criminal law, advocacy and the administration of justice, [Ottawa, Ont.?] : Federation of Law Societies of Canada, 2007, in volume 2; see http://library.lsuc.on.ca/vwebv/holdingsInfo?searchId=591&recCount=10&recPointer=2&bibId=50638 (accessed 9 October 2017);
____________"A primer on military law", in 37th National Criminal Law Program : substantive criminal law, advocacy & the administration of justice, [Ottawa, Ont.] : Federation of Law Societies of Canada, 2010, 2 v. : ill. ; 28 cm. + 1 CD-ROM (4 3/4 in.) in volume 2; source: http://library.lsuc.on.ca/vwebv/holdingsInfo?searchId=600&recCount=10&recPointer=7&bibId=56467, accessed 9 October 2017;
Image source: (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 19
From the left: Bill Graham, David Bright and Jerry
Pitzul, 27 October 2005
BRIGHT, David, Louis-Vincent D’Auteuil, and Kathy Pentz, “Canada’s Military-Citizens:The Intersection of Military and Civilian Laws: Concurrent Jurisdiction between Military and Civilian Justice Systems”, Address delivered at the Nova Scotia Military Law Section, Canadian Bar Association Conference, Halifax, 1 December 2011), unpublished, cited in SAMSON, J. Jason, Changing Tactics : Rehabilitating Canadian Justice for
Traumatized Veterans, LL.M. thesis, Dalhousie University,
2012, xi, 201 leaves, at pp. 150 and 196;
BROCK, Major Barry, "Leadership, Command and the Canadian Charter
of Rights and Freedoms", Canadian Staff College, 1989; cited in
Martin Friedland's study for the Commission of Inquiry, Controlling
Misconduct in the Military: a Study prepared for the Commission
of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia,
supra, at p. 171, note 224;
Image source: www.dartefuneralhome.com/tribute/details/1312/Robert_George_Malcomson/obituary.html, accessed 27 December 2015
Robert George Malcomson, 1949-2009
BROCK UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES, "Robert George Malcomson Papers 1790s-2009 (non-inclusive) RG 200", Inventory: "2.11 RG 217 E627 box 001 no. 108, Richard C. Pomeroy, RG 53 Records of the Office of the Judge, Advocate General Court Marshal case file 1809- 1894 box 12 file G9", as seen at https://dr.library.brocku.ca/bitstream/handle/10464/3091/Robert%20Malcomson%20Papers%20RG%20200.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed 27 December 2015);
Brode Patrick, image source: http://www.osgoodesociety.ca/Author%20_Biographies/Brode_Patrick.html, accessed on 26 April 2014
BRODE, Patrick, 1950-, "Bruce Macdonald and the Drafting of
Canada's War Crimes Regulations -- 1945", (1995) 24 Law Society Gazette (Law
Society of Upper Canada) 274-282; also published in (March-April 1998) vol. 2, JAG Newsletter;
book image from http://www.osgoodesociety.ca/Books/Casual_Slaughters.html,
accessed on 26 April 2014
___________Casual Slaughters and Accidental Judgments : Canadian War Crimes Prosecutions, 1944-1948, Toronto ; Buffalo : Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press, c1997, xix, 290 p.,  p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.; available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=6z9EDAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT6&dq=%22Judge+Advocate+General%22+Canada&ots=tZ5a9_rhc6&sig=NjATSXGZrXLSVEHrH8O5ap444hU#v=onepage&q=%22Judge%20Advocate%20General%22%20Canada&f=false (accessed 11 August 2016);
Jean-Paul Brodeur, photo reproduced from http://fr.canoe.ca/infos/societe/archives/2010/04/20100427-170736.html (accessed on 31 March 2014)
BRODEUR, Jean-Paul, 1944-2010, "Force policière et force
militaire", in Frédéric Lemieux, 1975-, et Benoît Dupont,
1972-, sous la direction de, La
militarisation des appareils policiers, [Sainte-Foy,
Québec] : Presses de l'Université Laval, 2005, xii, 268 p. :
ill. ; 23 cm; -268, chapitre 2, aux pp. 41-56, ISBN:
2763782345; disponible à http://books.google.ca/books?id=t7LdP9sFe-0C&pg=PA41&lpg=PA41&dq=%22revue+Ethique+publique%22+brodeur&source=bl&ots=B_JeulxsCM&sig=4zsYY7udlXYkqOMRLi0CpVLP9Bw&hl=en&ei=U5TXTtWDHurp0QGTh-HpDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
(vérifié le 1er décembre 2011);
___________"Maintien et imposition de la paix en Somalie", (Partie 1) à http://conflits.revues.org/686 (Partie 2) à http://conflits.revues.org/688?lang=en#text (Partie 3) à http://conflits.revues.org/690 (vérifié, 28 aout 2015);
BRONSON CONSULTING GROUP, External Review of Defence Counsel
Services -- Final Report, Ottawa, 15 September 2009, 62
p.; this document is available to the public, see Department of
National Defence, Access to Information and Privacy file
A-2011-01559/ATIP (Analyst), dated 26 March 2012); Bronson
Consulting Group is located at 6 Monkland Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario,
Letter from DND Access to Information and Privacy Section and the Executive Summary of the Report (pp. 1-5 of the Report)
___________External Review of the Canadian Military Prosecution Service -- Final Report, Ottawa, 31 March 2008, 87 p. and Appendices A to N (further 35 p.); this Bronson Report was authored by Andrejs Berzins, Q.C. and Malcolm Lindsay, Q.C.; this document is referred to in the Annual Report of the Judge Advocate General, 2009-2010, at p. 41, note 3; this document is available to the public, see Department of National Defence, Access to Information and Privacy file A-2011-01559/ATIP (Analyst), dated 26 March 2012); Bronson Consulting Group is located at 6 Monkland Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 1Y9;
Letter from DND Access to Information and Privacy Section and the Executive Summary of the Report (pp. 8-17 of the Report)
BROSSEAU, Cédric, Le Canada face à l'Empire: La crise navale de 1910, maîtrise en histoire, Faculté des études supérieures et postdoctorales, Université d'Ottawa, 2010, vii, 179 p.; disponible à https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/handle/10393/28639 (vérifié le 24 février 2014);
La société canadienne s'enflamme en 1910 à la suite de l'introduction, par le premier ministre Sir Wilfrid Laurier, d'un projet de loi voulant l'organisation d'un service naval canadien. Que ce soit à la Chambre des communes, en assemblées populaires, en famille ou dans les médias, la défense maritime du Canada retient dorénavant l'attention des Canadiens. Présente au Canada sporadiquement depuis la Confédération, cette question, devenue fondamentale suite à l'émergence de nouvelles puissances militaires remettant en cause la domination de l'Empire britannique, force le Dominion à agir. Après des années de tentatives évitées ou avortées, la question se pause directement : autonomie nationale ou participation impériale? Le débat qui en découle, la crise navale de 1910, divise profondément la société canadienne. Limitée trop souvent à un antagonisme entre Canadiens français et Canadiens anglais par l'historiographie, cette crise traverse aisément les frontières ethniques traditionnelles du pays. En effet, elle résulte principalement d'un affrontement entre autonomistes et impérialistes, chacun avançant un programme spécifique quant à l'avenir souhaité du Dominion. Grandement intéressée par la question, la population s' active et intervient au sien du débat via diverses organisations populaires, en écrivant à ses représentants politiques et en participant à des assemblées publiques. Les médias sont eux aussi captivés, les journaux du pays abordant abondamment le sujet pendant la crise. Ainsi, cette dernière s'avère une véritable crise nationale, les tendances autonomistes et impérialistes s'étalant sur l'ensemble du territoire tout en divisant presque également le peuple canadien. (source de la citation: https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/28639, visité le 8 janvier 2015)
BROWN, D.W., Lieutenant-Colonel, "Real Problems in the Virtual World: International Law Priorities Regarding Cyber-Conflict", Canadian Forces College, JCSP 42, Exercise Solo Flight, 2016, 27 leaves, available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/318/305/Brown.pdf (accessed 15 August 2016);
Image source: www.canadianlawyermag.com/legalfeeds/blog/Jennifer-Brown.html, accessed 15 September 2016
BROWN, Jennifer, "JAG offers lessons learned to in-house counsel", 22 April 2013, available athttp://www.canadianlawyermag.com/4623/JAG-offers-lessons-learned-to-in-house-counsel.html (accessed 16 April 2016);
Currently in his third year of a four-year appointment, Cathcart shared his formula for success.
Lesson 1: Find and recruit the right people
“This may sound trite but the obviousness of this rule leads to a risk that we treat recruiting and hiring as a routine practice and not what it truly is, which is the first step in building our organization for tomorrow. We need to treat every new hire as if they are one day going run the organization. We should do our best to hire those who demonstrate potential as lawyers, as managers, and importantly as leaders,” he said.
Lesson 2: Invest in the education and training of your people
“Seek and identify future stars from within. Our succession plan is designed to continually develop the legal officers.” Some officers in the JAG office receive fully subsidized education at the masters-degree level in international, air and space, and constitutional law. About 25 per cent of all officers in the JAG have post-grad degrees in law.
Lesson 3: Build a strong team
“One of the sure-fire ways to get dedicated and high-performance people is create an atmosphere of mutual support and confidence,” said Cathcart. “This is especially important when your team is small or geographically dispersed.”
Lesson 4: Know the client and the business
“For me and my team the client is the Crown; the executive branch of the Canadian government. We have to understand their goals.”
Lesson 5: Trust your people
“There’s always a risk that a young legal officer alone halfway around the world in the middle of the night is going to make a mistake. That is unavoidable but can be mitigated by applying lessons 1 to 4.
BROWN, Richard, "The Militia and French Canada 1760-1855", 4
December 2010; available at http://richardjohnbr.blogspot.ca/2010/12/militia-and-french-canada-1760-1855.html
(accessed on 1 May 2014);
Capt Bob Holman, left, receiving his CD from LCol Fraser Brownlee
BROWNLEE, Fraser, Note: LCol F. Brownlee giving the CD medal to Captain Robin Frazer Holman, a MLTP officer studying at Queen's University School, "Personnel: Honours & Awards", (July to December 1998 4(1) JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités du JAG;
Photo source: https://twitter.com/jimbronskill, accessed 27 May 2016
BROWNSKILL, Jim, "Canada's electronic spy agency broke privacy law by sharing info: watchdog", Toronto Sun, 28 January 2016; available at http://www.torontosun.com/2016/01/28/canadas-electronic-spy-agency-broke-privacy-law-by-sharing-info-watchdog (accessed 27 May 2016);discusses rtestimony of Jean-Pierre Plouffe, a former JAG officer;
___________"Military faces intensive archival search to pinpoint gay purge numbers", The Canadian Press & The Chronical Press (Halifax Newspaper), 4 June 2017, available at (accessed 5 June 2017); note: Suzanne Parker, a spokeswoman for the defence department's legal branch;
OTTAWA — The Defence Department says a painstaking review of dusty personnel files in the national archives may be needed to determine how many people were
forced out of the military for being gay or lesbian...
National Defence's human resources system does not include information on a person's sexual orientation, nor does it record the specific reason why a person was released from
the Armed Forces, spokeswoman Suzanne Parker said in a written response to questions from The Canadian Press.
However, another version of the draft note excludes the figures and says the number of people affected by CFAO 19-20 [Canadian Forces Administrative Order 19-20,
"Homosexuality — Sexual Abnormality Investigation, Medical Examination and Disposal,"]"is not known."
"Regardless of the numbers originally mentioned in the draft document, we are now actively trying to identify these individuals," Parker said.
___________"Murray vented frustration, defensiveness -- experts; ADMIRAL'S ANGER", Edmonton Journal, Jan 30, 1997, p. A.3;
Description: An air of calm returned to the proceedings Wednesday following the previous day's dust-up between Vice-Admiral Larry Murray and inquiry chairman Gilles Letourneau -- a remarkable verbal altercation that observers say the acting chief of defence staff likely regrets. Letourneau reprimanded Murray for giving lengthy, detailed answers to what the chair considered straightforward questions about why the officer delayed ordering a military police probe of the 1993 fatal shooting of a Somali civilian. Some observers believe Murray, looking tired and drawn, simply let loose after months of watching military personnel under his command face very pointed questions from commissioners and lawyers. His predecessor, Gen. Jean Boyle, was subjected to more than a week of tough questioning and resigned as chief of defence staff after appearing weak and brow-beaten in the eyes of many. [source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=4&frbg=&indx=31&fn=search&dscnt=1&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Gilles%20Letourneau%20military&dstmp=1475765713416, accessed 6 October 2016; Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved]
Image source: montrealgazette.com/author/rbruemmer, accessed 16 October 2017
BRUEMMER, René, "Life ruined by affair disclosure: disgraced general [Brig.-Gen. Daniel Menard]", National Post, 21 July 2011; available at http://nationalpost.com/news/canada/life-ruined-by-affair-disclosure-disgraced-general (accessed 16 October 2017);
Prosecutor [at the court martial] ]Martin Pelletier countered that Menard brought the attention upon himself by knowingly going against military orders.
“Whenever somebody in a position of power falls, be he military or civilian, it is big news,” Pelletier said. “But it is not because he
has suffered a great fall that he does not still deserve to be punished for his crimes.”
Maj. Laura D’Urbano, with military legal affairs, noted that the military dissuades fraternization, even emotional relationships, because it can lead to
favouritism, or even the appearance of favouritism towards a subordinate, and to discipline problems in a very dangerous work environment.
accessed 16 May 2016
BRUYEA, Sean, "How Ottawa Controls #Veterans #Canada - By Sean BRUYEA - Advocacy Advisor for Veterans Canada", available at http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sp5p2d (accessed 9 January 2017);
____________ Remembrance Forgotten: Seventy Years of Neglect and Our Obligation to Canadian Forces Veterans, thesis, Saint-Paul University, Ottawa, 2016; embargo 2018-06-01; see http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/34775 (accessed 11 August 2016);
Military service places demands upon serving members unparalleled in civilian life. Serving in the Canadian Forces (CF) is no different. The sacrifice required to wear a CF uniform extends far beyond the commonly understood injuries and fatalities of military combat, peacekeeping and routine training accidents. Like all militaries, the CF employs complex cultural, psychological and socialization processes that molds and reconditions civilians into highly disciplined and moralized individuals willing to enter harm’s way and kill or be killed. Although these complex processes may be beneficial to military objectives, they can be highly detrimental to successful reintegration into civilian society. Yet Canada has never articulated a tangible universal obligation to assist CF veterans in overcoming or compensating for the consequences of military service. Do we have a universal obligation to our CF veterans? Why? What would be the nature of a universal obligation to our CF veterans? This thesis seeks to answer these questions. Contrary to popular perception, military life is a moral life. Such morality is the bitter enemy of duplicitous rhetoric and government inaction. These deeply indoctrinated moral values are also the measuring stick for the highly unequal sacrifice that CF members have endured on behalf of Canada and Canadians and the complete absence of any obligation we have reciprocated for their service. For these reasons and more, as a nation and as individuals, we have a substantive universal obligation to all our CF veterans to comprehensively assist them in making their life out of uniform at least as successful and rewarding as it was in military service.
BRYDEN, Joan, "[Defence Minister David Collenette says Canada's tarnished...]", CanWest News, Aug 1, 1996, p.1;
Description: Defence Minister [David Collenette] said Thursday he believes the system needs to be changed, starting with a thorough review by a parliamentary committee. Scott Taylor, publisher of Esprit de Corps magazine and one of the fiercest critics of the system, said reform of the military's brand of justice is long overdue. He suggested Collenette has finally agreed to a review only because the abuse of the system has become too evident to ignore. What's it mean: Collenette is responding to mounting evidence from the Somalia scandal that the military justice system is neither independent nor impartial and is ill-equipped to handle serious criminal cases.
___________"Minister [Collenette] Wants Overhaul of Military Justice System", The Ottawa Citizen, 2 August 1996, p. A4;
Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/rachael-bryson-182b5897, accessed 15 August 2016
BRYSON, Rachael, The Impacts of Unification and Civilianization on the Culture of the Canadian Forces, 1968-1993, A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of masters of strategic studies, Calgary: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, September 2012, 96 leaves; available at http://theses.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/11023/209/4/Ucalgary_2012_Bryson_Rachael.pdf (accessed on 2 may 2014);
In 1993 the Canadian Forces faced a crisis that reached across all levels of the institution when the events of the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia became publicknowledge. The report forthcoming from the civilian Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia uncovered a deeply flawed organization, rife with
personnel unfit for duty, a dearth of leadership, and lacking organizational direction. One of the major questions that arose within public and academic discourse following the release of the report was how the Canadian Forces had reached this point of crisis.
This thesis argues that two major institutional changes- unification in 1968 and civilianization in 1972- had profoundly negative impacts on the culture of the Canadian Forces,and are key to understanding the military’s fall from grace. Using the theory of sociological neo-institutionalism to understand change within military organizations, this thesis will demonstrate a strong correlation between unification, civilianization, and the cultural changes experienced by the Canadian Forces during this period. Leadership will be used as a qualitative indicator for measuring the changes in the military’s culture.
image source: espritdecorps.ca/edec-online/prsmwfjrtnpqzfi6kls1fou9z01zjy, accessed 18 September 2017
BUDNICK, Sharon, "Military Justice in Action: New Book blueprint
for modernizing military law justice", Esprit de Corps --
Canadian Military Than & Now, volume 22, number 6, p. 48; on Drapeau and Létourneau's book;
BURCHETT, Bruce M. (Bruce Myatt), 1947-, Race
and the AWOL offender : the effect of the defendant's race on
the outcome of courts-martial involving absence without leave,
thesis (Ph.D.)--Carleton University, 1984; deals with US AWOL; available at https://curve.carleton.ca/c9f57a93-289a-4b56-986c-22ca42d64a6d (accessed 15 August 2016);
BURCHILL, Heather, "Nova Scotia's Law Week 2010 -- Bringing
Military Law to the Community", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire;
available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx
(accessed on 30
BURCHILL, Heather, "La semaine du droit en Nouvelle-Écosse", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx et http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#article9 (site visité le 30 avril 2012);
BUREAU OF PENSIONS ADVOCATES, Veterans Affairs Canada, see http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/about-us/organization/bureau-pensions-advocates/team (accessed 17 September 2016);
BUREAU DE SERVICES JURIDIQUES DES PENSIONS, Anciens Combattants Canada, voir http://www.veterans.gc.ca/fra/about-us/organization/bureau-pensions-advocates/team (accessed 17 September 2016)
The BPA Team
The Bureau operates under the direction of the Executive Director and Chief Pensions Advocate and is assisted by two Directors; Director,
Legal Operations and Director, Strategic Planning and Management Support. BPA also has 14 Offices across Canada, each staffed by at least
one lawyer, as well as an Appeal Unit in Charlottetown comprised of a team of lawyers. All Pensions Advocates are lawyers and members of
their respective law societies.
Équipe du BSJP
Le Bureau est dirigé par le directeur exécutif et chef avocat-conseil des pensions, qui est épaulé par deux directeurs, à savoir le directeur, Opérations
juridiques, et le directeur, Planification stratégique et Soutien de gestion. Le BSJP se compose également de 14 bureaux de district, répartis à travers le
Canada, dont chacun comprend au moins un avocat. Il compte ausssi une unité d’appel située à Charlottetown, qui comprend une équipe d’avocats. Les
avocats des pensions sont tous membres de leur barreau provincial respectif.
BURGESS, Mark, "Military shouldn't investigate sexual assaults in
Canadian Forces, say experts", The Hill Times on Line,
published on 06/02/2014; available at http://www.hilltimes.com/news/news/2014/06/02/military-shouldnt-investigate-sexual-assaults-in-canadian-forces-say-experts/38662?page_requested=1
(accessed on 7 June 2014);
Image source: twitter.com/davidburkecbc, accessed 3 June 2017
BURKE, David, "Canadian Forces Maj. Marcus Brauer loses legal battle over home sale loss", CBC News--Nova Scotia, 11 February 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/marcus-brauer-legal-fight-compensation-canadian-forces-ruling-court-1.3443550 (accessed 3 June 2017);
A Canadian soldier has lost a legal battle to recover tens of thousands of dollars he lost when posted to a new city, even as the judge
hearing the case questions the fairness of the government policy denying him more compensation.
"I am disappointed with the decision," Maj. Marcus Brauer wrote on a GoFundMe page set up to raise money for his court case.
BURKE, Gary J., Good for the Boy and the Nation: Military Drill and the Cadet Movement in Ontario Public Schools 1865-1911, thesis, degree of doctor of education, Graduate Department of Education, University of Toronto, 1996, xii, 276 leaves, available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk4/etd/NQ82595.PDF (accessed 21 May 2017);
Image https://www.facebook.com/annemarie.burns.374, accessed 15 August 2016
Anne-Marie Burns with child
BURNS, Anne-Marie, La sous-traitance d'activités militaires par l'État au secteur privé : une entorse aux règles du droit international humanitaire, mémoire de thèse pour le grade LL.M., Université Laval, 2011, x, 163 p., disponible à [Consulter le document] (vérifié le 28 février 2012);
BURT, Alfred LeRoy, 1888-1971, "The happy days of the military regime" in The French Canadians, 1759-1766, Vancouver : Copp Clark Pub., c1966, at pp. 34-42; article noted in my research but not consulted yet (7 October 2015); note: "A.L. Burt, The old Province of Quebec, (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1933), pp.13-56";
BUTTON, Maj. T.J., "Targeted Killings and International Humanitarian Law", JCSP 40, Exercise Solo Flight, 2014, 13 pages; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/301/305/Button.pdf (accessed 2 February 2017);
image source: http://22.214.171.124/Laurentian/Home/Departments/Georgian/Meet+our+Faculty/Dr.+Daniel+Byers.htm?Laurentian_Lang=en-CA,
accessed 10 February 2015
BYERS, Daniel Thomas, 1968-, Mobilizing Canada : the National Resources Mobilization Act, the Department of National Defence, and compulsory military service in Canada, Ph.D. thesis in History, McGill University, 2000; available at http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/view/action/singleViewer.do?dvs=1324081606028~338&locale=en_US&show_metadata=false&VIEWER_URL=/view/action/singleViewer.do?&DELIVERY_RULE_ID=6&adjacency=N&application=DIGITOOL-3&frameId=1&usePid1=true&usePid2=true (accessed on 15 December 2011)
Table of Contents
List of Tables and Figures
Part 1: The Historical Legacy
1 Conscription and Canadian History, 1627-1939
Part 2: The National Resources Mobilization Act and the Rise of the Big Army
2 Mobilizing Canada: The Creation of the Thirty-Day Training System, 1939-40
3 Enshrining the NRMA: Compulsory Military Service, 1940-41
4 Creating the "Big Army": Conscription and Army Expansion, 1941-43
Part 3: Canadian Conscripts and Their Experiences during the War
5 Canada’s Zombies, Part 1: A Statistical Portrait
6 Canada’s Zombies, Part 2: Life in Uniform
Part 4: The Fall of the Big Army
7 "No stone … Unturned": The Failure of Conscription and the Big Army, 1943-44
8 Revolt or Realization? The NRMA and the Conscription Crisis of 1944
Part 5: The Aftermath
Epilogue: Conscription and Canadians in the Second World War
Appendix 1: The National Resources Mobilization Act, 1940
Archival Sources Consulted
[source: http://www.ubcpress.ca/search/title_book.asp?BookID=299175030, accessed 3 June 2016]
BYERS, Michael, "Affidavit." In Report Filed in Federal Court, Amnesty International Canada and British Colombia Civil Liberties Association v Chief of the Defence Staff for the Canadian Forces, Minister of National Defence and Attorney General of Canada, Court File Number T-324-07, 2007, http://www.bccla.org/antiterrorissue/afghan_detainee_litigation.html; researh note: title noted in my research but affidavit not consulted yet (7 September 2016);
___________ "Canada's Retreat from Laws of War: Why do we
still collude with torturers?, 25 Nov 2005, TheTypee.ca, available
(accessed on 21 December 2011);
___________"Canadian Armed Forces under US Command", Report commissioned by the Simons Centre for Peace and Disarmament Studies, Liu Centre for the Study of Global Issues University of British Columbia Final Report, 06 May 2002; available at http://liu.xplorex.com/sites/liu/files/Publications/25Apr2002CanadianArmedForces.pdf (accessed on 21 May 2012); with the same title in (2002) 58 International Journal 89-114, available at http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/faculty_scholarship/2881/ (accessed 7 January 2016);
___________"[Legal Opinion on the December 18, 2005] Arrangement for the Transfer of Detainees Between the Canadian Forces and the Ministry of Defence of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan", 7 April 2006, Amnesty International Canada v. Canada .  F.C. 336 (Can.), see footnote 191 of the article John B. Bellinger III and Vijay M. Padmanabhan, "Detention Operations in Contemporary Conflicts : Four Challenges for the Geneva Conventions and Other Existing law", (2011) 105 The American Journal of International Law 201 available at p. 235;
___________"Transfer of detainees is complicity in torture. The world's most respected human rights organization has just accused this country of complicity in torture. Canadians should hang their heads in shame", www.thestar.com/opinion, Toronto Star, 14 November 2007; available at https://www.thestar.com/opinion/2007/11/14/transfer_of_detainees_is_complicity_in_torture.html (accessed 8 October 2016);
___________"Transferring to Torture: Canada Human Rights and Detainees", available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-fezviKVpo (accessed 7 October 2016); Michael Byers in the video is introduced by Gail Davidson;
Michael Byers examines whether the transfer of people captured in Afghanistan by the Canadian Armed Forces to Afghan authorities violated international law including the Geneva Conventions, the Convention against Torture and the Rome Statute. Michael Byers was the Canada Research Chair in Global Politics at UBC. He writes speaks and teaches about the use of military forces, human rights, terrorism and international law. Professor Byers is the author of many books including War Law: Understanding International Law and Armed Conflict.
___________War Law: Understanding International Law and Armed Conflict, Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 2005, 224 p.;
BYERS, Michael and William A Schabas,"Canadian War Criminals? (27 April 2007B) The Tyee <http://thetyee.ca/Views/2007/04/27/WarCrime/
BYERS, R.B. (Roddick Beaumont), "The Canadian Military and the use of Force: End of an Era?", (1975) 30 International Journal 284-298;
___________"Perceptions of Parliamentary Surveillance of the Executive: The Case of Canadian Defence Policy", (1972) 5 Canadian Journal of Political Science 234-250;
____________"Reorganization of the Canadian Armed Forces: Parliamentary, Military and Interest Group Perceptions", Carleton University, 1971, thesis, Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Political Science, 464 leaves; available at https://curve.carleton.ca/theses/21366 (accessed on 8 January 2015);