[Home -- Accueil]


Malbrough s'en-va-t'en guerre, 17e siècle
Malbrough s'en va-t-en guerre,
Mironton, mironton, mirontaine,
Malbrough s'en va-t-en guerre,
Ne sait quand reviendra.

updated and corrections / mise à jour et corrections: 24 April 2017

Canadian Military Law -- Part II
Bibliography M to R /

Droit militaire canadien -- Partie II
Bibliographie M à R


Other sites on Canadian military law

Part II -- Bibliography: A-B--C-D--E-G--H-L--M-R--S-Z

Part I  --  Canadian Military Law -- Miscellaneous

- Blog

- Somalia Inquiry & Government Reaction
      -  1995-1997: Somalia Inquiry
Departmental Reaction to Somalia Inquiry
      -  Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services
          January 1997 to July 1997
-  The Special Senate Committee on the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia (April 1997)
The Report to the Prime Minister on the Leadership and Management of the Canadian Forces (March 1997)
Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change in the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces (October 1997 to 1999)
Bill C-25--An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
(Royal Assent, 10 December 1998)
2003 -- Five Year Review of Bill C-25
      - 2011 -- Second Five Year Review of Bill C-25

Governments Bills 1999-2012 on National Defence Act

- Current Affairs -- Sexual Misconduct

- Court Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-2017

- JAG & DND Web Sites

- Laws, Regulations and Orders

Superseded Legislation

- Web Sites of Interest


Starting here:

Bibliography M to R  /
Bibliographie M à R


image source: https://www.thestar.com/authors.maccharles_tonda.html, accessed 21 August 2016
Tonda MacCharles
MacCHARLES, Tonda, "Canadian military to get guidelines on dealing with child soldiers", thestar.com, 1 December 2016, available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2016/12/01/canadian-military-to-get-guidelines-on-dealing-with-child-soldiers.html (accessed 3 December 2016);
OTTAWA—Canada’s top soldier is issuing the first-ever guidelines for Canadian military personnel on how to deal with child soldiers in advance of deployment to Africa, the Star has learned.
Called the CAF Child Soldiers Doctrine, it is not country-specific but will provide overarching principles to military personnel, no matter what the mission or mandate.
The military’s guidelines will make clear that all Canadian Armed Forces personnel have a legal duty to report any such violations, and it recognizes that the issue of child soldiers “needs to be better addressed within Canadian Forces doctrine.”

____________ "Liberals introduce bill to create spy oversight committee", 16 June 2016, available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2016/06/16/liberals-introduce-bill-to-create-spy-oversight-committee.html (accessed 21 August 2016); re Bill C-22 introduced 2016;

___________ "Senior lawyers join calls for changes to Torries' terror bill", 12 March 2015, available at http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2015/03/12/senior-lawyers-join-calls-for-changes-to-tories-terror-bill.html  (accessed 16 November 2015); retired Lieutenant-Colonel Denis Couture is one of the senior lawyer referred to in the article;
Eight senior lawyers who are security-cleared to challenge classified evidence in closed-court terrorism cases have added their voices to a chorus
calling for changes to the government’s anti-terror bill.
The eight lawyers have first-hand knowledge of CSIS’ activities in national security cases; all are “special advocates” on a roster approved by the
federal justice department, and are appointed by Canadian courts to ensure top secret evidence is properly tested when Ottawa seeks to deport terror suspects.
The submission was made on behalf of lawyers Gordon Cameron, Paul Cavalluzzo, Paul Copeland, Denis Couture, François Dadour, Anil Kapoor,
John Norris and Lorne Waldman. The Conservative-dominated committee denied their request to testify.

MacDONALD, B.J.S., The Trial of Kurt Meyer, Toronto: Clarke, Irwin & Company Limited, 1954;

  Source of image: JAG Newsletter, volume 1, 2003 at p. 7
Admiral Sir Ian Garnett with Margaret-Ann

Macdonald, Margaret-Ann, "Honours", JAG Newsletter, volume 1, 2003 at p. 7; research note: we worked together in Lahr; very nice person (dixit François Lareau);

"In July 2002, LCol Margaret-Ann Macdonald was awarded the Chief of Staff Commendation for Exceptional
Service by Admiral Sir Ian Garnett, SHAPE Chief of Staff, in recognition of her professional excellence,
primarily in relation to the NATO-led operations in the Balkans.  This prestigious award cited her ceaseless
enthusiasm within the Office of the SHAPE Legal Advisor during a period of almost 5 years, and noted that
her efforts 'consistently showed her to be a master of her legal craft and NATO procedures.'  As well, it cited
her critical value to operators, both in SHAPE and in the field."

Image source: THE CANADIAN PRESS Vaughan Merchantç
"Cpl. Matthew Wilcox, centre, is escorted from the courtroom by
Capt.[sic] Donald MacGillivary, left and defence counsel Lt. Col. Troy
 Sweet, right. at the Victoria Park Garrison in Sydney N.S. Tuesday, Sept.29, 2009."

MacDONALD, Michael, "Wilcox tells court martial he fired weapon instinctively",  CTV News Atlantic, 2 November 2011; available at http://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/wilcox-tells-court-martial-he-fired-weapon-instinctively-1.720169 ( accessed 24 November 2015);

Ralph MacDonald: image source: Google Image, accessed on 31 May 2014

MACDONALD, LCol (ret'd) Ralph, 1922-2010, notes on:

After serving in Vancouver and back in Edmonton, he was called to the Alberta Bar in 1956 and transferred to the Judge Advocate General's branch. Ralph's more than 30 years of service as a legal officer took him to Ottawa, Winnipeg, Calgary, Lahr and finally back to Ottawa. Along the way, he was a minor hockey coach, Cub leader and Group Committee chair. One of his proudest accomplishments was the two years he spent as president of the Canadian Forces Europe senior hockey league. By 1988, when he retired at the age of 65, Ralph was the oldest member and last Second World War veteran serving in the Regular Force.

He then began his second career, serving another 10 years as a civilian in the Department of National Defence. (source: http://www.inmemoriam.ca/view-announcement-201182-lcol-ret-d-ralph-fraser-macdonald-cd.html, accessed on 31 May 2014)

Ralph MacDonald
___________See also http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=ralph-macdonald&pid=144183682&fhid=5973, see obituary The Ottawa Citizen, 19and 20 July 2010 (accessed 13 December 2015);

MacDOUGALL, M.H. (M. Holly), "Canada: Investigation and Prosecution of Alleged Violations of the Law of Armed Conflict", in The Public Commission to Examine the Maritime Incident of 31 May 2010, The Turkel Commission, Second Report, Israel's Mechanisms for Examining and Investigating Complaints and Claims of Violations of the Laws of Armed Conflict According to International Law, Annex C -- The Comparative Survey, at pp. 563-640, available at http://www.turkel-committee.gov.il/files/newDoc3/Annex%20C%20-%20for%20Website.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2015); I have found MacDougall's paper very informative;  

__________ "Coalitions Operations and the Law" in Richard B. Jaques, ed., Issues in International Law and Military Operations, 2006 at pp. 195-203 (series; vol. 80 US Naval War College International Law Studies); available at http://www.usnwc.edu/Research---Gaming/International-Law/Studies-Series/documents/Naval-War-College-vol-80.aspx (accessed on 4 March 2012); also available at https://archive.org/details/issuesininternat80jaqu (accessed on 11 November 2014);

Source of image: www. amazon.co.uk (accessed 24 December 2015)
___________"Legal Aspects of Command of United Nations Operations" in Yves Le Bouthillier, David M. McRae, and Donald Pharand, eds., Selected Papers in International Law: Contribution of the Canadian Council on International Law 1972-1997,  The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999, p. 403; 

___________"The Legal Basis for Chapter VI and Charter VII UN Sanctioned Operations", Brief to the Commission of Inquiry into the Canadian Forces Deployment to Somalia, Ottawa, June 1995; note: would be available on the CD-Rom published by the Commission (see Part I of Canadian Military law )

___________ Testimony as Director of Military Prosecutions, Department of National Defence, before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs on the provisions and operation of An Act to amend the National Defence Act (court martial) and to make a consequential amendment to another act (S.C. 2008, c. 29); Issue 3, 12 March 2009; evidence;

Still video at 1:01:46
Captain (N) (retired) Holly MacDougall testifying
___________Testimony with video of Holly MacDougall before the Senate Committee -- Legal and Constitutional Affairs on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts, 30 May 2013, at 1:01:15 to 1: 40: 29 at http://www.cpac.ca/en/programs/in-committee-from-the-senate-of-canada/episodes/24635946/ (accessed 24 November 2015);  also available at meeting issue 38, 30 May 2013, minutes  and evidence;

___________ United Nations Operations: Who Should be in Charge?, Thesis (LL. M.)--The Judge Advocate General's School, United States Army, 1994, [ii], 106 leaves; notes: available at http//www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA456615&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf and http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA456615 (accessed on 28 March 2012); also published in (1994) Military Law and Law of War Review 21-87;

MacGILLIVRAY, Don, "Military Aid to the Civil Power", (1974) 3(2) Acadiensis 45-64; available at http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/Acadiensis/article/view/11354/12104 (accessed on 6 December 2011);

Bruce MacGregor, photo reproduced from: live.ottawacitizen.com/Event/Live_blog_Military_complaints_commission_hearing_Monday_Sept_10

MacGREGOR, Bruce, "Biography", available at http://www.iap-association.org/getattachment/Conferences/Annual-Conferences/21st-Annual-Conference-2016/Monday,-12-September-2016/21AC_SIGM_BIo_Bruce_Macgregor.pdf.aspx (accessed 2 October 2016);

___________Canadian Military Boards of Inquiry in the Line of Fire of Procedural Fairness, University of Ottawa. mémoire de maîtrise en droit, LL.M., 2005 or 2006?;  titre cité dans (2005) 65 Revue du Barreau 351, on y ajoute "Veuillez noter que les mémoires ne sont pas disponibles pour consultation"  (p. 350);

__________"Canadian Military Boards of Inquiry in the Line of Fire of Procedural Fairness", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 54-74;

___________LinkedIn, available at https://ca.linkedin.com/in/bruce-macgregor-9a364663 (accessed 3 December 2015);

___________Testimony, Military Police Complaints Commission, Fynes Public Interest Hearings, Transcript of Proceedings, 10 September 2012, Volume 44, pp. 1-155, available at http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/ and go to the date of 10 September 2012 (accessed 30 December 2015);

___________"Message from the Chair" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2008/news.aspx (accessed on 26 April 2012);
___________"Mot du président" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2008/nouvelles.aspx#article10 (site visité le 26 avril  2012);

____________"Role of the Military Justice System: Accountability of Soldiers and Commanders during Deployment", presented at 10th Seminar for Legal Advisors, Legal Advisors and International Military Operations on the African Continent, 6-10 May 2014, Galway, International Society  for Military Law and law of War, available at http://www.ismllw.org/seminaires/2014_05_06_Galway_textes%20des%20orateurs/2014_05_08_03%20LtCol%20MacGregor.pdf (accessed on 12 February 2015);

MacINNIS, LCdr D.M., "Cyber Warfare, The Law of Armed Conflict, ROE and the Sufficiency of International Law", Canadian Forces College, JCSP 40, Exercise Solo Flight, 2016, 12 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/301/305/MacInnis.pdf (accessed 2 February 2017);

Lt. Derek de Jong
MacIntyre, Mary Ellen, "Navy officer fined, reprimanded for deserting ship",  Herald News, 7 May 2014; case of navy Lt. Derek de Jong; available at http://thechronicleherald.ca/metro/1205893-navy-officer-fined-reprimanded-for-deserting-ship (accessed 15 March 2017);includes video;

“You deserted in a fit of pique and (that) persisted over many hours,” said Gibson. He likened de Jong’s behaviour to a child who “picks up their marbles and goes home.”

The judge said discipline in the Canadian Armed Forces is crucial. Every officer is not only supposed to instill discipline in the troops he or she leads, but must show self-discipline and that is what de Jong lacks, he said.

“You committed one of the most grievous breaches of trust.

“You are not a young sailor flush with the immaturity of youth,” he admonished.

“This is not behaviour that can be tolerated in any member, much less a commissioned officer. One does not run away.

Image source: http://www.inmemoriam.ca/view-announcement-522652-lieutenant-colonel-john-
John MacIssac                                               francis-donald-macisaac-c-d-q-c.html, accessed 15 December 2015
MacISSAC, John, "John MacIssac: Obituary", 1920-2015, former JAG Officer with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, The Ottawa Citizen, published 26 October to 31 October 2015; available at http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?pid=176225518, accessed 1 November 2015; and http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=john-macisaac&pid=176225518&fhid=5973 (accessed 13 December 2015);
Following the war, John returned to Halifax where he used his veteran’s benefits to attend Dalhousie University Law School,
graduating in 1949. He re-joined the Army, as a member of the Judge Advocate General’s Branch.  He served with the Canadian
Infantry Brigade Group in Korea in 1952-53 and retired from the Army in 1969 after postings in Shilo, Borden, Ottawa, Germany
and Winnipeg. He took up a new position in 1970 as legal advisor to the Atomic Energy Control Board. He was appointed a Queen’s
Counsel for his contributions to the writing of legislation and regulations governing the use of nuclear energy. John finished his public
service in the Department of Justice.
Following the war, John returned to Halifax where he used his veteran's benefits to attend Dalhousie University Law School, graduating in 1949. He re-joined the Army, as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Branch. He served with the Canadian Infantry Brigade Group in Korea in 1952-53 and retired from the Army in 1969 after postings in Shilo, Borden, Ottawa, Germany and Winnipeg. He took up a new position in 1970 as Legal Advisor to the Atomic Energy Control Board. He was appointed a Queen's Counsel for his contributions to the writing of legislation and regulations governing the use of nuclear energy. John finished his public service in the Department of Justice. - See more at: http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?pid=176225518#sthash.n4BfWFWR.dpuf
MacISAAC, Lieutenant-Colonel John Francis Donald

Image source: http://www.citizensassembly.gov.on.ca/gallery1/en/LearningWeekend6.html, accessed 13 September 2016
Heather MacIvor
MacIvor, Heather, "The Speaker's Ruling on Afghan Detainee Documents: The Last Hurrah for Parliamentary Privilege?" (2010) 19(1&2) Constitutional Forum constitutionel 129-137, available at https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/constitutional_forum/article/view/17258/13723 (accessed at 13 September 2016);

Image source: www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-departmental-performance/2012-section-i-department-national-defence-departmental-performance-report.page
Peter MacKay
MACKAY, Peter, testimony of Peter MacKay, Minister of national Defence on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act, :
- before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence,  meeting number 62, 30 January 2013, minutes and evidence;
- before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, issue 37, 23 May 2013,  minutes and evidence;

___________testimony of Peter MacKay, Minister of National Defence on Bill C-16, An Act to amend the National Defence Act (military judges), before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, issue number 6, 23 November 2011, minutes  and  evidence;

Image source: artsandsciences.sc.edu/hist/s-p-mackenzie, accessed 7 April 2017
S.P. MacKenzie

MacKENZIE, S.P., “The Shackling Crisis: A Case-Study in the Dynamics of Prisoner-of-War Diplomacy in the Second World War”, (February 1995) 17(1) International History Review 78-98;

MacKIE, Christopher S.T., "The Law of (Heraldic) Arms: Military's Law's Long Lost Cousin", (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx and
  and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/pdf/2011-03_ss3.pdf (accessed on 30 April 2012);
MacKIE, Christopher S.T., "Le droit des armoiries : le cousin perdu du droit militaire",  (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx  et http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#article7  (site visité le 30 avril  2012);

Photo:Warrant Officer André Gagnon, centre, walks to testify at his court
 martial at the St-Malo Armoury Tuesday, August 12, 2014 in Quebec City with his defence counsel Major Philippe-Luc Boutin, left. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Clement Allard

MacKINNON, Leslie, "Top court upholds military justice system. Defence minister can carry on filing appeals of court martial decisions, judges rule",   i Politics, 22 July 2016; available at https://ipolitics.ca/2016/07/22/top-court-upholds-military-justice-system/ (accessed 22 August 2016);

MacLEAN, Lieutenant-Colonel D.A., "Rules of Engagement and the Peacekeeper's Dilemma", AMSC 3 (Advanced Military Studies Course 3), Canadian Forces College, circa 2000, 26 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/263/macleand2.pdf (accessed on 17 June 2012);


 The use of force by soldiers deployed on United Nations peacekeeping missions is
controlled by Rules of Engagement (ROE). Depending on the mandate, some peacekeeping
missions have allowed peacekeepers to use force only in self-defence. In areas torn by civil
war or ethnic strife, soldiers have sometimes witnessed crimes and violent acts perpetrated
  against defenceless non-combatants. Depending on the mandate of the peacekeeping force
  and on the ROE that have been prepared for the mission, soldiers may be precluded from
intervening due to their ROE. This paper argues that the restrictive nature of peacekeeping
 ROE may create a situation where soldiers deployed on peacekeeping operations must deal
with ethical and moral dilemmas. The potential for such situations is so widespread that this
phenomena is not just isolated, but instead should be considered a real concern for all soldiers
deployed on peacekeeping operations

Image source: ctvnews.ca/col-williams-assaulted-victim-after-she-had-seizures-1.564944, accessed 7 April 2017

MacLEANS MAGAZINE, "Russell Williams no longer a colonel.  Convicted serial killer officially stripped of his rank", macleans.ca, 22 October 2010; available at http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/russell-williams-no-longer-a-colonel/ (accessed 16 January 2017);

1. On 21 Oct 10, Mr. Russell Williams, former Commander of 8 Wing, was sentenced to two concurrent terms of life in prison with no chance of parole for 25 years for the first-degree murders of Cpl Marie France Comeau and Mrs. Jessica Lloyd.

4. With the conviction and sentencing completed, and following my recommendation, the Governor General has revoked his commission, an extraordinary and severe decision that may constitute a first of its kind in Canadian history.

5. Further, the following actions will now be taken:
A. Stripping Mr. Williams of his medals
B. Termination and recovery of his pay from the date of arrest
C. Denial of severance pay; and
D. His prompt release from the CF under “service misconduct” – which is the most serious release item possible.
6. As a consequence of his release from the CF for “service misconduct” and of the revocation of his commission, Mr. Williams no longer possesses a rank as a member of the CF.

7. I wish to point out that under the CF superannuation act, there are no grounds to revoke his pension and a court martial would not have any impact on these accrued benefits.

8. Some have questioned why Mr. Williams has not also been charged under the military justice system. I believe we need to understand why this is so. This is because there is no jurisdiction under the code of service discipline to try persons charged with murder where those murders took place in Canada. Mr. Williams was therefore tried and convicted of all of these 88 charges under the Criminal Code of Canada by a civilian court. Additionally there will be no further court martial on these matters because the National Defence Act specifically prevents an individual from being tried by court martial where the offence or any other substantially similar offence arising out of the same underlying facts have been previously dealt with by a civilian court. This basic principle sometimes known as “double jeopardy” is fundamental within our civilian and military justice system. With his current convictions and sentence to life imprisonment justice has already been served.

MacLEOD, Colonel B.W., "Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational Level Rwanda and an Unlawful Order", AMSP (2000),  AMSC 3 (Advanced Military Studies Course 3), Canadian Forces College,  16 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/263/macleodb2.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2012);

Sandra MacLeod, photo reproduced from http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=33454 (accessed on 31 March 2014)

MacLEOD, Lt.-Cmdr. Sandra, "Pardons for New Zealand Soldiers of the Great War" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
MacLEOD, Lt.-Cmdr. Sandra, "Précis : Pardons pour des soldats néo-zélandais de la Première Guerre mondiale" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf  (site visité le 18 avril 2012;

MacLEOD, Major Sherry, "JAG Social Fund Activities / Activités du club social du JAG", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 10;

MacLEOD, S.A., "The Nijmegen Marches: A Test of Endurance, Leadership and Teamwork", (2005) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 13-14;

MacPHERSON,  J. Pennington (James Pennington), 1839-1916, A Catechism on Military Law as Applicable to the Militia of Canada : Consisting of Questions and Answers on the Militia Act, 1883, Rules and Regulations for the Militia, 1883 ... Together with a Compilation of the Principal Points of the law of Eidence, Montreal : J. Lovell, 1886, 191 p.; available at http://www.archive.org/details/cihm_11790 (accessed on 5 January 2011);

Mike Madden, image source: http://www.dal.ca/academics/programs/graduate/law/graduate-life/recent-graduates/mike-madden.html, accessed on 2 August 2014

MADDEN, Mike, "Comparative Cherry-Picking in a Military Justice Context: the Misplaced Quest to Give Universally Expansive Meaning to International Human Rights", Dalhousie University--Schulich School of Law, 18 February 2014; ; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2397734 (accessed on 2 August 2014); now published in (2014) 46 George Washington International Law Review 713-763, available at http://docs.law.gwu.edu/stdg/gwilr/PDFs/46-4/1%20Madden.pdf (accessed on 6 January 2015);    

___________ “First Principles and Last Resorts: Complications of Civilian Influences on the Military Justice System”,  (2009) 9(3) Canadian Military Journal 49-57, available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo9/no3/08-madden-eng.asp (accessed on 28 August 2009); also available at  SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1373671, see http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1373671 (accessed on 28 August 2009);
___________"Principes premiers et derniers recours : complications nées des influences civiles sur le système de justice militaire", (2009) 9(3) Revue militaire canadienne 49-57, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo9/no3/08-madden-fra.asp (vérifié le 28 août 2009);

___________"International Humanitarian Law /   Laws 2205.03 -- Three credits -- Course Syllabus Jan 2012", available at http://law.dal.ca/Files/Course_Outlines_2011/Winter__2012_LAWS_2205_International_Humanitarian_Law_by_Mad.pdf (accessed on 21 May 2012);

___________"Keeping Up with the Common Law O'Sullivans?  The Limnits of Comparative Law in the Context of Military Justice Law Reform", (2013) 51(1) Alberta Law Review 125-152; also available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2269098 (accessed on 15 February 2014); available at http://www.albertalawreview.com/index.php/ALR/article/viewFile/60/60 (accessed 10 September 2016);

___________"Latest news from Canadian military justice", available at http://www.foroijm.org/noticia/lastes-news-form-canadian-military-justice/ (accessed 23 August 2016); news dates: 22 July 2016, 25 July 2016;

 __________"Making Use of Neutral Forces: Mediation of Performance Appraisal Disputes within the Canadian Forces", (Autumn 2011) 11(4) Canadian Military Journal; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/index-eng.asp  and http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo11/no4/08-madden-eng.asp (accessed on 15 December 2011); also available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1604729 (accessed on 2 August 2014);
___________"Le recours à des forces neutres: la médiation pour régler les différends portant sur l'appréciation du rendement au sein des Forces canadiennes', (automne 2011) 11(4) Revue militaire canadienne; disponibe à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/index-fra.asp et http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo11/no4/08-madden-fra.asp (vérifié le 15 décembre 2011);

Image source: http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2015-Conference-Proceedings.pdf, accessed 22 January 2016
Mike Madden

___________"A Model for Excluding Improperly or Unconstitutionally Obtained Evidence"(January 12, 2015) Berkeley Journal of International Law (BJIL), Forthcoming; available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2548851 , accessed 1 December 2015;

Image source: http://www.navalreview.ca/volume6-issue4/, accessed on 11 May 2014
___________"Naval Chameleons?  Re-Evaluating the Legality of Deceptive  Lighting  Under International Humanitarian Law", (2011)  6(4) Canadian Naval Law Review 4-9; available at http://naval.review.cfps.dal.ca/archive/8465465-5645648/vol6num4art2.pdf  (accessed on 22 May 2012);

Discussion on perfidy in IHL, particularly as the concept is applied to deceptive lighting of warships at sea.  An analysis of conventional and customary IHL will demonstrate that many ambiguities and grey areas exist in the laws that purport to distinguish between permissible ruses of war and illegal acts of perfidy. An investigation into the practice of deceptively lighting naval vessels during armed conflicts will reveal that some more careful analysis of the practice might be necessary for Canadian naval commanders if they wish to avoid violating perfidy prohibitions. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20120119140132/http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/2011/ihl-bibliography-2nd-trimester-2011.pdf, p. 22, accessed 16 March 2015)

Image source: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/journal-of-conflict-and-security-law-14677962?cc=ca&lang=en&, accessed 28 September 2016

__________"Of Wolves and Sheep: A Purposive Analysis of Perfidy Prohibitions in International Humanitarian Law", (2012) 17(3) Journal of Conflict and Security Law 439-463; title noted but article not consulted (3 July 2016);


A combatant in an armed conflict, like a wolf in sheep’s clothing, can seek to gain a tactical or strategic advantage by resort to deception and trickery. International Humanitarian Law (IHL), however, distinguishes between permissible ruses of war and illegal acts of perfidy. How, then, should combatants conduct themselves so as to avoid violating IHL’s perfidy prohibitions? This article argues that belligerents should interpret prohibitions against perfidy in a purposive manner (looking to causative links that may exist between perfidy and harm) in order to avoid eroding the protection that IHL affords to designated groups. A close analysis of potentially perfidious land, air and sea combat practices will further reveal that some accepted practices may need to be reassessed and/or ceased if States wish to comply with purposively interpreted perfidy prohibitions.(source: http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/3/439.abstract, accessed 4 July 2016)

Image source: https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/appeal/issue/view/937/showToc, accessed 28 September 2016

___________“Sui Not-So-Generous: The Unconstitutionality of Canadian Court Martial Jury Trials”,  (2009) 14 Appeal: Review of Current Law and Law Reform 24-36; available at http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=mikemadden (accessed on 20 October 2009); also available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1384178; see http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1384178 (accessed on 28 August 2009);

MADDEN, Mike and J. Jason Samson. “Entrench the Bench! Canada’s Pressing Need for a Permanent Military Court.” (2009) 55 The Criminal Law Quarterly 215-239; with the same title at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1473451 (accessed on 6 July 2010);

Chris Madsen, photo reproduced from http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/136/284-fra.html  (accessed on 31 March 2014)

MADSEN, C.M.V. (Chris Mark Vedel), 1968-,  Another Kind of Justice : Canadian Military Law from Confederation to Somalia, Vancouver : UBC Press, c1999, x, 236 p., ISBN: 0774807180; Research Note: see important and excellent bibliography at pp.195-220; limited preview available at http://books.google.com/books?id=uPJIvl19-koC&printsec=titlepage&dq=Canadian+Military+Law+Annotated&lr=&as_brr=0&source=gbs_toc_s&cad=1 and at http://books.google.com/books?id=uPJIvl19-koC&dq=Canadian+Military+Law+Annotated&lr=&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 9 July 2008); copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, KF7209 M33 1999 (Room E); copy at Ottawa University Law Library: KE 6800 .M32 1999;

Contents -- 1. Modest beginnings -- 2. In defence of Empire -- 3. Coming of age -- 4. Total war -- 5. Under the National Defence Act -- 6. A gradual slide -- Conclusion: Beyond Somalia -- Appendices: 1. Judge Advocate Generals of Canada -- 2. Courts martial in the Canadian Armed Forces under the National Defence Act.   

___________"Canada's troops lack solid grasp of military law" 28 April 1997 27(2) University of Calgary Gazette; available at http://www.ucalgary.ca/uofc/events/unicomm/Research/somalia.html (accessed on 23 April 2014);

When Madsen applied for the defence department's R.B. Byers Fellowship at the end of 1995, officials were making erroneous statements about Canadian military history by declaring the Somali incident to be the first of its kind.

"It just wasn't true," Madsen says. "Military history is one of these areas they've ignored . . . . These aren't new problems."

Canadian soldiers have been involved in other criminal acts, including the rape of civilians in the Korean war, and the murder of nine prisoners in the Boer War.

Madsen says the army tends to assign blame to individuals and look no further. His report, however, will propose several systemic changes.

Parliament must, he says, take a more active role in shaping defence policy and limit the role of bureaucratic "mandarins." One question that's never been satisfactorily addressed is why Canadian soldiers -- particularly an airborne regiment -- were in Somalia in the first place. Just because Canada has a history of peacekeeping involvement doesn't mean the military should take on every assignment that comes up, he says.

A reorganization of the Judge Advocate General's office, the main unit in the defence department that deals with legal matters, would prevent some of the "stagnation" that has reduced the office's effectiveness, he says. For example, bringing in civilian lawyers would help in such areas as real estate law, international law and contracts.

"There is a myth that soldiers can only talk to other soldiers," Madsen says.

___________"The Canadian Army and the Maltreatment of Civilians: The Korean Example", unpublished paper presented at the Qualicum History Conference, 5 February 1994; title noted in WATSON, Brent Byron, Far Eastern Tour: The Experiences of the Canadian Infantry in Korea, 1950-53, infra, at p. 380, footnote 55 (thesis) and p. 215, note 54 (book form);

Image source: http://www.riverwashbooks.com, accessed on 6 January 2015

___________"Courts Martial in the Royal Canadian Navy, 1951-1967", in Richard Howard Gimblett, 1956-, and Richard O.(Richard Oliver)  Mayne, 1971-, eds., People, Policy and Programmes: Proceedings of the 7th Maritime Command (Marcom) Historical Conference (2005) / Des Personnes, des politiques et des programmes: actes de La 7e Conférence du Commandement Maritime (Comar) Sur L'Histoire Militaire (2005), Ottawa: Canadian Naval Heritage Press, 2008, 287 p.; ISBN: 0662480503; 9780662480501; copy at University of Ottawa, FC 231 .M37 2005;

___________Chris Madsen's Publications available at http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/chris-madsen/50/893/315 (accessed on 23 January 2013);

Image source: http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/312749/publication.html, accessed 6 January 2015

___________Kurt Meyer on Trial: A Documentary Record / edited and introduced by P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Chris M.V. Madsen, Kingston, Ontario : Canadian Defence Academy Press, 2007, xi, 697 p., ISBN: 9780662461692 and 066246169X;

Introduction -- Legal and pre-trial documents -- The trial of Kurt Meyer, December 1945 -- The decision to commute Meyer's sentence -- Transfer to Canada and imprisonment at Dorchester Penitentiary -- Appeals and Meyer's transfer to Germany -- The decision to release Meyer -- Responses to the release of Kurt Meyer. (source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/userage/Si/anon/prsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 Janurary 2011)

___________"Legal  Education in the Canadian Forces  from Historical  and Contemporary Perspective", Paper presented on a Continuing Legal Education (CLE) panel “The State of Military-Legal Education in Canada” at the Canadian Bar Association Canadian Legal Conference and Expo in Vancouver, British Columbia on 16 August 2005, 30 p.; available at http://www.cba.org/cba/annualmeeting/pdf/2005_madsen.pdf  (accessed on 23 July 2008);

___________"Military Justice, The Anglo-American  Tradition", article,  published on line, 11606 words, in Military History, ISBN: 9 780 19979 1279, Oxford Bibliographies, see http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199791279/obo-9780199791279-0045.xml#obo-9780199791279-0045-bibItem-0001 (accessed on 23 January 2013); note: "Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions and individuals.   For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative";  see also http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199791279/obo-9780199791279-0045.xml (accessed 10 January 2016);


Because each nation has different laws and traditions, it is hard to make generalizations about military justice applicable to all, though commonalities certainly exist. Each armed forces is unique in character, and even within those, individual service environments may have distinct attitudes and methods in regard to the maintenance of discipline. The historical trend has been toward greater uniformity across armed forces and closer mirroring of civilian criminal jurisprudence, in response to societal change. Reform of military law periodically becomes an issue when it falls too far behind or when some particular event happens that shakes public confidence in the military. Sherrill 1970 notes the practical nature of military justice as a separate form of legal jurisprudence that serves the particular needs of militaries in being operationally effective. Bishop 1974 describes the public pressure that can build when doubts are raised about militaries that have not performed according to expectations and the disappointment in the administration of military justice. Many writers are critical of military justice, premised either on the need for improvement or on the backwardness and supposed conservatism of military institutions. Other writers focus on the general aim and mechanics of military justice (for our purposes here, as practiced in the United States; other nations have similar how-to works). Davidson 1999 provides a basic guide to the practice of military criminal law geared toward a predominantly nonlegal audience, especially those either in or entering the military profession. Morris 2010 meets a similar need and, in focus and content, reflects the broader interpretation given to military justice today compared with earlier decades. Military justice, or rather military legality, touches upon many operational matters of interest to militaries, because the requirement for discipline and good behavior in the military context cannot be divorced from the core mandate of armed forces. Historical treatment of military justice is still catching up to this broader focus and to changes to military law itself. It is a very specialized field that requires some knowledge of the law and how it has been practiced in armed forces over time. In the early 21st century, good overviews focused on the history are yet to be written. [source: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199791279/obo-9780199791279-0045.xml#obo-9780199791279-0045-bibItem-0002, accessed 10 January 2016]


___________Military law and operations, Aurora (Ontario): Canada Law Book, c2008-, three loose-leaf volumes, 26 cm.; Updated once or twice a year, ISSN:1918-2236; copy at the Supreme Court of Canada Library KF7210 ZA2 M33 2008 (Room E); see PDF detailed Table of Contents

"CONTENTS: pt. 1. Defence, armed forces and military law: ch. 1. Historical antecendents -- ch. 2. Military justice -- ch. 3. Civilian oversight -- ch. 4. Legal issues in the Canadian Forces -- pt. 2. Legal dimensions of operations: ch. 5. Domestic versus international operations -- ch. 6. Status of forces -- ch. 7. Use of force -- ch. 8. Protected persons and war crimes -- Appendices: Legislation -- Courts martial lists -- Digests -- Operational documents."

___________"Military Law, the Canadian Militia, and the North-West Rebellion of 1885", (Spring 1998) 1(1) Journal of Military and Strategic Studies -- The Electronic Journal of the Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, article number 5; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20031008215733/http://www.stratnet.ucalgary.ca/journal/1998/article5.html; also available at http://www.jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/21/20 (accessed on 24 March 2012);

___________"Military Responses  and Capabilities in Canada's Domestic Context Post 9/11", (Spring 2011) 13(3)  Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 1-18; available at http://www.jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/409 (accessed on 24 March 2012); also available at http://jmss.synergiesprairies.ca/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/viewFile/409/417 (accessed 3 July 2015);

___________"Victims of Circumstance: The Execution of German Deserters by Surrendered German Troops under Canadian Control in Amsterdam, May 1945",  (1993) 2(1)  Canadian Military History 93-113; available at (accessed on 21 May 2012); available at http://www.wlu.ca/lcmsds/cmh/back%20issues/CMH/volume%202/issue%201/Madsen%20-%20Victims%20of%20Circumstance%20-%20the%20Execution%20of%20German%20Deserters%20by%20Surrendered%20German%20Troops%20Under%20Canadian%20Control.pdf (accessed on 21 May 2012); also available at http://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=cmh (accessed 7 January 2016);

Canadian newspapers, after interviews with former Canadian officers and other witnesses, presented strong evidence of active Canadian participation in the execution.
Conseqently, Brigadier William J. Lawson, then Judge Advocate General, appointed Group Captain J.H. Hollies to undertake a full departmental investigation.  This
military legal officer searched relevant Canadian documents, and made a three-day whirlwind trip to West Germany.  Based on Hollies' findings, an embarrassed Hellyer
confirmed, in the House of Commons on 21 December 1966, Canadian involvement in the execution, but suggested "that in view of the fact it is now over 20 years since
the war ended, nothing is to be gained by carrying this matter further." [p. 108, footnotes omitted]

Photo of John Maguire (right) with Blaise Cathcart, photo reproduced from http://www.goderichsignalstar.com/2013/04/16/
(accessed on 31 March 2014)

MAGUIRE, John C. (John Campbell), 1957-, "Fashioning an Equitable Vision for Public Resource Protection and Development in Canada: The Public Trust Doctrine Revisited and Reconceptualized, (1997) 7(1) Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 1-42;

Image source: www.linkedin.com (accessed 18 May 2015)
___________Linked in, available at https://www.linkedin.com/pub/john-maguire/6b/a6/b54?trk=seokp_posts_secondary_cluster_res_author_name (accessed on 26 April 2015); vast military experience;

Cdr John Maguire receiving his diploma of achievement for the OPDP program from BGen Pierre Boutet, JAG, image source: JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités du JAG, volume 1, Part 1, Jan-Feb 98 (posted 21 December 2016)

___________Out of Conflict: A Principled Vision for the Future of the Crown-Aboriginal Fiduciary Relationship, LL.M. thesis, Dalhousie University, 1997, x, 396 p.; available at http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp04/mq24876.pdf (accessed on 3 March 2012); Captain (N) Maguire was appointed Director of Military Prosecutions (DMP) by the Minister of National Defence on 19 September 2009;

In this thesis the attempt is made to formulate a workable definition of the Crown-Aboriginal fiduciary relationship and the nature of the duties it imposes having regard to the undertaking which is presumed to exist at the heart of the relationship. To that end, the Crown's "general" duty of loyalty, with its attendant requirement to avoid a conflict of interest, is distinguished from the more "specific" duties which may arise whenever the Crown purports to exercise a discretion in relation to particular Aboriginal interests. A consideration of the effectiveness of the fiduciary construct in this area is also undertaken through an assessment of the manner in which Canadian courts at al levels have approached the requirement to apply fiduciary principles to the Crown-Aboriginal relationship. The case summaries presented highlight a number of theoretical and practical problems which the courts have yet to address fully. The courts' response to the no-conflict rule is of particular concern in view of the manysources of conflict in the modern Crown-Aboriginal relationship. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) (source: AMICUS catalogue)

Image source: http://cbmllp.com/portfolio/john-mah/, accessed 16 August 2016
MAH, John, former JAG officer; Lieutenant-Colonel in the Canadian Armed Forces Reserve

Image source: https://gowlingwlg.com/en/canada/people/erica-maidment, accessed 14 May 2016
Erica Maidment
MAIDMENT, Erica, "New Legal Aspects of Canadian Involvement in the Private Military Industry", (2010) Can. L. Libr. Rev. 70; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (23 September 2015); Ms. Erica Maidment is an Associate at Gowling WLG (Canada) LLP;

MAIER, Christopher M. (Michael), Liberal rights and citizen soldiers : a  Rawlsian treatment of the rights of soldiers ;  thesis (M.A.)--University of Victoria, 2003; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk4/etd/MQ82503.PDF (accessed on 16 April 2012);

MAILLET, Guy, "Military grievance: Setting it right if we got it wrong" (March/Mars 2010) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2010/2010-02_military.aspx and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2010/2010-02_military.aspx#article7 (accessed on 30 April 2012);
MAILLET, Guy, "Les griefs militaires : corriger nos fautes lorsque nous en commettons" (March/Mars 2010) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/pdf/03-10-salut_militaire.pdf  (site visité le 30 avril  2012);

Source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/afton-maisonneuve-972361a6, visité 16 avril 2016
Afton Maisonneuve
MAISONNEUVE, Afton, "Une carrière en droit militaire – pourquoi pas? -- Chronique en droit militaire", disponible à  http://www.flagrantdelit.ca/?p=2326 (vérifié 15 avril 2016); 

Image source: ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/ottawa-judge-lise-maisonneuve-named-chief-justice-of-ontario, accessed 16 November 2015
Lise Maisonneuve
MAISONNEUVE, Lise, Special Legal Advisor,  Testimony on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Issue 39, 29 October 1998, see minutes and evidence

Sean M. Maloney, image source: Facebook, accessed on 12 May 2014
MALONEY, Sean M., " 'A Mere Rustle of Leaves' : Canadian Strategy and the 1970 FLQ Crisis", (December 2000) Canadian Military Journal; available at http://www.revue.mdn.ca/vo1/no2/doc/71-84-eng.pdf (accessed on 25 June 2012);

___________ “Domestic Operations: The Canadian Approach”,  (Autumn, 1997) 37(3): Parameters: U.S. Army War College Quarterly 135-152; available at http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/97autumn/maloney.htm (accessed on 2 August 2008); also available at http://strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/parameters/Articles/97autumn/maloney.htm, accessed 20 April 2015;

Sean Maloney, image source: http://mediaspotme.com/search?query=Canadian%20civil-military%20relations, accessed 19 April 2014
___________Homeland Defence: The Canadian Context 1940-2000, Kingston: National Defence, Directorate of Land Strategic Concepts (DLSC), DLSC Research note: 01/02, January 2001, 55 p; available at http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/DLCD-DCSFT/pubs/archive/RN0102%20-%20S%20Maloney%20-%20Homeland%20Defence%20Jan%2001.pdf (accessed on 16 Dexcember 2011);

Le juge Pierre Boutet  Photo : Peter Andersen, Public Affairs Office, image source: http://www.radio-canada.ca/nouvelles/International/2009/04/08/006-entrevue-juge-boutet.shtml

MALTAIS, Bruno, "Un travail axé sur le compromis: À quelques jours de son retour au pays, le juge québécois Pierre Boutet. qui a été à la tête du Tribunal spécial pour la Sierra Leone pendant six ans, commente son expérience dans une entevue à Radio-Canada.ca", mise à jour le 9 avril 2009, disponibel à http://www.radio-canada.ca/nouvelles/International/2009/04/08/006-entrevue-juge-boutet.shtml (vérifié le 21 février 2015);  le Brigadier-général (retraité) Pierre Boutet est un ancien Juge-avocat général des Forces canadiennes;

Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/arnavmanchanda, accessed 27 August 2016
Arnav Manchanda
MANCHANDA, Arnav, "Book Review : The Taliban Don’t Wave.  Semrau, Robert. The Taliban Don’t Wave. John Wiley & Sons, Mississauga ON, Canada, © October 30 2012. $17.52 (paperback) ISBN 978-1-11826-118-7 (print); 978-1-118-26160-6 (ebk)", (Spring 2013) 18(1) On Track 41-42, available at (accessed 27 August 2016); Note: On track is published by the Conference of Defence Associations Institute; available at http://www.cdainstitute.ca/images/ontrack18n1.pdf (accessed 27 August 2016);

When it comes to the mercy kill incident in October 2008 that would change his life, Semrau abruptly and briefly
switches to reprinting what is available in the public record from his court martial, deliberately declining to provide a
firsthand account. In an interview with CBC in September 2012, Semrau asserted that some memories were difficult to
deal with, and that that particular incident is something he was not willing to talk about. But at the same time, he writes
that he felt he was unfairly not provided with a right during his court martial to recount what had happened. But neither
does he do it in the book – and this is very odd.

Semrau holds the investigative process that led to his demotion and dismissal in extremely low regard. He
wonders if any of the 􀏐ive members of his court martial had “ever been shot at”, “heard a bullet” or “been literally soaked
in another man’s blood, or held a fellow soldier as he was dying.” These are powerful words, but they lack explanatory
power as to why he continues to not provide us with his side of the story. He does not provide the reader with the details
of that particular incident, and thus the reader cannot fully ever – while perhaps wanting to – empathize with him and
his actions. Perhaps he did not want to use the dead insurgent as an excuse for his behaviour in an issue that became so
politicized, saying that the “truth of that moment will always be between me and the insurgent.” Or perhaps he invokes
a battle􀏐ield exceptionalism, in line with those who believe that those who have experienced the reality of combat stand
apart from those who have not. (p. 42) 

MANCHESTER GUARDIAN,THE, "Mother not guilty of Murder", The Manchester Guardian (1901-1959), Feb 8, 1957, p.9; note: "Canadian court-martial Baden-Baden
February 7 Mrs Doris Joan Stevenson aged 35 the London-born wife of Canadian..." ; source:
© ProQuest LLC All rights reserved

Image source: https://sites.google.com/a/umn.edu/giovanni-mantilla/, accessed 30 September 2016
Giovanni Fabrizio Mantilla
MANTILLA CASAS, Giovanni Fabrizio, Under (Social) Pressure: The Historical Regulation of Internal Armed Conflicts through International Law, a dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy, August 2013, ix, 410 p.; available at
https://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/175520/MantillaCasas_umn_0130E_14332.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accesed 30 September 2016); discusses Canada;

MANTLE, Craig Leslie, 1977-, ed., The apathetic and the defiant : case studies of Canadian mutiny and disobedience, 1812 to 1919 / edited by Craig Leslie Mantle ; foreword by major-general
P.R. Hussey
, Kingston (Ont.): Canadian Defence Academy Press; Toronto: Dundurn Group, c2008, 496 p., ISBN: 9781550027105; copy at Ottawa University, MRT General  FC 226 .A63 2007;
Canadian soldiers have served their country for centuries, and for the most part they have done so honourably and loyally. Yet, on certain occasions, their conduct has been anything but honourable. Whether by disobeying their legal orders, terrorizing the local population, or committing crimes in general, some soldiers have embodied the very antithesis of appropriate military conduct. Covering examples of unsavoury behaviour in the representatives of our military forces from the War of 1812 to the immediate aftermath of the First World War, The Apathetic and the Defiant reveals that disobedience and mutiny have marked all of the major conflicts in which Canada has participated. Canadian military indiscipline has long been overshadowed by the nation's victories and triumphs ... until now (source:http://www.dundurn.com/books/apathetic_and_defiant )


__________sous la direction de, Les apathiques et les rebelles : des exemples canadiens de mutinerie et de désobéissance, 1812-1919, Kingston (Ont.): Presse de l'académie canadienne de la défense, c2008, 516 p., ISBN: 9781550027204;

___________ed., The unwilling and the reluctant : theoretical perspectives on disobedience in the military, Winnipeg: Canadian Defence Academy Press, c2006, vii, 257 p. ; 24 cm., ISBN: 0662432517;
Foreword – Preface – Introduction
 – 1. Obedience to military authority: a psychological perspective / Peter Bradley
 – 2. Loyal mutineers: an examination of the connection between leadership and disobedience in the Canadian Army since 1885 / Craig Leslie Mantle
 – 3. Mutiny and the Royal Canadian Navy / Christopher M. Bell
 – 4. Beyond mutiny? Instrumental and expressive understandings of contemporary “collective indiscipline” / Christopher Andersen
 – 5. A law unto themselves? – Elitism as a catalyst for disobedience / Bernd Horn
 – 6. Combat stress reaction and the act of disobedience: does the significance of acts of disobedience diminish under the pressure of combat stress? / Gordon (Joe) Sharpe and George Dowler
 – 7. “But ... it’s not my fault!” -  Disobedience as a function of fear / Bernd Horn
 – 8. Disobedience of professional norms: ethos, responsibility, orientation and Somalia / George Shorey
–  9. “We don’t like you, Sir!” – informal revenge as model o f military resistance in the British Army / Charles Kirke
 – Contributors – Glossary.
(source: http://bib.cfc.dnd.ca/ipac20/ipac.jsp?session=1N17KK7608183.40074&profile=cfc&uri=link=3100007~!205069~!3100001~!3100002&aspect=subtab46&menu=

Manuals/Manuels of interest to a lawyer or a researcher

[see also "DND/CF Publications" in  Bibliography C to D, available at www.lareau-law.ca/military.2C-D.html]


 Manuals -- Law of Armed Conflicy / Manuels sur le droit des conflits armés

Collection of Documents on the Law of Armed Conflict,
 **2004 edition**XHTML Version
Collection de documents sur le droit des conflits armés
***version 2004 ***Version XHTML 

 Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level,,***13 August 2003 edition***XHTML Version
Droit des conflits armés au niveau opérationnel et tactique***version du 13 septembre 2001***Version XHTML
see 2001-08-13 edition in English at http://web.archive.org/web/20061114215832/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/law_of_armed_conflict/loac_2004_e.pdf
voir la version française du 2001-09-13 à http://web.archive.org/web/20060224223135/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/law_of_armed_conflict/loac_2004_f.pdf

Code of Conduct for CF Personnel  ***undated version ---takes a while to load! and ***PowerPoint Presentation
Code de conduite for CF Personnel ***  version non datée ---prends quelques secondes à venir sur l'écran et ***Séance d'information en  Power Point  



Lesson Plan for the: Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, B-GG-005-027/AF-022, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20010612031347/http://www.dnd.ca/jag/jag_pdf_docs/codeconduct_lessonplan_e.pdf, accessed 29 November 2015.

Plan de leçon pour le : Code de conduite du personnel des FC, Cabinet du Juge-avocat général, l, B-GG-005-027/AF-022, disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/
20010612041027/http://www.dnd.ca/jag/jag_pdf_docs/codeconduct_lessonplan_f.pdf, visité 29 novembre 2015.


International Human Rights Law -- Collection of Documents, B-LG-007-000/AF-003***  1 March 2007 edition
Droit international en matière de droits de personne -- Recueil de documents, B-LG-007-000/AF-004 ***version 1er mars 2007

LOAC Student Deskbook, probably available from CFMLC
DCA Manuel de cours, probably available from CFMLC

Intermediate Law of Armed Conflict Course (Distance Learning phase), 190 pages, available at http://docslide.us/documents/iloace.html (accessed 9 September 2015); also available at https://www.scribd.com/document/90133828/ILOAC-e (accessed 24 October 2016);
Deployment of Legal Advisers
26. Military legal advisers accompany all Canadian Forces deployed operations
and provide IHL advice on the conduct of military operations at the tactical level.
Additionally, legal advisors advise all levels of the chain of command that are
involved in the planning and conduct of military operations. Specifically, military
legal advisers must conduct a legal review of all operational plans and ROE prior
to their approval by the chain of command. Legal advisers also provide legal
advice on all targeting decisions requiring consideration by a Targeting Directive
at all levels of command. Within the Canadian Forces, military legal officers
belong to the Office of the Judge Advocate General and are under the command
of the Judge Advocate General, a General Officer who is statutorily responsible
to the Minister of National Defence. Consequently Canadian Forces legal officers
are not a part of or subject to the direction of the military chain of command. They
are able to provide independent legal advice to military commanders
(pp. 62-63/190, available at http://docslide.us/documents/iloace.html, accessed 6 April 2017)

Military Justice Manuals -- Manuels sur la justice militaire

The Code of Service Discipline and Me -- A guide to the military justice system for Canadian Forces members
, undated, 14 p., ***PDF Format ; also available at http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/475952/publication.html;
Le Code de discipline militaire et moi,
sans date, 14 p.,  Format PDF; aussi disponible à  http://publications.gc.ca/site/fra/477463/publication.html;

Court Martial Procedures , Guide for Participants and Guide for the Public = Procédures devant la cour martiale, guide des partiipants et du public, A-LG-007-000/AG-001, 8 June 2012; available/disponible à  http://www.jmc-cmj.forces.gc.ca/assets/CMJ_Internet/docs/en/gpcm-cmpg.pdf (accessed 3 May 2015);  

Guide for Accused and Assisting Officers (Bilingual) Pre-Trial Proceedings at the Summary Trial Level/ ***PDF Format Bilingual-Bilingue
A-LG-050-000/AF-001, dated 2002-08-31/Guide à l'intention des accusés et des officiers désignés pour
les aider (Bilingue) Les procédures préliminaires lors d'un procès sommaire, A-LG-050-000/AF-001, daté 2002-08-31; also
available at http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/475651/publication.html;  IMPORTANT NEW EDITION, 2009-10-06, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/guide-for-accused-and-assisting-officers.pdf  and at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/mdn-dnd/D2-349-2009.pdf      http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/manual-mil-jus-summary-trial-level.pdf  (English) et (français);

Guide for Referral Authorities/Guide à l'intention des autorités de renvoi, November/novembre 2002,***PDF Format Bilingual-Bilingue



 The Investigation and Charging Process in the Military Justice System, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20040225132101/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/
training/publications/charging_and_investigating_e.pdf (accessed 30 November 2015)
- Le processus d'enquête et d'accusation du système de justice militaire, disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20030711040204/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/
training/publications/charging_and_investigating_f.pdf (visité 30 novembre 2015)

-------- Source: http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no2/61-gibson-eng.asp

Military Justice at the Summary Trial Level v. 2.2, B-GG-005-027/AF-011, 12 January 2011,*** PDF format ***other format
Justice militaire au procès sommaire, version 2.2, 14 février 2011, B-GG-005-027/AF-011,***version PDF ***autre format

- Sexual Offences & Sexual Harassment, Legal and Ethical Obligations
, 30 November 2015, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20080124140609/
http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/default_e.asp#SEXUALH and click on "Sexual Offences and Sexual Harassment...Power Point Presentation"

- Infractions à caractère sexuel et harcèlement sexuel: Obligations juridiques et éthiques, 30 novembre 2015, disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20071213224306/
http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/default_f.asp et pressez sur "Les infractions à caractère sexuel et harcèlement sexuel ...séance d'information en 'Power
Pont' "

- Sexual Offences and Sexual Harrassment -- Briefing Notes, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20041124020535/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/SexualOffences_e.pdf
(accessed 30 November 2015)
- Infractions à caractère sexuel et harcèlement sexuel -- Notes de synthèse, disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20041124023001/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/Sexual
Offences_f.pdf (vérifié 30 novembre 2015)


Training Brief for Assisting Officers -- Summary Trials, 23 May 2003, ***available on this web page under the title "Assisting Officer--Summary Trial"
Formation des officiers désignés pour aider l'accusé -- Procès sommaire, 23 mai 2003, ***disponible sur cette page web sous le titre "Formation des officiers désignés -- Procès sommaire

Other Manuals

CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, Training Plan, Legal Officer Qualification, Regular  Force 00204, basic date: 28/10/2013 and Master Lesson Plan, available at http://www.lareau-legal.ca/A201501212_2017-02-09_14-21-38.PDF (put on line on 22 February 2017);  this document was released under Access to Information Act request A-2015-01212 (DND), 1709 pages (disclosed in part) which request summary read as folows: "Training Plan and and Master Lesson Plan used in support of the Legal Officer Qualification Course (LOQC) run by CF Military Law Centre (CFMLC) in Kingston from September 14, 2015 to October 9, 2015. The CFMLC falls under the Canadian Defence Academy"; I received records previously released under file A-2015-01212 by Kimberly Empey, Director, Access to Information and Privacy, undated (but in reality February 2017), National Defence, National Defence Headquarters' letter file AI-2016-00223, available at http://www.lareau-legal.ca/Training21.pdf (put on line on 22 February 2017); IMPORTANT DOCUMENT.

CANADIAN FORCES MILITARY LAW CENTRE (CFMLC), President Officer Certification Training, Student Desk Book, version 2.2 (September 2012), Kingston: Canadian Forces Academy, 2012, 532 p., available at  http://www.lareau-law.ca/PresidingOfficer.pdf Access to Information Act request to DND, their file A-2012-01401;  MAY TAKE LONG TIME TO DOWNLOAD!

Further research:

MANUALS, that were available at Canadian Forces Military Law Centre (CFMLC) web page, http://www.cda.forces.gc.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/index-eng.asp  (accessed on 16 June 2011)/
MANUELS qui étaint disponibles au site du Centre de droit  militaire des Forces canadiennes (CDMFC), http://www.cda.forces.gc.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/index-fra.asp (vérifié le 16 juin 2011)

- Charge Layer Aide memoire
- The Election To Be Tried By Summary Trial or Court Martial;
- POCT (President Officer Cerification Training) Instructor's Manual v. 2.2/ AOP Guide d'instructeur v. 2.2.
- Collection of Documents on Domestic Operations, B-LG-007-000/AF-001
- Canadian Forces Drug Testing Manual/Manuel de dépistage des drogues au sein des forces canadiennes
- "During the reporting period, legal officers continued to provide considerable support to the Officer Professional Military Education (OPME) Program  military law course. The OPME program includes courses on defence management, Canadian military history, leadership and ethics and military law. The successful completion of the program is required for officers to be promoted to the rank of Major or Lieutenant-Commander. The course DCE 002 Introduction to Military Law contains a module addressing in detail the administration of military justice in the CF. The second module in the course details the laws applicable to armed conflict. The training is offered through self-paced distance learning and condensed on-site instruction at CF bases and wings, and is available to both officers and NCMs. During the reporting period, 1691 students successfully completed the English-language serial, while 312 students completed the French-language serial of this course." (source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2008-09/ch-5-review-mil-education-training-0809.page, Judge Advocate General Annual Report, 2008-2009, chapter 5, accessed 11 Narch 2017)
- - The Manual of International Law in Peace Operations -- Draft Outline of the Manual's Content, available at  http://home.scarlet.be/~ismllw/actualite/ISMLLW%20464%20E%2019.pdf (accessed on 29 July 2012);

The Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston,
courses POE488 and POE486:

Image source: Kijiji (item for sale at $20.00, March 2017)
POE 488 (Course Code), The Law of Armed Conflict, course reader, v. 2.0;   This is a course of Royal Military College of Canada Division of Continuing Studies, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4; Department of Political Science; see https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/sites/default/files/rmcbmas-cmrbasm-bil_3.pdf (accessed 26 March 2017);
"POE488 The Law of Armed Conflict

"This course gives students a solid knowledge of the law regarding the use of force in international and non-international armed conflicts. Following an examination of the situation of the Law of Armed Conflict within the broader context of Public International Law, there will be a general discussion of the general concepts of the LOAC and its two branches, the jus ad bellum (the right to the use of force) and the jus in bello (the law applicable in conflict). A study of the rules includes their applicability in operational situations, with reference to issues including the notion of combatants, prisoners of war, the treatment of civilians, the obligation to limit unnecessary suffering and damage, the legality of certain weapons, and special cases such as child-soldiers and mercenaries. The course concludes with an examination of means of enforcing the law, including national courts, ad hoc tribunals and the International Criminal Court.

Note(s) :
Also offered through Distance Education.
This course may count as a Military Arts credit within the BMASc programme.
Contact Hours:
3 - 0 - 6 (Distance Learning: 0 - 0 - 9)
1" (source: https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/en/registrars-office/undergraduate-political-science-courses#poepof488, accessed 26 March 2017);

- For more information, see also https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/en/division-continuing-studies/distance-education-undergraduate (accessed 26 March 2017);

- Syllabus for Course POE 488A, winter 2013-2014, 9 p., lecturers: LCol Rory Fowler and Lieutenant-Commander Mike Baker, available at  http://www.lareau-legal.ca/A-2015-00669.pdf (accessed 26 March 2017);

- Military Arts and Science (DMAS), Ontario College Diploma, Seneca Faculty of Continuing Education & Training:


Seneca College delivers this exciting Ontario College Diploma developed through an innovative partnership between OntarioLearn, the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) and the Canadian Defence Academy (CDA). All courses are available online as well as some in class options.

The aim of the Diploma in Military Arts and Science (DMASc) is to provide Non-Commissioned Members (NCMs) of the Canadian Forces and those interested in military affairs, a comprehensive knowledge of leadership, critical thinking, security studies, resource management and communication skills deemed essential to the functioning of modern military or large corporations. This diploma will serve as a recognized component of the Non-Commissioned Members training.

The program will provide an accredited 2-year Ontario College Diploma in Military Arts and Science that is portable into the civilian workforce once NCMs retire from their military service. The program is also open to the public. Under an articulation agreement between RMC and Seneca College, graduates of this diploma program may be admitted into the RMC Bachelor of Military and Strategic Studies degree program with Advanced Standing. (source: http://www.senecacollege.ca/ce/humanities/military-arts-science.html, accessed 26 March 2017)




POE 486 (Course Code),  Air and Space Law, This is a course of Royal Military College of Canada Division of Continuing Studies, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4; Department of Political Science; see https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/sites/default/files/rmcbmas-cmrbasm-bil_3.pdf (accessed 26 March 2017);

"This course is an introduction to air and space law. The primary focus is the international and national law applicable to air operations and outer space activities, particularly of a military nature. It also considers historical and political factors in the development of these legal regimes. The international law concepts will be instilled by reference to the various applicable international conventions and legal principles, such as the Charter of the United Nations and the sources and nature of public international law. The study of public air law will focus on the Chicago Convention of 1944 and the 1963 Tokyo Convention stream.  The Warsaw (1929) and Montreal (1999) Conventions relating to civil aviation liability provide the basis for the private international air law study.  For space rights, the five major treaties governing that domain will be studied, along with the work of the UN General Assembly and the UN Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS).  Outer space activities such as military uses and remote sensing will be considered, as will the rights and obligations of rescue and liability.  Given the legal importance of and similarities between the outer space and air regimes and that of the oceans, the law of the sea will also be the object of analysis and discussion.

Usually Offered in the Winter Term
Contact Hours:
0 - 0 - 9
1" (source: https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/en/registrars-office/undergraduate-political-science-courses#poepof488, accessed 26 March 2017)

DND Publications in the National Defence Index
of Documentation (NDID)

- Manuals noted in the answer (CD with electronic files on it) from the Director, Access to Information and Privacy, their file letter A-2015-00389, dated 20 October 2015; my Access to Information Act request read as follows: "Current list of DND publications contained in the National Defence Index of Documentation (NDID) database (i.e. Publication Number/IDDN, English Title, Frenc Title, Language, OPI, Edition, Last Change Level, Last Change Date)"

        NDID CD                       TITLE                                                   OPI            LANG          STATUS           DATE                UPDATED              FORMAT
- B-GA-005-104/FP-024   Operational Law/Droit opérationel      JAG DLaw        B              Reserved                                     14 mar 2006            Hardcopy

- B-GG-005-004/AF-027   Legal Support to CF Operations          JAG DLawT     E              Reserved                                      27 Nov 1998          Hardcopy

- B-GG-005-027/AF-010   Legal Support to CF Operations          DJAG/Ops        E              Reserved                                      27 Nov 1998          Hardcopy
                                           vol. I, Military Justice Manual

- B-GG-005-027/AF-020   Legal Support to CF Operations          DJAG/Ops        E              Reserved                                      18 Nov 1998          Hardcopy
                                           vol. 2, Law of Armed Conflict

- B-LG-007-000/AF-001   Domestic Operations -- Collection       DLaw/T            E               Active               01 Mar 2007     15 Aug 2007           Hardcopy
                                           of Documents
- B-LG-007-000/AF-002   Opérations nationales--Recueil            DLaw/T            F               Active           
                                           de documents

Administrative Law

Administrative Law Manual Military Administrative Law Manual, 2008-10-01, A-LG-007-000/AF-010, **PDF Format**other format (also at web.archive.org/web/20130523025729/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/mal-dam/miladminlaw-droitadminmil-eng.pdf)
Manuel de droit militaire administratif
, 2008-01-01, A-LG-007-000/AF-011, ***format PDF***autre format


Image source: https://www.balsillieschool.ca/people/michael-w-manulak, accessed 14 december 2015
Michael W. Manulak
MANULAK, Michael W., The Kosovo crisis and Canadian foreign policy: an agenda for intervention, M.A. Carleton University 2009, vi, 119 leaves : charts ; 29 cm; thesis not consulted yet;


  This thesis employs John W. Kingdon's multiple-streams model of policy agenda setting and alternative specification to analyze Canada's policy response to ethnic conflict in Kosovo in 1998/1999. By using an extensive program of interviews with former policy actors and public source documents, the thesis argues that it was a convergence of independent problem, policy, and political dimensions that caused the Kosovo intervention to emerge on the Canadian agenda. The research interviews contribute a comprehensive insider's view of events as they developed in Ottawa. (source: https://carletonu.summon.serialssolutions.com/?q=kosovo+crisis#!/search/document?ho=t&l=en&q=kosovo%20crisis&id=FETCHMERGED-carletonu_catalog_b3086281a2, accessed 14 December 2015)

------------- Image source for Ward: cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/rachel-ward-1.3550310, accessed 24 April 2017
Rosa Marchitelli                          Rachel Ward
MARCHITELLI, Rosa, and Rachel Ward, "Go Public: 'Embarrassment to Canadians': Abuse, humiliation occurred at bases across country, soldiers say.  Recruit treatment, lack of apology 'tarnishing' Canada's image, says torture victim advocate", CBC News Canada, 24 April 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/abuse-humiliation-embarassment-military-bases-former-soldiers-say-1.4075778 (accessed 24 April 2017);

___________ "Go Public: 'We were tortured': Recruits starved and humiliated as part of military training.  Military police investigation into events now under review after no action taken", CBC News Canada, 10 April 2017, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/canadian-soldiers-prisoner-war-training-wainwright-alberta-1.4053351 (accessed 11 April 2017);

For the first time, former Canadian soldiers are speaking publicly about being tortured at the hands of the Canadian military
during a prisoner of war training exercise in the 1980s.

The men say that in February 1984 they were among 33 young recruits who were stripped naked, crowded into small military
 jail cells with windows open, denied food and, for up to two days, repeatedly sprayed with cold water. For more than 40 hours
 they were forced to listen to loud rock music.

Image source: www.amazon.ca/Conduct-Unbecoming-Canadian-Prisoners-Normandy/dp/0802042139, accessed 15 October 2016
MARGOLIAN, Howard, Conduct Unbecoming: The Story of the Murder of Canadian Prisoners of War in Normandy, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2000, 336 p.; ISBN: 9780802083609 (paper) and 9780802042132 (cloth);
On the afternoon of 7 June 1944, Lorne Brown, a private serving with the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division in Normandy, was bayoneted to death while trying
to surrender to troops of Nazi Germany's Tlite 12th SS Division 'Hitler Youth.' Over the next ten days, more than a hundred and fifty Canadian soldiers were
brutally murdered after capture by the 12th SS. Despite months of post-war investigation by Allied courts, however, only two senior officers of the 12th SS
were ever tried for war crimes.

Drawing extensively on archival sources, Howard Margolian reveals the full account of an atrocious chapter in history and exposes the causes - an inept and
indifferent Canadian military justice system, and a Canadian government all too willing to let bygones be bygones - of the flagrant inaction that followed.
Highly praised for both its meticulous research and its engaging passion, this book will resonate with veterans, those interested in war crimes, military buffs,
and historians.

MARILLER-RIBET, Roseline et Suzanne Lalonde, "L'OTAN: vers une conception élargie de la sécurité", (2007) 37(2) Revue de droit de l'Université Sherbrooke 331-391; disponible à http://www.usherbrooke.ca/droit/fileadmin/sites/droit/documents/RDUS/volume_37/37-2-mariller-ribet.pdf (site visité le 21 mars 2012);

André Marin, source: http://en.wikipedia.
, 23 Nov 14
MARIN, André, 1965, Overhauling Oversight: Ombudsman White Paper = Remaniement de la surveillance : livre blanc de l'Ombudsman, Ottawa:  National Defence and Canadian Forces Ombudsman, 2005, 48, 48 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  NOTES: Includes bibliographical references; available at  http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/assets/OMBUDSMAN_Internet/docs/en/overhauling.pdf (accessed 22 February 2015);
There is unfortunately little appetite by senior leaders to find solutions to technical jurisdictional issues involving
our mandate. The Judge Advocate General (JAG), who is the key legal advisor to the chain of command,showed
us his hand when he bluntly declared to us months after my appointment in 1998 that “the field was occupied”
and that there was no room for the kind of independent oversight we were pursuing. The last seven years have
shown that, in fact, not only was the field unoccupied but it proved to be fertile and ready to accommodate an
office to truly serve the needs of the troops. Unfortunately, all too often, senior leadership has not been able to
divorce itself from the JAG mindset and help us work the field and provide the Office with the tools for it to
really flourish. (p. 13)

The second kind of deficiency is far less defensible. When the position of Director General of the CF Grievance
Administration was established, it was set up to function under the authority of the Judge Advocate General (JAG).
It is the JAG, of course, who provides legal advice to the chain of command on matters that may end up being grieved.
It is also the JAG who provides advice to the initial grievance authority on how to respond to grievances. In effect,
the very body that assists in making decisions that may be grieved, or the grievance decisions under appeal, was given
command over the body that would ultimately and finally be deciding the grievances that remain unsettled. This was
a spectacular and obvious conflict. The simple fact that this system was adopted reveals a deficit in understanding about
the importance and nature of independent oversight. Indeed, it smacks of the kind of “trust us” attitude that is resistant
to oversight. It was only because of the intercession of Chief Justice Lamer, who pointed out the conflict, that this system
was changed. The CF Grievance Administration now falls under the command of the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff.

Still, this deficiency has not been remedied effectively. As its website reveals, the JAG continues to provide legal advice
to the CF Grievance Administration. Indeed a former JAG lawyer continues to hold the Director General Grievance
Administration position. The same body that may have advised the chain of command on matters leading to grievances,
or have advised the initial authority on how to respond, advises the CF Grievance Administration and ultimately the CDS
on what to do about it. Unfortunately, the “correction” that took place after the Five Year Review was half-hearted and
superficial. It is evident that the CF Grievance Administration needs independence from JAG influence and access to
independent legal advice in deciding grievances. (p. 23)

In spite of the case that I made, Departmental legal advisers, after consultation with Canadian Forces lawyers and
commanders, prepared a mandate that bore no relationship to the principles I had identified. The initial draft mandate
I was offered crafted an ineffective, feeble authority for the Office. The proposed mandate would have cast the Ombudsman,
as a senior JAG lawyer once put it to me, as a “consigliere”-type backroom intervener gently offering the chain of command
non-intrusive nuggets of advice from time to time. The mandate would have prevented the Ombudsman from conducting
investigations. The Ombudsman was to be confined to making informal inquiries, and was to refer matters back to the chain
of command with a recommendation for a board of inquiry or summary investigation. This was not civilian oversight. The
Office was treated as if it was to be cosmetic, a mere pretence of civilian involvement while the military would continue to
decide military matters, without accountability or real input. To make matters worse, in spite of what was widely understood
at the time to be a military culture that was resistant to oversight and change, the mandate was not to be supported by any
directive to members and the chain of command to co-operate with the Office.

Instead, only a platitudinous promise in a
directive from the Minister that CF authorities would be collegial and collaborative was included.  I could not accept this.
Faced with our hopelessly conflicting positions, the Minister of National Defence asked that we enter into negotiations with
military and departmental lawyers about the mandate for the Office. (p. 27)


The fact is that the Canadian Forces are using solicitor-client privilege in a self-serving way. When members or the chain
 of command consult with JAG in the course of their duties before acting, the human being doing the consulting is not the
client. The Canadian Forces is. While it is true that legal privilege does exist even between government lawyers and the
departments being advised, the Ombudsman is not an outsider.  The Office of the Ombudsman is independent of the chain
of command but is part of the military apparatus. In a very real sense, to invoke privilege against a DND Ombudsman is
like one arm of an organization invoking it against another arm of the same organization. Moreover, the Ombudsman is the
delegate of the Minister of National Defence. Invoking solicitor-client privilege against the Ombudsman is like invoking
that privilege against the Minister himself. Can you imagine a general saying, “Sorry Minister, but I cannot answer your
question because we acted on legal advice from the JAG.” In truth, use of solicitor-client privilege to shield information
from the Ombudsman where the client is the Canadian Forces is an opportunistic subterfuge calculated to hide information,
but it is a subterfuge we are being met with.(p. 30)

Image source: www.stcatharinesstandard.ca/2015/01/22/dont-get-rid-of-integrity-commish-ombudsman, accessed 23 May 2016
André Marin
___________"The Ombudsman: Marin: Military gets bad bill of health for PTSD", The Ottawa Sun, 22 May 2016; available at http://www.ottawasun.com/2016/05/21/marin-military-gets-bad-bill-of-health-for-ptsd, accessed 23 May 2016;
The military was disorganized and secretive in 2002 in dealing with OSI [Operational Stress Injury].
According to Alberta’s public examination into the suicide of Cpl. Shaun Collins, we’re exactly
where we were in 2002.

You’d think the chain of command might want to hear what presiding provincial court Judge Jody Moher
would like to recommend about preventing similar deaths when she reports back in a few months.

But no. Leave it the Judge Advocate General lawyers to want to gag the presiding judge in making recommendations,
making the idiotic and wrong-headed argument that the province does not have jurisdiction over the military.
Sounds like an act of desperation to avoid dealing with OSI once again. Plus ça change…

____________"Ombudsman: Why won’t military treat sex assaults as a criminal matter?", The Ottawa Sun, first posted 3 September 2016; updated 4 September 2016; available at http://www.ottawasun.com/2016/09/03/ombudsman-why-wont-military-treat-sex-assaults-as-a-criminal-matter, accessed 8 September 2016;
Former Federal Court of Appeal and Court Martial Appeal justice Gilles Letourneau, who also headed the Somalia public inquiry in 1995,
told me last week that smart public policy would suggest that sexual assault cases be left to civilian courts due to their seriousness and the
much-greater expertise of civilian prosecutors. I agree, especially given Maclean’s exposé of covered-up rampant sex abuse in the military.
In response to that, then-chief of defence staff Maurice Baril admonished military officers in an open letter that “Canadians demand a higher
standard of behaviour from members in uniform, and so do I.”

___________"Opinion MARIN: Military leadership should embrace oversight", The Ottawa Sun, 8 August 2016; available at  www.ottawasun.com/2016/08/08/marin-military-leadership-should-embrace-oversight (accessed 10 August 2016);
But let’s think about it and ask ourselves: Have we really saddled our military with too much oversight?  The military has an ombudsman,
but it’s a far cry from the parliamentary inspector general recommended by the Somalia inquiry in the 1990s. The office operates as an internal
body and has none of the statutory powers and independence of a parliamentary ombudsman.The Canadian Grievances External Review
Committee, run by a former lieutenant colonel, can make non-binding recommendations to the chief of defence staff on grievances from the
rank and file. The Military Complaints Commission offers similar avenues of complaints and investigations that civilian police have to contend with.

Maybe Thibault’s beef had to do with a fatality inquiry report released almost at the same time as he was airing his beef about checks and balances.
Military lawyers had attempted to stop the provincial inquiry on the absurd basis that the province had no jurisdiction over the federal government.
Provincial inquests about deaths in federal penitentiaries are routine and go unchallenged.


Photo of René Marin, reproduced from http://www.media.uottawa.ca/mediaroom/awards-recipients_492.html (accessed on 1 April 2014);
research note: René Marin is a former Judge, an ex JAG officer (reserve) and father of André Marin

MARIN, René J., Audit of External Review of the Canadian Forces Special Investigation Unit: Report, [Ottawa : Government of Canada]. 1994, 1 v. (various pagings) ; 28 cm.; NOTES: Text in English and French with French text on inverted pages
also published in French/ également publié en français:
MARIN, René J., Vérification de l'examen externe de l'Unité des enquêtes spéciales des Forces canadiennes : rapport, [Ottawa: Gouvernment of Canada], 1994; NOTES: Texte en français et en anglais disposé tête-bêche;

___________External Review of the Canadian Forces Special Investigation Unit : report, [Ottawa : Government of Canada], 1990, vi, 98 p.;  NOTES: Text in English and French with French text on inverted pages;
also published in French/ également publié en français:
___________Examen externe de l'Unité des enquêtes spéciales des Forces canadiennes : rapport, [Ottawa : Gouvernement du Canada], 1990, vi, 105 p., NOTES: Texte en français et en anglais disposé tête-bêche;  

MARINACCI, Eric C., avocat au Bureau de services juridiques des pensions et un ancien officier du JAG; témoignage devant, 38e LÉGISLATURE, 1re SESSION,Sous-comité des anciens combattants du Comité permanent de la défense nationale et des anciens combattants, mercredi 23 mars 2005, disponible à http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1717715&Language=F&Mode=2#Int-1183363 (vérifié 29 juillet 2016); research note: Éric Marinacci is a former JAG officer.

MARKERT, Lyse Claire, " 'A Year in Review: Military Law' -- A Presentation in Halifax" (May/Mail 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#top and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#article12 (accessed on 29 April 2012);
MARKERT, Lyse, " 'Bilan de l'année en droit militaire' -- Séance d'information à Halifax" (May/Mai 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx et http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article8 (site visité le 29 avril  2012);

source de l'image: https://twitter.com/melmarquis?lang=en (accessed 13 March 2017)
Mélanie Marquis, journaliste à la Presse canadienne
MARQUIS, Mélanie, La presse canadienne,  "Syrie: Ottawa invoque le droit à l'autodéfense", Métro, 25 mars 2015, disponible à http://journalmetro.com/actualites/national/743540/syrie-ottawa-invoque-le-droit-a-lautodefense/ (vérifié le 13 mars 2017);

OTTAWA – Le droit à l’autodéfense — même préventive — justifie la légalité de la campagne aérienne en Syrie en l’absence de «consentement explicite»
du président Bachar el-Assad, a plaidé le ministre fédéral de la Défense.

Le Canada agira donc en conformité avec le droit international lorsqu’il effectuera des frappes dans l’espace aérien syrien dans l’objectif d’«éliminer» la
menace que représente le groupe armé État islamique (ÉI), a exposé mercredi Jason Kenney.

«Nos opérations militaires en Syrie sont justifiées en vertu de l’article 51 de la Charte des Nations unies, précisément en ce qui a trait au droit naturel de
légitime défense, individuelle ou collective», a-t-il dit en point de presse.

Cet avis juridique a été fourni au ministre Kenney par le juge-avocat général, qui est l’avocat militaire principal des Forces armées canadiennes (FAC).

Byron Marrello
MARRELLO, Byron Troy, notes:
Office of the Judge Advocate General, Canadian Armed Forces
– Present (1 year)Ottawa, Canada Area
Directorate of Administrative Law- Grievances
Provided legal advice to the Canadian Armed Forces in relation to grievances and judicial reviews. Drafted legal opinions and memoranda on complex administrative and constitutional issues.

Directorate of Administrative Law- Compensation, Pension, Benefits, Estates and Elections
Provided legal advice to the Canadian Armed Forces in relation to the pay, benefits, pensions and estates of members. Drafted legal opinions and memoranda on a range of pay, benefits, pension and estate issues.
(source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/byron-marrello-06274338, accessed 13 April 2017);

___________Unlocking the competitiveness of the fee : is Canadian mobile service providers charging a fee to remove the software lock after the contract expires anti-competitive?, Thesis (LL.M.)-University of Toronto, 2012,  iv, 68 leaves ; 28 cm;l

Thaïs Martel, source de                                    Major Jean Caron             
l'image: http://www.ottawaathome.ca/
, site visité le 26 avril 2014

MARTEL, Thaïs, "Le droit au service de l'armée", Ottawa at Home, actualités, 10 novembre 2011; disponible à  http://www.ottawaathome.ca/Actualites/Economie/2011-11-10/article-2801965/Le-droit-au-service-de-l%26rsquo%3Barmee/1 (vérifié le 26 avril 2014); article sur le major Jean Caron, avocat militaire; aussi disponible à http://www.quebechebdo.com/Actualites/2011-11-10/article-2801965/Le-droit-au-service-de-l%26rsquo%3Barmee/1 (vérifié le 9 mars 2016);

Image source for Kimberley Marten: , accessed 26 December 2014
MARTEN, Kimberley, From Kabul to Kandahar: The Canadian Forces and Change, Barnard University, Columbia University, Prepared for delivery at the annual convention of the American Political Science Association, Toronto, 5 September 2009, 40 p.; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1449361 (accessed on 2 August 2014); also published at (June 2010) 40(2) American Review of Canadian Studies 214-236;

MARTIN, Beth, "Revamp military justice, opposition MPs demand", Edmonton Journal, Mar 21, 1989, p.D1;
Description: NDP justice critic Svend Robinson, Liberal status of women critic Mary Clancy and Liberal MP Sheila Copps also want the military's justice system reviewed, saying it allows two standards of justice for Canadians. While "the military has to deal with military matter," [George Rideout] said, in [Christian Pepin]'s case, the crime "occurred outside of Canada and outside the base in a foreign country. The lady involved was a civilian. It seems to have been a civilian crime committed in Hungary." Black & White Photo; CP; NDP MP Svend Robinson ... objects to sentencing. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=3&frbg=&indx=21&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Ottawa%20%22military%20justice%22&dstmp=1471629193990, accessed 19 August 2016);

Major David Hodson, on the left

MARTIN, Dov, "Death,  Hope  and  the  Cost  of  a  Bullet  in  Afghanistan" Durlaw Voice, Fall 2014, Volume I, issue III,  at p. 3; available at http://www.defendme.ca/resources/FallDurLawVoice-p3.pdf  (accessed 11 January 2016);  article about Major David Hodson; 

------------------------ Image source: www.cba.org/Sections/Military-Law/Galleries/Photo-Gallery/2014/2014-Ethics-and-Military-Law-Conference, accessed 13 September 2016
Joelle Martin and Robert Young         On the right, Robert Young, senior delegate for the International Committee of the Red Cross with MGen Blaise Cathcart
with their child; image source:                Committee of the Red Cross, 2014
Common Law Bulletin, University of Ottawa, Spring 2008, p. 11.
MARTIN, Joelle and Robert M. Young, "Unfinished business: Canada's contribution to promoting compliance with international humanitarian law through the protection of civilians in armed conflict agenda of the United Nations Security Council", (2009) 27 WindsorYearbook of Access to Justice 347-383;
During its 1999-2000 term on the United Nations Security Council, Canada helped launch the Council's "Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict" agenda.  This aimed to reduce civilian war casualties through better respect for international humanitarian law [IHL].  This article reviews the agenda's origins and evolution ten years on.  The authors focus on  Canada's  contributions in increasing the Council's efforts to protect civilians, with three main assertions.  First,  Canada had a key role in creating and promoting the agenda, an important IHL initiative.  Second, the agenda is well established in the Council's work, but needs further effort to ensure greater impact in specific situations. Third, Canada could develop the agenda and improve respect for IHL if  it joins the Security Council for the 2011-2012 term, picking up its "unfinished business" from its last Council term. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20130407065442/http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/2012/ihl-bibliography-4th-trimester-2011.pdf, at p. 31, accessed 16 March 2015)

Image source: www.pressrush.com/author/8521978/kevin-martin, accessed 19 March 2016
Kevin Martin, journalist at the Calgary Sun
MARTIN, Kevin, "Lawyer defends Calgary reservist facing court martial over soldier's death in Afghanistan", Calgary Sun, 13 November 2012; available at www.calgarysun.com/2012/11/13/lawyer-defends-calgary-reservist-facing-court-martial-over-soldiers-death-in-afghanistan (accessed 19 March 2016);

The prosecution team                                                                           video stills             Defence counsel
___________"Maj Darryl Watts acquitted of manslaughter in training range explosion", Calgary Sun . com,  4 December 2012, available at  http://www.calgarysun.com/2012/12/04/maj-darryl-watts-acquitted-of-manslaughter-in-training-range-explosion (accessed 10 November 2016);

___________"No jail for Calgary soldier", Calgary Sun, 20 February 2013, available at http://www.calgarysun.com/2013/02/20/no-jail-for-calgary-soldier (accessed 16 April 2017);

Calgary military reservist Darryl Watts won’t have to serve jail time for his role in a deadly Afghan training exercise
three years ago, a judge ruled Wednesday.


Instead, Watts was stripped of his rank as major in the Canadian Forces and reduced two levels to a lieutenant.

Cmdr. Peter Lamont said the jail term sought by the prosecution was too harsh, but Watts required more than the
simple reprimand sought by the defence.

Image source: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/lawrence-martin, accessed 18 January 2016
Lawrence Martin
MARTIN, Lawrence, "The detainees file appears lost in the fog of committee", The Globe and Mail, published 16 November 2010 and updated 6 September 2012; available at  http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/the-detainees-file-appears-lost-in-the-fog-of-committee/article1461552/ (accessed 18 January 2016);
The detainees' imbroglio figured prominently in the resignation of defence minister Gordon O'Connor. It prompted revelations by diplomat Richard Colvin that tore holes in the government's credibility. It prompted a mea culpa by Chief of the Defence Staff Walter Natynczyk. It was a factor behind Stephen Harper's much-regretted decision to prorogue Parliament, a move that sparked a national protest. It led to an extraordinary ruling from House Speaker Peter Milliken condemning the government for breach of parliamentary privilege in its refusal to release uncensored documents.

Photo of Robert Martin reproduced from the back dust jacket of McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, infra.

MARTIN, Robert L., 1932-2011,  there is an intervention by BGen R.L. Martin in (1989) 28 Military Law and Law of War Review on peacekeeping operations; notes in my research on 11 February 2016;

___________ The employment of the Canadian Armed Forces in the maintenance of law and order in Canada, Kingston (Ontario): National Defence College of Canada, 1986, 26 p., (series; National Defence College of Canada course paper); copy at Canadian Forces College Library, call number 355.005 N3 1986 no.04;  Brigadier-General Martin was the Judge Advocate General from 10 November 1986 to 10 November 1990; research note: this paper is available -- ask for it from the Director Access to Information and Privacy file A-2015-01171, dated 22 September 2015 as it has been released under an Access to Information Act request;

___________Nécrologie/obituary, Robert L. Martin, décès, lundi, 26 décembre 2011, source: l'Acadie nouvelle, N.B., 31 décembre 2011; disponible, français and English at http://necrologie.genealogiequebec.com/avis-de-deces/838837-MARTIN-Robert-L- (accessed 26 December 2016);


MARTIN, Robert, 1933-2011, former court reporter with the JAG, see http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/ottawacitizen/obituary.aspx?n=Robert-Martin&pid=147625885 (accessed 13 February 2016);  I had the chance to work with Bob in Halifax;

Photo of Herbert Marx, reproduced from http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/ministere/liste-min-a.htm (accessed on 1 April 2014)

MARX, Herbert, "The Emergency Power and Civil Liberties in Canada", (1970) 16 McGill Law Review 39-91; Herbert Marx was one of my law professors of constitutional law in the early 1970s at the University of Montreal; he also became a minister of justice and a judge;


___________ "Human Rights and Emergency Powers", in The Practice of freedom : canadian essays on human rights and fundamental freedoms, Toronto: Butterworth, 1979, at pp. 439-462;

MASON, J.A.R., "Case and Comment : Military Tribunals -- Restraint of By Civil Courts -- Habeas Corpus and Prohibition", (1946) 24 Canadian Bar Review 210-217; Research Note: article comments in part on In the Matter of the King v. George Hector Thompson, [1946] O.R. 77 (LeBel J.) and The King v. George H. Thompson, [1946] O.W.N. 217 (Urquhart J.);

MASON, John William,  Basic Freedoms in the Canadian Armed Forces,  Thesis (M.A.), Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, 1972.,  ii, 159, [12], vii p. (Canadian theses on microfilm; 10946); available at http://curve.carleton.ca/theses/21222 (accessed on 11 August 2013);

Image source: brill.com/international-military-missions-and-international-law, accessed 16 December 2016

MASSIDDA, Paolina, "Criminal Responsibility of International Military Missions and Personnel" in Marco Odello and Ryszard Piotrowicz, rds., International military missions and international law, Leiden/Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2011, xxi, 308 p. , at chapter 8,  25 cm. (International humanitarian law series ; v. 31), 9789004174375 (hbk. : alk. paper); available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?id=vplfUo4IL_gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:9789004174375&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjiurvd1PjQAhUHzGMKHUQ-AwMQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 16 December 2016);

source de l'image: http://uqam.academia.edu/JustinMassie, visité 9 septembre 2015
Justin Massie

MASSIE, Justin, professeur, "Relations extérieures du Canada et du Québec", [titre du cours], POL 8421-20, Université du Québec à Montréal, Département de science politique, Hiver 2014, 27 pages; syllabus du cours avec bonne bibliographie; disponible à  http://politique.uqam.ca/upload/POL8421-20-H14-Massie.pdf (vérifié 9 septembre 2015);


Defense attorney Balfour Der, left, and prosecutor Major Dylan Kerr              
The court martial for Major Darryl Watts, source: calgary.ctvnews.ca/blast-video-shown-at-court-martial-for-calgary-soldier-1.1041351
Image source: http://www.edmontonjournal.com/Thumb/7992569/story.html, accessed 24 November 2015
MASSINON, Stephane, "Calgary reservist Darryl Watts demoted, but avoids jail in Afghan training death (with video)", Calgary Herald, 19 February 2013; available at http://www.calgaryherald.com/news/calgary+reservist+darryl+watts+demoted+avoids+jail+afghan+training+death+with+video/7991321/story.html (accessed 24 November 2015);

Photo of Major David Hodson in article
MASSOUD. A.H., "Oshawa Lawyer Contributed to the Rule of Law in Afghanistan", DurLaw Voice, Spring 2015,  Vol.I, issue IV,  at p. 12,  available at http://www.durhamregionlawassociation.com/SpringDURLAW2015.pdf  (accessed 10 January 2015); about Major David Hodson; 

Photo of David Matas, reproduced from http://www.beyondborders.org/wp/speakers-bureau/ (accessed on 1 April 2014)

MATAS, David, "Equality and the Military Abroad", August 2006, pdf format, part of the "2006 Canadian Legal Conference Full Binder"; available from the Canadian Bar Association  Store; $40.00 for non-members and $25.00 for members;

"The Canadian military policy on restrictions of duty violates equality principles. Why that is so requires looking at the past versions of that policy and its evolution. At one time, the Canadian Forces had an explicit policy of excluding all Jews and all Moslems from peacekeeping duties in the Middle East. The policy dated from 1974."  (Source of all this entry in my bibliography:, http://www.cba.org/cbastore/search.aspx?pubid=2&subject=Military+Law, accessed on 8 April 2013)


-------------------Image source: hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/waymac/Sociology/A%20Term%202/Obedience%20Power%20and%20Control/somalia_affair.htm
Carol Mathieu saluting at the end of his testimony                    Carol Mathieu, commanding officer of the Canadian Airborne Regiment
at the Somalia Inquiry Commission
Image source: www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/war-conflict/peacekeeping/the-somalia-affair/lt-col-carol-mathieus-testimony.html, accessed on 30 November 2014

MATHIEU, Carol, Law of war training  for the Canadian Forces : a luxury or a necessity, Toronto: Canadian Forces Command and Staff College, 1984 (series; Exercise New Horizons; DSIS 01727), 1 microfiche; research notes: LCol Mathieu was court martialled twice and twice acquitted; LCol Mathieu testified at the Somalia inquiry; his paper is probably on the CD of the commission;

Source of image: https://twitter.com/amayeda, accessed 23 September 2016
Andrew Mayeda
MAYEDA, Andrew, "Afghan security contracts tightened up; Contractors working for Canada's military told they must obey international humanitarian law while doing duties", The Vancouver Sun, 27 May 2008 p. A5; 

Image source: www.google.ca (image search), 19 February 2015

MAYNARD, Major Kim (Kimberley D.), Biographical notes available at http://www.cdp-hrc.uottawa.ca/uploads/Maynard%20Maj%20Bio%28Bilingual%2916%20Aug%2010.pdf  (accessed on 3 June 2012);

Major Kim Maynard is a member of Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces and currently works as a Legal Staff Officer and Instructor with the Military Law Centre at the Canadian Defence Academy.  Previous positions include that of Legal Advisor with the Directorate of Law – Intelligence and Information Operations (2009 – 2010), Deputy Judge Advocate at 8 Wing Trenton (2005 – 2009) / Acting Assistant Judge Advocate General Central Region (2008-2009), and Legal Advisor to the Canadian Forces Health Services Group Headquarters (2003 – 2005).  Major Maynard joined the Canadian Forces as a legal officer in 2002.

From the left: Martin Pelletier, Maureen Pecknold,                Kim Maynard (source: www.cba.org/Sections/Military-Law/Executive, accessed 29 August 2016)
Anne London-Weinstein and Philip Millar

____________"A Recap of the CBA 2016 Military Law Conference", Canadian Bar Association Web Site, 7 July 2016; available at https://www.cba.org/Sections/Military-Law/Articles/2016/recap (accessed 20 August 2016);

The key note address was given by Rear-Admiral Jennifer Bennett, the Director General of the Canadian Armed Forces Strategic Response Team on Sexual Misconduct. She focussed on steps the CAF have taken and continue to take to recruit, retain and integrate women, and she described the campaign to address the “sexualized culture” as described in the Deschamps Report, in the CAF. The address was followed by an engaging panel on the challenges of sexual assault proceedings from the perspective of a military prosecutor (Maj Maureen Pecknold), a civilian defence lawyer (Ms. Anne London-Weinstein) and a civilian lawyer who regularly represents victims of sexual assault, (Mr. Phillip Millar). The panel was moderated by Commander Martin Pelletier, Military Judge.

MAYNARD,  Robert, "Rules of engagement in ground operations : a legal or training problem?",  JCSP: Master of Defence Studies  (2008), available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/262/maynard2.pdf  (accessed on 2 January 2012);

Image source: http://www.provincialcourt.bc.ca/enews/enews-05-04-2016  (accessed 9 October 2016)
"Major Randy Callan (as he then was (on the right) and Major Bruce Mayo, Kandahar airfield 2002"
MAYO, Bruce, biographical notes taken from the following article: SAMSON, J. Jason, "AJAG Ottawa: JAG's Latest Addition", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 88-89, at p. 88:
Major Bruce Mayo enlisted in the CF in 1974 and served with the military police.  In 1982 he took his
release from the CF and attended law school at the University of Manitoba.  He was called to the
Manitoba bar in 1986.  After practicing law in Brandon, Manitoba, he re-joined the CF as a legal
officer in 1988.

___________"The power of flight safety : A background and overview of Bill C-7, An Act to Amend the Aeronautics Act, Part 2" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2008/news.aspx (accessed on 26 April 2012);
___________"Le pouvoir de la sécurité aérienne : contexte et teneur du projet de loi C-7, Loi modifiant la Loi sur l'aéronautique" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2008/nouvelles.aspx#article3 (site visité le 26 avril  2012);

MAZER, Brian Michael, Manhattan to missiles : Canada, nuclear weapons and international law : an interdisciplinary study, LL. M. University of Alberta, 1977, xii, 200 leaves ; 28 cm;

Image source: iclmg.ca/press-release-appointment-of-new-iclmg-national-coordinator-monia-mazigh/, accessed 11 October 2016
Monia Mazigh
MAZIGH, Monia, "Oversight and Review Mechanisms: Which One to Choose?", News from International Civil Liberties Monitoring Group, 12 January 2016 ; available at http://iclmg.ca/oversight-and-review-mechanisms-which-one-to-choose/ (accessed 21 January 2016);

On February 19, 2015, four former Canadian Prime Ministers wrote an op-ed in the Globe and Mail entitled “A Close Eye on Security Makes Canadians Safer”. They were urging Canada to implement an accountability regime that would deal with the government national security activities.

Canada is the only country amongst the Five Eyes without any sort of oversight process regarding its national security agencies. However, Canada has two external review bodies:

  • The Security Intelligence review Committee (SIRC) established in 1984 to review CSIS activities;
  • The Communication Security Establishment (CSE) Commissioner established in 1996 to review CSE activities.

Today, there are 17 Canadian agencies involved in national security information sharing, and only three have some sort of a review mechanism: CSIS, the CSE and somewhat the RCMP. What about departments and agencies such as Public Safety, Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC), Foreign Affairs, etc? They have none.


In 2005, Bill C-81 was introduced by the Liberal government as an Act to establish a National Security Committee of Parliamentarians. It is the first attempt after the “Maher Arar case” to create an oversight body. This legislation died when the Parliament was dissolved on October 29, 2005 and general elections were called.

In 2013, private member’s bill C-551 was introduced by Liberal MP Wayne Easter. The proposed legislation was to establish a parliamentary committee to oversee all national security activities. The bill stopped at the first reading in the House. Private member bills rarely become laws especially under majority governments, which was the case at the time.

In 2014, private member’s bill C-622 was introduced by Liberal MP Joyce Murray with the intent to impose greater judicial and parliamentary scrutiny on the CSE as well as creating a Parliamentary Committee on intelligence and security matters. The bill was voted down at the second reading.

And finally, in 2014 again, Bill S-220 was introduced by the Conservative Senator Hugh Segal and supported by his liberal colleagues Roméo Dallaire and Grant Mitchell. The intent of the bill was to create an all-party committee of parliamentarians on national security and intelligence oversight. The bill stopped at the second reading in the Senate.

Dominic McAlea at Canadian HQ Bahrain, photo reproduced from McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, infra, at p. 141.
McALEA, Dominic D., Colonel, Biographical notes:

Colonel (Retired) Dominic McAlea

Colonel (Retired) McAlea joined the Perley and Rideau Veterans’ Health Centre Foundation as a board member earlier this year. Dominic was called to the Bar of Ontario and enrolled in the Canadian Armed Forces in 1981. He then served over 34 years in the Canadian Armed Forces.

During that period, he prosecuted and defended within the Canadian Armed Forces courts martial system, served with the Special Service Force in Petawawa, completed Master of Laws studies in Public International Law at the London School of Economics and Political Science, deployed to the Middle East during the 1st Gulf War, investigated war crimes in the Former Yugoslavia, provided legal advice to SACEUR while posted to the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, helped negotiate and draft the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, helped develop and promulgate the suite of anti-terrorism legislation post 9/11, completed Master of Philosophy studies in International Affairs at the University of Cambridge, deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and drafted the strategic plan for reforming the Congolese military justice system, worked on the International Military Staff at NATO Headquarters overseeing NATO-led operations in Afghanistan, and then deployed to Kabul as Canada’s Defence Attaché to Afghanistan before retiring at the rank of colonel earlier this year. (source: , accessed 27 February 2017).

___________"Le droit de Genève -- Comment assurer son application effective", (1992) 23(4) Études internationales 833-842; disponible http://www.erudit.org/revue/ei/1992/v23/n4/703087ar.pdf (site visité le 28 février 2012);

Image source: portal.clubrunner.ca/1100/Stories/presentation-on-living-in-war-or-conflict-areas, accessed 24 August 2016
Dominic McAlea, 11 May 2016

___________"Military Justice, Security Sector Reform & State Building", KCIS Security & Governance: Foundations for International Security, 23 June 2010, available at https://qshare.queensu.ca/Groups/QCIR/KCIS/www/2010/Panel%204%20-%20Military%20Justice%20-%20McAlea.pdf (accessed on 10 December 2013); presented at the Kingston Conference on International Security 2010 Conference, Panel 4 -- see http://www.queensu.ca/kcis/pastconferences/2010.html (accessed on 10 December 2013)

Colonel McAlea focused on the challenges facing Western states seeking to reform dysfunctional institutions in the developing world. Drawing on the Canadian experience in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), he highlighted the difficulties associated with altering entrenched patterns of behavior in a country with a legacy of instability and conflict. In
countries such as the DRC, the security apparatus is often deeply distrusted by the civilian population. To alter this dynamic, the partner countries must implement reform programs specifically tailored to the situation on the ground, with the overarching aim of promoting the rule of law and increasing accountability among the security services. In the context of the DRC, Canadian military personnel spearheaded efforts to: reform the payroll system for the Congolese military; provide skills training for officers involved in the military justice system; and sought to integrate former rebel forces into the national army.  However, while arguing that initiatives of this nature are a vital first step in resolving the more entrenched problems present in a fragile state, McAlea also pointed out that capacity building is a lengthy process that requires a considerable amount of time to produce lasting results.

While McAlea highlighted the measures that can be taken to reform the security sector of a partner state once a relationship has been established.... (source: 2010 Conference Proceedings, available at https://qshare.queensu.ca/Groups/QCIR/KCIS/www/2010/KCIS%202010%20Conference%20Report.pdf, accessed on 10 December 2013);


___________"Post-Westphalian Crime", in David Wippman & Matthew Evangelista, eds., New Wars, New Laws?  Applying the Laws of War in 21st Century Conflicts,  Ardsley, N.Y. : Transnational Publishers, 2004, at p.111, ISBN: 1571053158; copy at Ottawa University, KZ 6355 .N49 2005;

___________Biographical Notes on Colonel D. McAlea, 2009, available at  Osgoode Research Lectures PRESENTS Colonel D. McAlea, CD ...  (accessed on 3 June 2012);

Col McAlea is a member of the Law Society of Upper Canada and has served with the Canadian Forces Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) since 1981 in a variety of postings . He has been the Director of Law International, legal advisor to the special forces, and has served with the Office of the Legal Advisor to the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. He is currently the Director of all JAG Regional Services. Col McAlea served in the Persian Gulf, led a UN War Crimes Investigation Team in the former Yugoslavia, and was a military advisor at the UN Conference in Rome which drafted the Statute of the International Criminal Court. Col McAlea holds a Master of International Law studies from the London School of Economics and Political Science, and a Master of Philosophy in International Relations from Cambridge. Colonel McAlea recently returned from duty with MONUC Rule of Law Unit where he was the Military Criminal Law Advisor to the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Kinshasa.

___________Notes biographiques sur le colonel D. McAlea, circa 2006:

Dominic McAlea
Depuis 2006, le Colonel Dominic McAlea occupe les fonctions d’adjoint au cabinet du Juge Avocat Général (JAG) responsable des services régionaux au sein des Forces armées canadiennes. Il est diplômé de la faculté de droit de l’Université de Windsor et est devenu membre du Barreau de l’Ontario en 1981. Il a rejoint les Forces canadiennes la même année. En 1990, il a obtenu sa maîtrise en droit international de la London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) d’Angleterre. En 1993, après avoir été impliqué dans la Guerre du Golf, Le Colonel Dominic McAlea a dirigé des enquêtes sur les crimes de guerre commis dans l’ancienne République de Yougoslavie, plus particulièrement dans la région de Dubrovnik, pour le compte des Nations unies. Il a également servi au Bureau du Conseiller juridique pour le Grand Quartier Général des Puissances Alliées en Europe (SHAPE). En 1998, le Colonel McAlea était le conseiller militaire de la délégation canadienne à la Conférence de Rome, suite à laquelle le Statut de la CPI a été adopté. En 2004, Col Dominic McAlea a complété une maîtrise en philosophie au Centre d’études internationales de l’Université de Cambridge. (source: http://www.ieim.uqam.ca/IMG/pdf/Montreal_training_workshop_2006_draft_07f.pdf, vérifié le 1er février 2015).

___________"Superior Orders and Command Responsibility" in Osgoode Hall Law School. Professional Development Program, The International Criminal Court : the road to Rome and the future, Toronto, Ont.: Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, Professional Development Program, 2002, 1 v. (various pagings), for the article: 7, [13] p.; copy at the Library of the Supreme Court of Canada, KZ6310 I54 2002;

___________Testimony before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs concerning Bill C-42, the Public Safety Act, 6 December 2001; Col Allan Fenske also testified with Col. McAlea; available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=e&Mode=1&Parl=37&Ses=1&DocId=1041247 (accessed 27 February 2017);

____________Testimony before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, to which was referred Bill S-39, to amend the National Defence Act, the Criminal Code, the Sex Offender Information Registration Act and the Criminal Records Act,Issie 25, Evidence, 3 November 2005, available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/381/lega/25eva-e.htm?Language=E&Parl=38&Ses=1&comm_id=11 (accessed 24 August 2016); Issue 24, Evidence, October 27, 2005, available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/381/lega/24evc-e.htm?Language=E&Parl=38&Ses=1&comm_id=11 (accessed 24 August 2016);

__________ United States National Strategy Regarding Al-Qaida's militant Islamic Ideology, dissertation for the degree of Master of Philosophy in International Relations at the Center of International Studies, University of Cambridge, 2004; copy at Mill Lane Library: Centre of International Studies –  CIS M.Phil 2003/27 at University of Cambridge; see abstract in (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 74; see notes on Col McAlea, Office of the Judge Advocate General  at  http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dsa-dns/sa-ns/ab/sobv-vbos-eng.asp?mAction=View&mBiographyID=260, accessed on 26 March 2012;

McCAFFREY, Pat (Patrick), former JAG officer for 35 years (28 in Ottawa and 7 in Europe with NATO), seeking the Liberal nomination in the riding of Saint John Harbour, see You Tube, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ziUUKmo6D0 (accessed 1 October 2016);

___________LCol Pat McCaffrey, on the right, receiving his CD1 for 22 years of service from BGen Pierre Boutet, JAG, 2 February 1998, image source: JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités du JAG, volume 1, Part 1, Jan-Feb 98 (image posted on 21 December 2016);

McCALLISTER, Bradley Duncan, Code of Conduct : An Analysis of the Modern Law of Armed Conflict,  LL.M. thesis (Master of Arts), Department of Political Studies, University of Manitoba, 1997,  211 p.; available at http://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/handle/1993/1364 (accessed on 7 January 2013);

"The problem studied in this thesis is the dilemma of the modern international, in its application to contemporary forms of warfare. Wars being fought today occur predominantly on an intrastate level. Meanwhile, the bulk of relevant international law applies mainly to inter-state forms of armed conflict. The discussion of this problem examines the emergence of the politically motivated mass army in the early nineteenth century. Older customary restraint in war broke down in favour of international legal codification. The impact of total war in the first half of the twentieth century broke down the effectiveness of the law of war. Reconstruction of the law created a greater distinction between non-combatant and combatant, in order to protect non-combatants from the effects of war. The modern law of war remains predominantly concerned with international armed conflict. This has created serious problems when attempting to apply laws of restraint to civil war. International organizations such as the Red Cross have emphasized the humanitarian value of the  in hopes of finding a means of applying law to intrastate warfare. As intrastate war surpasses international armed conflict in frequency, international law is again in danger of breaking down. As armed violence transcends the borders of the sovereign state, the state may be impeding efforts to apply effective international law to armed conflict."  (source: http://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/handle/1993/1364, accessed on 7 January 2013)

Source of image: http://mccannandlyttle.com/lawyer-bios/patrick-mccann/, accessed 12 January 2016.
Patrick McCann

McCANN, Patrick, Lawyer, McCann & Giamberardino, Testimony on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs on 7 October 1998, Issue 35, see  minutes  and evidence;

McCANDLESS, Henry E. (Henry Emerson), 1935-, A Citizen's Guide to Public Accountability: changing the relationship between citizens and authorities, Victoria (B.C.): Trafford, c2002, ii, 407 p., ISBN: 1552129578 and see Chapter 10, "The Accountability of Top Command", at pp. 212-233; limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=Yn7zBvmP78kC&printsec=titlepage&dq=l%C3%A9tourneau+somalia&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_toc_s&cad=1#PPA217,M1
and http://books.google.com/books?id=Yn7zBvmP78kC&dq=l%C3%A9tourneau+somalia&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 16 July 2008);

McCLEMONT, “War Crimes Trials: Criminals Brought to Justice”,  (June 1947) 1(3) Canadian Army Journal 16-20; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (21 January 2015);

McCONNELL, W.H. (William Howard), 1930-, William R. McIntyre: Paladin of the Common Law, Monteal: McGill-Queen's University Press (published for Carleton University), 2000, x, 248 p., see "Military Justice and the Jurisdiction of the Civil Cases" at pp. 136-138, ISBN: 0886293413; discusses MacKay v. The Queen, [1980] 2 S.C.R. 370;

McCORMICK, Neil, "A Mean and Green Fighting Machine: Wartime environmental assessments and the Canadian Forces", (2007) 16 Dalhousie Journal of Legal Studies 1-20;

Art McDonald, the author,  photo                            Arthur McDonald's book on the OJAG
reproduced from JAG Newsletter/
Les actualités
, volume 1, 2003 at p. 4

McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, x, 242 p., ISBN: 0662321928;
Source: McDONALD, R. Arthur, Office of the Judge Advocate General,
            The Story of Canada's Military Lawyers, Department of National
             Defence, Cat. no D2-136/2002E, ISBN: 0-662-32192-8.
             Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works
             and Government Services Canada, 2011.
- Table of Contents;
- pp. i-xii and 1-102;
pp. 103-242;
- Index;

McDONALD, R. Arthur, Les avocats militaires du Canada, Ottawa : Cabinet du Juge-avocat général, c2002, x, 263 p., ISBN: 0662874358;  
Source: McDONALD, R. Arthur, Cabinet du juge-avocat général,
             Les avocats militaires du Canada, Ministère de la défense nationale,
             numéro de catalogue D2-136/2002F, ISBN: 0-662-87435-8.
             Reproduit avec la permission du ministre des Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada, 2011.
- Table des matières;
- pp. i-x et 1-116;
- pp. 117-263;
- Index;

___________Equality Issues in the Canadian Forces under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: a Study of the Effect of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms on Certain Policies of the Canadian Forces
, LL.M. thesis, Queen's University, Faculty of Law, 1986, v, 354 p.; there is microfiche copy at the Ottawa University, Call number: Library Annex  KE 4381.5 .M327 1986A;

___________"Expert Testimony Before Human Rights Tribunals" (1995) 14 PSO Forum  22-41; this periodical is published by the Personnel Selection Branch, Department of National Defence;

___________"The Legal Branch Law Firm of the Canadian Forces" (1987) 2 Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General Journal 1-4;
___________«Le service juridique: L'étude légale des Forces Canadiennes» (1987) 2 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 1-4;


___________"The Trail of Discipline: The Historical Roots of Canadian Military Law" (1985) 1 Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General Journal 1-28; available at http://www.lareau-law.ca/A-2015-01088.PDF (accessed 1 December 2015), as a DND/CF Access to Information Act Request/Answer, file A-2015-01088;

___________«Le Sentier de la Discipline: Les Racines Historiques du Code de Justice Militaire Canadien» (1985) 1 Revue du JAG des Forces canadiennes 1-30;

McDOUGALL, Bruce, "Be All You Can Be", (May 1991) 15(4) Canadian Lawyer 26-28; about military lawyers in the Canadian Forces;

McDOUGALL, Martha, "Book Review Essay: Canadian Military Law Annotated by Justice Gilles Letourneau and Colonel (ret'd) Michel W. Drapeau, Toronto: Thomson/Carswell, 2006, 1787 pages, $185.00",  8(3) Canadian Military Journal, available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo8/no3/essay-essai-01-eng.asp (accessed on 11 July 2008);
McDOUGALL, Martha, "Études critiques, Canadian Military Law Annotated de Gilles Létourneau, juge et Michel W. Drapeau, colonel à la retraite, Toronto: Thomson Carswell, 2006, 1787 pages, $185.00", (automne 2007) 8(3) Revue militaire canadienne, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo8/no3/essay-essai-01-fra.asp (vérifié le 11 juillet 2008); 

___________"The Canadian Forces Grievance Board: Institutional Change" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 6; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
___________, "Précis : Un changement institutionnel : le Comité des griefs des Forces canadiennes" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 6; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf  (site visité le 18 avril 2012);

Image source: navy-marine.forces.gc.ca/en/navy-life/history-commanders/32-mcfadden.page, accessed 15 April 2017
Vice-Admiral Philip Dean McFADDEN, CMM, CD

McFADDEN, Capt(N) Philip  Dean, "Why the Laws of Armed Conflict are no longer the ties that bind.", Canadian Forces College, AMSP (2003), AMSC 6, 42 pages; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/266/mcfadden.pdf (accessed 2 February 2017);

Mary McFadyen, photo source: http://www.thestarphoenix.com/news/provincial+ombudsman+starts/9688135/story.html, accessed on 8 April 2014
McFADYEN, Mary, "The DND/CF Ombudsman: Our role and how we assist the CF prevent and resolve grievances" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2008/news.aspx (accessed on 26 April 2012);

___________"L'ombudsman de la Défense nationale : aider les FC à éviter et résoudre les griefs" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2008/nouvelles.aspx#article2  (site visité le 26 avril  2012);

___________"Office of the Ombudsman for National Defence and Canadian Forces" in Ombuds Institutions for the Armed Forces: Selected Case Studies, Geneva: DCAF (The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces), 2017, [iv], 193 p., at pp. 33-63, ISBN: 978-92-9222-429-5; available at dcaf.ch/Publications/Ombuds-Institutions-for-the-Armed-Forces-Selected-Case-Studies  (accessed 7 April 2017);

7. The Office Has No Power over Veterans Affairs Matters

In Canada, the Department of National Defence is separate from the
Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Ministerial Directives stipulate
that the Ombudsman for National Defence and Canadian Forces shall
not deal with any complaint that falls within the jurisdiction of Veterans
Affairs Canada or the Veterans Review and Appeal Board. Yet, in practice,
it can be very difficult to clearly draw jurisdictional lines. For example,
if a current or a former member makes an application for a disability
pension (for an injury relating to military service) to Veterans Affairs,
and the current or former member is not satisfied with the decision and
feels they were treated unfairly, the member cannot complain to the
Ombudsman. However, if the application for a disability pension was
rejected by Veterans Affairs because certain medical information was
not provided or was deemed insufficient for the purposes of assessing
the claim, the medical information concerning the injury would be held
by the Canadian Forces. If the Canadian Forces did not forward proper
information to Veterans Affairs so that it could assess the claim properly,
and if the current or former member was having an issue getting this
medical information from or correcting certain information held by
the Canadian Forces, then the member could seek the assistance of the
Ombudsman to obtain that information.

Image source: linkedin.com/in/patrick-vermette-b4784b91, accessed 26 January 2017
Patrick Vermette

McGILL UNIVERSITY,  Project on a Manual on International Law Applicable to Uses of Outer Space (MILAMOS), The International Space Law Group;

The International Space Law (ISL) Group focuses on military uses of space in a global security context that is relatively benign.

The ISL Group is led by Group Editors Professor Ram Jakhu (McGill University) and Professor Steven Freeland (Western Sydney University), and supported by Research Coordinator Dr. Md. Tanveer Ahmad (McGill University) and Research Assistant Mr. Bayar Goswami (McGill University).

The Core Experts in the ISL Group (in alphabetical order):

  • Prof. Setsuko Aoki (Keoi University)
  • Ms. Deborah Housen-Couriel (Interdisciplinary Cyber Research Center at Tel Aviv University and Haifa University’s Law Faculty)
  • Mr. Peter Hulsroj (European Space Policy Institute)
  • Ms. Elina Morozova (INTERSPUTNIK)
  • Dr. Jinyuan Su (Xi'an Jiatong University)
  • Maj. Patrick Vermette (Canadian Forces)
  • Prof. Melissa de Zwart (University of Adelaide)

As Institutional Contributor to the ISL Group, there is:

  • Mr. Rob Ramey (ICRC)

Scott Campbell, co-counsel for plaintiffs                    Chris Madill co-counsel for plaintiffs 
Image source: youtube.com/watch?v=tVOUIbAkJQY             Image source: https://www.cdlawyers.org/?page=65 (both images accessed on 21 December 2016)

McKELVEY, Stewart, Lawyers, Halifax, "Canadian Forces face racial discrimination and harassment class action", 21 December 2016; available at https://ca.finance.yahoo.com/news/canadian-forces-face-racial-discrimination-153000670.html (accessed 21 December 2016);

HALIFAX, Dec. 21, 2016 /CNW/ - Systemic racial discrimination and harassment are the basis of a class action filed in the Federal Court by Stewart McKelvey on behalf of three former members of the Canadian Forces. The Plaintiffs, who propose to represent all persons in Canada who have been enrolled as members in the Canadian Forces and who are or who identify as racial minorities, visible minorities or Aboriginal peoples, allege that the Canadian Forces, from top to bottom, has failed to protect racial minorities and Aboriginals from racism within the ranks.

"When individuals enroll in the Canadian Forces, they expect to serve, advance and protect the ideals we value and enjoy as Canadians – equality, fundamental justice and human dignity," said Scott Campbell, co-counsel representing the Plaintiffs. "But our clients allege that the very institution we trust to bring these ideals to the world, has denied them, and those they represent, these basic human rights."


"This filing is a defining moment for Canadian Forces members who have experienced racial harassment and racial discrimination," said Chris Madill, co-counsel representing the Plaintiffs. "We intend to shine a bright light on the alleged behaviours and institutional practices described in the Statement of Claim."

McKENZIE, J.P.S., Struggling with outdated rules: international humanitarian law and its impact on Canadian Detainee Policy, Canadian Forces College, JCSP 37, Canadian Forces College, Master of Defence Studies, available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/297/286/McKenzie.pdf (accessed 15 March 2015);

McKINNON, Alexander John, 1947-, Torture of the Other : racism as an element of torture in contemporary military operations, Thesis, (M.A.), Carleton University, 2006; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/002/MR18285.PDF (accessed on 16 April 2012);

McKOENA, Kashmeel, "MLOTV: Canadian Forces (CF) Grievance Process", 25 May 2012, 13:15 minutes, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJVy8FWzVf8 (accessed 1 January 2016);

___________Web site of Kashmeel McKöena, available at  http://mckoenalaw.com/ (accessed 1 January 2015;

Kashmeel joined the Canadian Forces in 2003 as practicing military lawyer with the Office of the JAG Headquarters in Ottawa, Kashmeel participated in several military law & training assignments; including acting as the legal advisor to the Canadian Forces Grievamce Authority and the training of Law Of Armed Conflict to members of the Canadian Forces.

Kashmeel retired from the Canadian Forces JAG at the rank of Major and join McKöena Law Professional Corporation where he continues his legal practice as a passionate advocate for his clients when it matters the most. [Source: http://mckoenalaw.com/about-us/, accessed 1 January 2015]

McLEAN, Lieutenant-Colonel Mike, "ROE: Their Impact on Combat Stress in Peace Support Operations", AMSC 3 (Advanced Military Studies Course 3), Canadian Forces College, 26 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/263/mclean2.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2012);

Armand Desroches, source of photo: http://www.redecoupage-federal-redistribution.ca/content.asp?section=pei&dir=mem&document=index&lang=f (accessed on 20 March 2014)

McLEAN, R. and A. (Armand) Desroches (both Lieutenant-Colonels), "The Canadian Forces in Internal Security Operations” in The Management of the Police Response to Crisis Situations: the Proceedings of the Tactical Unit Workshop Canadian Police College, Ottawa: Canadian Police College, 1982, 184 p., at  p. 61;

H.A. McLearn, photo reproduced from the back dust jacket of McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, supra.

McLEARN, Brigadier-General  H.A. (Harold Alexander), "Canadian Arrangements for Aid of the Civil Power", (Summer 1971) 1(1) Canadian Defence Quarterly 26-31; Brigadier-General McLearn was the Judge Advocate General from 20 February 1969 to 13 August 1972;

Photo of Paul McLeod, Canada political editor for BuzzFeed News, image source: https://www.buzzfeed.com/paulmcleod?language=en, 21 May 2016
McLEOD, Paul, "One Sexual Assault Case Could Gut Canada’s Military Justice System.  Advocates say the military justice system is unconstitutional and must be heavily reformed", 5 May 2016; available at  https://www.buzzfeed.com/paulmcleod/canadas-military-justice-system-could-be-undone-by-the-supre?utm_term=.rbxJzdLv26#.sdrjOoPq53 (accessed 21 May 2016);

Image source: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=76619, accessed 16 August 2016
Major Trevor McLeod, center, with two ANA Legal School Training
Advisor Team 2012-1
McLEOD, Trevor P., biographical notes on retirement from the CF in 2016; going to the Department of Justice Canada;
Major Trevor P. McLeod, CD, BEng (Civ), LL.B., MBA 

Major Trevor McLeod joined the CF in 1983 as an ROTP cadet at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston.  He graduated in 1987 with a degree in civil engineering.  After an aborted attempt to become a CF pilot, Trevor completed classification training as an Air Weapons Controller in 1989 

Trevor spent two tours of duty at the Canadian NORAD Sector in North Bay (1988 - 1992, and 1996 - 1999) where at different times he maintained qualifications as a Weapons Director and Weapons Assignment Officer, Surveillance Controller, Standards Evaluator, Operations Room Tactical Director, NORAD Airborne Battle Staff and Joint Operations Officer.  From 1992 to 1996 he was posted to the NATO Airborne Early Warning Force in Geilenkirchen, Germany where he served as a Weapons Controller and Fighter Allocator on squadron, as well as an Instructor in the Training Wing. 

After being accepted into the Military Legal Training Program in 1999, Trevor attended law school at the University of Ottawa and graduated in 2002.  After completing his Bar Admissions Course for the province of Ontario, Trevor officially joined the Office of the JAG in 2003.  As a Legal Officer he has advised in the areas of administrative law concerning personnel issues and grievances, on general military law, and on military justice issues.  He has deployed operationally twice as a legal officer.  In 2007 he had an opportunity to advise on operational law issues during a deployment to the Democratic Republic of Congo where he filled the position of Deputy Military Legal Advisor to the United Nations peacekeeping force in that country.  In 2012 Trevor deployed to Kabul, Afghanistan and served as the Deputy Training Advisor to the Afghanistan National Army Legal School. 

Trevor’s current and last posting as a legal officer is in Ottawa with the JAG Directorate of Law / Military Justice Policy where he works diligently and tirelessly on the regulations and consequential amendments stemming from Bill C-15: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act.  He will be joining the ranks of the Department of Justice as a counsel with the International Assistance Group.  Currently enjoying a return to paternity with a little one less than 2 years old, Trevor anticipates many years with the Department of Justice. 

Congratulations to Major Trevor McLeod for his 33 years of service in the Canadian Armed Forces and numerous achievements as an Air Weapons Controller and Legal Officer, and best of luck to him, his wife Vesna and two daughters Alyssa and Anna in their future endeavors.



Major Trevor P. McLeod, CD, BEng (Civ), LL.B., MBA 

Le major McLeod joint les FC en 1983 en tant que cadet dans le PFOR du Collège militaire royal du Canada, à Kingston.  En 1987, il obtient un diplôme en génie civil.  En 1989, après un échec pour devenir un pilote des FC, Trevor complète la formation pour se qualifier à titre de contrôleur des armes aériennes. 

Trevor a passé deux périodes de service avec le secteur canadien du NORAD à North Bay (1988 - 1992 et 1996 - 1999) où, pendant des périodes différentes, il maintient ses qualifications comme directeur des armes et officier à l’affectation des armes, contrôleur de la surveillance et évaluateur des normes, directeur tactique du Centre des opérations, officier d’état-major de combat aéroporté du NORAD et officier des opérations interarmées.  De 1992 à 1996, il est posté à la Force aéroportée d’alerte avancée de l’OTAN, à Geilenkirchen, en Allemagne, où il sert à titre de contrôleur à bord des avions dotés du système aéroporté de détection lointaine pour un escadron ainsi que d’instructeur de l’escadre responsable de la formation. 

Après avoir été accepté au Programme militaire d’études en droit en 1999, Trevor a fréquenté la faculté de droit de l’Université d’Ottawa et obtient son diplôme en 2002. Trevor complète ensuite son cours de formation professionnelle du barreau pour la province d’Ontario et joint officiellement le cabinet du JAG en 2003. En sa qualité d’avocat militaire, il fournit des avis dans le domaine du droit administratif, sur les questions de personnel et de griefs, du droit militaire en général, et de la justice militaire.  Il se déploie deux fois comme avocat militaire en théâtre opérationnel.  En 2007 il avise sur les questions de droit opérationnel au cours d’un déploiement dans la République démocratique du Congo où il occupe le poste de conseiller juridique militaire adjoint à la Force de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies dans ce pays. En 2012 Trevor se déploie à Kabul, Afghanistan ou il occupe le poste d’adjoint au conseiller militaire senior à l’École juridique de l’Armée nationale afghane. 

La dernière et actuelle affection de Trevor en tant qu’avocat militaire est à Ottawa au sein de la Direction juridique / Justice militaire – politique ou il a travaillé avec diligence et ardeur sur les amendements législatifs et règlementaires résultant du projet de loi C-15, la Loi visant à renforcer la justice militaire pour la défense du Canada. Il va par la suite joindre les rangs du Service d’entraide internationale au Ministère de la Justice en qualité d’avocat. Savourant présentement un retour aux joies de la paternité avec une petite ayant moins de 2 ans d’âge, Trevor anticipe plusieurs années au sein de l’équipe du Ministère de la Justice. 

Félicitations au major Trevor McLeod pour ses 33 années de services au sein des Forces armées canadiennes et ses nombreux accomplissements en tant que contrôleur des armes aériennes et avocat militaire, et meilleurs vœux à lui, son épouse Vesna et ses deux filles Alyssa et Anna dans leurs projets futurs.

[Source: email from Keith Reichert, Assistant Chief of Staff (Personnel), Office of the Judge Advocate General to Benoit Pinsonneault, alumni member, 16 August 2016, 14:33 h]

____________for an article on Trevor McLeod, see EDWARDS, Victoria, "16004 Major Trevor McLeod, Member ANA Legal School Training Advisor Team", supra;

David McNair, source of photo :  http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/en/david-mcnairn.html  (accessed on 31 March 2014)

McNAIRN, David, Canadian Military Justice, forthcoming book, 2015-2016, Irwin Law Inc.; source:  http://www.scc-csc.gc.ca/factums-memoires/35946/FM010_Appelant_Sergeant-Damien-Arsenault.pdf, at p. 44, accessed 16 March 2015;

Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/umjanedoan/497353227/, accessed 11 February 2015

___________ "The Canadian Forces' Criminal Law Firm: A Blueprint for Independence -- Part I", (2003) 8(2) Canadian Criminal Law Review 237-280 and "The Canadian Forces' Criminal Law Firm: A Blueprint for Independence -- Part II", (2004) 8(3) Canadian Criminal Law Review 329-376;

___________"The costs connandrum in the Court Martial Appeal Court", circa 2012, available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/pdf/2012-05-military-2.pdf (accessed on 1 February 2015);

___________"Does Canada Need a Permanent Military Court?",  (2006) 18 Constitutional Law 205-234;

___________"Message from the Chair" (February/Février 2003) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 2 and 7; available at  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125062546/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaledec2002.pdf (accessed on 19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Message du président" (February/Février 2003) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 2 et 6; disponible à  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125062546/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaledec2002.pdf (site visité le 19 avril  2012);

___________"A Military Justice Primer, Part I and Part II", (2000) 43 The Criminal Law Quarterly 243-267 and 375-392; with the same title in  (July-October 2000) vol. 3 JAG Newsletter / JAG Bulletin d'actualités 32-49;
___________"Introduction au système de justice militaire" dans Congrès annuel du Barreau du Québec 2002, 2002, 614 pages, aux pp. 1-45; disponible à http://congres.barreau.qc.ca/2002/documentation.html (vérifié le 27 février 2012); aussi publié dans (2002) 7(3) Canadian Criminal Law Review / Revue canadienne de droit pénal 299-332;

___________Canadian Military Law, Ottawa : University of Ottawa, Common Law Section, 2013-, "CML 3149" (seies; Casebook, University of Ottawa, Common Law Section; copy at the University of Ottawa, Fauteux Library: KE 6800 .M36  2013-2014 v.1 et v. 2; 

Image source: http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/nzaflr3&div=12&id=&page=, accessed 11 February 2015
___________"Military Law Reform in Canada", [2003] New Zealand Armed Forces Law Review 51-56; p. 51 is available at http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/nzaflr3&div=12&id=&page=  (accessed on 27 February 2012);

___________"Should Canada's Military Justice System Have Jurisdiction Over Ordinary Criminal Offences?",  in Michel Drapeau Law Office, ed.,  Winds of Change: Conference and Debate on Canadian Military Law, [Ottawa:] Michel Drapeau Law Office, 2016, 102 p., at pp. 65-71, NOTES: Conference held at the University of Ottawa, 13 November 2015; "For the first time an international academic conference on military law was held in Canada at the University of Ottawa with the focus on reform and comparative law" (Gilles Létourneau, Preface, p. 7);  "(Organizing Committee for the Conference: Michel W. Drapeau, Joshua M. Juneau, Walter Semianiw and Sylvie Corbin)"; Speech transcribed by Joshua M. Juneau, p. 31; available at mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2015-Conference-Proceedings.pdf (accessed 20 January 2016);

The Three Conditions for the Exercise of Military Jurisdiction Over Ordinary
Criminal Offences: A Reformulation of the Military Nexus Doctrine

What I am about to offer you is in effect a reformulation of the military nexus doctrine which developed rather haphazardly in Canadian
jurisprudence.  I suggest that the military justice system should only exercise its concurrent jurisdiction over an ordinary criminal offence
allegedly committed in Canada by a person subject to the Code of Service Discipline if three conditions are satisfied:

1. Is there a real and substantial connection between the alleged offence and the accused’s military service?

2. Taking into account all relevant considerations, is there a compelling military interest in prosecuting the alleged offence?

3. Have civilian justice authorities been fully informed of the circumstances of the alleged offence, waived their authority to prosecute the
offence, and consented to the prosecution in the military justice system?

___________Studies in Public Law: Canadian Military Law CML 4104A-- Materials on Military Justice, University of Ottawa, 2009; available in part at http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=2583&Itemid=99999999  and http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=2613&Itemid=99999999http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=2551&Itemid=99999999http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=2552&Itemid=99999999, http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=2583&Itemid=99999999, http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=2613&Itemid=99999999
(accessed on 6 December 2011 and 6 January 2012);

___________Studies in Public Law: Canadian Military Law [Materials on Military Justice], Ottawa: University of Ottawa, Common Law Section 2011-, (series; Casebook, University of Ottawa, Common Law Section), NOTES: CML 4104;  Latest edition only kept at the Law Library; copy at Ottawa University, FTX Reserve  KE 7146 .M36  2011-2012, volumes 1 and 2;

Casebook (ch. 1)

Casebook (ch. 2)






Casebook_(ch._8)   (source: http://www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/en/courses/courses/cml-4104-studies-in-public-law-canadian-military-law.html (accessed on 6 January 2012)

___________"An Update on Military Law Reform in Canada", [December 2004] New Zealand Armed Forces Law Review 36 to approx. 44;  title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (4 November 2005);

___________ "Why is independence of the legal profession important?" (May/Mai 2002) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 4 and 7; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125112748/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaleapril2002.pdf (accessed on 19 April 2012);
___________"Précis : Pourquoi l'indépendance de la profession est-elle si important?" (May/Mai 2002) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 4; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125112748/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaleapril2002.pdf  (site visité le 19 avril  2012);

John McNamer, source of image: http://sgnews.ca/author/johnmcnamer/, accessed on 13 May 2014;

McNAMER, John, "Canada -- Briefing to the UN Committee against Torture, 48th Session, May 2012, on Canada's Transfer of Afghan Detainees into the Danger of Torture by Other Authorities", available at http://www.nightslantern.ca/law/mcnamertocat.pdf (accessed on 3 November 2014); 

___________"Canada's Detainee Torture Scandal : An Overview February 12, 2012",  13 p.; available at http://www.lawyersagainstthewar.org/letters/Canada.Detainee.Scandal.Feb.12.pdf (accessed on 22 May 2012);

McRAE, Peter, Unaccountable Soldiers: Private Military Companies and the Law of Armed Conflict, LL.M. thesis, University of Ottawa, 2011, iii, 116 p.; available at https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/20580?locale=fr (accessed on 15 October 2015);

McWHINNEY, Edward, "The Firing Squad Case: Have we swept it under the rug?", The Globe and Mail, 11/04/1966, p. 7;

THE TRIAL AND execution in the Netherlands of the two German prisoners-of-war, Bruno Dorfer and Rain- er Beck, nine
days after the Allies abolished the legal... (source: http://queensu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.cmd=nextPage%
28%29&s.light=t&s.pn=5&s.q=%22canadian+military+law%22, accessed 15 October 2015)

 ____________"Canada and the 2003 invasion of Iraq: Prime Minister Chrétien's gloss on the UN charter principles on the use of force", (2007) 45 Canadian yearbook of international law 271-290;

Source de l'image: https://www.mcgill.ca/law/fr/about/profs/megret-frederic, visité 18 octobre 2015
MÉGRET, Frédéric, "Thinking About What International Humanitarian Lawyers 'Do': An Examination of the Laws of War as a Field of Professional Practice", (October 7, 2014) in Wouter Werner, Marieke de Hoon, and Alexis Galán Ávila (eds), The Law of International Lawyers (2015). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2670673 (accessed 18 October 2015);

Photo with the article
MELNYK, Kelly, "The Resort to Force and International Humanitarian Law in Contemporary Armed Conflicts: The Military Lawyers’ Perspective", Thompson Rivers University, Faculty of Law, available at  http://law.inside.tru.ca/2015/10/03/the-resort-to-force-and-international-humanitarian-law-in-contemporary-armed-conflicts-the-military-lawyers-perspective/ (accessed 16 November 2015);

Lieutenant-Commander Mike Madden and Major Patricia Beh of the Canadian Armed Forces, Judge Advocate General (JAG), will be speaking on the “The Resort to Force and International Humanitarian Law in Contemporary Armed Conflicts: The Military Lawyers’ Perspective” on Wednesday, October 14th, 2015 at 1:oopm in OM 3632.

"Memorandum of Understanding between, The Right Honourable Stephen Harper, Prime Minister and the Honourable Michael Ignatieff, Leader of the Official Opposition and Gilles Duceppe, Leader of the Bloc Québécois, available at https://www.scribd.com/doc/33140175/100615-Mou-en-Final (accessed 8 September 2016);

Alain Ménard (à droite) avec Francis (Frank)  Bergeron (court reporter), source de la photo: JAG Newsletter/Les actualités, vol. 1, 2003 at p. 16

MÉNARD, LCol A. (Alain), "The Role of the Military Judge: Meeting the Challenges of Independence - National Military Law Section Panel - Discipline Through Justice - Canadian Bar Association Annual Conference - Saskatoon - August 2001", (Jun-Dec 2001) 2 JAG Newsletter-Les actualités 49-54; note: "BGen Pitzul was the invited speaker at the luncheon given by the Association des avocats civilistes", November 1, 2001, Ottawa; note: bilingual article (parts in French and English) / article bilingue (parties en français et anglais);

___________Notes on LCol Ménard:

Biography - Lieutenant-Colonel Alain Ménard

Lieutenant-Colonel Ménard was born in Joliette, Québec. He obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Montréal and his Law degree at Sherbrooke University in 1971. Admitted to the practice of law in 1972 he has been a member of the Québec Bar ever since.

Lieutenant-Colonel Ménard practised law for 4 years in private practice before he enrolled in the CF in August 1976. After being commissioned he served initially in Ottawa in the Claims section and in the Legislation, Regulations, Orders and Finance section.

Promoted to the rank of major in 1980, he was appointed Deputy Judge Advocate, CFB Montréal (St-Hubert) until 1982 when he joined the Office of the Senior Legal Adviser Europe in Lahr, FRG, until 1986.

In July 1986 he was posted to the Defence and Training section in Ottawa until March 1987, at which date he was posted to the Legislation, Regulations, Orders and Finance section.

Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel on the 1st of August 1988 he was appointed Director of Law/Pensions and Estate in Ottawa for a period of one year.

On 21 November 1989, he was appointed Military Trial Judge for a period of 4 years, which appointment was renewed until November 2, 2002. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20021022002424/http://www.forces.ca/cmj/biosMenard_e.asp, accessed on 10 May 2014)


Biographie - Lieutenant-colonel Alain Ménard, CD

Le lieutenant-colonel Ménard est né à Joliette (Qc). Il a fait son cours classique au Séminaire de Joliette et son cours universitaire à Sherbrooke (Qc) où il obtint une licence en droit en 1971. Il fut admis à la pratique du droit en 1972 et est membre en règle du Barreau du Québec depuis lors.

Le lieutenant-colonel Ménard a pratiqué le droit pendant une période de 4 ans dans un bureau de pratique privée et s'est par la suite enrôlé dans les Forces canadiennes en août 1976. Une fois son brevet d'officier obtenu, il travaille au cabinet du Juge-avocat général à Ottawa à la section des réclamations de même qu'à celle des lois, règlements, ordonnances et finances.

Promu major en 1980, il occupe le poste d'adjoint au juge-avocat à la BFC Montréal (St-Hubert) jusqu'en 1982 d'où il est muté au bureau du conseiller juridique supérieur en Europe, à Lahr, en RFA jusqu'en 1986.

En juillet 1986, il est affecté à Ottawa à la section de défense et formation jusqu'en mars 1987 alors qu'il est muté à la section de législation, règlements, ordonnances et finances.

Promu lieutenant-colonel le 1er août 1988, il occupe le poste de Directeur juridique, Pensions et successions à Ottawa pendant un an.

Le 21 novembre 1989, il fut nommé juge militaire pour une période de quatre ans, nomination qui devait être renouvelée jusqu'au 2 novembre 2002. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20021028061635/http://www.forces.ca/cmj/biosMenard_f.asp, site visité le 10 mai 2014).

Source de l'image: Google image et aussi image à la page web citée immédiatement sous-dessous
Noémi Mercier

MERCIER, Noémi, "Jonathan Vance: ‘I’m not satisfied at all with where we are at’ Noémi Mercier in conversation with the Chief of the Defence Staff of the Canadian Armed Forces on sexual assault and harassment in the military", MacLean's, 1 February 2016; available at http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/jonathan-vance-im-not-satisfied-at-all-with-where-we-are-at-right-now/ (accessed 5 February 2016);

____________ "La justice militaire canadienne n’est pas indépendante»  Dans une entrevue exclusive, le grand responsable de la justice militaire du Royaume-Uni déplore le manque d’indépendance et d’impartialité de l’appareil de justice des Forces canadiennes",  L'actualité, 18 janvier 2016; disponible à  http://www.lactualite.com/societe/la-justice-militaire-canadienne-nest-pas-independante/ (vérifié 20 Janvier 2016);

___________ "La justice militaire sort gagnante en Cour suprême", L'Actualité, 24 novembre 2015; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/actualites/politique/la-justice-militaire-sort-gagnante-en-cour-supreme/ (visité 25 novembre 2015);

Ainsi, les Forces canadiennes conservent toute leur latitude pour juger non seulement les manquements disciplinaires de leurs membres
(comme l’insubordination ou l’absence sans permission), mais aussi leurs crimes, sans devoir consulter les autorités civiles. Et ce,
quelles que soient les circonstances. Que le soldat ait commis son infraction alors qu’il était en devoir ou non, que l’incident se soit
produit sur une base militaire ou en dehors, que la victime soit militaire ou civile, peu importe, tranche la Cour suprême: le procès
peut se dérouler dans une cour martiale, dans ce régime opaque où tous les acteurs, du juge au sténographe en passant par les
procureurs et les jurés, sont militaires.

Tout le flou qui pouvait encore planer sur ce point vient de s’envoler. «On a perdu sur toute la ligne», admet le Capitaine de corvette
Mark Létourneau, l’un des avocats militaires qui ont plaidé cette cause devant la Cour suprême. Joint au téléphone à son bureau de
Gatineau, quelques heures après le dévoilement du jugement, il était sonné par l’ampleur de la défaite. «Les assises constitutionnelles
 du système de justice militaire sont pas mal plus fortes aujourd’hui qu’hier.»

Source de l'image: http://www.lactualite.com/societe/crimes-sexuels-le-cancer-qui-ronge-larmee-canadienne/, visité le 28 novembre 2014

MERCIER, Noémi et Alec Castonguay, "Crimes sexuels: le cancer qui ronge l'armée", L'Actualité, 22 avril 2014;

Source: www.maitremarcomorin.com/fr/ (accessed 13 August 2016)
Marco Morin, ancien LCol au JAG et pratiquant maintenant à Victoriaville, cité dans l'article
___________"La justice militaire dans la mire de la Cour suprême", L'actualité, 7 mai 2015; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/actualites/quebec-canada/la-fin-de-la-justice-militaire/  (vérifié le 8 mai 2015);

Marco Morin, un avocat de Victoriaville et lieutenant-colonel à la retraite, a souvent plaidé en cour martiale, lui qui a exercé le droit dans les Forces pendant
une vingtaine d’années, dans les années 1990 et 2000. « Ce système de justice n’en est pas un, dit-il. La cour martiale est excellente pour rendre une justice
expéditive dans des cas d’infractions à caractère purement militaire. Mais dans des causes d’agressions sexuelles, elle n’a pas les mêmes outils que les tribunaux
civils pour apprécier la gravité de la situation et rendre des ordonnances appropriées. Pourquoi donner cette juridiction à la cour martiale? Les agressions sexuelles
sont des crimes contre la personne qui dépassent toujours l’intérêt des Forces canadiennes à maintenir la discipline interne. »


____________"Our military disgrace: An investigation uncovers the sexual violence plaguing our soldiers -- and a military hierarchy with its own justice system, and its own rules", Maclean's, 16 May 2014; available at http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/our-militarys-disgrace/ (accessed on 6 November 2014);

MERON, Theodor, "Civil Jurisdiction of Canadian Courts over United States Military Personnel in Canada", (January 1957) 12(1) The University of Toronto Law Journal 67-78;

MERRITT, William Hamilton, 1855-1918, The old militia law of Canada: the new militia laws of Australia and New Zealand and Lord Kirchener's report / by Lieut.-Col. Wm. Hamilton Merritt, [S.l. : s.n., 1910?], pp. [19]-58 ; 22 cm.,  Notes:  "Read before the Canadian Military Institute at Toronto, on Monday evening, 21st November, 1910"  and "Donation of Sylvia and Bernard Ostry, 1985" (source: University of Ottawa catalogue); copy at University of Ottawa, Archives Ostry -- MRT Concourse, KE 6800 .M48 1910; available at https://archive.org/details/oldmilitialawofc00merr, accessed 12 May 2015;

"Message from the Chair" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 2; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
"Précis : Message du président" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 2; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf  (site visité le 18 avril 2012 

MERTZ, Emily and Amy Wilson, "Military Traditions and Laws as Exercised in the Framework Created by Canadian Social Legislation", submitted to the Canadian Forces Leadership Institute, August 14, 2002, 57 p.;

MERXTM, Canadian Public Tenders, "Task-Based Informatics Professional Services (TBIPS) Requirement" [Department of National Defence, Judge Advocate General Comprehensive Information Management Project (JAG CIMP)], April 2012; available at http://www.merx.com/English/SUPPLIER_Menu.asp?WCE=Show&TAB=1&PORTAL=MERX&State=7&id=241963&src=osr&FED_ONLY=0&ACTION=&rowcount=&lastpage=&MoreResults=&PUBSORT=0&CLOSESORT=0&IS_SME=Y&hcode=WKgoXD%2BFQjBVzu3egDuzHA%3D%3D, accessed 24 February 2015;
Notice Description
Task-Based Informatics Professional Services (TBIPS) Requirement
This requirment is for: Department of National Defence
Description of the requirement:
The Judge Advocate General Comprehensive Information Management Project (JAG CIMP) within the Department of National Defence is providing a JAGNet portal for Legal Knowledge Management (LKM). LKM will give JAG users access to legal information stored within the records of the Office of the JAG, the corporate knowledge of its legal officers and the numerous legal information sources available throughout Canada and the world. Such access is made possible through application integration, collaboration and portal creation features provided by Microsoft Office SharePoint Server.

Photo of Armand de Mestral, reproduced from  http://www.mcgill.ca/humanrights/aboutus/members (accessed on 31 March 2014)

MESTRAL, Armand de, 1941-, "L'obligation constitutionnelle de respecter les conventions de Genève : quelques réflexions sur la place du droit humanitaire en droit canadien" dans Mélanges Gérald-A. Beaudoin,  Cowansville (Québec): Les Éditions Yvon Blais, 2002, pp. 155-162;

Troy Metz, image source http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/troy-metz/14/432/235, accessed on 25 Jun 2014

METZ, Troy Kenneth, 1970-, The training of the Canadian military and the Somalia affair, University of Saskatchewan thesis, 1997, iv, 116 leaves; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/tape15/PQDD_0005/MQ30520.pdf (accessed on 11 April 2014);

Contents The primary purpose of this thesis is to examine the training programme of Canadian military specifically the Airborne Regiment's officers prior to 1993, and correlate this training with the Somalia Affair. (source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 20 December 2011)

MGBEOJI, Ikechi, Course and Seminar, "Law of War", Osgoode Hall Law School--York University;

Law of War

Was NATO’s military intervention in Libya legal? What about Afghanistan? Or the imprisonment of America’s detainees
in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba? What is the legal status of killing by drones? What happens to people who commit war crimes?
What are the remedies for an illegal war? This seminar examines the international law governing war, including both
questions of when war is legal (so-called ‘jus ad bellum’) and how even legal wars must be conducted (so-called ‘jus in bello’
or the laws and customs of war) and the relationship between the two types of law. It also examines the various judicial institutions
that have jurisdiction over these issues, from the World Court, to the ad hoc tribunals (Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone), to
national courts exercising ‘universal jurisdiction’ (Belgium, Canada), to the new International Criminal Court.

Case studies on the armed conflicts over Kosovo, in Afghanistan, Iraq and Libya, and between Israel and the Palestinians, provide
the settings for concrete legal analysis and also for critical evaluation of the role of law in war.


Ikechi Mgbeoji, image source: http://www.osgoode.yorku.ca/faculty-and-staff/mgbeoji-ikechi/, accessed 26 December 2014
MGBEOJI, Ikechi,  
___________“Prophylactic Use of Force in International Law:  The Illegitimacy of Canada’s Participation in ‘Coalitions of the Willing’ Without United Nations Authorization and Parliamentary Sanction” (2003) 8(2) Review of Constitutional Studies 170-202; available at http://www.law.ualberta.ca/centres/ccs/uploads/Review8.2.pdf  (accessed on 8 May 2012);

___________"Reluctant Warrior Enthusiastic Peacekeeper: Domestic Legal Regulation of Canadian Participation in Armed Conflicts” (2005) 14(2) Constitutional Forum 7-17; available at http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/scholarly_works/717/ (accessed 2 June 2016);

MICHAUD, Kathy, Sarah Powers and Chantale Lussier-Ley, Survey on the summary trial process, [Ottawa, Ont.] : Director General Military Personnel Research & Analysis, 2009, xviii, 184 p.; xviii, 184 p. (series; DGMPRA technical note; 2009-22),

1. Introduction – 2. Methodology – 3. Overall demographics – 4. Accused – 5. Assisting officer – 6. Presiding officer – 7. Commanding officer – 8. Review authority – 9. Charging authority – 10. Discussion – 11. Conclusions – References – Annexes.

Administered yearly, the Survey on the Summary Trial Process supports the Judge Advocate General’s requirement to conduct annual reviews of the administration of military justice. Since 2007, this survey has been administered by the Directory of Military Personnel Operational Research and Analysis (DMPORA) on behalf of the Directorate of Law/Military Justice Policy and Research. In 2009, 423 responses were collected from those accused, Assisting Officers (A)s), Presiding Officers (POs), Commanding Officers (Cos), Review Authorities (RAs) and Charging Authorities (CAs) involved in the summary trials (ST) process in the 2008/09 fiscal year. Consistent with previous years, respondents of the survey were generally satisfied with the summary trial process, regardless of the role they played in the process. – p. i
[Source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 December 2011]

Image source: http://www.dal.ca/dept/cfps/fellows/middlemiss.html, accessed 28 November 2014
Dan Middlemiss

MIDDLEMISS, Dan, "Political Science 3571R/5571R -- The Politics of Contemporary Canadian Defence Policy", Course outline 2010-2011,  98 p.; extensive bibliography; available at http://politicalscience.dal.ca/Files/syllabi_docs/Fall_10.11/3571-_Fall.pdf (accessed on 2 March 2012);

Image source: https://twitter.com/cbcterry, accessed 18 August 2016
Terry Milewski
MILEWSKI, Terry, "Inside Canada's bombing bureaucracy", CBC News, 5 March 2016, available at  cbc.ca/news/politics/cf18-bombing-forms-milewski-1.3476675 (accessed 6 March 2016);
Pity the military bureaucrat, buried in acronyms. Even the most intrepid clerk may remember his ROE and STD but forget to check
his TSS/TEA with a LEGAD from the OJAG. It can happen to anyone.
For that, you'll need a LEGAD from the OJAG. You guessed it: a legal adviser from the Office of the Judge Advocate General.

'The doubt rule'

One of the few paragraphs not riddled with acronyms puts the pilots on notice: if you're not sure whether it's a civilian target or a military one, don't drop the bomb.

A section of the FRAG O guidelines describes the 'doubt rule,' instructing pilots not to bomb when unsure whether it's a civilian target or a military one. (Department of National Defence)


But the document wants to know: Is this bombing militarily necessary? Is the damage proportional to the benefits? Has the target been approved by the coalition? By the intelligence officer? By the legal adviser? By the Targeting Engagement Authority? 

Defence Department guidelines show questions to be answered and approvals obtained for every target during Operation Impact. Canada's CF-18 pilots flew 1,378 sorties over Iraq and Syria between Oct. 30, 2014, and Feb. 15, 2016. (Department of National Defence)

Your answer had better be, yes. It's enough to make you wonder if a LEGAD clings to every falling bomb, taking notes for the mandatory post-bombing reports.

Military Articles Meta Search Engine Created by Annette Demers, available at http://www.uwindsor.ca/law/library/new-military-articles-meta-search-engine-created-by-annette  (accessed on 30 November 2011; site at University of Windsor, Windsor Law);

Source of image: , accessed 27 September 2916
Colonel Bruce J. Wakeman, Chief of Staff Judge
 Advocate General, complainant

Military Judges Inquiry Committee, decision about the complaint against Chief Military Judge Mario Dutil, 27 April 2016; available at http://www.cmac-cacm.ca/bulletins/documents/April_27_2016.docx (accessed 27 September 2016);

Ottawa, 27 April 2016

The Military Judges Inquiry Committee, established in accordance with section 165.31 of the National Defence Act, reviewed a complaint against the Chief Military Judge Mario Dutil. The complaint was made by Colonel Bruce J Wakeham.


The complaint concerned allegations of infringement to the Defence Administrative Order and Directives (DAOD) 5019-1, Personal Relationships and Fraternization. After considering all the issues in this case, the complaint was dismissed on the basis that it did not raise any issue of judicial conduct as referred to in subsection 165.32(7) of the National Defence Act and therefore did not warrant consideration by the Military Judges Inquiry Committee.

Military Judges Selection Process, Ottawa: Department of National Defence, 2000, referred to by McNairn, "The Canadian Forces' Criminal Law Firm: A Blueprint for Independence", Part II, supra, p. 353;

Military Judges Selection Process, Ottawa, Backgrounder / January 24, 2001 / Project number: BG-01.003; available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=military-judges-selection-process/hnmx19ox, accessed on 12 February 2015; also published in French /aussi publié en français à http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/nouvelles/article.page?doc=processus-de-selection-des-juges-militiares/hnmx19ox, visité le 12 février 2015;



Subsection 165.21(1) of the National Defence Act provides that the Governor in Council may appoint officers who are barristers or advocates of at least ten years standing at the bar of a province to be military judges. To ensure that competent and deserving officers are recommended for military judicial appointments the Minister, in consultation with the Office of the Commissioner of Federal Judicial Affairs and the Minister of Justice, developed and implemented an evaluation and selection process that is consistent with the Federal Judicial Appointment process. The Office of the Commissioner of Federal Judicial Affairs administers and supports the process.

Military Judges Selection Committee

The military judges selection process provides for the assessment of candidates by an advisory committee, known as the Military Judges Selection Committee (MJSC). The MJSC, appointed by the Minister of National Defence is representative of the bench, the civilian bar and the military community. It is composed of:

  • a lawyer or judge nominated by the Judge Advocate General (JAG);
  • a civilian lawyer nominated by the Canadian Bar Association;
  • a civilian judge nominated by the Chief Military Judge;
  • an officer of the Canadian Forces, holding the rank of Major-General or higher, nominated by the Chief of the Defence Staff; and;
  • a non-commissioned member of the rank of Chief Warrant Officer or equivalent nominated by the Chief of the Defence Staff.

Candidate Assessments
Those interested in being considered for a military judicial appointment place their names before the MJSC. The MJSC assesses all candidates based upon a list of identified criteria relating to:

  • professional competence and experience;
  • personal characteristics such as honesty and integrity;
  • social awareness; and
  • potential impediments to appointment such as an inability to meet Canadian Forces medical and physical fitness requirements.

    All Committee proceedings and consultations take place on a confidential basis.

    Upon the completion of a candidate's assessment, the MJSC is asked to place the candidate into one of three possible assessment categories:

  • recommended;
  • highly recommended; or
  • unable to recommend.


    Once the MJSC has completed its assessment of a candidate, the assessment is forwarded to the Minister of National Defence. The Minister of National Defence is ultimately responsible for recommending candidates to the Governor in Council.


    The Government of Canada and the Minister of National Defence are committed to ensuring the appointment of qualified and deserving candidates to the military judiciary. The evaluation and selection process implemented by the Minister ensures this occurs and contributes to the strengthening of the Canadian Forces as a national institution.

    * The full text of the Military Judges Selection Process is available on request [emphasis added]


    JAG Court reporters, 1981, photo reproduced from the book: McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur),
    Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, at p. 111.

    Military justice and court reporters", (11 May 2011) The Maple Leaf--La feuille d'érable 7; aussi en français à la meme page: "La justice militaire et les sténpgraphes judiciaires"; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/dn-nd/D12-7-14-16.pdf (accessed 11 September 2016);

    "Military Justice - Too Little, Too Late", (shipped October 1998) volume 6, issue 9, Esprit de Corps,  pp. 5 and 11; the article deals mostly about General Gerry Pitzul, the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces;

    MILITARY LAW CENTRE, Kingston, various notes on the:

    The Military Law Centre on the grounds of RMC, staffed with 12 military lawyers, oversees the education of officers and troops in legal matters ranging from the Forces own code of conduct to the laws of war. It trains military lawyers and advises Ottawa on matters of policy and doctrine. The centre integrates legal education into the regular training that Forces members undergo and establishes its growing importance within the military hierarchy. Selected RMC Canada cadets participate in Law Of Armed Conflict international Competitions each ll with cadets from USAFA, USMA, USNA, and USCGA. In the Spring of 2008, RMC cadets will be selected to participate in a competition on the Law of Armed Conflict at the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in Sanremo, Italy. (source: http://edu724476.typepad.com/blog/2012/02/military-school-royal-military-college-of-canada.html, accessed 16 April 2015);


    "Military Law Section Meeting and CLE conference 'Military Justice -- an Oxymoron?' -- June 5, 2009, Ottawa" (May/Mail 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#top and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#article2 (accessed on 28 April 2012);
    ___________"Conférence de 2009 en droit militaire et réunion du comité exécutif de la Section le 5 juin 2009, Ottawa" (May/Mai 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx  et http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article4 (site visité le 28 avril  2012);

    Military Libraries in Canada:

    Military libraries : Canada
    Canadian Forces College
    Canadian Forces School of Aerospace Studies (Intranet)
    Canadian Forces School of Communications & Electronics (Intranet)
    Canadian Forces Virtual Library
    Defence and Research Development Canada
    Fort Frontenac (Intranet)
    General-Jean-V.-Allard Memorial Library (Intranet)
    National Defence Headquarters (Intranet)
    ORD : Operational Research Division (Intranet)
    Royal Military College of Canada
    Training Schools : CFB Borden (Intranet)

    Ŝource : http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/303/180/223.php?typeId=14#14

    MILITARY NEWSPAPERS, List of:  (information from Internet, accessed 18 April 2016)

    Naval Base Newspapers


    Air Force Base Newspapers

    Army Base Newspapers


    Canadian National Defence Headquarters


    MILITARY POLICE COMPLAINTSCOMMISSION OF CANADA, Final Report on the Fynes Public Interest Hearing - MPCC 2011-004, available at http://www.mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/01/1400/3700/2011-004/index-eng.aspx  (accessed 30 September 2016);

    MILITARY POLICE COMPLAINTS COMMISSION,  Chairperson's Final Report -- Following a Public Interest Investigation Pursuant to Subsection 250.38(1) of the National Defence Act With Respect to the Complaints of Brigadier-General Patricia Samson Canadian Forces Provost Marshall And Ex-Warrant Officer Matthew Stopford, Ottawa: Military Police Commission, Ottawa: 17 January 2001,  80 p., files: MPCC 2000-023 and MPCC 2000-025 (Chairperson: Louise Cobetto); available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20071115030212/http://www.mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/300/319_e.aspx (accessed on 26 February 2012);
    COMMISSION D'EXAMEN DES PLAINTES CONCERNANT LA POLICE MILITAIRE, Rapport final de la Présidente consécutivement à une enquête d'intérêt public en vertu du paragraphe 250.38(1) de la Loi sur la défense nationale à l'égard des plaintes du brigadier-général Patricia Samson, Grand prévôt des Forces canadiennes et de l'ex-adjudant Matthew Stopford, Ottawa: Commission d'examen des plaintes concernant la police militaire, 17 janvier 2001, 83 p., dossiers: CPPM 2000-023 et CPPM 2000-025 (Présidente: Louise Cobetto); disponible à http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20071115034033/http://www.mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/300/319_f.aspx (vérifié le 26 février 2012); 

    ___________Interference With Military Police Investigations: What Is It About?, Ottawa: Military Police Complaints Commission, 2002, 19 p., ISBN: 0-662-67184-8; available at http://www.mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/alt_format/300/315-eng.pdf  (accessed on 26 February 2006);
    ___________L'ingérence dans les enquêtes de la police militaire; de quoi s'agit-il?, Ottawa: Commission d'examen des plaintes concernant la police militaire, 2002, 21 p., ISBN: 0-662-67184-8; disponible à http://www.mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/alt_format/300/315-fra.pdf (visité le 26 février2012);

    image source: https://twitter.com/millarslaw, accessed 20 August 2016
    Philip Millar
    MILLAR, Philip, Anonymous author, article on Philip Millar, "Phillip Millar Tackles Sexual Assault at CBA Military Conference", Millars Law: A Professional Corporation Web site, 17 June 2016; available at http://millarslaw.com/2016/06/17/phillip-millar-tackles-sexual-assault-at-cba-military-conference/ (accessed 20 August 2016);

    On June 2, 2016, the annual Canadian Bar Association’s Military Law Conference was held in Ottawa.


    Phillip went on to state that once a complaint is made, serving soldiers can be laid and a court martial held, but afterwards they cannot sue their employer. Essentially, they are denied the civil remedy most civilians have available to them to seek damages and receive justice. In addition, Phillip addressed the fact that lawyers who represent the Department of National Defence in civil suits do not reflect the internal policies of the Chain of Command when it comes to treating victims with respect. He brought up the example of one case in which lawyers for the defence described a sexual assault as a simple breast groping, thereby showing a lack of understanding of the nature of what a sexual assault constitutes and the power dynamics involved.

    ___________"Military Punishes Sexual Assault Victims", Millars Law: A Professional Corporation Web site, 21 May 2016; available at http://millarslaw.com/2016/05/21/sexualassaultinthemilitary/ (accessed 21 August 2016);

    MINENKO, Mark, 1957-, Private Military Companies: Their Role in the Continuum of Conflict, University of Alberta, 2003, [viii], 278 leaves ; 29 cm; A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Laws, Faculty of Law, Edmonton, Alberta, Fall, 2003. Thesis (LL.M)--University of Alberta, 2003; advisor: G. Gall;

    Changes in global security issues have resulted in increasing amounts of intrastate conflict. Alleviating the human suffering which these conflicts bring requires quick reaction which the United Nations preventive process has not been able to meet. A review of the record of various UN peacekeeping and regional rapid reaction forces indicates that not only have these alternatives not relieved human suffering, but that these forces have negatively contributed to the conflict they are meant to resolve. This thesis argues that there are no stated legal impediments to the introduction of Private Military Companies into the continuum of conflict. The thesis also looks at a number of issues related to the UN Secretary-General and his ability to interpret his role and concludes that the Secretary-General of the UN has sufficient authority to outsource the immediate reaction to conflict and hire Private Military Companies. (source: http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/ER/detail/hkul/3076435, accessed 18 August 2016)

    Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/ian-mingo/45/860/942, accessed on 1 December 2014
    Ian Mingo

    MINGO, Ian, "Law Clerk, Office of the Legal Advisor to the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces, January 2013--April 2013 (4 months), Ottawa", available at https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/ian-mingo/45/860/942, accessed on 1 December 2014;

    Law Clerk

    Office of the Legal Advisor to the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces
    (4 months) Ottawa

    Provided administrative support to the Director of Claims and Civil Litigation,
    Counsel and paralegals: coordinated meetings, prepared briefing binders for the Minister and senior officials
    on the status of litigation cases, coordinated travel arrangements, prepared travel claims and filed litigation documents;
    Scanned, uploaded and retrieved legal documents into iCase for counsel and paralegals;
    Managed the process for ministerial correspondence, access to Information and privacy requests;
    Secured approvals to release funds for litigation cases and mailed payments;
    Delivered documents to the Minister of National Defence and Deputy Minister for signature;
    Responded to inquires on behalf of the Director of Claims and Civil Litigation;
    Liaised with government departments and litigators on civil litigation files;
    Ran reports for the Director using iCase (Time compliance, Contingent Liability, Legal Risk, Open cases)
    Managed project timelines and resources with Microsoft Project;
    Drafted Standard Operating Procedures for the unit

    MINISTÈRE DE LA DÉFENSE NATIONALE, "Le choix d'être jugé par procès sommaire ou devant une cour martiale : guide à l'intention des accusés et des officiers désignés pour les aider", Ottawa: Ministère de la défense nationale, 1997, document cité par Paul Cormier, dans "La Justice militaire canadienne: le procès sommaire est-il conforme à l'article 11(d) de la Charte canadienne des droits et libertés?", (2000) 45 McGill Law Journal 209-262 à la p. 215, note 21;

    MINISTÈRE DE LA DÉFENSE NATIONALE, Communiqué de presse, "Rapport du JAG [Brigadier-général Jerry Pitzul] sur les premiers mois de la réforme du système judiciaire", 30 ami 2000; disponible à http://cnrp.ccnmatthews.com/news/releases/show.jsp?action=showRelease&actionFor=346883&searchText=false&showText=all (vérifié le 10 juin 2013); note: "Communiqué de presse transmis par le fil de presse CCN -- un service D'ITG pour défense nationale";

    Source: https://gowlingwlg.com/en/canada/people/jonathan-minnes, accessed 10 August 2016
    Jonathan Minnes

    MINNES, Jonathan, "Law and Justice: Scott v. Canada and the History of the Social Covenant with Veterans Affairs", (2016) 25(1) Canadian Military History 1-32; available at http://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1821&context=cmh (accessed 10 August 2016);

    ___________Wlliam Petrie Graduate Student Library Scholarship Essay Contest Jonathan Minnes, available at https://dspace.library.uvic.ca/bitstream/handle/1828/6826/Minnes_Jonathan_PetrieWinner_2015.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed 10 August 2016);

    Author Amy Minsky, source: http://globalnews.ca/author/amy-minsky/, accessed 14 March 2015

    MINSKY, Amy, "Suggesting Charter rights for military puts judge Advocate General's crosshairs", Global News, 13 March 2015 available at http://globalnews.ca/news/1878846/suggesting-charter-rights-for-military-puts-judge-in-dnds-crosshairs/ (accessed 14 March 2015);

    Shaunna Mireau, image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/shaunna-mireau/3/65b/8, accessed on 22 January 2015

    MIREAU, Shaunna, "Canadian military law",  (October-November 2002) 27(2) LawNow 42-43; available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OJX/is_2_27/ai_n25039309/ (accessed on 9 March  2012);

    MOFINA, Rick, "Ombudsman fires salvo at military police - Evidence 'withheld' from investigations", The Ottawa Citizen, Saturday, June 2, 2001, p. A6;

    MOCK, Karen R., "The Somalia Inquiry: What Does It Have to Do with US?   Focus on Human Rights" (winter 1996) 30(2) Canadian Social Studies 53-55;

    Explores the recent scandal concerning Canadian paratroopers' conduct during the United Nations relief and peacekeeping efforts. Three soldiers from an elite commando unit tortured and murdered an unarmed Somali teenager. Government investigation of this incident  has focused on racist ideology, socialization of recruits, and chain-of-command responsibility. (MJP) [source:http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ525298&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ525298, accessed on 6 December 2011]

    Source: http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/58/2013-05-21-20.pdf, accessed 16 August 2016
    Cdr Sheila Archer and Lt(N) Carl Monk

    MONK, Carl, "100  yrs  of military laws",  in CFB Esquimalt  Navy News on Linehttp://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/top-stories.php?id=501 (accessed on 13 March 2012);

    In Canada, the post was created in 1911 by Minister of Defence Frederick (later Sir Frederick) Borden, who was frustrated at not having Canadian military legal expertise. The first JAG, Colonel Smith, was a militia army officer and lawyer who had risen through the ranks over the course of a 49-year career, seeing action in several conflicts. ...

    Today, there are approximately 151 Regular Force and 55 Reserve Force members advising the Chain of Command and the Minister of National Defence on increasingly complex matters pertaining to military law, both at home and abroad. Legal issues range from providing advice on disciplinary measures for infractions of the Code of Service Discipline, to providing operational legal advice to Commanding Officers in the field and at sea. In fact, legal officers have found themselves increasingly deployed, providing advice on issues such as targeting, rules of engagement, and Law of the Sea.


    Besides operational advice, the Branch tends to matters of administrative law and military justice. Administrative law focuses on issues such as compensation and benefits for members, personnel matters, and pensions and service estates, hile military justice matters relate to the unique enforcement of discipline. l.

    Image source: http://carleton-ca.academia.edu/matthewmoore/CurriculumVitae, accessed 11 April 2017
    Matthew Moore
    MOORE, Mathew, The Kiss of Death Bestowed with Gratitude: The Postwar Treatment of Canada's Second World War Merchant Navy, Redress, and the Negotiation of Veteran Identity, A thesis submitted to Carleton University in fulfillment of the requirements for the course HIST 5909, as credit toward the degree of Master of Arts in History-- History, Department of History, Carleton University, Ottawa, 31 August 2015; available at (accessed 11 April 2017); available at https://curve.carleton.ca/system/files/etd/2e3315e9-7655-4133-8bed-80ad2329074a/etd_pdf/d27295463cda90d7813b5dba1d49b296/moore-thekissofdeathbestowedwithgratitudethepostwar.pdf (accessed 11 April 2017);

    This thesis focuses on the Merchant Navy’s redress campaign and appraises
    shifting government attitudes towards the mariners in veterans’ legislation. It traces the
    wartime experience of the mariners and discusses their postwar treatment. By examining
    the factors that contributed to the mariners’ initial exclusion as veterans, this study sheds
    light on the complex process whereby the state evaluates and then reassesses what is
    owed to those who serve. It demonstrates that concepts of “veteranhood” are fluid, and,
    that in the case of the Merchant Navy, once neglected wartime narratives can be
    reincorporated into the nation’s military past. In the case of the Merchant Navy, renewed
    public engagement with Canada’s social memory of its involvement in two world wars
    helped the merchant seamen find an audience willing to validate their claims. This study
    of Merchant Navy redress serves as an exploration into the nature of the state- veteran

    Lt.Cmdr. Gina Connor (right) is a member of the OJAG
    MOORE, Randall, "Day in Photos--Best pictures from March 18", The Globe and Mail, 18 March 2014; available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/multimedia/camera-club/in-photos/best-pictures-from-the-past-24-hours/article17559838/ (accessed 26 February 2017); on 18 March 2014, the last CAF members returned to Canada from Afghanistan.

    MORCHAIN, Major G., "L'appui aux pouvoirs civils"  (février-mars 1971) 7(2)  Sentinelle 1-14; this article should also be available in English; note Sentinel: magazine of the Canadian Forces (in English) or Sentinelle: revue des Forces canadiennes (French) was a periodical magazine of the Canadian Forces published under the authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff; periodical existed 1965-1994, see https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/military/025002-1011.01-e.html;

    André Morel, image source: http://www.mcgill.ca/reporter/36/17/convocation/honorary/, accessed on 21 April 2014

    MOREL, André, "Les garanties en matière de procédure et de peines (alinéas 11b), f),  articles 12 et 14)",  in Gérald-A. Beaudoin and Errol Mendes, eds., The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 3rd ed., Scarborough (Ontario), Carswell (Thomson Professional Publishing), 1996, pp. 12-1 to 12-64; see in particular pp. 12-23 to 12-26 for Professor Morel's discussion and interpretation of s. 11(f) of the Charter, ISBN: 045956014X (bound) and 04595604171 (pbk.);
    aussi disponible dans: sous la direction de Gérald Beaudoin et Errol P. Mendes, Charte canadienne des droits et libertés,  3e éd., Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, c1996,  xxv, 1192 p.,  ISBN    2891273494;

    Source de l'image: friends-amis.org/index.php/fr/evenements/235-french/publications/flambeau1/flambeau-aout-2016/822-benevole-de-l-annee-des-amcg-2015-2016-jean-morin, visité 27 novembre 2016
    Jean Morin, à droite, reçoit le prix de bénévole de l'année
    2015-2016 des Amis du Musée canadien de la guerre, de Linda
    Colwell et Stephen Quick

    MORIN, Jean, « La discipline militaire un impératif. Partie 1 : Le rôle des forces armées. Partie 2 : L’interaction entre les forces armées et le gouvernement civil. Partie 3 : L’importance de la subordination au pouvoir politique. Partie 4 : Les valeurs. Partie 5 : La loyauté », (1997), La Citadelle, vol.33 n°2 (avril) ; n°3 (juin); titre noté dans mes recherches; article pas encore lu; article cité à https://unites.uqam.ca/chf/conf163.htm (visité 27 novembre 2016);

    Colonel (retired) René Morin
    MORIN, René, DND Dependants' Schools 1921-1983, Ottawa: Directorate of History, National Defence Headquarters, 1986, xiv, 170 p., plus annexes; available at http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/docs/dependants_e.pdf (accessed 23 October 2016);

    Image source:                                                     Rev. Capt. Victor Morris, video at gracecamrose.ca/worship/sermon/sermon-2016-04-24/ (accessed 14 April 2017)
     accessed 14 April 2017
    Rev. Vic Morris

    MORRIS. Victor (Vic) E., "Conscience and the Canadian Armed Forces" (Spring 2017) 17(2) Canadian Military Journal 15-25; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/Vol17/no2/page15-eng.asp and http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/Vol17/no2/PDF/CMJ172Ep15.pdf (accessed 14 April 2017);

    Photo of Desmond Morton, reproduced from http://cepsi-cipss.ca/en/membres/desmondmorton/ (accessed on 31 March 2014)

    MORTON, Desmond, 1937-,  "Aid to the Civil Power: The Canadian Militia in Support of Social  Order, 1867-1914", (December 1970) 51(4) Canadian Historical Review 407-425;

    ___________ Une histoire militaire du Canada: des origines à 1990, version française dirigée par Serge Bernier, Sillery (Québec): Éditions du Septentrion, 1992, 414 p., ISBN:  2921114704;  traduction de A Military History of Canada;


    ___________ Histoire militaire du Canada, nouvelle édition rev. et aug., Outremont (Québec): Athéna, 2009, 375 p., (Collection; Histoire militaire), ISBN:  2921114704;

    ___________A Military History of Canada, 5th ed., Toronto : M&S (McClelland & Stewart), 2007, xiii, 369 p., [48] p., bibliographical references at pp. 319-338, ISBN: 9780771064814;

    ___________Ministers and Generals.  Politics and the Canadian Militia, 1868-1904, University of Toronto Press, 1970;

    ___________" 'No More Disagreeable or Onerous Duty': Canadians and  Military Aid of the Civil Power, Past,  Present, Future", in David B. Dewitt, 1948-,  and David Leyton-Brown, eds., Canada's International Security Policy, Scarborough (Ontario): Prentice Hall Canada, 1995, viii, 504 p., at pp. 129-152, ISBN: 0133115496; very important contribution to the subject;

    ___________"The Supreme Penalty: Canadian Deaths by Firing Squad in the First World  War",  (1972) 79 Queen's Quarterly 345-352;

    ___________Understanding Canadian Defence, Toronto: Penguin Canada, 2003, xiii, 234 p., ISBN: 0141008059; note: "A Penguin/McGill Institute Book"; copy at Ottawa University, FC 226 .M69 2003;


    MOWAT, H.M., "The Law and the Soldier", (1898) 18 The Canadian Law Times PDF at pp. 97-107 (posted on 18 January 2012); notes: "Extracts from a paper delivered before the Canadian Military Institute, Toronto", p. 97;

    Image source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/hannah-mullen-0b20b168, accessed 2 April 2016
    Hannah Mullen

    MULLEN, Hannah M., Shifting Scales of Justice: Military Justice Reform in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States, Thesis (A.B., Honors in Government)--Harvard University, 2015, 138 p., 29 cm, Notes: Thomas T. Hoopes Prize--Harvard University, 2015; noted in Harvard Hollis catalogue; Adviser: Prof. Cheryl Welch;

    Image source: http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/arts/centres/mmfc/, accessed 18 August 2016

    MURIEL McQUEEN FERGUSON CENTRE FOR FAMILY VIOLENCE and Resolve Violence and Abuse Reserach Centre, Report on the Canadian Forces Response to Woman Abuse in Military Families [electronic resource] / prepared by the Family Violence and the Military Community  research teams of the Muriel McQueen Fergusson Centre for Family Violence Research at the University of New  Brunswick and the RESOLVE Violence and Abuse Research Centre at the University of Manitoba Canadian forces' response to woman abuse in military  families [electronic resource]  Family violence and the military community [electronic resource], Fredericton, N.B. : Muriel McQueen Fergusson Centre for  Family Violence Research, 2000,  available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050503130958/http://www.unbf.ca/arts/CFVR/military.html (accessed on 2 August 2008); also available at http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/arts/centres/mmfc/_resources/pdfs/familyviolmilitaryreport.pdf(accessed 7 October 2016);

    MURPHY, Brian, "Military law course is a unique offering for non-military students", (19 August 2005) 25(14) The Lawyers Weekly 12; available at http://www.lawyersweekly.ca/index.php?section=article&articleid=138 (accessed on 15 July 2008); law course, University of Alberta, Alberta Law School;  Mr. Brian Murphy is an ex JAG officer; available at   http://www.lawyersweekly.ca/articles/138  (accessed 15 August 2016);

    MURPHY, Lindsay, DND/CF LA and Bob Smith, Assoc DGPFSS, "Everything you wanted to know about NPP...but were afraid to ask An NPP Primer", Base and Wing Commanders and Chief Warrant Officers Conference, 27 April 2010, 22 slides, available at http://slideplayer.com/slide/6385877/ (accessed 21 December 2015);


    MURPHY, Ray, "A Comparative Analysis of the Municipal Legal Basis for Canadian and Irish Participation in United Nations Forces", (1999) 38 Military Law  and Law War Review 163;

    ___________"International humanitarian law training for multinational peace support operations -- lessons from experience", 31-12-2000 Article, International Review of the Red Cross, No. 840, available at http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jqtg.htm (accessed on 21 December 2011);

    ___________"Legal Framework of UN Forces and Issues of Command and Control of Canadian and Irish Forces", (1999) 4(1) Journal of Conflict and Security Law 41-73;

    Image source: http://www.amazon.ca

    ___________UN Peacekeeping in Lebanon, Somalia and Kosovo: operational and legal issues in  practice, Cambridge University Press, 2007, xv, 375 p.;

    ___________"United Nations Peacekeeping in Lebanon and Somalia, and the Use of Force", (2003) 8(1) Journal of Conflict and Security Law 71-99;

    The article analyzes the use of force in traditional peacekeeping operations, and second‐generation peace enforcement operations. It examines two operations in particular, UNIFIL in south Lebanon, and the UN operations in Somalia. Although both missions had different purposes, it is surprising how the interpretation of the rules of engagement (ROE) and the right to resort to force in self‐defence were dependent on subjective variables. In the case of Somalia, once the operation was approved under chapter VII, this had a significant impact on how commanders viewed their role. In the case of UNIFIL, early confrontation with armed groups set a precedent that to a large extent determined the nature and extent of force used by the peacekeeping force thereafter. However, in the case of both operations, the actual wording of the relevant Security Council resolutions was remarkably vague. This in turn influenced the application of the ROE, which by their very nature lent themselves to either restrictive or expansive interpretations. The publication of the Brahimi Report, and the report on events that led to the fall of Srebrenica, have questioned the traditional response of UN forces to the use of force and advocated the formulation of a more robust doctrine. The experience of UN forces in Somalia and Lebanon shows that the non‐use of force except in self‐defence principle has proved controversial and difficult to apply in practice, not least because of its correlation to the other characteristics, especially the need to maintain impartiality.  (source: http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/8/1/71.abstract?sid=be9f35b0-fed1-4131-80ea-5f98241d5e5e, accessed 2 February 2015)

    MURPHY, REX, CBC commentator, "Operation Snatch Niggers Pt. 1", You Tube, available at http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?ref=mashpedia&q=R4od_5pXmbg (accessed on 28 August 2016); on the Airborne Regiment (Somalia Affair);

    NADEAU, Phyllis, "The Court Martial Case", (2004) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 24-25;
    NADEAU, Phyllis, "Procédure de la cour martiale", (2004) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 25-26;

    Image source:  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/03/ugandas-military-courts.html, accessed 25 September 2016
    Dr. Ronald Naluwairo

    NALUWAIRO, Ronald, "Military courts and human rights: A critical analysis of the compliance of Uganda's military justice with the right to an independent and impartial tribunal", (2012) 12 African Human Rights Law Journal 448-469; deals with Canadian law; available at http://www.ahrlj.up.ac.za/images/ahrlj/2012/ahrlj_vol12_no2_2012_ronald_naluwairo.pdf  (accessed 25 May 2015);

    NATHANSON CENTRE ON TRANSITIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS, CRIME AND SECURITY, Special Forum on the Canadian Mission in Afghanistan (February 2010), "Archive of video webcasts and transcripts of testimony before the Special Committee", available at http://nathanson.osgoode.yorku.ca/programs/conferences-workshops/2009-2010/special-forum-on-canadian-mission-afghanistan/archive-of-video-webcasts-transcripts-of-testimony-before-special-committee/ (accessed 2 April 2017);

    NATIONAL DEFENCE, Canadian Forces 101 for Civilians, 163 p.; available at https://www.familyforce.ca/sites/London/EN/Documents/CF-101%20for%20Civilians%20EN.pdf (accessed 25 September 2016);

    NATIONAL DEFENCE AND BOARD OF INQUIRY, "Board of Inquiry – Allegation of assault of a civilian by Afghan National Security Forces and the Canadian Forces response to such incidents (Redacted)", available at  http://forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-boards-inquiry/ptsd-exec-summary.page (accessed 13 April 2016);

    NATIONAL DEFENCE AND CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, Elizabeth Rolland-Harris, Elizabeth Cyr, Mark A. Zamorski,  2016 Report on Suicide Mortality in the Canadian Armed Forces (1995 to 2015), [Ottawa]: Surgeon General Report, Surgeon General Health Research Program, Surgeon General Document Number (SGR-2016-005), November 2016, 42 pages, complete document?, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-health/report-on-suicide-mortality-caf-2016.page#references  and http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/about-reports-pubs-health/report-suicide-mortality-caf-2016.pdf (accessed 25 November 2016);

    NATIONAL DEFENCE AND CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, "Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II Meets with Judge Advocate General", Image Gallery, Article/ June 9, 2015; available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=her-majesty-queen-elizabeth-ii-meets-with-judge-advocate-general/iaiiotep (accessed on 25 October 2015); also published in French/aussi publié en français à http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/nouvelles/article.page?doc=sa-majeste-la-reine-elizabeth-ii-rencontre-le-juge-avocat-general/iaiiotep;

    Major-General Blaise Cathcart, Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Armed Forces, on June 5th, 2015, was granted the Canadian Forces Legal Branch’s first audience with Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, who serves as their Colonel-in-Chief. Major-General Cathcart, along with Sir Graham Day, Colonel Commandant of the Canadian Forces Legal Branch, presented Her Majesty with a Legal Branch membership coin and a plaque of the Legal Branch Crest, while also updating her on the affairs of the Branch. 

    Legal Branch coins are presented to Legal Officers upon their qualification, and are consecutively numbered to indicate the order of entry into the Branch. The coin presented to Her Majesty carried the inscription “Regina,” to indicate her status within the Legal Branch. The coin contained the Branch motto, “Fiat Justitia”, often translated as “let justice prevail” or “let right be done”. This motto is also a reference to a ruling made by King Edward VII in 1910, and serves as a link between the Canadian Forces Legal Branch and the Royal Family.

    [Here is the LIST of the 306 JAG Officers who have received a JAG coin; list obtained Access to Information Act letter, file A-2016-01294, dated 7 December 2016]


    Le 5 juin 2015, le major-général Blaise Cathcart, juge-avocat général des Forces armées canadiennes, s’est vu accorder la première audience pour la Branche des services juridiques des Forces canadiennes avec Sa Majesté la reine Elizabeth II, qui est leur colonel en chef. Le major-général Cathcart, en compagnie de Sir Graham Day, colonel commandant de la Branche des services juridiques des Forces armées canadiennes, a remis à Sa Majesté un médaillon et une plaque arborant l’insigne de la Branche des services juridiques, et l’a entretenue des affaires courantes de la Branche. 

    Les médaillons de la Branche des services juridiques sont remis aux avocats militaires une fois qualifiés et admis au sein de la Branche; ils portent un numéro de série afin d’indiquer l’ordre d’adhésion. Le médaillon remis à Sa Majesté portait l’inscription « Regina » pour indiquer son statut au sein de la Branche des services juridiques, ainsi que la devise de la Branche, « Fiat Justitia », souvent traduite par « Que justice soit faite ». Cette devise renvoie également à une décision rendue par le roi Edward VII en 1910 et sert de lien entre la Branche des services juridiques des Forces canadiennes et la famille royale.

    [Voici la LISTE des 306 officiers du JAG qui ont reçus le jeton JAG; cette liste a été obtenue par une demande de la Loi sur l'Accès à l'information, lettre, dossier A-2016-01294, datée le 7 décembre 2016]

    Image source: www.google.ca/, Google image search, accessed 14 March 2017
    LCdr Anthony Russel giving a lecture at Laval University

    NATIONAL DEFENCE AND THE CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, "Quebec Region Update - April 2015.  LCdr Russel, Guest of Honour Laval University’s Faculty of Law"/"Des nouvelles de la région du Québec - Avril 2015.  Le Capc Russel : invité d’honneur de la faculté de droit de l’Université Laval";


    On March 17, Lieutenant-Commander Anthony Russel, Deputy Judge Advocate, spoke at a conference organized by the Clinic of International Criminal
    and Humanitarian Law at Laval University in Montréal. In the morning, LCdr Russel presented on the CAF Code of Conduct for international operations.

    He then joined Julia Grignon, Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law, to give a course to Masters students on the law of armed conflict, specifically the
    CAF’s targeting doctrine. In an interactive fashion, Lt.Col. Russel covered the fundamental principles of targeting, the role of the deployed legal officer,
     targeting methods, legitimate objectives and the rules of engagement as well as the fundamental rules of targeting. (source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/
    news/article.page?doc=quebec-region-update-april-2015/i8oa1nfm, accessed 14 March 2017)


    Le Capitaine de corvette Anthony Russel, juge-avocat adjoint Montréal, était présent une conférence-midi organisée par la Clinique de droit international
    pénal et humanitaire de l’Université Laval. En cette occasion, le Capc Russel a présenté le code de conduite des FAC dans le cadre d'opérations internationales.

    Puis, durant l’après-midi, il s’est joint au cours de Julia Grignon, professeure adjointe à la faculté de droit, pour animer une séance de formation portant sur le
    droit des conflits armés: « l'égérie » de la doctrine de ciblage des FAC. De manière interactive, il a énoncé des principes fondamentaux à connaître en matière
    de ciblage, a présenté le rôle de l'avocat militaire déployé, a expliqué ce qu'est le ciblage, a parlé des méthodes de ciblage, a défini ce qu'est un objectif légitime,
     a abordé les règles d'engagement (ce qu'elles sont,  leur rôle dans le ciblage, qui les adopte et les promulgue) et a expliqué les règles fondamentales du ciblage.
    (Source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/nouvelles/article.page?doc=des-nouvelles-de-la-region-du-quebec-avril-2015/i8oa1nfm, visité le 14 mars 2017)

    NATIONAL DEFENCE AND THE CANADIAN ARMED FORCES (web route : Defence Home to CAF Community to Legal Services), "Legal Services", available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/index.page (accessed 9 June 2016);


    Defence counsel services (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/defence-counsel-services.page)

    Voting & elections (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/voting-and-elections.page)

    Legislative initiatives (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/legislative-initiatives.page)

    Service Estates (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/service-estates.page)

    Prosecution Services (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/mil-prosecutions.page)

    Most Requested

    ____________(web route: Home to Public Service and military), "Services and benefits for the military", available at https://www.canada.ca/en/government/publicservice/benefitsmilitary/index.html (accessed 9 June 2016);

    Services and Information

    Support and health services (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-support-services/index.page)

    Housing services (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-support-services-housing/index.page)

    Conflict, misconduct and harassment resolution (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-dispute-resolution-centres/index.page)

    Voting and elections (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/voting-and-elections.page)

    Defence ethics (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about/defence-ethics.page)

    Pay, pension and benefits (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-benefits/index.page)

    Education and training (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/education-training.page)

    Legal services (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-legal-services/index.page)

    Most Requested

    What we are doing

    Laws and Regulations


    ___________"Board of Inquiry into Command, Control, and Leadership of Combat [in Bosnia]", Backgrounder / January 19, 1997 / Project number: BG-97-009, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=board-of-inquiry-into-command-control-and-leadership-of-canbat-2/hnlhlx39  (accessed 14 December 2016); research note: see the "The Thomas Report", Backgrounder / January 17, 1997 / Project number: BG-97.006, availabhle at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=the-thomas-report/hnlhlx2z (accessed 14 December 2016);

    Daniel Ménard, à gauche, avec son avocat Me Jean Asselin

    NATIONAL POST STAFF, "Canada’s former top soldier in Afghanistan Daniel Ménard now locked in Kabul jail over alleged gun smuggling", 30 January 2014, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/canadas-former-top-soldier-in-afghanistan-daniel-menard-now-locked-in-kabul-jail-over-alleged-gun-smuggling (accessed 13 January 2017); 

    NATIONS-UNIES, Manuel du quartier-général des la force des Nations Unies, novembre 2014, iv, 106 p.; disponible à http://dag.un.org/bitstream/handle/11176/89596/United%20Nations%20FHQ%20Handbook%20French%20version.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y (accessed 9 August 2016);

    Photo of Peter R. Partner, source of photo: McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, supra, at p. 144.
    NAUTICAPEDIA, THE, Notes on Peter Richard Partner, available at (accesed on 31 May 2012);

    He was appointed as an Officer Cadet RCAF (ROTP) 1956. He served in Training Command HQ Trenton ON as Staff Officer Personnel Administration Legal 1956. He was appointed as a Flight Lieutenant RCAF (With seniority dated 01/02/1957). He served in Central Command Oakville ON as Assistant Deputy Judge Advocate 1958. He was appointed as a Squadron Leader RCAF (With seniority dated 01/07/1961). He served in Judge Advocate General Branch as Staff Officer Legal Services 1961. He served in Judge Advocate General Branch as Section Head Redress of Grievance Section 1964. He was appointed as a A/Wing Commander RCAF (With seniority dated 01/08/1966). He served in Canadian Forces Advisory and Training Team Tanzania as Senior Advisor Planning Committee 1966. He served in NDHQ for Judge Advocate General's Office as Section Head Logistics Section 1968. He was appointed as a Lieutenant-Colonel (Legal) (With seniority dated 01/05/1970). He served in NDHQ for Judge Advocate General Branch as Director of Law Advisory 1972. He served in NATO Defence College Rome for Staff Course 1974. He served in CFB Lahr as Assistant Judge Advocate General European Region 1974. He served in CFB Winnipeg as Assistant Judge Advocate General Prairie Region 1978. He was appointed as a Colonel (Legal) (With seniority dated 01/01/1982). He served in NDHQ as Director of Personnel Legal Services 1985. He was appointed as a Captain (N) (With seniority dated 01/01/1988). He was appointed as a Commodore (With seniority dated 01/11/1990). He served in NDHQ as Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces 1990. (He was retired on 03/05/1993.).

    After his naval service he was Chief of the General Legal Division of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East in Vienna Austria.

    NAUMETZ, Tim, "Drapeau, Létourneau push to update military justice, say military members deprived of Charter freedoms", The Hill Times on Line, Tuesday, 29 November 2011, available at http://www.hilltimes.com/news/politics/2011/10/21/drapeau-l%C3%A9tourneau-push-to-update-military-justice-say-military-members/28536 (accessed on 29 November 2011);

    ___________"Feds should've consulted international law experts before invoking UN Charter's article 51 against ISIL in Syria, says critics", The Hill Times on Line, Tuesday, 26 March 2015, available at http://www.hilltimes.com/news/2015/03/26/feds-shouldve-consulted-international-law-experts-before-invoking-un-charters-article-51/41539 (accessed on 29 November 2011);

    The government’s top military lawyer, whose advice Defence Minister Jason Kenney cited to argue unilateral Canadian air strikes against Islamic State militants in Syria would be legal, has served a three-year stint as legal adviser for Canada’s top-secret JTF2 commando unit and provided the legal advice for 13 counter-terrorism and special operations missions, his Canadian Armed Forces biography states.
    But despite Mr. Cathcart’s top-echelon role in military strategy and operations—as well as his position as the chief legal adviser on military law for Governor General David Johnston, Mr. Kenney (Calgary Southeast, Alta.) and the Department of National Defence—experts on international law question the government’s apparent decision to depend exclusively on Mr. Cathcart’s legal counsel. They say the government should also perhaps obtain advice from international law experts at the Department of Justice and Foreign Affairs to make a decision that includes major risks and, considering Canada’s fractional contribution to the air war against ISIL, will not significantly increase the country’s impact in the war against the so-called Islamic State.

    NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, web site, http://www.nato.int/, accessed on 11 June 2014;

    ___________"Careers at NATO--Legal", available at http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/102570.htm (accessed 4 December 2016);

    The current 58 NATO legal offices located in 22 nations are staffed with civilian and military lawyers who provide advice on a large number of topics that require legal expertise.
    Depending on the mission of the organisation they support, NATO legal advisors may work on actions involving public international law, private international law, administrative
    law, intellectual property rights, the law of armed conflict and military operations, legal relations with host nations, personnel, cyber defence, air and space, maritime, contracting, and procurement law.

    "MAJ Cory Moore, legal officer with the Canadian Forces Office
    of the Judge Advocate General, speaks with Afghan National Army
    (ANA) legal judges during the courtroom scene of the ANA General
     Staff Legal recruiting video." (image source: at  http://aco.nato.int/criminal-investigation-division-realizes-the-need-for-female-lawyers.aspx#prettyPhoto (accessed on 13 February 2015)

    ____________Allied Command Operations, "Criminal Investigation Division realizes the need for female lawyers", 13 June 2012, available at  http://aco.nato.int/criminal-investigation-division-realizes-the-need-for-female-lawyers.aspx#prettyPhoto (accessed on 13 February 2015);

    NDP, NDP Press Releases, "New Democrats call for modernization at the Department of National Defence", 18 February 2010, available at http://www.ndp.ca/press/new-democrats-call-for-modernization-department-national-defence (accessed on  18 March 2012);

    The creation of the position of Inspector General was one of the recommendations of the Somalia Commission of Inquiry and has been identified by some as a possible solution to the Afghan detainee issue.

    “The appointment of a civilian Judge Advocate General would be a first in Canadian history, although Britain and Australia have had this for some time,” said Dewar. “Questions have been raised about the legal advice given on the detainee issue. Drawing on experience from beyond the military and outside the chain of command would increase confidence on the part of members of the military and Canadians.”

    NPD, NPD Communiqués, "Plaidoyer du NPD en faveur de la modernisation du Ministère de la défense", 18 février 2010, disponible à http://www.npd.ca/article/plaidoyer-npd-faveur-modernisation-minist-re-d-fense (visité le 18 mars 2012);

    La création du poste d’inspecteur général était une des recommandations contenues dans le Rapport de la Commission d’enquête sur la Somalie et a aussi été identifié comme une des pistes de solutions possible dans le dossier du transfert des détenus afghans.

    « La nomination d’un Juge-avocat général civil serait une première dans l’histoire canadienne mais pas une première dans les pays possédant un régime parlementaire britannique », a pour sa part confirmé Paul Dewar. « Des questions ont été soulevées concernant les avis légaux présentés par le Juge-avocat général dans l’affaire des détenus afghans. En faisant appel à lune expertise légale située à l’extérieur de la chaîne de commandement militaire permettrait d’accroître la confiance de tous envers l’institution militaire.

    Robert Near, image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/robert-bob-near/44/656/393, accessed 22 January 2015
    NEAR, Major Robert, “Driving the Message: An analysis of the MND and Somalia Commission Reports” in LCol Bernd Horn, ed.,  Contemporary Issues in Officership: A Canadian Perspective,
    Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, Toronto, 2000, x, 267 p., ISBN: 0919769950; also published  in Ottawa: OPDP 2020, Department of National Defence,  1999, 20 p. (series ; OPD research paper; no 01)

    "The aim of this paper is to discern the causes of the ethical and professional failings in the Canadian Forces as described in the MND and Somalia Commission reports in order to identify a framework for future CF institutional reform and officer professional development." (source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 20 December 2011)


    Michelle Nel, image source:Google Image ---Sun.Academia.edu , accessed on 29 June 2014
    NEL, Michelle, Sentencing Practice in military Courts, Doctor of Laws thesis, University of South Africa, 2012, 486 p., supervisor: Professor S.S. Terblanche; available at http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/5969/dissertation_nel_m.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed on 10 August 2013); deals in part with Canadian law;

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the sentencing practice of the military courts. Since an independent and impartial military judiciary is essential to ensure that justice is done a further aim of this study is to investigate whether the military courts are impartial, independent and affords the accused his fair trial rights. The sentences imposed by military courts are investigated and concerns regarding the imposition of these sentences are identified. Finally the appeal and review procedures followed by the military courts are investigated with specific reference to the military accused’s right appeal and review to a higher court as provided for by the Constitution. The sentencing phase of a trial forms an important part of the whole trial process. This is also true for military trials, yet no research has been done on military sentencing practice. Because of the potential influence of the draft Military Discipline Bill and the Law Reform Commission’s revision of the defence legislation on sentencing, research in this area is critical in the positive development of sentencing law in the military justice environment. An extensive literature study is undertaken to evaluate current military sentencing practices against civilian practices. The result of this study identifies certain concerns regarding the independence of the military courts, the treatment of military offenders and the appeal and review powers of the military reviewing authority. To a large extent it is also found that many concerns are based on the apparent rather than the existence of any real dangers to the independence of the military courts or the rights of the military accused. This thesis contributes to the accessibility of military law for a civilian audience, creating a platform for the development of future military sentences. (source: http://umkn-dsp01.unisa.ac.za/xmlui/handle/10500/5969)

    NELSON, Fiona, "The Canadian Forces Grievance Board: a transparent, fair and efficient grievance process for the men and women who serve in the Canadian Forces" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at  http://web.archive.org/web/20070515000335/www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2006/news.aspx (accessed on 24 April 2012);
    NELSON, Fiona, "Résumé: Le Comité des griefs des Forces canadiennes: une procédure de grief transparente, équitable et efficace pour les hommes et les femmes qui servent dans les  Forces canadiennes  " (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire ; disponible à  http://web.archive.org/web/20070518052202/http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2006/nouvelles.aspx#article1 (site visité le 24 avril  2012);

      Image source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchist_League_of_Canada, accessed 27 August 2016

    "News from the Canadian Forces: Queen is first Colonel-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces' Legal Branch", Canadian Monarchist News -- Autumn 2013 at p. 5; available at http://www.monarchist.ca/sites/default/files/documents/2013/1/269.pdf (accessed 24 July 2015);

    ---Image source: http://floraweb.nfb.ca/ww2/critical-perspectives/the-rights-and-wrongs-of-war.htm?pext=1&view=699252&subtype=extraits, accessed 8 October 2016

    NFB STREAMING VIDEO -- YORK UNIVERSITY, NATIONAL FILM BOARD OF CANADA, Open Secrets, Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 2003, 1 streaming video file (52 min.) : digital, stereo, sd., col.; Note: Produced by the National Film Board of Canada in association with CBC News and Vision TV.; Quebec Centre;

    This provocative documentary uncovers a lost chapter in Canadian military history: how the Armed Forces dealt with homosexual behaviour among soldiers, during and after World War II. A group of veterans break their silence after more than 60 years. We hear from five men, barely adults when they enlisted. From the sexual timidity of the 1930s, when homosexual behaviour 'was even more unmentionable than cancer,' spring these stories of sexual awakening amidst the brutality of war. Soldiers and officers who depended upon one another for survival accepted each other's differences. Initially, the Army overlooked homosexual activity, but as the war advanced, they began to crack down: military tribunals, threats of imprisonment, discharge and public exposure. After the war, officers accused of homosexuality were discharged. Back home in Canada, reputations and careers were ruined. For the young men who had served their country with valour, this final chapter was often too much to bear. Interviews are skilfully woven with archival footage and rare photographs. Open Secrets is based on the Paul Jackson book, Courting Homosexuals in the Military. Open Secrets was produced as part of the Reel Diversity Competition for emerging filmmakers of colour. Reel Diversity is a National Film Board of Canada initiative in partnership with CBC Newsworld. (source: https://www.library.yorku.ca/find/Record/2592424, accessed on 22 December 2014)

    Image source: http://www.princegeorgecitizen.com/news/author-bios, accessed 8 October 2016
    Mark Nielsen
    NIELSEN, Mark,  "New judge comes from military background", The Prince George Citizen, 18 February 2012; available at http://www.princegeorgecitizen.com/article/20120218/PRINCEGEORGE0101/302189991/-1/princegeorge/ (accessed on 9 March 2012); about the appointment of Randall Callan as a judge;

    NOEL, Steve D., Canadian forces use of private security in Afghanistan: a consequence of national decisions, Command and General Staff College (CGSC), School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), 2013, available at http://cgsc.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p4013coll3/id/3126/rec/8, accessed on 2 February 2014; 

    NOLAN, Brian,  "Dishonoured legacy (Somalia incident)", (1 July 1997) Esprit de Corps; title noted in my research but document not consulted yet (21 December 2011);

    It is difficult to know whether the Canadian Forces are capable, or willing, to take the Somalia Inquiry's recommendations as a blueprint to begin rebuilding the once proud institutions that are the army, navy and air force. Given the open contempt that some members of the Canadian Forces showed the Inquiry Commissioners and the concerted effort they made to delay handing over evidence, the prospects of genuine reform seem slight. Even more suspect are the intentions of the Liberal government. The depth of cynicism the Liberals demonstrated in dealing with the Inquiry and the public's right-to-know does not suggest a favourable finale to this shameful episode. While editorial outrage swept across the nation in wake of the government's decision to close down the Inquiry before the Commissioners could complete their mandate, Jean Chretien's backroom boys had correctly judged that Somalia was not going to become an election issue. … (Source: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-30178024.html, accessed on 22 January 2015)

    NOONE, Michael F., "Summary Trial: Does the U.S. Experience offer any lessons for Canada?", in Office of the Judge Advocate General, Summary Trial Working Group, Summary Trial Working Group Report, Ottawa, 2 March 1994, 2 volumes, at volume 2, Appendix D, 27 p.; available at  Annex A to D; François Lareau obtained a copy of these two volumes in two pdf files with Department of National Defence, Acess to Information and Privacy's letter dated 28 June 2012, file A-2012-00340 to François Lareau;

    Image source: https://twitter.com/kimnossal, accessed 20 October 2015
    Kim Richard Nossal
    NOSSAL, Kim Richard, "The Use -- and Misuse -- of R2P; The Case of Canada", in Aidan Hehir and Robert Murray, eds. Libya: The Responsability to Protect and the Future of Humanitarian Law, New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, xi, 240 pages, at pp. 110-128 : maps ; 23 cm, ISBN: 9781137273949; available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?hl=fr&lr=&id=ETchAQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=2014+%22law+of+armed+conflict%22+canada&ots=PEFsWUDw54&sig=u_Vy383O1yYowgyNyF0w53NOy5Y#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 20 October 2015);

    NUMA, Jean, "Justice militaire: un Repentignois forme l'armée du Congo", Hebdo Rive Nord . com, publié le 27 février 2010; article sur l'avocat militaire Mario Denis Paillé; disponible à http://www.hebdorivenord.com/Societe/Monde/2010-02-27/article-1080076/Justice-militaire-%3A-un-Repentignois-forme-l%26rsquo%3Barmee-du-Congo/1  (vérifié le 16 janvier 2012);

    OFFICE OF THE CHIEF MILITARY JUDGE, "Military Justice and Court Reporters"' available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/cmj/courtreporters.pdf  (accessed on 2 April 2012);

    OFFICE OF THE INFORMATION COMMISSIONER, "Remarks to CAPA Conference", speech, 1999-10-20, available at  http://www.oic-ci.gc.ca/eng/med-roo-sal-med_speeches-discours_1999_1.aspx (accessed 29 June 2016);
    Need I remind anyone that, in the records alteration incidents at DND, senior officers including officials of the Judge Advocate
    General’s office were informed that orders had been given to destroy records, yet no remedial action was taken by them. Only
    after a whistle-blower went to a member of the media, who--in turn--came to the Information Commissioner’s office, was action
    taken to inquire into the matter.

    "The Office of the JAG and the Mission in Afghanistan" (March 2014), vol. 17, number 3, The Maple Leaf  9; available at  http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/mdn-dnd/D12-7-17-3-eng.pdf (accessed 11 September 2016);
    Over the course of Canada’s mission to Afghanistan, CAF
    Legal Officers were deployed into that Theatre of Operations
    on more than 100 occasions for tours of up to one year. These
    numbers represent a significant proportion of the Office of
    the Judge Advocate General, which is only formed of 160 Regular
    Force Legal Officers and 55 Reservists. The Legal Office’s
    commitment to the Afghanistan mission is even more
    impressive when its concurrent contribution to other activities
    is considered. From 2002 to 2013, up to 25% of the JAG Office’s
    effective strength was deployed on international operations and
    operational training exercises in any given year.

    In Afghanistan, legal advice was provided in several distinct
    contexts. This included strategic advice to the Government of
    Afghanistan, operational law advice to both conventional
    military operations and special operations at the battle
    group and unit levels, administrative law and military justice
    advice to Provincial Reconstruction Teams, and mentoring
    advice and training to those members of the Afghan justice
    and law enforcement community tasked with being the boots
    on the ground in the struggle to establish the rule of law in
    that country.

    Support for the mission in Afghanistan was also provided
    by those Legal Officers based in Ottawa working from dedicated
    groups within the Office of the Judge Advocate General who
    assisted their colleagues in Afghanistan when particularly
    specialized questions required detailed analysis by these subject
    matter experts.

    ....With the continuing growth in the complexity of legal issues
    arising from military operations, it is likely that the demand
    for legal advice and services from Canada’s military lawyers
    will continue.

    Denis Couture, 22 April 2004, photo reproduced from JAG Newsletter, volume 1, 2004 at p. 6

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, "Aide-Memoire on Conduct of Summary Trials for Commanding Officers & Delegated Officers Canadian Forces", 3rd revised edition by Lieutenant-Colonel D. Couture, Director of Law/Defence and Training, Office of the Judge Advocate General, May 1991, various pagings, entered as exhibit P-107 at the Hearings of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of the Canadian Forces in Somalia, February 21, 1996; available on the Commission's CD-ROM 1997Information Legacy: A Compendium of Source Material from the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, supra; disponible sur le CD-ROM 1997 de la Commission, Un héritage documentaire -- Recueil des ressources de la Commission d'enquête sur le déploiement des Forces canadiennes en Somalie, supra, pièce P-107; also in in Office of the Judge Advocate General, Summary Trial Working Group, Summary Trial Working Group Report, Ottawa, 2 March 1994, 2 volumes, at volume 2, Appendix I; available at PDF   Annex G to L; François Lareau obtained a copy of these two volumes in two pdf files with Department of National Defence, Acess to Information and Privacy's letter dated 28 June 2012, file A-2012-00340 to François Lareau;

    Image source: http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo9/no3/08-madden-eng.asp, accessed on 6 November 2014
    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Canadian Forces  Manual (Second Draft), [Ottawa]: [Office of the Judge Advocate General] circa 1983-1984; there is a copy available at the University of Ottawa, FTX General, KZ 6385 .C343 1984;  

     Research Note by François Lareau - Only available in English.  The first draft was written by Professor L.C. Green; in his book, The Contemporary , Manchester/New York: Manchester University Press, 1993, Professor Green, writes at p. xv: "This volume has grown out of the draft Manual of Armed Conflict Law that I prepared at the request of the then Judge Advocate General, General Jack Wolfe, for the Canadian Department of National Defence".

     Note de recherche par François Lareau:  Seulement disponible en anglais.  La première version  de ce livre fut exécuté par le professeur L.C. Green, qui dans son livre The Contemporary , Manchester/New York: Manchester University Press, 1993, écrit à la p. xv [traduction] «Ce volume a été développé à partir de la version Manual of Armed Conflict Law que j'ai préparé à la demande du juge-avocat général du Ministère de la Défense nationale du Canada de l'époque, le Général Jack Wolfe.»

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, ed., Collection of Documents on the , [Ottawa]: Office of the Judge Advocate General, Directorate of Law Training, 2001, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20021016113213/www.dnd.ca/jag/operational_pubs_e.html and see also the Internet archives at http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.dnd.ca/jag/operational_e.html#top;
    BUREAU DU JUGE AVOCAT GÉNÉRAL, sous la direction de, Collection de documents sur le droit des conflits armés, [Ottawa]: Bureau du Juge-avocat général, 2001, disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20021022031601/www.dnd.ca/jag/operational_pubs_f.html; et voir aussi les archives internet à  http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.dnd.ca/jag/operational_e.html#top;

    Image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2010-11/ch-4-military-justice-year-in-review.page, accessed on 6 November 2014

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Defence Counsel Study Team, Provision of Defence Counsel Services in the Canadian Forces: Report of the Defence Study Team, Ottawa, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1997; not consulted yet, referred to by McNairn, "The Canadian Forces' Criminal Law Firm: A Blueprint for Independence", Part I, infra, p. 245;  also referred to by McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, infra, at p. 165:

    "One of the responses to the Somalia Inquiry and Special Advisory Group recommendations was the creation of a Defence Counsel Study Team to evaluate different ways by which defence counsel services could be provided in the CF.  The Study  Team analyzed seven different possibilities involving civilian or military lawyers.  After all of the advantages, disadvantages and costs were considred, and a pool of Canadian Forces members  was conducted as to the preferred option, the Study Team made twenty-eight recommendations, including the selection of a Regular Force defence counsel organization.  Most of the recommendations were accepted and were reflected in the amendments to the National Defence Act and regulations."  (p. 165)

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Defence Counsel Services Manual, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-defence-counsel-manual/index.page (accessed on13 November 2014);
    BUREAU DU JUGE AVOCAT GÉNÉRAL, Manuel du Service d'avocats de la défense, disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/a-propos-rapports-pubs-droit-militaire-manuel-avocats-defense/index.page, vérifié le 13 novembre 2014;

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Digest of opinions and rulings : Ottawa, March 31, 1944  compiled from the records of the Office of the Judge Advocate-General at National Defence Headquarters, [Ottawa : King's Printer, 1944], 353, [35] p.; note: At head of title: "Not to be published"; copy at the Library of Parliament, Ottawa, UB 505.5 1944; copy at the library of the Supreme Court of Canada, KF7208 C36 1944;

    Image source:  http://spartanfleetjag.purpleglen.com/ , accessed on 6 November 2014
    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Establishment of Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General's School, Ottawa: Judge Advocate General Library?, 2000?;  copy at the JAG Library, Ottawa, call number KF 7307 E88; noted from (2000) 2 JAG Newsletter at p. 74;

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, "FY [FINANCIAL YEAR] 00/01 Strategic Letter Office of the Judge Advocate General", 15 December 1999, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20010419105825/www.dnd.ca/jag/office_stratletter_toc_e.html#top;
    CABINET DU JUGE-AVOCAT GÉNÉRAL, "Lettre sur la stratégie pour l'AF [ANNÉE FINANCIÈRE] 2000-2001.  Bureau du Juge-avocat général", 15 décembre 1999, disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20010418090214/www.dnd.ca/jag/office_stratletter_toc_f.html#top

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Guide for accused and assisting officers : pre-trial proceedings at the summary trial level, issued on authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff, [Ottawa] : JAG/DLaw/MJPR, 31 August 2002, [i], 12, 2 p.;  note: This bilingual publication bearing number A-LG-050-000/AF-001, dated 2002-08-31, supersedes publication number A-LG-050-000/AF-001, dated 1997-11-30; copy at Ottawa University, MRT General: KE 7160 .C343 2002, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20081207233553/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/GuideAccusedAssistingOfficers%28Bilingual%29.pdf (accessed on 27 February 2012); the current edition is dated  2009-10-06 and is found at http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/defence-defense/guide-accused-accuses.pdf (accessed on 27 February 2012);
    BUREAU DU JUGE AVOCAT GÉNÉNÉRAL, Guide à l'intention des accusés et des officiers désignés pour les aider : les procédures préliminaires lors d'un procès sommaire , Publiée avec l'autorisation du Cef d'état-major de la Défense, [Ottawa] : JAG/DJ/JMP&R, 31 août 2002, [i], 12, 2 p.;  note: cette publication bilingue portant le numéro A-LG-050-000/AF-001 en date du 2002-08-31,  remplace la publication A-LG-050-000/AF-001 en date du 1997-11-30; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20081207233553/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/GuideAccusedAssistingOfficers%28Bilingual%29.pdf  (vérifié le 27 février 2012); l'édition en vigueur est en date du 2009-10-06 et se trouve à http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/publications/defence-defense/guide-accused-accuses.pdf (visité le 27 février 2012);

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, "The Investigation and Charging Process in the Military Justice System", undated, 12 p.,  available at http://web.archive.org/web/20040225132101/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/charging_and_investigating_e.pdf (accessed on 27 February 2012);
    CABINET DU JUGE-AVOCAT GÉNÉRAL, "Le processus d'enquête et d'accusation du système de justice militaire", non daté, 12 p., disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20030711040204/http://www.forces.gc.ca/jag/training/publications/charging_and_investigating_f.pdf (visité le 27 février 2012);

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level [Manual], [Ottawa]: Office of the Judge Advocate General, 20 October 1999, military publication number: B-GG-005-027/AF-020 available at http://web.archive.org/web/20021016113213/www.dnd.ca/jag/operational_pubs_e.html and see also the Internet archives at http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.dnd.ca/jag/operational_e.html#top; for the 2001 edition, see http://www.fichl.org/uploads/media/Canadian_LOAC_Manual_2001_English.pdf (accessed on 4 November 2014);
    BUREAU DU JUGE AVOCAT GÉNÉRAL, [Manuel sur] Le doit des conflits armées au niveau opérationel et tactique, [Ottawa]: Bureau du Juge-avocat général, 31 mai 1999, publication militaire numéro B-GG-005-027/AF-020 disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20021022031601/www.dnd.ca/jag/operational_pubs_f.html; et voir aussi les archives internet à  http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.dnd.ca/jag/operational_e.html#top;

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Judge Advocate General Primary Reserve Study Team, Lieutenant-Colonel R.A. Mitchell, Commander L.C. Markert, Major P.T. Crocco, and Captain D. Austin, JAG Primary Reserve Study, Interim Report, 13 November 2012 under DND Acess to Information and Privacy letter dated 3 February 2014, file A-2013-01407 (posted on the internet on 8 February 2014);

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Military Justice Handbook, [Ottawa?]: [Office of the Judge Advocate General], 1992?-?; [note the title might be instead: Courts Martial Index of Canadian Forces or A Handbook for Military Prosecutors] ; Research Note by François Lareau: I consulted a copy of this document in the Acess to Information and Privacy reading room at NDHQ, Ottawa on 24 April 1998; only part of this publication was available but the index indicated that it contained: -  several indexes to courts martial by key word, title and subjects (e.g.: defences, evidence, motions, pleas in bar of trial; certain statutes; QR&Os, CFAOs);  - indexes to court martial appeals, e.g.: by topics, statutes, offences; also a table of cases (alphabetical list and chronological list); - prosecution practice notes and court martial opinions;
    en anglais seulement; Note de recherche par François Lareau: J'ai consulté une copie de ce document dans la salle de lecture de l'Accès à l'information et protection des renseignements personnels, QGDF, Ottawa, le 24 avril 1998; seulement une partie de ce document était disponible mais l'index indiquait le contenu:  - plusieurs index sur les cours martiales par mots-clés; titres et matières (par ex.: les moyens de défense; preuve, les requêtes, fins de non-recevoir, certaines lois, les ORFC, les OAFC);  - des index pour la Cour d'appel des cours martiales du Canada, ex.: sujets, lois, infractions et aussi une table des arrêts (alphabétique et chronologique);  - des notes de pratique pouite des opinions concernant les cours martiales;

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Military Justice Materials: Sexual Offences and Sexual Harassment, online: DIN <http://jag.dwan.dnd.ca/training/publications/default_e.asp#SEXUALH>, as mentioned in Manual Administrative Law, 2008 at p. 23-5;

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Military Rules of Evidence, Ottawa: Judge Advocate General Library, 2000?; copy at the JAG Library, Ottawa, call number KF 7628 M55; noted from (2000) 2 JAG Newsletter at p. 72; summary: "A collection of documents tracing the origin and development of the Military Rules of Evidence 1951-1990"; 

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL,  a multitude of publications at the JAG Web Site
    CABINET DU JUGE-AVOCAT GÉNÉRAL, une multitude de publications au site web du JAG

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, "Report on the discipline survey: the development of a training and education strategy", Ottawa: Office of the Judge Advocate General, May 1998, 55 p.; obtained by François Lareau, Access to Information Act Request, file A-2015-00565, 19 June 2015; 
     pp. 1-55; important document;

    Introduction : the nature of discipline : the scope of discipline training : work in progress : aim. -- Section 1. Introduction. -- Section 2. Major training education issues : the present strategy : training resources : qualifications for instructors : entry level training : junior and senior leader and officer training : environment specific training : the reserves : the Office of the JAG. -- Conclusions." (Source: Catalogue of the Canadian Forces College)

    The aim of this report is to analyze existing training and education and recommend a comprehensive "crade to grave" discipline training/education strategy for the CF. Particular emphasis is placed on gearing training and education to the level and needs of the recipients. The provision of proper training aids and the use of qualified non-legal officer trainers when feasible." (Source: Catalogue of the Canadian Forces College)

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Service Estates & Elections, online: DIN DIN <http://jag.dwan.dnd.ca/estates_and_elections/default_e.asp>, mentioned in Manual Administrative Law, 2008 at p. 11-7;   

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, Summary Trial Working Group, Summary Trial Working Group Report, Ottawa, 2 March 1994, 2 volumes; François Lareau obtained a copy of these two volumes in two pdf files with Department of National Defence, Acess to Information and Privacy's letter dated 28 June 2012, file A-2012-00340 to François Lareau; 

    Notes on this document by François Lareau

    -  McNair, "Military Law Reform in Canada", supra, p. 53, note 21 states that the recommendations of the report "were approved by the Armed Forces Council in May 1994";

    - Jerry S.T. Pitzul, Brigadier-General,  and John C. Maguire, Commander, "A Perspective on Canada's Code of Service Discipline", JAG Newsletter, Vol.IV: Oct-Dec 1999, pp. 6-16 at p. 13, note 47 state that  the report' 59 recommendations  were approved by Armed Forces' Council in May of 1994;

    - this report is also cited in Judge Advocate General,  Annual Report of the Judge Advocate General to the Minister of National Defence on the administration of military justice in the Canadian Forces: a review from 1 september to 31 march 2000, supra, at p. 1;

    PDFVolume 1
    - Table of Contents;
    - Executive Summary and Recommendations (being Chapter 1);
    - pp. i-viii and 1-126;
    - pp. 127-244;
    PDF Volume 2
    - Table of Contents;
    - Annex A to D;
    - Annex E and F;
    - Annex G to L;

    OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, You and the Law of War, [Ottawa]: Office of the Judge Advocate General, circa 1981, 92 p.; prepared by Colonel Armand Desroches with the assistance of Major François Lareau, JAG/Directorate of Law / Training, circa 1981; this publication is available at National Defence, Directorate of Land Concepts and Doctrine, Fort Frontenac Library; some beautiful accompanying posters were also prepared and distributed in the Canadian Forces bases;
    Source: You and the Law of War, circa 1981, reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada and of the Canadian Forces, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2012
    Notice: This publication does not necessarily reflect the current state of the  or the current views of the Government of Canada, the Canadian Forces and  the Office of the Judge Advocate General.  This permission does not imply an
    endorsement of the views of François Lareau and of the views expressed at  http://www.lareau-law.ca/ and http://www.lareau-legal.ca/
    - Table of Contents;
    - Complete document (92 p.);

    CABINET DU JUGE-AVOCAT GÉNÉRAL,  Vous et le Droit de la guerre, [Ottawa]: [Forces canadiennes, Cabinet du Juge Avocat Général], circa 1981, 104 p.; ce document a été préparé par le Colonel Armand Desroches avec l'aide du major François Lareau du  "JAG/Directorate of Law/Training"  (on m'excusera mais je n'ai pas le titre en français du directorat) vers 1981; copie à Défense nationale, Direction des concepts et de la doctrine de l'Armée de terre, Bibliothèque Fort Frontenac; de magnifiques affiches en couleurs ont été préparés avec ce document et distribués sur les bases;
    Source:  Vous et le droit de la guerre, circa 1981, reproduit avec la permission du Ministre des Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada et des Forces canadiennes, Cabinet du Juge-avocat-général, 2012.
    Avis: Cette publication ne représente pas nécessairement l'état actuel du droit des conflits armés, ni l'état actuel des opinions du Gouvernement du Canada, des Forces canadiennes et du Cabinet du Juge-avocat général. Cette permission de reproduire n'implique pas  une approbation des opinions de François Lareau ni celles exprimées à  http://www.lareau-law.ca/ et http://www.lareau-legal.ca/
    - Table des matières;
    - document entier;

    OFFICE OF THE LEGAL ADVISOR TO THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE AND THE CANADIAN FORCES -- DND/CF LA, web site available at http://www.dndcfla.forces.gc.ca/en/home.page  (accessed on 4 January 2013);

    The Office of the DND/CF LA provides legal services on issues relating to: 

    CABINET  DE LA CONSEILLÈRE JURIDIQUE AUPRÈS DU MINISTÈRE DE LA DÉFENSE NATIONALE ET DES FORCES CANADIENNES -- CJ MDN/FC, site disponible à http://www.dndcfla.forces.gc.ca/fr/accueil.page? (vérifié le 4 janvier 2013) ;

    Le Cabinet de la CJ MND/FC fournit des services juridiques se rapportant :

    Image reproduced from:  http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/speaking-out-on-sexual-assault-in-the-military/ (accessed on 23 November 2014);

      A pioneering fighter pilot adds her story to the growing disclosures", 1 June 1998 issue, Maclean's -- Canada's Weekly NewsMagazine; available at  http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/speaking-out-on-sexual-assault-in-the-military/ (accessed on 23 November 2014);

    Image reproduced from Google Image, accessed on 2 June 2014       

    O'HARA, Jane with Brenda Branswell, John Geddes, Shanda Deziel, Sharon Doyle Driedger and Stephanie Nolen, "Rape in the military", 25 May 1998 issue, Maclean's -- Canada's Weekly NewsMagazine; available at http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/rape-in-the-military/ (accessed on 2 June 2014);

    Image source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqvvfNEVOSk, accessed 16 August 2016
    Jane O'Hara
    O'HARA, Jane, "Abuse of Power: Critics say the military justice has failed", Maclean's,  13 July 1998, Volume 111, Issue 28, p. 16, ISSN 0024-9262;
    Description:   For [Everett Boyle], who had spent much of his career disciplining enlisted soldiers, the grievance--if borne out by an investigation--could have resulted in three charges against [Gary George]: conduct unbecoming an officer, abuse of authority and fraternization with a subordinate. But Boyle's rank did not give him the authority to investigate officers. He took the grievance to base commander Col. Edward Jackson, who in turn passed it up the chain of command to Maj.-Gen. Dave O'Blenis. (source:  © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved, http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=2&frbg=&rfnGrpCounter=1&indx=11&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&fctV=ProQuest%20Research%20Library&mode=Basic&vid=01LOC&ct=Next%20Page&rfnGrp=1&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&fctN=facet_domain&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Canadian%20%22military%20justice%22&dstmp=1467981863683, accessed 8 July 2016)  

    Image reproduced from http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/of-rape-and-justice/ (accessed on 23 November 2014)
    ___________"Of Rape and Justice: Has anything really changed in the Canadian Military", 14 December 1998 issue, Maclean's -- Canada's Weekly NewsMagazine; available at http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/of-rape-and-justice/ (accessed on 23 November 2014);

    From the left: Cdr Sheila Archer and Lt(N) Carl Monk         From the left: Cdr Sheila Archer and Lt(N) Mike Baker

    O'HARA, Shawn,  "New JAG lawyers are sworn in", LOOKOUT MARPAC News, CFB Esquimalt, Victoria B.C., volume 58, number 20, 21 May 2013, www.lookoutnewspaper.com, at p. 14 available at http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/58/2013-05-21-20.pdf (accessed on 23 November 2015);
        In a small ceremony in the courtroom located in the AJAG office, two naval lawyers were sworn into the practise of law in
    British Columbia.

        Lt(N) Carl Monk and Lt(N) Mike Baker, who both attended law school under the Military Law Training
    Plan, have passed their bar exams and finished their period as articled students. They took an oath and were sworn in as lawyers
    on May 14, and are now legal officers within the Office of the JAG.   

    LCol Steven Richards
    ___________"New prosecution office opens", 15 April 2013, CFB Esquimalt Navy News on Line, available at http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/new-prosecution-office-opens/ (accessed on 13 February 2015); article about LCol Steven Richards;

    Lt(N) Carl Monk
    ___________"Officer courts new trade", LookOut., MARPAC NEWS, volume 57, number 51, 17 December 2012, at p. 12; available at http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/issues/57/2012-12-17-51.pdf (accessed 26 December 2015);

    Image source: researchgate.net/profile/Eamonn_Okeeffe, accessed 11 November 2016
    O'KEEFFE, Eamonn, " “Such Want of Gentlemanly Conduct:” The General Court Martial of Lieutenant John de Hertel,", (2016) 25(2) Canadian Military History, second article; available at scholars.wlu.ca/cmh/vol25/iss2/2/ (accessed 11 November 2016);

    Image source: cfc.forces.gc.ca/136/294-eng.html, accessed 26 January 2017
    Alan Okros
    OKROS, Alan, "Civil-military Relations: The Broader Context" in Angela R. Febbraro, 1963-, Irina Goldenberg, 1974-, Waylon Dean, editors, Canadian Defence Academy, Canada, Canadian Armed Forces. Wing, 17., The defence team : military and civilian partnership in the Canadian Armed Forces and Department of National  Defence / edited by Irina Goldenberg, Angela R.  Febbraro, and Waylon H. Dean.  Subtitle on cover: Military & civilian partnership in  the Canadian Armed Forces & Department of National Defence, Kingston, ON : Canadian Defence Academy Press, [2015], iii, 268 p.,  at pp. 47-68: ill., charts ; 23 cm.   NOTES: Produced for the Canadian Defence Academy Press by 17 Wing Winnipeg Publishing Office.  Includes bibliographical references and index.   Available also on the Internet.  Issued by: Canadian Defence Academy Press. ISBN: 9781100253565 (pbk.).  ISBN: 1100253564 (pbk.)  ISBN: 1100253572 (bound), available at http://cradpdf.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc204/p802756_A1b.pdf#page=60 (accessed 26 January 2017);

    OKROS, Alan and Denise Scott, "Gender Identity in the Canadian Forces A Review of Possible Impacts on Operational Effectiveness", (April 2015) 41(2) Armed Forces & Society 243-256;

    One of the most prominent debates over minority participation in the military has been whether or not inclusive policies would undermine operational effectiveness. While the adoption of inclusive policy has tended to indicate that minority participation does not compromise effectiveness, the question has not yet been tested in the context of transgender military service. In this paper, we conduct the first-ever assessment of whether policies that allow transgender troops to serve openly have undermined effectiveness, and we ask this question in the context of the Canadian Forces (CF), which lifted its transgender ban in 1992 and then adopted more explicitly inclusive policy in 2010 and 2012. Although transgender military service in Canada poses a particularly hard test for the proposition that minority inclusion does not undermine organizational performance, our finding is that despite ongoing prejudice and incomplete policy formulation and implementation, allowing transgender personnel to serve openly has not harmed the CF’s effectiveness. (source: http://afs.sagepub.com/content/41/2/243.abstract#aff-2, accessed 13 November 2015)

    Image source: saugeentimes.com/59%20x/Feature%20Museum%20War%20Historian%20returns%20Sept.%2022%202014/Template.htm, accessed 4 November 2016
    Michael O'Leary
    O'LEARY, Michael, Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War, see Part 3: "Court Martial Records", at http://regimentalrogue.com/misc/researching_first_world_war_soldiers_part3.htm; Part 15: "Crime...", at http://regimentalrogue.com/misc/researching_first_world_war_soldiers_part15.htm ; Part 16, "...and Punishment" at http://regimentalrogue.com/misc/researching_first_world_war_soldiers_part16.htm (all pages accessed 21 June 2016); 

    Photo Source: http://www.historymuseum.ca/research-and-collections/research-staff/dean-oliver/, accessed 13 November 2015
    OLIVER, Dean F. (Dean Frederick), 1965-, "The Canadian military after Somalia" in Fen Osler Hampson and Maureen Appel Molot, eds., Leadership and dialogue, Toronto : Oxford University Press, 1998, iv, 304 p., at pp. [99]-118 (Series; Canada among Nations), ISBN: 0195414063;

    ___________"Foreign affairs and defence", in David Mutimer, ed., Canada Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs: 1997, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, at p.67; limited preview in  http://books.google.com/books?id=RyH-ouVcnrEC&pg=PA91&dq=%22Dishonoured+Legacy%22&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=Sz1-SL-pIYS0sgOxjY2kBg&sig=ACfU3U3O6Y8xKqhKU1zVUQBSGwfni2lVlQ#PPA67,M1  and http://books.google.com/books?id=RyH-ouVcnrEC&dq=%22Dishonoured+Legacy%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 16 July 2008);

    From the left: Maj G. Turner, LCdr H.G. Oliver and F/L.J.M. Simpson, Metz, France, 1954, photo reproduced from JAG Newsletter, volume 1, 2004 at p. 13.


    Photo of Hubert (Bert) Oliver from (Nov-Dec 2000) JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités at p. 55.

    OLIVER, H.G. (Hubert Galt) (Bert), 1922-2000, "Canadian Military Law" (1975) 23 Chitty's Law Journal 109-119; a photocopy reproduction of this article is found in Oliver, Our Criminal Courts, infra, at Appendix I;

    _________Notes on Hubert Oliver taken from JAG Alumni, " 'Gentleman judge' Oliver remembered", (Nov-Dec 2000) JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités at p. 55:
    Capt(N) "Bert" Oliver served 28 years in the RCN and the CF, 21 years of which were in the Office of the JAG.  His first years of naval service were
    in coastal vessels, corvettes, frigates, and destroyers.  He came to the Office of the JAG in 1951 and served in NDHQ, Halifax, Vancouver, Esquimalt,
    Metz (France), and Edmonton.  He attended NDC in Kingston and prior to taking his retirement in 1972 he was the Chief Judge Advocate for the CF.
    Upon leaving the CF he assumed a position with the Law Reform Commission of Canada before being appointed a Provincial Court Judge in Calgary.
    [He died 12 October 2000].

    ___________Our Criminal Courts, [Calgary(Alberta): H.G. Oliver], 1995, ii, 7, 194, [Appendix 1, 11], [Appendix 2, 8] pages, 28 cm., ISBN: 0969942109; copy at Library and Archives Canada; copy at the Library of Parliament;

    see in particular:

    - Part I : "Office of the Judge Advocate General - Canadian Forces 1950-1972" (Chapter 1: Courts Martial; 2: Courts Martial Appeals; 3. Other Judge Advocate General Functions, Especially Claims By and Against the Crown; and a chapter 4 on the Canadian Military College);

    - Part III: "(A) Important Differences Between the Military Courts Martial System and the Provincial Criminal Court System in Canada...[partial title of Part III]";

    Source de l'image: https://twitter.com/fannieolivier, vérifié 17 juin 2016
    Fanny Olivier
    OLIVIER, Fanny, "Détenus afghans: Des policiers demandent une enquête publique",  16 juin 2016 | Fannie Olivier - La Presse canadienne à Ottawa|, Le Devoir, disponible à http://www.ledevoir.com/politique/canada/473568/detenus-afghans-des-policiers-demandent-une-enquete-publique (vérifié le 17 juin 2016);

    OLIVIERO, Charles S., "Operation 'Delivrance': International Success or Domestic Failure?", (Summer 2001) 2(2) Canadian Military Journal 51-58; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo2/no2/doc/51-58-eng.pdf (accessed on 24 April 2012);
    OLIVIERO, Charles S., "Opération 'Délivrance' : succès international ou échec national?", (été 2001) 2(2) Revue militaire canadienne 51-58; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo2/no2/doc/51-58-fra.pdf (vérifié le 24 avril 2012);

    Col Pat Olson (left) with MGen J. Pitzul (source: (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter at p. 15)
    OLSON, Colonel P. (Patrick) (Pat) J., "Leadership and the Law", (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 15-21;
    OLSON, Colonel P., "Le leadership et la loi", (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 21-28;

    Colonel P.J. Olson
    ___________Notes on Colonel P.J. Olson, available at  http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20061216051631/http://www.forces.gc.ca/dsa/app_bio/engraph/fseniorofficerbiographyview_e.asp?sectchoice=1&maction=view&mbiographyid=545 (accessed 24 January 2016);
    Colonel Olson joined the Canadian Forces in 1980 as a member of 25 Toronto Service Battalion, a Reserve unit. From 1982 to 1984, he commanded the Military Police Platoon of that unit.

    He transferred to the Regular Force in 1984, after graduating from Osgoode Hall Law School and being called to the Ontario Bar.

    Colonel Olson served in the JAG Branch first as a member of the Defence Team and then in the Directorate of Law/Legislation, Regulations and Orders. From 1986 to 1989, he served as Deputy Judge Advocate, Trenton. From 1989 to 1991, he served in the Directorate of Personnel Legal Services.

    In 1992/1993, Colonel Olson received post-graduate training at the University of Ottawa, earning a degree in Legislative Drafting.

    In 1993, he served as a member of the UN War Crimes Investigation team in Croatia as a site leader for the excavation of a series of mass graves.

    From 1994 to 1999, Colonel Olson served as Director of the Law/Legislation, Superannuation and Finance directorate at NDHQ. From 1999 to 2002, he served as Assistant Judge Advocate General in Toronto.

    From September 2001 to January 2002, he deployed to Bosnia as legal advisor to SFOR HQ. In the spring of 2002, he was posted to Ottawa as JAG Special Assistant.

    In April 2003, he was promoted to Colonel and appointed to the position of Deputy Judge Advocate General/Human resources.

    ____________"Promoting the Rule of Law -- A Value Apart", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 55-66; notes: "National Security Course 7 Canadian Forces College, May 2005"; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/281/277/olson.pdf (accessed 5 March 2015);

    image source: twitter.com/kady, accessed 16 August 2016
    Kady O'Malley
    O'MALLEY, Kady, "Afghanistan committee update: Let the arcane legal arguments begin!", CBC News Politics, Inside Politics Blog, 8 November 2009, available at http://www.cbc.ca/newsblogs/politics/inside-politics-blog/2009/11/not-done-afghanistan-committee-witness-list.html (accessed 25 November 2015);

    ___________"Uncensored Afghan detainee reports sought by NDP MP Craig Scott.  Afghan detainee issue 'will not and must not go away,' former law professor says", CBC News/Politics, 18 February 2015, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/uncensored-afghan-detainee-reports-sought-by-ndp-mp-craig-scott-1.2962122 (accessed 3 March 2017);

    OMBUDSMAN, Investigative Reports and Analyses:
    - A Systemic Review of Compensation Options for Ill and Injured Reservists (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-rfc/rfc-toc.page), February 2016;

    - The Feasibility of Providing Periodic Health Assessments to All Primary Reservists (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-pha/pha-index.page), June 2015;

    - An Investigation into the 1974 Valcartier Cadets Grenade Incident (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-valcartier/valcartier-index.page), June 2015;

    - Boards of Inquiry: Families in Focus  (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-boi/boards-of-inquiry.page), April 2015;

    - Canadian Armed Forces best positioned to determine Public Service priority hiring for releasing members (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-priority-hiring/priority-hiring-index.page), January 2015;

    On the Homefront: Assessing the Well-being of Canada's Military Families in the New Millennium (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-military-families/military-families-index.page); November 2013;

    - Preliminary Assessment: Joint Personnel Support Unit (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-news-events-media-letters/jpsu-ipsc.page), October 2013;

    - An Examination of Canadian Forces Base Cold Lake (4 Wing) (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-cold-lake/cold-lake-index.page), July 2013;

    - A Report Outlining the Delays in the Processing of Adjudications and Initial Authority Grievances by the Director General Compensation & Benefits (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-dgcb/index-dgcb.page), May 2013;

    - Reserved Care: A Follow Up into the Treatment of Injured Reservists (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-reserved-care-follow-up/index.page), November 2012;

    - Fortitude under Fatigue: Assessing the Delivery of Care for Operational Stress Injuries that Canadian Forces Members Need and Deserve (http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-fortitude/index.page), September 2013;

    ___________The Case for a Permanent and Independent Ombudsman Office.  The Defence Community Deserves no Less, Report to the Minister of National Defence, March 2017, available at http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/assets/OMBUDSMAN_Internet/docs/en/governance-report-eng.pdf  and http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/en/ombudsman-reports-stats-investigations-the-case-for-a-permanent-and-independent-ombudsman-office-/the-case-for-a-permanent-and-independent-ombudsman-office.page (accessed 25 April 2017);

    André Marin, source: http://en.wikipedia.
    , 23 Nov 14
    OMBUDSMAN -- NATIONAL DEFENCE AND CANADIAN FORCES and André Marin, 1965-, Ombudsman, The Way Forward: Action Plan for the Office of the Ombudsman, Ottawa: Ombudsman, 1999, 183 p. and six Appendixes and a bibliography; available at http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/rep-rap/sr-rs/wf-aa/index-eng.asp (accessed on 15 July 2008);
    OMBUDSMAN -- DÉFENSE NATIONALE ET FORCES CANADIENNES et André Marin, 1965-, Ombudsman, Allons de l'avant plan directeur du Bureau de l'ombudsman, Ottawa: Ombudsman, 1999, disponible à http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/rep-rap/sr-rs/wf-aa/index-fra.asp  (vérifié le 15 juillet 2008);

    Peter Tinsley, left, with Justin Trudeau
    O'NEILL, Don, "Let’s Send Our Most Qualified Candidate to Ottawa – Peter Tinsley", Bay of Quinte Federal Liberal Association, 6 May 2014, available at http://quinte.liberal.ca/lets-send-qualified-candidate-ottawa-peter-tinsley/ (accessed 10 March 2017);

    OPEN SOCIETY JUSTICE INITIATIVE, "Comparative Analysis of Preliminary Investigation Systems in Respect of Alleged Violations of International Human Rights and/or Humanitarian Law", New York, 10 August 2010, 27 p., deals with Canada, see for example "Canada" starting at p. 22; available at http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/comparative-analysis-20100810.pdf (accessed on 4 November 2014);

    Reginald John Orde, source of photo: McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, supra, at p. 36

    ORDE, Brigadier R.J. (Reginald John), "Canadian Military Law", (1943) 5 Federal Bar Association Journal 29; Brigadier Orde was the Judge Advocate General from 1 February 1920 to 5 May 1950;

    ___________"Some Aspects of Canadian Service Law and the Office of the Judge-Advocate General in Canada", (December 1944) 1(3) The Judge Advocate Journal  8-11 and 18; available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/JAG_I-3.pdf (accessed on 28 November 2011); this is a U.S.A. publication;

    ___________"The Statute of Westminster: Notes on the Application of the Statute and Complementary Legislation to the Armed Forces of Canada", (1933-34) 11 Canadian Defence Quarterly 213;

    __________Transcript of Interview with Brigadier [R.J.] Orde, 24 Jul 73, see DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE, Access to Information Act answer, Department of National Defence  File A-2015-00865, available at http://lareau-legal.ca/A-2014-00865.PDF (accessed 4 October 2015);  the answer is to "Request Summary: Directorate of History and Heritage File 77/490, Transcript of Interview with Brigadier [R.J.] Orde, 24 Jul 73";  François Lareau obtained this answer from the Department of National Defence, National Defence Headquarters, Director, Access to Information and Privacy letter File AI-2015-00142, 28 September 2015;

    OREILLY, Michael,  "MD at Centre of Somalia controversy finds peace in Northern Ontario", (27 January 1998) 158(2) CMAJ 244-245; available at http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_medical_association/cmaj/vol-158/issue-2/0244.htm (accessed on 16 January 2012);

    Order in Council , P.C 495, 28 February 1918, "Militia and Defence Department - Legal Branch to be constituted - Lieutenant Colonel O. M. Biggar to be Judge Advocate General - Authority for appointment of Deputy Judge Advocate General and assistants etc - M. M. and D. [Minister of Militia and Defence]; see http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/politics-government/orders-council/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=323683  (accessed 3  September 2016);  (français: décret C.P 495, 28 février 1918);

    Image: www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/public_mikan/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayEcopies&lang=eng&rec_nbr=3192926&title=Privy+Council+Chamber+%28Parliament+Buildings%29+&ecopy=a008388, accessed 28 September 2016
    Privy Council Chamber, Parliament Buildings after 1886

    ORDERS-IN-COUNCIL dealing with matters of aid to the civil power /Décrets concernant l'aide au pouvoir civil:

    - P.C. (Privy Council) 1996-833 (registered as Order-in-council number 833 in 1996), 4 June 1996, "Canadian Forces Assistance to Provincial Police Forces Directions, to specify the procedure associated with the making of and response to a provincial request for military assistance (Canadian Forces) to police Operations carried out under provincial authority, to resolve disturbances of the peace affecting the national interest", available at http://www.cda.forces.gc.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/doc/CollectionofDocumentsonDomesticOperations.pdf  (pp. 276-279 of the publication, Domestic Operations -- Collection of Documents,  B-LG-007-000/AF-001; accessed on 13 January 2012); FRANÇAIS : .C.P. 1996-833, 4 juin 1996, "Instructions sur l'assistance des forces canadiennes aux corps policiers des provinces", disponible à http://www.cda.dnd.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/doc/DOCD-ONRD-fra.pdf  (pp. 289-292 de la publication Opérations nationales -- Recueil de documents, B-LG-007-000/AF-002; vérification du 28 novembre 2011);

    - P.C. 1993-624 (registered as Order-in-council number 624 in 1993; 30 March 1993) Canadian Armed Assistance Directions which set out the procedures for the provision of armed assistance by the Canadian Armed Forces to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in order to deal with disturbances of the peace affecting the national interest, effective April 1, 1993, available at http://www.cda.forces.gc.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/doc/CollectionofDocumentsonDomesticOperations.pdf  (pp. 309-311 of the publication, Domestic Operations -- Collection of Documents,  B-LG-007-000/AF-001; accessed on 13 January 2012); FRANÇAIS: .C.P. 1993-624, 30 mars 1993, "Instructions relatives à l'assistance armée fournie par les forces canadiennes à la Gendarmerie royale du Canada afin de maitriser des troubles touchant l'intéret national", disponible à http://www.cda.dnd.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/doc/DOCD-ONRD-fra.pdf  (pp. 286-288 de la publication Opérations nationales -- Recueil de documents, B-LG-007-000/AF-002; vérification du 28 novembre 2011);

    - P.C. 1975-131 (Approved by the Governor-General,  Jules Léger, on 23 January 1975; replacing P.C. 2304 of 1 June 1948), Assistance to Federal Penitientiaries Order (directions regarding the Solicitor General of Canada or the Commissioner of Penitentiaries' request to the Chief of the Defence Staff to despatch to a federal penitentiary a military force for the purpose of aiding in suppressing, preventing or otherwise dealing with a disturbance ...which is beyond the powers of the penitentiary staff to suppress or prevent (not official title of the order-in-council as it has none), available at http://www.cda.forces.gc.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/doc/CollectionofDocumentsonDomesticOperations.pdf  (pp. 274-275 of the publication, Domestic Operations -- Collection of Documents,  B-LG-007-000/AF-001; accessed on 13 January 2012); FRANÇAIS : C.P. 1975-131, 23 janvier 1975 remplaçant le C.P. 2304 du 1er juin 1948, (directives pour le Solliciteur général du Canada et le Commissaire des pénitenciers pour demander au chef de l'état-major de la défense d'envoyer un détachement militaire dans un pénitencier fédéral dans le but d'aider à mater, à prévenir ou à régler de quelque autre manière les troubles qui s'y sont produits ou rsquent de s'y produire lorsque le personnel dudit pénitencier n'est pas lui-même en mesure de mater ou de prévenir ces troubles), disponible à http://www.cda.dnd.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/doc/DOCD-ONRD-fra.pdf  (pp. 293-294 de la publication Opérations nationales -- Recueil de documents, B-LG-007-000/AF-002; vérification du  13 janvier 20012);

    Imgae source: https://twitter.com/orfali, accessed 29 July 2016
    Philippe Orfali 
    ORFALI, Philippe, "Des milliers de délits commis dans l'armée" LaPresse.ca, 15 février 2010;

    «Les bases où l'on voit  les plus hauts taux (de conduite en état d'ébriété) sont celles d'où proviennent beaucoup de soldats (envoyés) en Afghanistan. Après avoir été encadrés strictement, il se peut qu'il y ait une certaine recrudescence au niveau de l'abus d'alcool à leur retour.» En réalité, les cas de conduite en état d'ébriété seraient six fois plus élevés dans les forces de terre que dans l'ensemble de la population canadienne.

    «Un problème systémique»

    De retour au pays et mal outillés pour faire face au syndrome de stress post-traumatique, de nombreux soldats sombrent dans l'alcool, soutient Me Drapeau. «Ce ne sont pas des cas isolés. C'est un problème systémique. Les soldats, ce sont des gens éduqués qui risquent leur vie pour le Canada. Ils boivent non pas par imbécillité, mais parce qu'ils sont désemparés. Le Canada faillit à sa tâche de les aider.»

    De cette détresse découlent aussi plusieurs cas de violence conjugale et de consommation de drogue, croit-il.
    (disponible à  http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/national/201002/14/01-949654-des-milliers-de-delits-commis-dans-larmee.php, accessed on 11 August 2013)

    "Organization and Accountability : Guidance for Members of the Canadian Forces and Employees of the Department of National Defence", 2nd ed., September 1999, 39 p.; available at http://www.queensu.ca/dms/DMS_Course_Materials_and_Outline/Readings-MPA834/NDHQ-Accountability%20and%20Organization-Sept1999.pdf (accessed on 25 June 2012);

    Image source: Google Image, accessed on 12 May 2014

    ORSONNENS, L.G. d'Odet (Louis Gustave d'Odet), comte d',  1842-, Projet d'organisation militaire pour la confédération canadienne, Montréal, 1868, disponible à http://www.archive.org/details/cihm_50740 (vérifié le 25 février 2012);

    ORSYK, George,  "A Case of Unreasonable Doubts - Lingering questions about NIS' ineptitude of probing senior brass", (shipped July 1999), volume 7, issue 2, Esprit de Corps, at pp. 9 and 23; NIS is the Canadian Forces National Investigation Service;

    ___________"A Tale of Two Investigations [by the NIS]", (shipped December 1999), volume 7, issue 7, Esprit de Corps, at pp. 11 and 20; NIS is the Canadian Forces National Investigation Service;

    Ken Osborne, photo source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/ken-osborne/9/429/aa5?trk=pub-pbmap,accessed on 7 Apruil 2014

    OSBORNE, LCdr Ken, "Clarifying the Role and Responsibilities for Aboriginal Consultation and Accomodation / Clarifier l'obligation de consulter et d'accomoder les Premières nations",  (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 76-78; article en Français et en anglais; article in French and English;

    Source of image: JAG Les actualités /Newsletter, volume 1, 2006 at p. 10
    Lt(N) Kenneth Osborne, left, congratuled by MGen Jerry Pitzul, JAG, for his promotion to the rank of LCdr

    ___________"Clarifying the role and responsibilities for First Nations consultation and accommodation within the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at  http://web.archive.org/web/20070515000335/www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2006/news.aspx (accessed on 24 April 2012);
    ___________"Clarifier l'obligation de conseiller et d'accommoder les Premières Nations au ministère de la Défense nationale et des Forces canadiennes" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible  à  http://web.archive.org/web/20070518052202/http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2006/nouvelles.aspx#article5 (site visité le 24 avril  2012);

    Image source: www.cg.cfpsa.ca/cg-pc/Borden/SiteCollectionDocuments/BordenCitizen/2014/07-25-2014.pdf, accessed 19 January 2016
    LCdr Ken Osborne (far right) at CFB Borden

    ___________military career history at https://ca.linkedin.com/in/ken-osborne-aa54299 (accessed 19 January 2016);

    Legal Officer Instructor and Training Development
    Canadian Forces Military Law Centre
    June 2015- Present (8 months)

    As a lawyer and training development specialist with the Canadian Forces Military Law Centre, I am responsible for supporting the design, delivery, evaluation and validation of military legal education and training within the military justice, public administrative and international legal pillars. The CFMLC mandate is to provide legal education and training to military members in order to assist them in preparing to meet the challenges associated with current and future operations. Additionally, I am responsible for the generation of legal research in the areas of military justice and military law, and provide support to the development of Canadian Armed Forces doctrine governing those legal disciplines.


    Deputy Judge Advocate Borden

    Canadian Forces
    April 2011-June 2015 (4 years 3 months)

    As the Deputy Judge Advocate for CFB Borden I am responsible for proving legal support and advice to the Base Commander and his units, including Military Police in areas such as military justice matters, administrative legal issues, including Boards of Inquiry and Summary Investigations to one of the Canadian Forces largest military training establishments. In addition, I am also responsible for the provision of legal training to units on the Base. CFB Borden trains 15,000 personnel annually and employs approximately 3500 military members and 1500 civilian employees.


     Legal Advisor
    (3 years 4 months)

    Legal Advisory Services (LAS) is a Directorate with the Canadian Forces Legal Advisor’s Office (DND CFLA) providing legal services on a variety of issues, impacting DND/CF. LAS clients cover a wide range of activities, including Public Service and Labour, Health Services, Search and Rescue, Non Public Property, Public Affairs and Reserves and Cadets. As a Legal Advisor with CFLA I provided general legal advice in a variety of Public Law areas and was the legal advisor to the Deputy Provost Marshal (Security). I also appeared as DND/CF Counsel before the Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC).

    [Excerpts only]


    Source of images: http://www.ischool.utoronto.ca/zachary-osborne-2013-recipient, accessed 25 September 2016
    Zachary Osborne

    OSBORNE, Zachary J., Queer Consequences: Homosexualiy and its Penalties in the Canadian Military, 1939-1945, thesis Bachelor of Arts with Honours in History, Acadia University, April 2007, vi, 86 leaves; available at https://zacharyosborne.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/queer_consequences.pdf     (accessed 25 September 2016);


    OSWALD, Bruce "Ossie", "Detention of Civilians on Military Operations: Reasons for and Challenges to Developing a Special Law of Detention", (2008) 32 Melbourne University Law Review 524-553; available at http://www.mulr.com.au/issues/32_2/32_2_5.pdf (accessed on 25 June 2014);

    OTTAWA CITIZEN (Newspaper), "Canadian quietly writes humanitarian law into Afghan security contracts. The Canadian military has quietly revised its contracts with private-security providers in Afghanistan to ensure they obey international humanitarian law, which prohibits attacks on civilians", 27 May 2008; available at http://www.canada.com/topics/news/national/story.html?id=8ba7014d-f640-4fb3-a88d-c541ecd7cf65  (accessed on 2 November 2014);

    Image source: https://archive.org/details/guidemanualforca00otte, accessed 21 June 2015
    OTTER, W.D. (William Dillon), 1843-1929,  The guide : a manual for the Canadian militia (infantry) embracing the interior economy, duties, discipline, drills and parades, dress, books and correspondence of a battalion with regulations for marches, transport and encampment, also forms and bugle calls / compiled by William D. Otter, 9th ed.--rev., Toronto : Copp, Clark, 1914, 325 p. : ill., forms, music; 17 cm; available at https://archive.org/details/guidemanualforca00otte, https://openlibrary.org/books/OL19475010M/The_guide_a_manual_for_the_Canadian_militia_%28infantry%29  and https://archive.org/stream/guidemanualforca00otte/guidemanualforca00otte_djvu.txt (accessed 21 June 2015); several previous editions are available on the internet;

    Image source: http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/136/295-eng.html, accessed 25 September 2016
    Dr. Éric Ouellet

    OUELLET, Éric,  “ Les années 1990 : émergence du soldat-diplomate ”, Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains 2/2013 (No 250) , p. 55-65; URL : www.cairn.info/revue-guerres-mondiales-et-conflits-contemporains-2013-2-page-55.htm; DOI : 10.3917/gmcc.250.0055.

    Au Canada, les années 1990 sont souvent décrites comme la « sombre décennie » par les militaires. Ce fut une époque difficile pour l’institution militaire canadienne qui, assiégée de toutes parts, dû se résigner à s’adapter aux nouvelles réalités de l’après-Guerre froide, mais aussi à se rapprocher des normes et des valeurs de la société canadienne. La mission canadienne en Somalie, en 1992-1993, fut l’événement catalyseur de ces changements, où le manque d’éthique et les problèmes de disciplines firent scandale. L’éthos du « vrai » guerrier, issu de la Guerre froide, était en conflit avec les attentes de la société canadienne qui se représentait ses forces armées comme une force de casques bleus. C’est dans ce contexte que les Forces canadiennes se réformèrent par un compromis institutionnel où l’identité militaire fut reconstruite autour de la notion implicite du soldat-diplomate. Cet article retrace les dynamiques institutionnelles qui menèrent à ce compromis.

    Plan de l'article

    1. Introduction
    2. La Somalie : un bref rappel des faits
    3. Le contexte institutionnel plus large
    4. La dimension cognitive de la légitimité ou le retour inopiné de Clausewitz
    5. La dimension normative ou le passage du guerrier au soldat-diplomate
    6. La dimension régulative ou le départ inopiné d’Huntington
    7. Conclusion  
    [Source: http://www.cairn.info/revue-guerres-mondiales-et-conflits-contemporains-2013-2-page-55.htm, visité 25 septembre 2016]


    In Canada, the 1990s were often described by the military as the “decade of darkness.” This was a difficult time for the Canadian military, which was socially under siege, and had to both adapt to the new realities of the post-Cold War and to realign its norms and values with those of Canadian society. The Canadian mission in Somalia (1992–1993) was a catalyst for these changes, as ethical lapses and discipline problems turned into a scandal. The “true warrior” ethos, a legacy of the Cold War, was in conflict with the expectations of Canadian society, which thought of its armed forces as a peacekeeping force. It is in this context that the Canadian Forces implemented reform through an institutional compromise in which the military identity was reconstructed around the implicit notion of the soldier-diplomat. This article traces the institutional dynamics that led to this compromise.

    [Source:  http://www.cairn-int.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=E_GMCC_250_0055, accessed 25 September 2016]


    Valérie Pagé
    PAGÉ, Valérie, Capc, "La Juge-avocat adjoint de la Réserve navale prodigue des services juridiques en plein Pacifique!", Marine Royale canadienne, L'Encre--octobre 2016/4 novembre 2016, disponible à http://www.navy-marine.forces.gc.ca/fr/nouvelles-lencre/lencre-voir.page?doc=la-juge-avocat-adjoint-de-la-reserve-navale-prodigue-des-services-juridiques-en-plein-pacifique/iv3fcuu9 (visité le 15 mars 2017);

     Comme avocate militaire œuvrant sur la Base de soutien de la 2e Division du Canada Valcartier et au Quartier général de la Réserve navale,
     les opportunités de naviguer se font assez rares. Pourtant, du 29 juin au 4 août 2016, j’ai eu l’immense privilège de me joindre à l’équipage
    du Navire canadien de Sa Majesté Calgary et de participer à la 25e édition de l’exercice RIMPAC.


    Mon rôle dans cet exercice était d’agir comme conseillère juridique du Sea Combat Commander dont la mission était d’assurer la protection
    d’un porte-avion américain. Nous étions donc à la tête d’un groupe de combat comptant neuf navires de huit nationalités différentes.

    J’ai ainsi eu l’occasion de conseiller l’équipe de commandement sur le droit maritime et les règles d’engagement applicables dans certaines
    situations à laquelle le scénario de l’exercice nous confrontait. À l’extérieur de ce scénario, j’ai également eu l’occasion d’échanger avec les
    membres de l’équipage sur diverses questions d’ordre juridique qu’ils avaient.

    Photo of Mario Paillé, reproduced from  http://www.hebdorivenord.com/Communaute/2010-02-27/article-1080076/
    (accessed on 31 March 2014)

    PAILLÉ, Mario D., "Assistant au Conseiller juridique -- Quartier-général de la Force internationale d'assistance à la sécurité, Kaboul, Afghanistan", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 18-20;

    __________Biographical notes on Mario Paillé:
    Lieutenant-Commander Mario Denis Paillé B.A., LL.L., CD is a Royal Canadian Military College of Canada (RMC) graduate who serves in the Canadian Forces since 1982. He served as an Administrative Clerk in Ottawa, Montreal, Valcartier and in Irak and Kuwait with the United Nations following the first Gulf War in 1991. Following graduation, he is appointed as a Military Police Officer. From 1995 to 1999, he served in Ottawa with the Special Investigation Unit as a Personal Investigation Officer and as Operations Officer with the Canadian Forces National Counter Intelligence Unit. Following graduation from University of Ottawa as a law licensiate, he is posted in 2003 with the Office of the Judge Advocate General in Ottawa. In 2005, he is posted as a Deputy Judge Advocate with the 5th Area Support Group and Joint Task Force Eastern Region in Montreal and provide legal advice mainly to the 5th Military Police Regiment.

    From Aug 2006 to Feb 2007, he is deployed as a legal advisor with the NATO International Security Assistance Force Headquarters in Kabul, Afghanistan under British Command. He provides legal advice to the Commander NATO ISAF on Law of Armed Conflict, Targeting Boards, administrative law, military justice and claims. Upon his return from Afghanistan, he is back as Deputy Judge Advocate with the 5th Area Support Group.

    From February to August 2010, he is deployed with the United Nations Observer Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the Rule of Law Unit. He works mainly on the Congolese military justice reform and the Rule of Law and provides training through seminars and workshops to the Congolese Armed Forces personnel on the Congolese Military Justice system and International Humanitarian Law.

    In August 2013, he is posted with the Canadian Forces Military Law Center in Kingston, Ontario and trains Canadian military personnel and abroad in the fields of Military Justice, Military Administrative Law, Operational Law and Law of Armed Conflict.
    (source: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/mario-denis-paill%C3%A9-b-a-ll-l-cd/a2/aa7/251, accessed 18 April 2015)

    ___________"Mario in the Congo: The adventures of a Canadian military lawyer in the DRC" (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx and http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#article3 (accessed on 30 April 2012);

    ___________"Mario au Congo (Les aventures d'un avocat militaire canadien en RDC)",  (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx  et http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#mario (site visité le 30 avril  2012);

    ___________ "A military lawyer in Kabul", (9 March 2007) (10(7) The Maple Leaf  7; available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/commun/ml-fe/vol_10/vol10_07/1007_full.pdf  (accessed on 25 April 2007);
    ___________ "Un avocat militaire à Kabul", (9 mars 2007) 10(7) La feuille d'érable 7; disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/commun/ml-fe/vol_10/vol10_07/1007_full.pdf (vérifié le 25 avril 2007);

    ___________"A military lawyer in Kabul" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2007/news.aspx#top  (accessed on 25 April 2012);
    ___________"Un avocat militaire à Kaboul" (July/Juillet 2007) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2007/nouvelles.aspx#article4 (site visité le 25 avril  2012);

    Image source: http://www.strategiaworldwide.com/team/, accessed 2 October 2016
    Anthony Paphiti
    PAPHITI, Anthony, "Global Seminar on Military Justice Reform Yale Law School, 8th November 2014", available at http://www.aspals.com/gmjrs.pdf (accessed 2 October 2016);

    Gabriel Roy, procureur de la poursuite                                                   Gabriel Roy, source:https://www.google.com/                                           
    PAPILLON, Martine, reportage de, et ICI-RADIO-CANADA.CA, "L'adjudant André Gagnon déclaré non coupable d'agression sexuelle", http://ici.radio-canada.ca, publié le vendredi 22 août 2014, disponible à http://ici.radio-canada.ca/regions/quebec/2014/08/22/004-verdict-andre-gagnon-agression-sexuelle-stephanie-raymond-vendredi.shtml (vérifié le 6 juin 2016);

    Image source: https://twitter.com/isa_pare, accessed 18 August 2016
    Isabelle Paré

    PARÉ, Isabelle, "Les avocats dans les Forces armées", (janvier 1990) 2(1) Maîtres 10-15;

    Source: http://abcqc.qc.ca/fr/A-propos-de-l-ABC-Quebec/Notre-equipe, visité 15 septembre 2016
    Stéphanie Parent
    PARENT, Stéphanie, "Démystifier le droit militaire canadien", L'Association du Barreau canadien, Division du Québec, disponible à http://abcqc.qc.ca/fr/Publications/Articles/ABC-Quebec/2016-09/Demystifier-le-droit-militaire-canadien (vérifié 15 septembre 2016);

    Le droit militaire reste méconnu de la plupart des avocats en pratique privée. Les aperçus anecdotiques transmis par les médias généralistes et les références cinématographiques telles que A few good men (V.F. Des hommes d’honneur) constituent l’essentiel de leurs connaissances. Ce constat a motivé Me Pascal Lévesque, doctorant en droit à l’Université Queen's, d’organiser la formation Le droit militaire canadien : un droit spécialisé pour un contexte unique qui aura lieu le 13 octobre prochain dans les locaux de l’ABC-Québec à Montréal. Ce sera également l’occasion d’évaluer l’intérêt de la communauté juridique québécoise et une vitrine pour la création d’une éventuelle section de droit militaire au niveau de la Division.
    « Souvent, les avocats en pratique privée vont refuser de prendre des cas en lien avec le droit militaire, car ils ne le connaissent pas », indique Me Lévesque. Cette conférence sera donc non seulement pertinente pour la culture personnelle des juristes, mais leur donnera le contexte et la nomenclature nécessaires pour trouver les lois et règlements et, si le client est un militaire ou un ancien militaire, de pouvoir mieux le référer. De leur côté, les jeunes juristes et les étudiants découvriront si une carrière en droit militaire pourrait les intéresser.
    Selon Me Lévesque, l’un des principaux mythes à propos du droit militaire, c’est qu’il s’agirait d’un droit « caché ». « Pourtant, la justice militaire canadienne est l’une des plus transparentes, notamment plus que celle de nos voisins du Sud, expose le doctorant. En principe, toutes les décisions sont publiées (hormis celles pour lesquelles une ordonnance de non-publication a été prononcée) et seules les décisions sommaires ne se retrouvent pas sur CanLII. » L’information juridique est disponible et les procès militaires sont publics, hormis les cas de huis clos.

    Jean Pariseau, image source: http://bv.cdeacf.ca/bvdoc.php?no=113538&col=RA&format=htm, accessed 24 February 2015

    PARISEAU, Jean, 1924-2006, L’aide militaire au pouvoir civil, 1867-1933. Mémoire de maîtrise, Université d’Ottawa, 1973;  disponible à http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/bitstream/handle/10393/21788/EC55334.PDF?sequence=1 (vérifié le 16 avril 2012);

    ___________Disorders, Strikes,  Disasters: Military Aid to the Civil Power  in Canada, 1867-1973, Ottawa: Directorate of History, National Defence Headquarters, 1973; Notes: A French version of the text appears as follows: : Major J.J.B. Pariseau, L’aide militarie au pouvoir civil, 1867-1933), P. Gawn, rev. trans. All references in this paper are to the English version.;

    ___________ Forces armées et maintien de l'ordre au Canada, 1867-1967 :  un siècle d'aide au pouvoir civil, thèse de doctorat ès Lettres, Université Paul Valéry III, Montpellier, France, 1981, 5 volumes, copie à la Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, Ottawa; 

    ___________"Les mouvements sociaux, la violence et les interventions armées au Québec (1867/1967)", (1983-84) 37 Revue d'Histoire de l'Amérique française 67-79; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/revue/haf/1983/v37/n1/304r125a.pdf (vérifié le 18 décembre 2011);

    Fred Blair, photo reproduced from http://kuny.ca/temp/english/AtB-BM_Blair.html, accessed 31 March 2014

    PARISIEN RESEARCH CORPORATION, Notes on Fred Blair; available at http://parisien.org/popup.php?cmd=1 (accessed on 31 May 2012);


    Alice Parizeau, image source: http://alice-parizeau.csdm.ca/ecole/alice-parizeau/, accessed on 8 November 2014

    PARIZEAU, Alice, 1930-1990, "L'armée et la crise d'octobre", (1980) 13(2) Criminologie 47-78, disponible à http://classiques.uqac.ca/contemporains/parizeau_alice/armee_crise_octobre/armee_crise_octobre.html  (vérifié le 5 avril 2011);

    PARLIAMENT, House of Commons, Special Committee on Bill No. 133 An Act Respecting National Defence, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence: Special Committee on Bill No. 133 on Act Respecting National Defence, Ottawa: Edmond Cloiutier, King's Printer, 1950; eight numbers, No. 1 dated 23 May 1950 to No. 8 dated 6 June 1950, 360 p.; copy at the Library of Parliament, call # J103 H7 1950 D4 A1 and at Library and Archives Canada; the wallet of the Special Committe is located at the Library and Archives Canada,  Record Group # 14, 1987-88/146, Box 58 which contains the reports to the House, amendments, exhibits and minutes;
    Note de recherche par François Lareau - Il existe une copie de ces procès-verbaux à la Librairie du Parlement, no de cote J103H7 D4 A1 et à la Bibliothèque et Archives Canada; le dossier du Comité spécial se trouve aux Archives nationales, Ottawa, Record Group # 14, 1987-88/146, boîte 58 et il contient les rapports à la Chambre des communes, les amendements, les pièces et les procès-verbaux;

    Source of image: http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/petawawa/main-march272010.swf, accessed 1 October 2015
    PARK, Tatyana, biographical notes, available at  http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/petawawa/main-march272010.swf (accessed 1 October 2015);

    Lieutenant-Colonel Bruce MacGregor, Director of military justice policy        Captain David Hodson, Defence counsel for Capt Robert Semrau

    PARKER, Scott, video by, "Le capitaine Robert Semrau a plaidé non coupable pour l'exécution d'un insurgé", The Ottawa Citizen, available at https://article.wn.com/view/2010/03/24/le_capitaine_robert_semrau_a_plaid_non_coupable_pour_lex_cut/ (accessed 26 December 2016);

    Image source: http://www.kembleunitedchurches.ca/our_ministries.php, accessed 10 October 2016
    Neil Parker
    PARKER, Neil, With All Due Respect, Sir: Canadian Forces’ Chaplains: Defining Competencies for Providing Ethical Advice to the Chain of Command, Doctor of Ministry thesis, St Paul University, Ottawa, 8 April 2014, 270 p., [3]; available at https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/31112/1/Parker_Neil_2014_thesis.pdf (accessed 10 October 2016);

    PARLIAMENT, House of Commons, Special Committee on Matters Relating to Defence, Special  Studies prepared  by the Special Committee of the House of Commons on matters relating to defence, Ottawa: Roger Duhamel, 1965 p., 179 p., 25 cm.;  copy at Dalhousie  Killam Library;

    PARLIAMENT,  House of Commons, Standing Committee on National Defence, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, (1) Main estimates  1966-67 of the Department of National Defence. (2) Respecting Bill C-243, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and other Acts in consequence thereof, Ottawa : Queen's Printer, 1966-1967, :  37 pts;  Research Note by François Lareau - See in particular  minutes (part) No. 32,  dated March 14, 1967, where Brigadier General  W.J. Lawson, the Judge Advocate General, is a witness; the call number for that No. 32 is  # J103 H7 1966/67 A1 v.2 at the Library of Parliament, Ottawa; Bill C-243 passed first reading on November 4, 1966;
    PARLEMENT, Chambre des communes. Comité permanent de  la défense nationale,  Procès-verbaux et témoignages : [1] Budget des dépenses (1966-1967) du Ministère de la défense nationale. [2] Bill C-243, Loi modifiant la Loi sur la défense nationale et, par  voie de conséquence, certaines autres lois, Ottawa : Impr. de la Reine, 1966-1967., 37 fasc. en 2 v. (2408 p.); Note de recherche par François Lareau: Voir en particulier le procès-verbal  (fasicule) no 32, où le Brigadier-Général W.J. Lawson, le juge-avocat général,  est un témoin;  la cote de ce no 32 est  # J103 H7 1966/67 A1 v.2 à la Librairie du Parlement, Ottawa; la première lecture du Projet de loi  C-243 a eu  lieu le 4 novembre 1966;

    PARLIAMENT, Senate,  Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Equal Justice : Reforming Canada's System of Courts Martial, Final Report, A Special Study on the provisions and operation of An Act  to amend the National defence Act (Court Martial) and to make a consequential amendment to another Act, S.C. 2008, c. 29, Ottawa, 2009, iii, 39 p. (Chair: The Honourable Joan Fraser), Final ReportRecommendationsNews ReleaseBackgrounder, Proceedings Issue No. 6, April 22 and April 29 (in camera), 2009, Issue No. 5, April 1 (in camera) and April 2, 2009, Issue No. 3, March 11 and March 12, 2009, Issue No. 2, March 4 and March 5, 2009, Issue No. 1, February 12 and February 26, 2009
    PARLEMENT, Sénat, Comité sénatorial permanent des affaires juridiques et constitutionnelles, Une justice égale: réformer le système canadien de cours martiales.  Rapport final.  Étude des dispositions et de l'application de la Loi modifiant la Loi sur la défense nationale (cour martiale) et une autre loi en conséquence, L.C.  2008, ch. 29, Ottawa, 2009, iii, 43 p. (Présidente: L'honorable Joan Fraser), Rapport Final, Recommandations, Communiqué, Fiche d’information
    ,Délibérations, fascicule no 6, le 22 avril et le 29 avril (à huis clos) 2009Fascicule no 5, le 1er avril (à huis clos) et le 2 avril 2009Fascicule no 3, le 11 mars et le 12 mars 2009, Fascicule no 2, le 4 mars et le 5 mars 2009, Fascicule no 1, le 12 février et le 26 février 2009;

    PARLIAMENT, Senate, Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on National Defence, Issue No. 17, May 19, 1981, 34 p; Research Note of François Lareau: Among the witnesses were Major-General John P. Wolfe, Judge Advocate General and Colonel F. Karwandy, Deputy Judge Advocate General.  The proceedings deal with the concerns of the CF regarding the proposed Charter of Rights and Freedoms and with "the problems raised by the Canadian Human Rights Act and the proposed amendments";
    Il existe une version française de ce document; note de recherche par François Lareau :  Parmi les témoins, il y a le juge-avocat général, le Major-gnéral John P. Wolfe et  le Colonel Karwandy, le Juge-avocat général adjoint.  Ces documents traitent du soucis des Forces canadiennes pour la proposition sur la Charte des droits et libertés et avec [traduction] "les problèms soulevés par la Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne et les amendements proposés";

    Josée Parr on You Tube: http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/291/287/ready.pdf#pagemode=thumbs (accessed 3 September 2016)

    PARR, Josée, notes on Major Parr, from email of Major/major Keith Reichert, Assistant Chief of Staff (Personnel), Office of the Judge Advocate General, Canadian Armed Forces / Assistant chef d'état major (personnel), Cabinet du Juge-avocat général, Forces armeés canadiennes; copy of the email sent to François Lareau by Benoît Pinsonneault on 15 May 2016;

    Major Josée Parr libère des Forces armées canadiennes après 26 ans de
    service.  Elle s’est enrôlée dans la Force régulière en juin 1990, comme
    officier légal, à travers le programme d’enrôlement direct.  Elle a servi au
    QGDN à Ottawa avec le Directeur juridique- Droits humains & discrimination,
    et avec le Directeur des services juridiques du personnel ainsi qu’à
    Esquimalt, au bureau du JAGA.  En janvier 1999, Major Parr a transféré dans
    la Réserve et a servi au bureau du JAGA à Montréal.  En 2008, elle a
    transféré de nouveau dans la Régulière où elle a servi à Ottawa avec le
    Directeur juridique en droit militaire, avec le Conseiller juridique du
    MDN/CF et avec le Directeur en droit administratif.  Josée est mariée depuis
    30 ans avec Bruno et a deux enfants Stéphanie et Patrick. Ses plans de
    retraite incluent des études en théologie, des voyages et du temps précieux
    avec ses petits enfants à venir.

    Major Josée Parr is releasing from the Canadian Armed Forces after 26 years.
    In June 1990, she enrolled in the Regular Force as a Direct Entry Officer in
    the legal branch. She has served at NDHQ in Ottawa with the Directorate of
    Law- Humans Rights & Discrimination and with the Director of Personnel Legal
    Services,  and in Esquimalt, at the AJAG office.  In January 1999, Major
    Parr transferred in the Reserve Force, serving at the AJAG office in
    Montreal.  In 2008, she transferred back to the Regular Force and has served
    in Ottawa with the Directorate of Law- Military Justice, as DJA Ottawa, with
    DND CFLA and finally, with the Directorate of Administrative Law.  Josée has
    been married for 30 years to Bruno and they have two children, Stephanie et
    Patrick.  Her plans for the future include studies in theology, many travels
    and precious time with her grandchildren to come.

    PARRY, Tom, "Stuart Langridge suicide report places blame on  victim, parents's divorce -- Secret  1,434 page analysis says soldier was distraught over end of relationship with common-law wife", posted  12 March 2015, CBC News, available at http://www.cbc.ca/m/touch/news/story/1.2993235  (accessed 15 March 2015);  also available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/stuart-langridge-suicide-report-places-blame-on-victim-parents-divorce-1.2993235 (accessed 29 July 2016);

    Tom Parry, CBC journalist             Brig.-Gen. Shane Brennan, image source:
    image source: ca.linkedin.com/      thestar.com/news/canada/2016/09/06/canadian-
    in/tom-parry-7052a6b1                   aircraft-giving-vital-info-to-allies-for-daesh-airstrikes-military-says.html

    ___________"Torture 'counter to our values,' say Canadian military commanders.  We 'will not be involved in any type of torture, of any detained personnel, or anyone else for that matter' ", CBC News/Politics, 26 January 2017; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/canada-militar-us-torture-1.3953970 (accessed on 27 January 2017); statements by ; statement also by Brig.-Gen. Steve Kelsey, a         senior Canadian commander in Iraq;


    Peter R. Partner, source of photo: McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, supra, at p. 144.

    PARTNER, Peter R., 1933-, "Address to the 40th Judge Advocate Officer Graduate Course", (July 1992) The Army Lawyer 3-4; available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/07-1992.pdf (accessed on 28 November 2011); also available at http://books.google.ca/books?id=sNHCjrpiKrwC&pg=PT481&dq=canada+subject:%22military+law%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=M-fcT_z2O8SN6QHU_OHACw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=canada%20subject%3A%22military%20law%22&f=false (accessesd on 16 June 2012);  Commodore Peter R. Partner was the Canadian Judge Advocate General from 10 November 1990 to 3 May 1993;

    __________Biographical notes on Peter Partner at http://nauticapedia.ca/dbase/Query/Biolist3.php?name=Partner,%20Peter%20Richard&id=15364&Page=1&input=Partner,%20Peter%20Richard (accessed on 1 May 2014); see also http://nauticapedia.ca/dbase/Query/Biolist3.php?name=Partner,%20Peter%20Richard&id=15364&Page=1&input=Partner,%20Peter%20Richard (accessed 14 December 2015);

    He was appointed as an Officer Cadet RCAF (ROTP) 1956. He served in Training Command HQ Trenton ON as Staff Officer Personnel Administration Legal 1956. He was appointed as a Flight Lieutenant RCAF (With seniority dated 01/02/1957). He served in Central Command Oakville ON as Assistant Deputy Judge Advocate 1958. He was appointed as a Squadron Leader RCAF (With seniority dated 01/07/1961). He served in Judge Advocate General Branch as Staff Officer Legal Services 1961. He served in Judge Advocate General Branch as Section Head Redress of Grievance Section 1964. He was appointed as a A/Wing Commander RCAF (With seniority dated 01/08/1966). He served in Canadian Forces Advisory and Training Team Tanzania as Senior Advisor Planning Committee 1966. He served in NDHQ for Judge Advocate General's Office as Section Head Logistics Section 1968. He was appointed as a Lieutenant-Colonel (Legal) (With seniority dated 01/05/1970). He served in NDHQ for Judge Advocate General Branch as Director of Law Advisory 1972. He served in NATO Defence College Rome for Staff Course 1974. He served in CFB Lahr as Assistant Judge Advocate General European Region 1974. He served in CFB Winnipeg as Assistant Judge Advocate General Prairie Region 1978. He was appointed as a Colonel (Legal) (With seniority dated 01/01/1982). He served in NDHQ as Director of Personnel Legal Services 1985. He was appointed as a Captain (N) (With seniority dated 01/01/1988). He was appointed as a Commodore (With seniority dated 01/11/1990). He served in NDHQ as Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces 1990. (He was retired on 03/05/1993.)

    After his naval service he was Chief of the General Legal Division of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East in Vienna Austria.


    Peter Partner

    ___________Biographical notes on Peter Partner, available at http://www.probusorv.org/bookfirsttenyearsfinalversionoct04.pdf accessed 30 August 2016;

    Commodore Peter Richard Partner (Ret.) (President, [of The Probus Club of Ottawa-Rideau Valley] 2001-2002)

    Peter Partner is our only second generation Probian, having been introduced to Probus by his father in England, where Peter holds an honorary
    life membership in the Hereford #3 Probus Club. He is respected here no less, having been nominated to an executive position with Probus Centre-Canada.

    After a distinguished career in both the Canadian Armed Services and later the United Nations, Peter retired to Kars where he and his wife Margitha are active in
    many aspects of community life, and where their skills rescued the Manotick Branch of the Canadian Legion. They both received the Queen‟s Golden Jubilee
    medals for their community service.

    Peter was born in England but spent his formative years in Newfoundland. He studied at Memorial University then accepted a scholarship at Dalhousie University
    where he studied law. He is a member of the Nova Scotia Barristers‟ Society.

    While still a student Peter entered service in the Royal Canadian Navy. His distinguished career of 37 years included all aspects of the legal activities of the
    Canadian Department of National Defence. While serving in Winnipeg he was responsible for legal work throughout the Prairies and Northwest Territories. He
    served, as well, in Germany, Rome, Italy, and Tanzania training and advising. By Order in Council, Peter was appointed Judge Advocate General for Canada‟s
    Armed Services. He retired with the rank of Commodore.

    Leaving the Forces, Peter accepted an appointment as Chief of the General Legal Division and subsequently Senior Officer Human Resources of the United Nations
    Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees. This organization is responsible for all services being provided for 3 million refugees in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan,
    The West Bank and Gaza. Peter describes this appointment as “an eye opening experience.”

    Being club president was a highlight for him, as it was for his Management Committee, not only because of is leadership skills but, also, his very keen sense of humour.

    PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE CONSORTIUM, "Military justice experts gather in Kyiv to launch dialogue on reform", 8 September 2016, available at http://www.pfp-consortium.org/index.php/item/255-military-justice-experts-gather-in-kyiv-to-launch-dialogue-on-reform  (accessed 15 September 2016); Joe Holland is a former JAG officer; I do not think that he is still with the Office of the Judge Advocate General in 2016; please correct me if I am wrong.

    Kyiv, Ukraine (8 September, 2016) Today the PfPC in conjunction with the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) completed the first iteration of an academic exchange program focused on the establishment and enhancement of effective military justice systems. Participants from throughout the region attended, and frank discussion ensued on the societal and institutional challenges still prevalent in post-Soviet systems.
    Joe Holland, from the Office of the Judge Advocate General of Canada offered perspective on the Canadian system - its overlap and differences with other programs. He noted the constraints related to the size of the Canadian corps and the distances needed to be traveled in commission of doing justice system wide (domestic and overseas).

    Image source: www.law.uh.edu/faculty/main.asp?PID=34, accessed 29 July 2016
    Jordan Paust
    PAUST, Jordan J., "Superior Orders and Command Responsibility" in M. Cherif Bassiouni, International Criminal Law, 2nd ed., Vol. I, Crimes, Ardsley, New York: Transnational Publishers, 1999, ci, 1004 p., at pp. 223-237,  ISBN: 1571050175; Research Note: comments on the Supreme Court of Canada decision of  Finta at pp. 227-228;

    image source: https://www.google.com, image search, accessed 29 July 2016
    Laura Payton
    PAYTON, Laura, "Military police cleared in Afghan detainee transfer report.  Report compares commission process to stonewalled Somalia inquiry", CBC News, Posted: Jun 27, 2012 11:17 AM ET Last Updated: Jun 28, 2012 8:59 AM ET; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-police-cleared-in-afghan-detainee-transfer-report-1.1287512 (accessed 10 July 2016);

    PEARSON-MACKIE, Nancy, "Canada" in Isodro Sepulveda, Coordinator, La Educacion de la seguridad y la defensa en las Américas, Washington (D.C.): William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, National Defense University, 2014?, at pp. 18-44, ISBN: 978-0-9913377-0-5; available at http://chds.dodlive.mil/files/2013/12/pub-MISC-sepulveda-sd-institutions-book.pdf  and http://www.academia.edu/8219762/La_Educaci%C3%B3n_de_la_Seguridad_de_la_Defensa_en_las_Am%C3%A9ricas._The_William_Perry_Center_for_Hemispheric_Defense_Studies (accessed 22 June 2015); important contribution;


    I. Political and Institutional Framework
        The Department of National Defence

    II. Military Personnel
        Chief Military Personnel (CMP)

    III. Regular and Reserves Forces
        Regular Force Officer Training Plan (ROTP)
        Continuing Education Officer Training Plan (CEOTP)
        Non-Commissioned Member Subsidized Education Plan (NCM SEP)
        Reserve Entry Training Plan (RETP)
        Individual Programme Plan

    IV Armed Forces and Organs of Military Education
        1. Canadian Defence Academy (CDA)
            "Other units within the CDA formation include: ...the Canadian Forces Military Law Centre (CFMLC), which was established as a
            directorate within CDA HQ in June 2007 to lead the design, development, and delivery of military legal education"
             Canadian Forces College (CFC)

        2. Military Colleges
            Royal Military College of Canada (RMC)
            Royal Military College St-Jean
        Training Courses under CDA
        The Defence Learning Network (DLN)
          1. Civilian Personnel of DND
             Civilian Personnel Education Support Plan

    V. Civilian Institutions

        1. Canadian Universities
           a) First Tier
             Centre for Military and Strategic Studies (CMSS), University of Calgary
           b) Second Tier
             Centre for Foreign Policy Studies (CFPS), Dalhousie University
             Gregg Centre for the Study of War and Society (GCSWS), University of New Brunswick (UNB)
             Programme paix et sécurité internationales (PSI) [International Peace and Security Programme], Université Laval
             Centre for International Peace and Security Studies, University of Montréal
             Centre d'études des politiques étrangères et de sécurité (CEPES), UQUAM amd Concordia University
             Centre for International and Defence Policy (QCIR), Queens University
             Centre for Security and Defence Studies (CSDS), Carleton University
             York Centre for International and Security Studies, York University
             Laurier Centre for Military Strategic and Disarmament Studies (LCMSDS), Wilfrrid Laurier University
             Centre for Defence and Security Studies, University of Manitoba
             Centre of International Relations, University of British Columbia
             Chair in Defence Management Studies, Queen's University

    PECK, Jeff, photo with notes on this JAG officer from http://everitas.rmcclub.ca:

    "21507 Jeff Peck, Class of ’99, left the Patricia’s and was called to the Ontario
    Bar in 2010 after completing law school at Queens University. He is currently
    employed in the Office of the Judge Advocate General as the Deputy Judge
    Advocate – Kingston. This is ironic because one of his primary duties is advising
    RMC on all disciplinary and administrative issues. Jeff and his partner Stephanie
    live in Sydenham, ON, with their boys JJ (3 yrs) and Luke (1 yr); however most
    of his spare time is spent at the cottage on Big Clear Lake in Frontenac Provincial
    Park." (Image and text from http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/class-notes-torch-is-passed/, accessed
    21 February 2017).

    Martin Pelletier, image source: http://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/alumni, accessed on 14 November 2014
    PELLETIER, Martin, Commander, "Bourassa, Laurier and the 1910 Naval Service Act: Canadian Identity and the Birth  of a Navy",  (Fall 2010)  6(3)  Canadian Naval Review 10-15; available at http://naval.review.cfps.dal.ca/archive/public/vol6num3art3.pdf (accessed on  30  November 2011);

    ___________"Message from the Chair" (May/Mail 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#top and http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article1 (accessed on 28 April 2012);
    ___________"Mot du président" (May/Mai 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx  et http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article16  (site visité le 28 avril  2012);

    Lcol B. Pinsonneault (à gauche) avec le Capc M. Pelletier (source de l'image: (July-Oct 2000) 3 JAG Newsletter--Bulletin d'actualités at p. 5)
    ___________"Les pirates : un phénomène bien actuel" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 4; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
    ___________"Précis : Piracy is alive on the high seas" (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 6; disponible à  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd (site visité le 19 avril 2012);

    ___________"National Military Section, Martin Pelletier, Chair", available at https://www.cba.org/abc/sections_military_f/pdf/Military_RtC_2009.pdf (accessed on 15 November 2014);

    ___________Notes on Martin Pelletier (not necessarily written by Mr. Pelletier, Sword and Scale, June 2014 – CBA National Military Law Section Newsletter, Members News/ Notes sur Martin Pelletier (non nécessairement écrit par monsieur Pelletier), Salut militaire, juin 2014 – Bulletin de la Section nationale du droit militaire, Nouvelles des membres;
    Canada’s newest military judge appointed

    The Governor General in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of National Defence, has appointed Cmdr. Martin Pelletier as Canada's newest military judge, effective 10 April 2014.

    Pelletier was born in Quebec City. He obtained law degrees from Laval University and the University of Western Ontario and has also obtained an LLM from McGill University in Air and Space Law. Pelletier enrolled in the Naval Reserve in 1987 and has been member of the Quebec Bar since 1993, practising in Quebec City before joining the Office of the Judge Advocate General in 1995.

    Pelletier served as Deputy Judge Advocate at CFB Valcartier, in Germany, and at the Naval Reserve Headquarters. At the Headquarters in Ottawa, he worked in the Military Justice and Administrative Law fields and participated in the amendment process of the National Defense Act. In 1999, he deployed in Bosnia to serve as legal advisor of the Canadian Contingent of the Stabilization Force (SFOR).

    Pelletier joined the Canadian Military Prosecution Service in 2001 as military prosecutor and served as appellate counsel before the Court Martial Appeal Court until promotion in 2004. In his current rank, he was Assistant Judge Advocate General (Atlantic Region) in Halifax, during which time he was assigned as legal advisor to the boards of inquiry investigating the fire in submarine HMCS Chicoutimi and on the treatment of Afghan detainees. He also obtained a graduate diploma in Military Law from the University of Melbourne in 2005.  Upon returning to Ottawa in 2007, he led the legal group that provides advice on military personnel issues. Most recently, he had been working at the Assistant Director of Military Prosecutions since 2010.

    Pelletier has been a highly active member of the CBA National Military Law Section, serving in a number of positions including as Chair in 2008-2009 and again in 2011-2012.  The NMLS Executive would like to congratulate Judge Pelletier on his prestigious appointment and wish him all the best during his time on the bench.(source: http://www.cba.org/CBA/sections_military/newsletters2014/news.aspx, accessed on 12 January 2015).


    Le plus récent juge militaire du Canada est nommé

    Le gouverneur général en conseil, sur recommandation du ministre de la Défense nationale a nommé le capitaine de frégate Martin Pelletier comme le plus récent juge militaire du Canada, en date du 10 avril 2014.

    Pelletier est originaire de Québec. Il est bachelier en droit de l’Université Laval et de l’Université Western Ontario, et il a obtenu une maîtrise en droit aérien et spatial à l’Université McGill. Pelletier s’est enrôlé dans la Réserve navale en 1987, et il est membre du Barreau du Québec depuis 1993 et a pratiqué le droit à Québec avant de joindre le cabinet du juge-avocat général en 1995. Pelletier a servi en tant que juge-avocat adjoint à la BFC Valcartier, en Allemagne et au quartier général de la Réserve navale. Au quartier général d’Ottawa, il a œuvré dans les domaines de la justice militaire et du droit administratif et a participé au processus d’amendement de la Loi sur la défense nationale.  En 1999, il a été affecté en Bosnie en tant que conseiller juridique du contingent canadien de la Force de stabilisation (SFOR). Pelletier s’est joint au Service canadien des poursuites militaires en 2001 en tant que procureur et a plaidé les appels devant la Cour d’appel de la cour martiale jusqu’à sa promotion en 2004. À son grade actuel, il fut l’assistant du juge-avocat général, région de l’Atlantique à Halifax, période pendant laquelle il fut conseiller juridique auprès des commissions d’enquête sur l’incendie du sous-marin NCSM Chicoutimi et sur le traitement des détenus en Afghanistan. Il a également obtenu un diplôme de deuxième cycle en droit militaire de l’Université de Melbourne en 2005. À son retour à Ottawa en 2007, Pelletier a dirigé la prestation de services juridiques dans le domaine du personnel militaire. Plus récemment, il agissait comme directeur des poursuites militaires adjoint depuis 2010.

    Pelletier a été un membre très actif de la Section nationale de droit militaire de l’ABC, y ayant occupé plusieurs fonctions, notamment celle de président en 2008-2009 et de nouveau en 2011-2012. Les membres de l'exécutif  de la SNDM tiennent à féliciter le juge Pelletier pour cette prestigieuse nomination et lui adressent tous leurs vœux de succès dans la magistrature. (source: http://www.cba.org/ABC/sections_military_f/newsletters2014/news.aspx, visité le 12 janvier 2015)

    ___________Overflight of Organic Aircraft and the Territorial Sea, LL.M. thesis, Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University,  August 2010, v, 147 leaves; available at  http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/webclient/StreamGate?folder_id=0&dvs=1332839092709~790 and http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/QMM/TC-QMM-97267.pdf (accessed on  27 March 2012);

    This thesis explores the issues of navigation and overflight of the territorial sea by military aircraft operating from warships,
    known as organic aircraft. A review of maritime zones in the Law of the Sea from a Canadian perspective reveals a preference for
    the exercise of coastal State jurisdiction on significant ocean space, to the potential detriment of freedom of navigation
    advocated by maritime powers. Current uses of organic air are challenged by a legal framework which does not take into account
    the unique relationship between ships and the aircraft they carry. The regimes of passage do not allow overflight when it would
    be most needed. The weaknesses in the generous interpretation of navigational rights advocated by commentators associated with
    the US Navy and a climate of significant preoccupation towards security of the coasts are not conductive to any changes in the
    legal framework that would secure special freedoms of overflight for organic aircraft.


    Cette thèse explore les questions applicables à la navigation et au survol de la mer territoriale par les aéronefs militaires
    embarqués sur les navires de guerre, désignés sous le vocable "organic aircraft", ibrement traduit par l'expression "aéronefs
    intégrés". Un survol des zones maritimes promulguées par le droit de la mer, telles que mises en oeuvre en droit canadien
    révèle une préférence marquée pour l'imposition de l'autorité de l'État côtier sur de vastes étendues maritimes, au détriment
    possible de la liberté de navigation défendue par les puissances maritimes. L'utilisation des aéronefs intégrés est menacée par
    un cadre juridique ne tenant pas compte de la relation symbiotique entre le navire et l'aéronef qu'il transporte. Les régimes
    de passage ne permettent pas le survol là où on en aurait le plus besoin. Les faiblesses dans l'interprétation généreuse de la
    liberté de navigation par les commentateurs associés àla Marine des États-Unis et une préoccupation accrue quant à la sécurité
    des côtes ne sont pas susceptibles de mener à une évolution du cadre juridique qui pourrait garantir une liberté de survol
    adéquate pourles aéronefs intégrés.

    [Source: AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada]  

    Christopher Penny (left) with the JAG, Jerry Pitzul, photo source: JAG Newsletter, vol. 1, 2006 at p. 10

    PENNY, Christopher K., Collateral Principles: Proportionality and the Inexorable Calculus of War, LL.M. thesis, Cornell Law School, 2004;

    ___________ curriculum vitae, 2014, 24 p.; includes bibliography of his writings; available at http://carleton.ca/npsia/wp-content/uploads/Penny-CV-2014.pdf (accessed 18 July 2015);

    ___________ "De-conflicting Canada's anti-terrorism legislation: Khawaja and the ongoing challenges of the "armed conflict" exclusion", (2009) 27 Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 403-430; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1817802 (accessed 18 July 2015);
    The definition of 'terrorist activity' is fundamental to Canada's anti-terrorism legislation.  Following the  recent trial of Momin Khawaja before the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, it is clear that the 'armed conflict' exclusion-exempting wartime activities undertaken in accordance with international law-poses serious challenges to the coherence of this legislative regime, threatening the effectiveness of future domestic terrorism prosecutions.  This article examines the 'armed conflict' exclusion and its judicial treatment in Khawaja, identifying key challenges and making specific recommendations to address them.  Coupled with other issues arising from the'armed conflict' exclusion, Khawaja serves to highlight a clear and pressing need for amendment of the statutory definition of 'terrorist activity. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20130407065442/http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/2012/ihl-bibliography-4th-trimester-2011.pdf, at pp. 27-28, accessed 16 March 2015)


    Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Peacekeeping, accessed 18 July 2015
    ___________ " 'Drop That or I'll Shoot...Maybe': International Law and the Use of Deadly Force to Defend Property in UN Peace Operations", (2007) 14(3) International Peacekeeping 353-367; Mr. Penny is a Lieutenant-Colonel, Primary Reserve, Office of the Judge Advocate General, Canadian Forces;

    Image source: http://www.springer.com/law/environmental/journal/10784, accessed 18 July 2015
    ___________“Greening the Security Council: Climate Change as an Emerging ‘Threat to International Peace and Security’,” (2007) 7 International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 35-71;

    Image source: http://www.amazon.com/Our-House-Order-Implementation-International/dp/0773538143, accessed 18 July 2015
    __________"Humanitarian Law and Canadian Courts: Challenges for the ‘Campaign Against Terror,”in Chios Carmody, ed., Is Our House in Order?  Canada's Implementation of International Law, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010, 336 p., at pp. 225-261 (Chapter 10), ISBN: 9780773538146;

    Image source: http://www.irwinlaw.com/titles/balance, accessed 18 July 2015
    __________"Introduction: The Administration of Justice and National Security in Democracies", in Christopher K. Penny, ed., In the balance : the administration of justice and national security in democracies,  Toronto : Irwin Law, 2011. DESCRIPTION: viii, 225 p.; 23 cm. NOTES: Portion of title: Administration of justice and national security in democracies "This volume resulted from the International Conference on the Administration of Justice and National Security in Democracies, held in Ottawa in June 2007 and organized jointly by the Courts Administration Service and the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies at Carleton University." ISBN: 9781552211946 (pbk) ISBN: 9781552212202 (e-book); 


    Image source for Christopher Penny: http://carleton.ca/npsia/people/christopher-penny/, accessed 20 February 2015
    ___________ "Obeying Restraints: Applying the Plea of Superior Orders to Military Defendants before the International Court", (2010) 48 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 3-38; available in part at http://books.google.ca/books?id=cZ9JsDESWbIC&pg=PA625&dq=%22obeying+restraints%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rNxZT9K7E8Lm0QGyp42nDw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%22obeying%20restraints%22&f=false (accessed on 9 March 2012);

    ___________Testimony before the Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Issue 14 - Evidence - Meeting of October 4, 2012, available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/411%5CAEFA/14EVB-49716-e.HTM (accessed 14 December 2016);

    Image source: http://www.abebooks.com, accessed 18 July 2015
    PENNY, Christopher K. and Fen O. Hampson, “Human Security,” in T. Weiss and S. Daws, ed., The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, Oxford University Press, 2009, chapter 31, ISBN: 9780199560103;
    This article gives the benefits of redefining ‘security’ in order to emphasize human beings instead of states. It shows that human security is firmly embedded in today's language of world politics. Human security also reflects the role of the UN in advancing at occasionally enforcing new international norms that place the individual at the core of modern understandings of international security. (source: http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199560103.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199560103-e-031, accessed 18 July 2015)

    PENNY, Steven, "National Security Surveillance in an Age of Terror: Statutory Powers & Charter Limits", (July 28, 2010) 48 Osgoode Hall Law Journal 247-286, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1994525
    The communications surveillance powers granted to Canada’s national security agencies have rarely resulted in prosecution and, as a result, have been subject to very little judicial, academic, or public scrutiny. However, as the state increasingly seeks to prosecute alleged terrorists, courts will have to interpret the scope of these powers and decide whether they violate section 8 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the Charter). A review of the powers granted to police, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), and the Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC) reveals two constitutional infirmities: allowing police to conduct communications surveillance in terrorism investigations without establishing “investigative necessity,” and allowing CSEC to intercept domestic communications without prior judicial authorization. Put simply, these powers should be found to violate section 8 of the Charter because they substantially infringe on the privacy of innocent Canadians, especially of Muslim or Arab background, while doing little to advance national security.

    "Master Cpl. Ken Hutcheson counts money as Lt.-Cmdr. Mike
     McCarthy, right, listens to an Afghan man's account. (Dec. 23, 2009)

    PERKEL, Colin, the Canadian Press, "In Afghan PR, money talks". the.star.com, 28 December 2009; available at (accessed 20 October 2016); note: Lt.-Cmdr. Mike McCarthy is a legal officer; available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2009/12/28/in_afghan_pr_money_talks.html (accessed 20 October 2016);

    PERCIVAL-HILTON, Victoria A., JAG officer, with the rank of LCol, reserve force; legal counsel, McGill University, Legal services (research April 2017);

    PERREAULT, Catherine, "Droit de contact-topo sur le droit martial", Affidavit, UQUAM, 6 avril 2016?; entrevue avec Nadine Déry; disponible à http://affidavit.droituqam.com/droit-de-contact-topo-sur-le-droit-martial/ (accessed 8 August 2016);

    PERREAULT, Les and Steven Chase, "Dion chose jobs over human rights when approving Saudi arms deal, lawyers argue", The Globe and Mail, 19 December 2016; available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/dion-chose-jobs-over-human-rights-when-approving-saudi-arms-deal-court-hears/article33384510/ (accessed 21 december 2016);

    PERRON, Jean-Guy, 1959-, Biographical notes, Linked in, available at (accessed 5 January 2016)
    retired officer with legal and operational experience
    (36 years)

    Infantry officer (Royal 22ième Régiment, Canadian Airborne Regiment) having served in Canada, Europe and the US. As a military lawyer, I provided legal advice at the operational, tactical and strategic levels for deployed (UN and multinational) and domestic operations and I also deployed in the Balkans, Africa and Afghanistan. Legal adviser to JTF-2. Commanding Officer of the Canadian Forces National Counter Intelligence Unit. Appointed a military judge in 2006 and retired in 2014.


    Photo of Jean-Guy Perron, Military Judge in Afghanistan, reproduced from http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2011/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=45319 (accessed on 31 March 2014)

    ____________"Canadian military justice in Afghanistan", (July 2011) Vox Judicia -- Canadian Judges' Forum Newsletter, available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-06_judges.aspx and  http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2011/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=45319#article7  (accessed on 18 January 2012); Vox Judicia is published by the Canadian Bar Association;
    ____________ "La justice militaire en Afghanistan", (Juillet 2011) Vox Judicia -- Bulletin du Forum des juges canadiens; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-06_judges.aspx  (site visit/ le 7 mai 2012);

    Source de l'image: http://www.ledroitdesavoir.ca/voir_segment03.asp?id=31&segment=4, visité 28 mai 2016
    Jean-Guy Perron
    ___________"A judge is a judge is a judge...", (July 2009) Vox Judicia -- Canadian Judges' Forum Newsletter ; available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=38032 (accessed on 7 May 2012);
    ___________"Un juge, est un juge, est un juge", (Juillet 2009) Vox Judicia -- Bulletin du Forum des juges canadiens; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-06_judges.aspx (site visité le 7 mai 2012);

    LCol Perron, on the right, image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cba_abc/14414547046/in/photostream/, accessed 4 August 2015

    __________Notes -- Biography on Mr. Jean-Guy Perron (not necessarily written by Mr. Peter J. Lamont / Notes -- Biographie sur monsieur Jean-Guy Perron (non nécessairement écrites par monsieur Jean-Guy Perron:

    Biography - Lieutenant-Colonel Jean-Guy Perron, CD

    Lieutenant-Colonel Perron, CD, was born in Earlton, Ontario in 1959. He enrolled in the Canadian Forces in 1978 and was granted a Bachelor of Arts (Military and Strategic Studies) degree by the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean in 1983. His infantry career may be summarized as follows: 1 R22eR (Germany) 1983-86, mechanized infantry platoon commander and assistant battalion operations officer; FMC HQ (St-Hubert) 1986-87, Aide de Camp to Commander Force Mobile Command; 1er Commando Canadian Airborne Regiment (Petawawa) 1987-89, Adjudant; 3 R22eR (Valcartier) 1989-90, infantry company 2IC. Selected for the Military Legal Training Plan(MLTP), he began his studies at the University of Ottawa in 1990. He was granted the degree of Bachelor of Common Law (LL.B.) in 1993 and was called to the Bar of Ontario in 1995. Lieutenant-Colonel Perron has served on the staff of the Director of Law (DLaw) / Human Rights and Information, DLaw/International and DLaw/ Operations. He served as Regional Military Prosecutor and as Director Military Prosecutions-3. He has served a tour in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1996 as the legal adviser to the command of the Canadian Contingent Implementation Force and participated in OP ASSURANCE in Rwanda and Uganda in 1996. He was also deployed to Tampa, Florida as legal adviser to the Command Joint Task Force South West Asia for OP APOLLO. Lieutenant-Colonel Perron filled the position of AJAG Ottawa when promoted in 2001 and, subsequently, the position of commanding officer of the Canadian Forces National Counter Intelligence Unit. Before joining the Office of the Chief Military Judge, he was the legal adviser of the Commander of Canada Command.

    Pursuant to section 165.21 of the National Defence Act the Government of Canada has announced the appointment of Lieutenant-Colonel Jean-Guy Perron, as military judge on 2 June 2006. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20070822211214/http://www.forces.gc.ca/cmj/biosPerron_e.asp, accessed on 14 January 2015)


    Biographie - Lieutenant-colonel Jean-Guy Perron, CD

    Le lieutenant-colonel Perron, CD, est né en 1959 à Earlton, en Ontario. Enrôlé dans les Forces canadiennes en 1978, il a obtenu un baccalauréat ès arts en études militaires et stratégiques du Collège militaire royal de Saint‑Jean en 1983. Sa carrière de fantassin peut se résumer comme suit: 1 R22eR (Allemagne) 1983-86, commandant de peloton d’infanterie et assistant officier des opérations du bataillon; QG FMC (St-Hubert) 1986-87, Aide de camp du commandant de la Force mobile; 1er Commando Régiment aéroporté du Canada (Petawawa) 1987-89, capitaine-adjudant; 3 R22eR (Valcartier) 1989-90, commandant-adjoint de compagnie. Sélectionné pour le Programme d'études militaires en droit (PEMD), le lieutenant-colonel Perron a entrepris ses études à l'Université d'Ottawa en 1990. En 1993, il a obtenu son baccalauréat en common law (LL.B.) et fut admis au Barreau de l’Ontario en 1995. Le lieutenant-colonel Perron a servi au sein du Directeur juridique (DJ)/ Droits de la personne et information, DJ/ International et DJ/ Opérations. Il a aussi comblé les postes de Procureur militaire régional et Directeur poursuites militaires-3. Il a servi en Bosnie-Herzégovine en 1996 à titre de conseiller juridique au commandement du Contingent canadien auprès de la Force de mise en oeuvre. Il a aussi participé à OP ASSURANCE au Rwanda et en Ouganda en 1996. Il fut déployé à Tampa, Florida à titre de conseiller juridique au commandement de la Force opérationnelle interarmées Asie du sud-ouest pour OP APOLLO. Le lieutenant-colonel Perron a occupé la position d’AJAG Ottawa à partir de sa promotion en 2001 pour ensuite agir en tant que commandant de l’Unité nationale de contre-intelligence des Forces canadiennes. Il fut conseiller juridique du commandant du Commandement du Canada avant de se joindre au cabinet du juge militaire en chef.

    Le gouvernement du Canada a annoncé, en vertu de l'article 165.21 de la Loi sur la défense nationale, la nomination du lieutenant-colonel Jean-Guy Perron, comme juge militaire le 2 juin 2006. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20080117034748/http://www.forces.gc.ca/cmj/biosPerron_f.asp, visité le 14 janvier 2015)

    ___________"Op Apollo -- 'ROTO O' ",  (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 56-59; note: article en français;
    ___________ "Op Apollo-- 'Roto O' ", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 53-56; note: article in English;
    I would say that over 85% of my time was devoted to operations.  Questions of discipline, administra-
    tive law and interpretation of regulations or other orders accounted for the other 45% (sic) of my
    time.  When I arrived in Tampa, playing an active part in drafting rules of engagement for JTSWA
    and offering legal advice on their interpretation of the ROE quickly became two of my most important
    priorities.  These were activities that occupied much of my time.  I also have to admit that the
    issue of detainees monopolized a good deal of my time during the months of November, December,
    January and February.  Any deployed legal officer has to be fully familiar with CF doctrine regarding
    operations because any command relationship in a JTF has to respect this doctrine.  Another task that
    soon fell to me was the initial drafting and regular updating of the document appointing commanding
    officers and assigning their responsibilities.  Revising orders and other directives for the signature of
    the Commander JTFSWA or the CDS was another task that took up much of my time.  Like any op-
    erational legal officer assigned to a senior HQ, I was working with each branch of the headquarters
    staff, whether it be in the context of current operations, intelligence, planning of future opera-
    tions, logistics, communications, personnel administration or finance.

    ___________Suspected Terrorists -- Not Wanted  (Unless you are Canadian): A Comparative Analysis of the Ministerial Power to Detain and Deport and the Representation of Suspected Terrorists in Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia;  Master's essay for LL.M. degree, University of Ottawa, 2003; titre noté dans mes recherches mais mémoire non encore consulté; source: "Liste des mémoires de maîtrise et thèses de doctorat acceptés en 2008", (2009) 68 La Revue du Barreau 583 à la p.584; LCol Perron is a military judge, see http://www.jmc-cmj.forces.gc.ca/bio/perron-jg-eng.asp (accessed on 18 March 2012);

    Image source: https://www.google.com, image search, accessed on 10 January 2015
    PETROU, Michael, "The proper path to war: Stephen Harper doesn't need Parliament's approval to join the Iraq war.  But there are advantages to getting it", MacLean's -- Canada's National Magazine, 13 October 2014, at p. 20;

      Image source: p. 15 of the article
    From the left: Capt Leishia Pettigrew, Maj Sean Raleigh, Lt Geoff
    Gaul, Lt Col Randy Callan, Maj Phillip Drew, Maj Tammy Tremblay
    & Lt Cdr Mary Wardam

    PETTIGREW, Leishia, "Canada-NZ Exchange 2007 -- Legal Staff Officer Captain Leisha Pettigrew, from HQ 3rd Land Force Group, Took Part in the Annual Exchange in Canada (CANEX).  It proved to be a Joint-Service Experience",  (2007) 126 Navy Today 14-15; available at http://navy.mil.nz/downloads/pdf/navy-today/nt126-web.pdf (accessed 4 November 2015);
    IN MAY, I headed to Canada for CANZEX 07. My initial destination was Victoria, British Colombia, where I arrived at Canadian Forces Base (CFB)
    Esquimalt and quickly settled into the wardroom. I was to spend my time in British Colombia at the office of the Pacific Region Assistant Judge
    Advocate General – AJAG (P).

    My ‘laid-back’ introduction to the new office lasted about 5 seconds, as I happened to arrive in the middle of a major
    discipline issue. However, this also meant catching a Sea King helicopter out to HMCS ALGONQUIN at sea. It was
    a fabulous day and the aerial tour was appreciated. My host officer MAJ Philip Drew, assured me this was not how
    they always did business...

    PHILIPPE, Marc, right on the photo receiving the Somalia medal from BGen Pierre Boutet, Judge Advocate General, 2 February 1998; image source: JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités du JAG, volume 1, Part 1, Jan-Feb 98 (posted 21 December 2016);

    PHILLIPS, Guy R., Lieutenant-Commander, Canadian Forces, Rules of Engagement : An Unclassified Primer, A thesis submitted to the Judge Advocate General's School, United States Army, April 1993; available at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA456592; also published at (July 1993) Army Lawyer 4-27, available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/07-1993.pdf);

    ___________biographical notes, available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=eN-lrav4qt0C&pg=PA292&lpg=PA292&dq=guy+phillips+royal+military+college&source=bl&ots=gBxSbaSIvj&sig=tSHqcxtU6-BiOdTz2uH2aeir-Tc&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBWoVChMIptb7yriByQIVB9geCh0OvA3Q#v=onepage&q=guy%20phillips%20royal%20military%20college&f=false (accessed 8 November 2015);

    ___________biographical notes, available at https://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/files/iasl/2016_4th_manfred_lachs_conference_on_conflicts_in_space_and_the_rule_of_law_final_program.pdf, (accessed 3 March 2017);
    Phillips, Guy
    Commander (Retired), Adjunct & Sessional Assistant Professor, Royal Military College of Canada, CANADA

    Cdr Phillips joined the Canadian Forces in 1985 and practiced law exclusively in the Canadian Forces
    as a Legal Officer in the Office of the Judge Advocate General until 2012. In addition to prosecuting
    and defending at courts martials, he advised on a wide variety of military and civilian legal issues,
    including international issues such as Law of the Sea, Air Law, Operational Law, Law of Armed Conflict
    and Negotiating Status of Forces treaties.  The pinnacles of his career were in International Law and
    Operational Law, including as legal advisor to the Canadian Air Task Group Middle East in Doha,
    Qatar, during the "Gulf War" in 1990-91; the Commander of the military forces in the UN Transition
    Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH) in 1997; the Commander of NATO SFOR Brigade North-West in Banja
    Luka, Bosnia-Hezegovina, in 2003104; the CO of HMCS Frdericton during OP SAIPH in the Gulf of
    Aden, Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf in 2009/10 (patrolling for pirates and sea-borne terrorists).
    Professor Phillips started teaching undergraduates and graduate students at the Royal Military
    College of Canada (RMC)  in 2006 where he currently continues to teach as an Adjunct Assistant
    Professor. (source: https://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/files/iasl/2016_4th_manfred_lachs_conference_on_conflicts_in_space_and_the_rule_of_law_final_program.pdf, accessed 3 March 2017).

    ___________ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE OF CANADA DEPARTMENT OF POLITICS AND ECONOMICS P0E 486B – SPACE POLICY, WINTER 2011 – SYLLABUS (9 Jan 11 Version); available at http://www.davidmlast.org/Politics_Review/Politics_Courses_files/POE%20486%20-%20PHILLIPS.pdf  (accessed 19 May 2015);

    ___________"Rules of Engagement (ROE) for Military Space Operations"; Guy Phillips is a retired Commander, and Adjunct & Sessional Assistant Professor Royal Military College; available at https://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/files/iasl/2._g_phillips.pptxt  (accessed 3 March 2017);

    PHILLIPS, Lester Henry, 1911-, Canada's internal security, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 1945;

    ___________"Canada's internal security", Canadian journal of economics and political science, vol. 12, no. 1, February, 1946, pp. 18-29; research note: may be the summary of his thesis;

    Photo source: www.radiovm.com/ecouter/programmation/la-guerre-la-paix-et-dieu-une-reflexion-ethique, accessed 18 August 2016
    Yvon Pichette
    PICHETTE, Yvon, Une éthique militaire fondée sur les vertus dans le cadre des opérations de soutien de la paix: Une analyse théorique, pratique et théologique, une thèse doctorale soumise à la faculté de théologie en candidature pour le diplome de doctorat, concentration en éthique, Université d'Ottawa, ix, [5], 304 feuilles; disponible à https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/29426  (vérifié 18 August 2016);
    Abstract: 1. L'énoncé du problème. L'hypothèse de cette thèse repose sur l'utilisation des théories sur la structure de la pratique et la théorie des vertus d'Alasdair MacIntyre. L'objectif de cette thèse est de démontrer qu'il est possible de concevoir une éthique militaire qui puisse répondre plus adéquatement aux defis éthiques rencontrés par les membres des Forces canadiennes déployés dans le cadre des opérations de soutien de la paix. 2. Méthodologie et questions importantes. Pour réaliser notre objectif, nous avons posé trois questions qui portent chacune sur un aspect particulier servant à démontrer notre raisonnement qui articule notre hypothèse. La première question sert à établir les cadres théoriques de notre proposition et s'articule ainsi: Quelles sont les théories qui sont susceptibles de nous aider dans notre recherche pour l'amélioration du Programme d'éthique de la Defense? Selon nous, ce programme trouve ses fondements dans la théorie libérale de John Rawls. Nous voulons examiner certaines limites de cette théorie afin de proposer la nécessite d'établir la spécificité des pratiques militaires. De plus, nous allons suggérer le consensus délibératif comme solution au problème que pose le consensus par recoupement de John Rawls. Le deuxième chapitre servira à exposer la théorie des vertus d'Alasdair MacIntyre qui se fonde tout particulièrement mais non exclusivement sur sa notion de pratique et des biens internes inhérents. La deuxième question porte sur l'aspect pratique de notre recherche et elle se libelle comme suit: Quels sont les éléments que nous pourrions utiliser pour démontrer certains des avantages de la théorie des vertus d'Alasdair MacIntyre? Pour répondre à cette question nous allons nous servir de scénarios qui expliciteront deux aspects des pratiques que nous retrouvons dans le cadre des opérations de soutien de la paix, soit les pratiques liées à l'utilisation de la force et celles liées à la négociation et à la médiation. Suivant la description de ces pratiques, nous allons procéder à une première analyse de ces pratiques à la lumière de la théorie des vertus de MacIntyre. La troisième question porte sur la dimension théologique de notre recherche et elle examinera les différents rôles de l'aumonier militaire, plus particulièrement en ce qui a trait à favoriser et à maintenir les valeurs spirituelles et morales. De plus, l'aumonier militaire joue le rôle du conseiller aupres de la chaine de commandement sur tout ce qui concerne le bien-être spirituel et moral des militaires et de leur famille. Il faut ajouter que ces rôles doivent s'exercer tant en garnison que lors des opérations de soutien de la paix. En d'autres mots, cette dernière question porte surtout sur la dimension opérationnelle du rôle de l'aumonier: Comment la théorie de l'éthique des vertus de MacIntyre peut-elle contribuer au rôle important que l'aumonier militaire exerce dans le cadre des opérations de soutien de la paix, particulièrement les aumoniers qui appartiennent à la dénomination catholique romaine. Notre objectif en ce qui a trait à notre recherche est d'engager un dialogue avec les responsables du Programme d'éthique de la Défense afin de favoriser la mise en pauvre d'un programme d'éthique répondant aux besoins spécifiques liées aux pratiques exercées par les militaires dans le cadre des opérations de soutien de la paix. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)  

    PILGRIM, J. Wayne, "The Security Gap Between the Military and Law Enforcement in Counter-Terrorism", October 2002; available at http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA442520 (accessed 26 September 2015); see also http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA442520; J. Wayne Pilgrim, Superintendent, Officer In Charge, National Security Program, Criminal Intelligence Directorate, Royal Canadian Mounted Police;

    PINCH,  F. C. (Franklin C.),  Perspectives on Organizational Change in the Canadian Forces: Final Report,  April-June 1993.  [Ottawa, Ont.?]: Department of Defense [DODXA], 1994  (Contract no. MDA903-M-5414)(64 p.);
     “This report reviews and synthesizes the background literature and other  documentation relating to transition from a homosexual ban to the  cancellation of the exclusionary policy in the Canadian Forces”
     –  NISC Gay & Lesbian Abstracts.  Information in abstract indicates  that the report is available for order from NTIS in Springfield, Virginia. (source: http://library2.usask.ca/srsd/gaycanada/misc/MILITARY.htm, accessed 18 August 2016);

    Michele Pineau, image source: http://pslrb-crtfp.gc.ca/reports/0708/PSLRB2007-08_e.asp  (accessed on 12 April 2014)

    PINEAU, Michele A., "Civilians Under Military Justice: A Canadian Study", (1979) 25 McGill Law Journal 3-31; article available at http://www.lawjournal.mcgill.ca/userfiles/other/8532089-pineau.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2014);

    Image source: http://ottawa-voyageurs.wdfiles.com/local--files/winter-2007-pdf/Winter_2007_hiver.pdf, accessed 21 October 2015
    Photo de Benoît Pinsonneault

    PINSONNEAULT, Benoît, notes biographiques, Journal du Barreau du Québec, volume 34, numéro 12, 1er juillet 2002; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol34/no12/parminous.html (vérifié 20 octobre 2015);

    Me Benoît Pinsonneault (1971), de la section de Montréal, prend sa retraite des Forces canadiennes comme avocat militaire, après 27 ans de service
    au cabinet du juge-avocat général. Diplômé de la Faculté de droit de l'Université de Sherbrooke en 1970, Me Pinsonneault a exercé en pratique privée
    pendant quatre ans à Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, avant de joindre les Forces canadiennes en 1975. Sa carrière militaire l'a amené à exercer différentes
    fonctions, principalement au Québec et en Ontario, mais aussi en Allemagne de 1990 à 1993 à titre d'assistant-juge avocat général. Sa principale fonction
    était alors de procureur-chef de la poursuite pour toutes les cours martiales se produisant en Europe. De retour au Canada, il a assumé pendant cinq ans la
    position de directeur juridique des réclamations par et contre la Couronne à Ottawa. Après un séjour à Montréal, le lieutenant-colonel Pinsonneault a été
    nommé directeur-adjoint des poursuites militaires pour les Forces canadiennes par le ministre de la Défense nationale en 2001, poste qu'il occupera jusqu'à
    sa retraite, prévue pour le 8 juillet prochain. 

    ___________LCol Benoît Pinsonneault, on the right, receiving his CD1 for 22 years of service from BGen Pierre Boutet, 2 February 1998, image source: JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités du JAG, volume 1, Part 1, Jan-Feb 98 (image posted on 21 December 2016);

    PINSONNEAULT, Gérard,  La propagande de recrutement militaire au Canada, 1914-1917. Essai en histoire des mentalités, mémoire de maîtrise, Université de Sherbrooke, 1981, 183 p., Mémoire dirigé par Laperrière, Guy, 1981; titre noté dans mes articles mais thèse non consultée (13 décembre 2016);

    Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/michellepiromalli, accessed 10 January 2015

    PIROMALLI, Michelle, 1977-, Canada's domestic security : the role of  the Canadian Forces in the event of Quebec separation, Thesis (M.A.), Dalhousie University, 2001, viii, 117 leaves, Includes bibliographical references (leaves 110-117); thesis not consulted yet;

    The possibility that Quebec could secede from Canada necessitates a closer examination of the possible post-secession environment. A referendum vote in favour of Quebec separation will place the federal government in a precarious position: to protect the security and safety of Canadians as well as attempting to keep the country together. The federal government's response to such an event will be fashioned according to existing legal and political rights, and the constraints that are imposed upon them. An affirmative vote to separate could trigger three possible responses by the federal government: it could accept it, it could go through a period of debate but show willingness to negotiate, or it could contest it. Each possible response confers on the government different legal and political rights to involve the Canadian Forces (CF). As an extension to the analysis of the possible implications for the federal government and the CF if Quebec votes in a referendum to separate, the current legislation, the 'Emergencies Act' and the ' National Defence Act', will be analyzed to determine whether it is sufficient for dealing with such a national emergency. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) [Source: AMICUS catalogue]

    .........................................Heather Fogo, image source: http://atguelph.uoguelph.ca/2014/01/lawyers-career-follows-military-path/
    Teresa Pitman, image source: google image,
     accessed 24 February 2015

    PITMAN, Teresa, "Lawyer's Career Follows Military Path: Guelph Grads on the Go--Providing legal advice is part of the job", Tuesday, 7 January 2014, University of Guelph; article about JAG officer Heather Fogo; available at http://atguelph.uoguelph.ca/2014/01/lawyers-career-follows-military-path/ (accessed on 28 January 2014);

    Jerry Pitzul, photo reproduced from the back dust jacket of McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, supra.

    PITZUL, Jerry S.T., "[Address of] Major-General Jerry Pitzul, Q.C. to the Office of the JAG Annual Mess Dinner, Royal Canadian Air Force Officers Mess, 27 October 2005, Ottawa, Ontario, Dîner régimentaire annuel du Cabinet du JAG, Mess des Officiers de la Force aérienne, 27 octobre 2005, Ottawa, Ontario], Past year's activities; Presentation to members of the JAG Advisory Panel on Military Justice; Presentation to Mr. David Bright [past chair of the Canadian Bar Association National Military Law Section];  JAG Liz Lundy Award of Excellence [to Madame Christiane Chevalier and Mrs. Roma Stevenson]; JAG  Commendations -- Mr. W. Hays Parks; Professor Leslie Green); JAG Award of Excellence (to LCol Mike Gibson)", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 16-22;

    ___________ "JAG Change of Appointment Ceremony / Passation des fonctions du JAG", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 3--4; article in French and Englis; article en français et en anglais;

    ___________"JAG Remarks to SCONDVA 1 June 2000", available at http://web.archive.org/web/20010618022755/www.dnd.ca/jag/hl_remarks_to_scondva_e.html#top; SCONDVA =  Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs;
    ___________"Remarques du JAG -- CPDNAC -- 1 JUIN 2000", disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20010620192237/www.dnd.ca/jag/hl_remarks_to_scondva_f.html#top; CPDNAC = Comité permanent de la défense nationale et des anciens combattants;

    ___________ "JAG REPORT (1998-99)", JAG Newsletter, Vol.III, July-Sept 1999, pp. 76-92; Brigadier General Pitzul is the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces.  The titles headings of this report include: "Implementing Bill C-25", "Reestablishing the Credibility of the Military Justice System", "Implementing a Revised Legal Services Organization", "Rejuvenating the Office of the JAG", "Current Activities" and "Future Challenges";
    ___________dans  JAG Bulletin d'actualités (publication bilingue, même numéro que la version anglaise);

    ___________"Letters to the Editor -- Military justice maligned", The Ottawa Citizen, 1 November 1999, p. A13;

    ___________"Letters to the Editor -- Setting the record straight on the Forces ombudsman", The Ottawa Citizen, 18 May 2001, p. A13, letter in reply to Blanchfield, "Internal battle rages over Forces ombudsman: Marin accuses DND legal branch of waste, delays", supra; there is a mistake in BGen Pitzul's article as the proper reference to his June 1, 2000 testimony is before the House of Commons, Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs and not the Senate Committee;

    ___________"Operational Law and the Legal Professional: A Canadian Perspective", (2001) 51 The Air Force Law Review 311-321; available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m6007/is_2001_Spring/ai_92044667/pg_1?tag=artBody;col1  (accessed on 28 July 2008) and http://www.afjag.af.mil/library/index.asp (accessed on 12 January 2012); also available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=B8fAMhvA-BgC&pg=PT324&lpg=PT324&dq=OPLAW+Canadian+forces&source=bl&ots=iewqMw0-u7&sig=6Tb3dOZn9WHOwL0M60lKvLV9Czo&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj6lLa205_JAhUE8z4KHcagAGUQ6AEIWjAI#v=onepage&q=OPLAW%20Canadian%20forces&f=false (accessed 20 November 2015);

    ____________Photo du Juge-avocat général, le Briagdier général  Jerry Pitzul, rencontrant l'ombudsman des Forces israéliennes de défense, 2001; cette photo vient de la publication suivante: André Marin, Remaniement de la surveillance, Livre blanc de l'obudsman, à la p. 11, disponible à http://www.ombudsman.forces.gc.ca/assets/OMBUDSMAN_Internet/docs/fr/remaniement.pdf (vérifié le 15 janvier 2017);

    ___________"The Role and Functions of Military Lawyers in the Canadian Forces", (1999) 38 The Military Law and the Law of War Review 359 to approx. 368;

    ___________"Speaking Notes, Advisory Committee on Defence", 3 February 1997, Halifax; in the Moriarity and Hannah v. R. appeal before the Supreme Court of Canada, we read in the Moriarity's Appellants' Factum, at p. 23, paragraph 70 that "Of note, before the enactment of s. 165.17(3) of the NDA, a former JAG recommended that military prosecutions be under the supervision of the Attorney General.93".  Footnote 93 reads: "Jerry Pitzul, Speaking Notes, Advisory Committee on Defence, 3 February 1997, Halifax".  I got a copy of this six page document from one the Appellant' book of authorities -- click here to read the document;

    ___________"Speech to the graduating/Discours prononcé lors de la Cérémonie de remise des certificats"; disponible à http://www.cmrsj-rmcsj.forces.gc.ca/cb-bk/opi-opi/2012/opi-opi-2012-2-eng.asp (visité le 22 février 2015);

    ___________"Swearing-in/out ceremony of the Chief Justice of the Standing Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada" / "Cérémonie d'assermentation du juge en chef de la Court d'appel de la cour martiale du Canada", (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 3-4; research note: Speaking notes for Major-General Jerry Pitzul, JAG; the Chief Justice was The Honourable Edmond P. Blanchard; the article is a mixture of French and English; the swearing-in was on 14 January 2005;.

    ___________Testimony of Brigadier-General  Jerry S.T. Pitzul, Judge Advocate General before  Parliament, House of Commons, Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs, June 1, 2000; see minutes of proceedings and  evidence;
    ___________Témoignage du  Brigadier-général Jerry S.T. Pitzul, Juge-avocat général devant Parlement, Chambre des communes, Comité permanent de la défense nationale et des anciens combattants, 1er juin 2000; voir le procès-verbal et le témoignage;

    ___________Testimony of Brigadier-General Jerry S.T. Pitzul, Judge Advocate General on Bill C-25, an Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs on 6 October 1998, Issue 34, see  minutes and  evidence;

    ___________Testimony of  Brigadier-General Jerry S.T. Pitzul, Judge Advocate General, Department of National Defence, before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, June 1,  2000; see minutes of proceedings and evidence / témoignage du Brigadier-général Jerry S.T. Pitzul, Juge-avocat général, devant le Comité permanent de la défense nationale et des anciens combattants, Chambre des communes, 1er juin 2000; voir le procès-verbal et le témoignage;

    Brigadier-General Jerry S.T. Pitzul (Judge Advocate General, Department of National Defence): 

    I have a prepared statement, Mr. Chair, that I'm prepared to read to you at this point in time.

    Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for asking me to appear before you today to discuss the operations of Canada's military legal branch and to speak on behalf of the very dedicated group of Canadians serving in uniform who provide legal advice to the Government of Canada, the Department of National Defence, and the Canadian Forces.

    While I recognize that I am also here because of the ombudsman's appearance before you on May 9, I believe it is important that I take this opportunity to outline for you the organization and activities of the Office of the Judge Advocate General. This may allow you to place the ombudsman's comments in their proper context.

    PITZUL, Jerry S.T., Kirby Abbott, and Christopher K. Penny, "The Responsibility to Protect", (Winter 2004) 5(4) Canadian Military Journal 31-38; available at http://www.journal.dnd.ca/vo5/no4/index-eng.asp (accessed on 12 January 2012); edited version in (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 28 and  33-37;
    PITZUL, Jerry S.T., Kirby Abbott, and Christopher K. Penny, "Réflexions sur la responsabilité de protéger et le droit militaire", (Hiver 2004) 5(4) Revue militaire canadienne 31-38; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo5/no4/index-fra.asp  (vérifié le 19 janvier 2012); version révisée dans (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 37-42;

    PITZUL, Brigadier-General Jerry S.T. with the collaboration of Major L.-V., d'Auteuil, "Upholding the Traditions of Civil and Common Law in the Practice of Canadian Military Law", (June-December 2001) 2 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 45-49; note: "BGen Pitzul was the invited speaker at the luncheon given by the Association des avocats civilistes", November 1, 2001, Ottawa;
    PITZUL, Brigadier-général Jerry S.T., "La rencontre des traditions de droit civil et de common law dans la pratique du droit militaire canadien", (Juin-déc. 2001) 2 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 40-45; note: "BGen Pitzul était le conférencier invité lors du dîner de l'Association des avocats civilistes", le 1 novembre 2001, Ottawa;

    PITZUL, Jerry S.T., Brigadier-General,  and John C. Maguire, Commander, "A Perspective on Canada's Code of Service Discipline", JAG Newsletter, Vol. IV: Oct-Dec 1999, pp. 6-16; "Originally presented: Saturday, August 1, 1998 ABA Annual Meeting General Practice and Small Firm Section Toronto Canada"; the article has three parts: "A. The Development of Canada's Military Justice System to 1950"; "B. Subsequent Developments in Canadian Military Law"; and "C. The Future: Canadian Military Justice in the 21st Century"; also published in  Eugene R. Fidell and Dwight Hall Sullivan, eds., Evolving Military Justice, Annapilis (Md.): Naval Institute Press, 2002, at pp. 233-245, ISBN: 1557502927, limited preview available at  http://books.google.com/books?id=G3tYljWV_zEC&printsec=titlepage&dq=%22canadian+military+law%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_toc_s&cad=1#PPA233,M1 (accessed on 9 July 2008); with the same title in (2002) 52 The Air Force Law Review 1-15, available at http://www.afjag.af.mil/library/index.asp (accessed on 12 January 2012) and http://www.accessmylibrary.com/archive/4897-air-force-law-review/january-2002.html (accessed on 29 January 2011); with same title in 1 Modern Legal Systems Cyclopedia § 1.30.5 (Kenneth Robert Redden & Linda L. Schlueter, eds., 2000)

    PITZUL, Jerry S.T., Brigadier-général et  John C. Maguire, Commander, "Une perspective sur le Code de discipline militaire du Canada", JAG Bulletin d'actualités, Volume IV, octobre-décécembre 1999,  pp. 17-28; "Présentation originale: Samedi, 1er août 1998 Réunion annuelle de ABA Section des études de pratique générale et des petites entreprises Toronto (Canada)"; l'article comprend trois parties: "A. L'évolution du système de justice militaire du Canada jusqu'en 1950"; "B. Développements subséquents du droit militaire canadien"; "C. L'avenir: la justice militaire canadienne au 21e siècle";

    "Lieutenant-Commander Mike Baker, legal advisor to HMCS
    Charlottetown command team."

    PLANTE, Lt(N) Benoit, " HMCS Charlottetow's legal advisor supports Operations Reassurance", www..lookoutnewspaper, 20 November 2016, available at http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/hmcs-charlottetowns-legal-advisor-supports-operation-reassurance/ (accessed 21 November 2016); about Lieutenant-Commander Mike Baker, legal advisor;

    The legal advisor is a Canadian Armed Forces Legal Officer deployed with the ship during Operation Reassurance. He provides legal advice on operational,
     international, and administrative law, military justice, and all other legal matters of particular interest to the Commander.

    “When we are transiting the Strait of Gibraltar, for example, the ship is passing through either Spanish or Moroccan territorial waters,” explains LCdr Baker.
     “So part of my job is to provide advice to the Commanding Officer on the implications of passing in those waters, and to help him determine what types of activities
     Charlottetown can and cannot do at any given time.”
    Therefore, he needs to advise the Commanding Officer on the general provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which is the primary reference for
    understanding maritime law. Moreover, ships operating in the Mediterranean Sea need to understand that passage between it and the Black Sea is governed by the
    Montreux Convention, that the Strait of Messina represents an exception to the rules about international straits, and that the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea
    have varying claims to the extent and types of maritime zones off of their coasts.
    The Legal Advisor’s advice regarding our activities on Operation Reassurance is crucial for me,” said Commander Andrew Hingston, Commanding Officer of Charlottetown.
    “There are a lot of concurrent activities happening on board the ship; it is important for me to count on the sound and valuable advice from my legal advisor to make sure we respect our legal obligations.”

    Source of image: https://www.apega.ca/members/election/, accessed 21 May 2016
    Photo of Manon Plante

    PLANTE, Manon, To transfer or not, that is the question (regarding detainees-- a Canadian perspectives), Canadian Forces College, JCSP 35, May 2009, iv, 118 leaves; available at http://milnewstbay.pbworks.com/f/plante-transfer-paper.pdf (accessed 2 July 2015);

    Image source: http://www.ocsec-bccst.gc.ca/ann-rpt/2013-2014/1_e.php

    PLOUFFE, Jean-Pierre, former JAG member, biography, available at http://www.ocsec-bccst.gc.ca/ann-rpt/2013-2014/1_e.php, accessed on 13 October 2014;

    The Honourable Jean-Pierre Plouffe was appointed Commissioner of the Communications Security Establishment effective October 18, 2013, for a period of three years.

    Mr. Plouffe was born on January 15, 1943, in Ottawa, Ontario. He obtained his law degree, as well as a master's degree in public law (constitutional and international law) from the University of Ottawa. He was called to the Quebec Bar in 1967.

    Mr. Plouffe began his career at the office of the Judge Advocate General at the Department of National Defence. He retired as a Lieutenant-Colonel from the Canadian Armed Forces in 1976. He then worked in private practice with the law firm of Séguin, Ouellette, Plouffe et associés, in Gatineau, Quebec, as defence counsel and also as defending officer for courts martial. Thereafter Mr. Plouffe worked for the Legal Aid Office as defence counsel.

    Mr. Plouffe was appointed a reserve force military judge in 1980, and then as a judge of the Quebec Court in 1982. He was thereafter appointed to the Superior Court of Quebec in 1990, and to the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada in March 2013. He retired as a supernumerary judge on April 2, 2014.
    L'honorable Jean-Pierre Plouffe a été nommé commissaire du Centre de la sécurité des télécommunications le 18 octobre 2013 pour un mandat de trois ans.

    Né le 15 janvier 1943 à Ottawa, en Ontario, M. Plouffe a fait ses études à l'Université d'Ottawa où il a obtenu sa licence en droit ainsi qu'une maîtrise en droit public (droit constitutionnel et international). Il a été admis au barreau du Québec en 1967.

    M. Plouffe a débuté sa carrière au cabinet du juge-avocat général du ministère de la Défense nationale. Il a pris sa retraite des Forces armées canadiennes en en 1976, alors qu'il était lieutenant-colonel. Par la suite, il a été avocat en pratique privée au sein du cabinet Séguin, Ouellette, Plouffe et associés, à Gatineau, au Québec, ainsi qu'avocat de la défense en cour martiale. Par la suite, M. Plouffe a travaillé en tant qu'avocat à l'aide juridique.

    M. Plouffe a été nommé juge militaire de la force de réserve en 1980 puis juge à la Cour du Québec en 1982. Il a ensuite été nommé juge à la Cour supérieure du Québec en 1990 puis juge à la Cour d'appel de la cour martiale du Canada en mars 2013. Il a pris sa retraite en tant que juge surnuméraire le 2 avril 2014.

    ____________, Communications Security Establishment Commissioner, Annual Report 2014-2015, Ottawa: Office of the Communications Security Establishment Commisionner, 2015, iii, 67 p., ISSN:1700-0874;  available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2016/bccst-ocsec/D95-2015-eng.pdf (accessed 29 May 2016);

    Image and text under photo source: www.torontosun.com/2016/01/28/canadas-electronic-spy-agency-broke-privacy-law-by-sharing-info-watchdog
    "Communications Security Establishment Commissioner
     Jean-Pierre Plouffe waits to appear before the Senate national
     security committee on the Anti-terrorism act, Bill C-51, Thursday, April 23, 2015 in Ottawa"

    ___________Testimony of The Honourable Jean-Pierre Plouffe, Commissioner Office of the Communications Security Establishment Commissioner before The Standing Senate Committee on National Security and Defence on the subject matter of Bill C-51, An Act to enact the Security of Canada Information Sharing Act..., 23 April 2015, available at  http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/412/secd/16ev-52067-e.htm?Language=E&Parl=41&Ses=2&comm_id=76 (accessed 27 May 2016);

    Image source: http://publicaciones.defensa.gob.es/inicio/revistas/numero/15revista-ho-militar/99?rev=bab4a06
                                                               b-fb63-65ab-9bdd-ff0000451707&R=c659896b-fb63-65ab-9bdd-ff0000451707, accessed 25 August 2015
    PONCE DE LEON, Rodrigo Lorenzo, "Las Reglas de enfrentamiento (ROE) como paradigma del Estado de derecho en operaciones militares" 99 enero (Diciembre 2014) Revista Espanola De Derecho Militar 37-221, and see "Canada" at pp. 149-151;


    Cover of the reprint edition, see                  1917 edition, source: https://archive.org/details/toronto?sort=-downloads&and[]=%22military%20law%22

    POPE, E. W., A Practical Guide to the Study of Military Law for the Use of Imperial and Overseas Officers, London: Rees, 1917; available at http://www.archive.org/details/practicalguideto00popeuoft (accessed on 3 March 2012);

    ___________ The Canadian officer's guide to the study of military law, London : Methuen, 1916, xiv, 103 p.;  NOTES: Running title: Guide to military law;

    Canadian LCdr April Inglis, a lawyer with the Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team, exchanges information through
                                                                              an interpreter (foreground) regarding issues of the Afghan justice system (photo: MCpl Robert Bottrill, image source:

    POTTER, Mitch, "A Military Lawyer's Life in Afghanistan", The Toronto Star, 20 December 2007, p. A1; available at http://www.thestar.com/news/2007/12/20/a_military_lawyers_life_in_afghanistan.html (accessed on 24 February 2015); interview with Lt.-Cmdr. April Inglis;

    POTVIN, Joseph George Marc Alan, The Integration of the Canadian Forces Logistics System and Its Effect on the Operational Capibilities of the Canadian Military, thesis for the degree of master of Arts, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Winnipeg, October 1996, v, 131, v, leaves; available at http://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1993/19317/Potvin_The_integration.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed 4 December 2015);

    The result was to change the organizational command structure of the Militia by replacing the office of the Commanding General with
    the Chief of Staff (the senior military officer) under the direct command of the Minister of the Militia.  In 1922 the Militia budget was
    $11 million, and Parliament passed the National Defence Act (NDA), which had the effect of centralizing the control of all the Dominion's
    defence forces in the hands of one department.  This new Department of National Defence (DND) replaced the Department of the Militia
    and Defence and the Department of the Naval Services. DND consisted of the Minister of National Defence (MND), the Deputy Minister,
    and the professional heads of the three services, the Chiefs of the General, Naval and Air Staffs.  In addition to this, four "Associate Members",
    the Adjutant General, the Quartermaster General, the Master-General of the Ordnance, and the Judge Advocate General, were created for
    this new DND. (pp. 59-60, footnotes omitted).

    POULIN, BRUCE, “The Official Integration of Homosexuals in the CF (1969-1992)”, Esprit de Corps 11(7) (June 2004) at p. 4 (3 pages):(source: http://library2.usask.ca/srsd/gaycanada/misc/MILITARY.htm, accessed 18 August 2016);

    POULIN, Major J.-G., 696 heures d'enfer avec le Royal 22e Régiment, Québec: Éditions A-B et distributeurs Beauchemin, Montréal, 1946, 183 p.;  j'ai retenu pour les lecteurs deux passages pertinent au droit de la guerre : PDF  voir les pp. 56 et 59 sur l'importance de l'emblême de la Croix-rouge et la p. 66 sur l'ordre suivant: "Autant que possible, pas de prisonniers"; on pourra aussi consulter les pp. 65, 98 et 173-174 sur d'autres exemples pertinents au droit de la guerre;

    Image source: http://www.juristespower.ca/english/bios/bio-power.php, accessed 17 October 2016
    Mark Power

    POWER, Mark C., "La protection de l'environnement en droit international humanitaire : le cas du Kosovo", [2001-2002] Ottawa Law Review / Revue de droit d'Ottawa 225-254; disponible  à https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2724814 (visité 17 octobre 2016);

    Source: http://michaelpower.ca/, accessed 20 March 2017
    Nichael Power

    POWER, Michael, "Security and Freedom: Are the Governments' Efforts to Deal with Terrorism Violative of Our Freedoms - Canadian Speaker"  (January 2003) 29(1) Canada-United States Law Journal 331-337; available at http://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1392&context=cuslj (accessed 20 March 2017);

    The CSE is the Communication Security Establishment. It is our equivalent of the National Security Agency (NSA). Prior to
    the Anti-Terrorism Act, the only public reference to CSE was one page in the national archives basically a document establishing
    it.6  It is an arm of our Department of National Defense. You heard a lot of talk today about what Canada does in terms of its
    military and you heard the stories about our seeking helicopters. One thing hat we are exceedingly good at is military intelligence
    and the collection of information. The CSE is the primary vehicle for that in Canada

    I have this segway into the CSE, because right in the heart of the Anti-Terrorism Act is this amendment to the Department of National
    Defense Act laying out a whole section describing the powers, the privileges, and the rights.7  This is sort of your basic departmental
    housekeeping legislation, but how come it is in the middle of the Anti-terrorism Act?  I actually asked this to the members of CSE. I
    said you really had this in the can, you know, you really had this ready to come out when the moment occurred?  He looked at me, then
    began swearing.  What I am getting at here is that the Anti-Terrorism Act seems to be an opportunity to use September 11th as an excuse
    to do some things that people wanted to do.
    6 Established in 1946 as the Communications Branch of the National Research Council, the CSE was transferred to the Department
    of National Defense in 1975.  The Communications Security Establishment and the National Cryptologic Program, Fact Sheet, COMMUNICATIONS
    SECURITY ESTABLISHMENT, available at www.csecst.gc.ca/en/about_cse/aboutcse.html

    7National Defence Act; R.S.C 1985, c. N-5

    From the left: LCol A. Dufour, LCdr M. Geiger-Wolf,
    Roma Stevenson, Maj. Powers, Joy Beghin, and Thea Haut (source of image:  (July-Oct 2000) 3 JAG Newsletter--Bulletin d'actualités at p. 7)

    POWERS, Andy, Retirement notes -- Notes sur sa retraite, (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 12,


    Maj Andy Powers retired on 30 June after 28 years of service.  Maj Power started as the DJA Montreal
    and NDHQ/JAG Ottawa in the seventies, worked in DLaw/Pensions & Estates and as DJAG Borden in
    the eighties and then in DPLS and Dlaw/Pers in the nineties.  For the last four years Maj Powers
    worked as DJA in Winnipeg,



    Maj Andy Powers a pris sa retraite le 30 juin après 28 années de service.  Le maj Powers a débuté sa
    carrière au JAA Montréal at au QGDN/JAG Ottawa dans les années soixante-dix.  Il a travaillé aux pen-
    sions et successions dans les années quatre-vingt et au DSJP et DJ/PER dans les années quatre-vingt-dix.
    Enfin, lors des quatre dernières années, il était JAA à Winnipeg.  Nous lui souhaitons untre très bonne retraite.

    POWERS, Dylan, "E-Espionage : Developing Canada's Cyber Warfare Strategy" (Fall 2011) Issue number 3 Potentia -- The Centre for International Policy Studies (CIPS) Graduate Student Journal 39-54; available at http://cips.uottawa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Potentia_2011.pdf (accessed on 14 January 2013);

    Image source: http://edmontonjournal.com/author/sheila-pratt-edmonton-journal, accessed 31 January 2016
    Sheila Pratt
    PRATT, Sheila, "It takes everything’: Veteran went ‘off the grid’ after torturing teen in Somalia left him with PTSD", National Post, 30 January 2017, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/it-takes-everything-veteran-went-off-the-grid-after-torturing-teen-in-somalia-left-him-with-ptsd (accessed 15 April 2017);

    ___________ "Life after Somalia: Kyle Brown, PTSD and the past", Edmonton Journal, 30 January 2016; available at http://edmontonjournal.com/news/insight/life-after-somalia-kyle-brown-ptsd-and-the-past, accessed 31 January W2016;

    ___________"Veterans urge another look at Matchee case.  Role of antimalarial drug in beating of Somali teen never fully exposed", Regina Leader-Post, 14 November 2016, available at  https://www.pressreader.com/canada/regina-leader-post/20161114/281556585406416(accessed 22 March 2017);

    Image source: http://uleth.academia.edu/WilliamJohnPratt, accessed 2 April 2016
    William John Pratt

    PRATT, William John, Medicine and Obedience: Canadian Army Morale, Discipline, and Surveillance in the Second World War, 1939-1945, thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy, Graduate program in history, Calgary, Alberta, 2015, viii, 331 leaves; available at http://theses.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/11023/2540/4/ucalgary_2015_pratt_will.pdf  (accessed 2 April 2016);

    ___________“Prostitutes and Prophylaxis: Venereal Disease, Surveillance and Discipline in the Canadian Army in Europe, 1939-45”, (2015) 26(2) Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 111-138; available at http://www.academia.edu/17307395/_Prostitutes_and_Prophylaxis_Venereal_Disease_Surveillance_and_Discipline_in_the_Canadian_Army_in_Europe_1939-45_ (accessed 2 April 2016);


    The wastage of Canadian manpower due to venereal disease (VD) during World War II was an ongoing problem for the Canadian Army. Military authorities took both medical and disciplinary measures in attempt to reduce the number of soldiers that were kept from regular duties while under treatment. The study of the techniques employed to control sexual behaviour and infection places the Canadian Army in a new historical perspective as a modern institution which sought to establish medical surveillance and disciplinary control over soldiers’ bodies. This study also explores Canadian soldiers’ sexual behaviour overseas, showing their engagement in a broken system of regulated prostitution, and with European women who were coping with war’s destabilization and strain by participating in the sex trade. Agents of the Canadian Army overseas extended their disciplinary and surveillance functions from soldiers to their sexual partners. VD rates were low when formations were in combat, but rose to alarming rates when they were out of the line, suggesting that individual agency and sexual choice trumped the efforts of modern discipline. (available at: https://www.erudit.org/revue/jcha/2015/v26/n2/1037228ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction, accessed 6 October 2016)

    Image source:  http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/rpt/ar-ra/2012/10-eng.html (accessed 7 October 2015)
    James Price

    PRICE, James, biographical note at http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/rpt/ar-ra/2012/10-eng.html (accessed 7 October 2015); aussi disponible en français à http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/rpt/ar-ra/2012/10-fra.html (vérifié le 7 octobre 2015);

    Mr. Price brings to his position extensive experience as a Canadian Forces officer in all areas of military law, including the military justice system, administrative law, international law
    and operational law. After serving as Assistant Judge Advocate General for Europe, he was appointed military judge, presiding over cases involving both service offences and offences
    under the Criminal Code of Canada.
    M. Price met à contribution la vaste expérience qu'il a acquise comme officier des Forces canadiennes dans tous les domaines liés au droit militaire, notamment le système de justice militaire,
    le droit international et le droit opérationnel. Après avoir servi comme assistant du juge-avocat général en Europe, il a été nommé juge militaire et a ainsi présidé des procès portant sur des
    infractions militaires et des infractions au Code criminel du Canada. 

    ___________biographical note at http://mgerc-ceegm.gc.ca/rpt/ar-ra/2008/6-eng.html (accessed 15 December 2015);

    Full-Time Vice-Chairperson
    James Price
    Term ending: December 9, 2011

    James Price was Acting Chairperson of the Board for a year, starting in March 2008. He continues his duties at the Board as full-time Vice-Chairperson

    Mr. Price joined the Board in January 2004 as a team leader in Operations Directorate, and was appointed full-time Vice-Chairperson in December of that same year. He brings to the position extensive experience in all areas of military law, including the military justice system, international law and operational law.

    Originally from Twillingate, Newfoundland, Mr. Price joined the University Naval Training Division in 1966 while attending Memorial University. After seven years of active service, he attended Dalhousie University, graduating with a Masters of Public Administration in 1976 and a Bachelor of Laws in 1980, the same year he was called to the Bar of Newfoundland.

    He engaged in private legal practice before joining the CF in 1981, as a legal officer in the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) of the CF.

    During his time with JAG, Mr. Price served as Director of Prosecutions and Appeals where, in addition to coordinating prosecutions and appeals in the CF, he guided the section through its transition to an independent prosecution service. He subsequently served as the Deputy Director of the new Independent Military Prosecution Service.

    After serving as Assistant JAG (Europe), Mr. Price was appointed a military judge by the Governor in Council in 2001, a position he held until 2003. During this time, he presided over cases involving both service offences and offences under the Criminal Code of Canada.

    ____________biographical note at http://web.archive.org/web/20010723071841/http://www.dnd.ca/cmj/bios/price_e.htm (accessed 22 May 2016);.


    Commander Jim Price, CD, MPA, LL.B.                     

                            Commander Price, originally from Twillingate, Newfoundland joined the
                            University Naval Training Division in 1966 while attending Memorial University.
                            After a period of active service Commander Price attended Dalhousie University
                            obtaining a Master of Public Administration degree in 1976 and LL.B in 1980.
                            Commander Price was called to the Bar of Newfoundland in 1980 and engaged
                            in private legal practice until he joined the Canadian Forces as a legal officer in
                            the Office of the Judge Advocate General in late 1981. Commander Price has
                            extensive experience in all areas relating to military law including, the military
                            justice system, international law and operational law. He has served as both
                            a Deputy Judge Advocate and Assistant Judge Advocate General on Canada’s
                           West Coast and filled a variey of legal positions within National Defence
                           Headquarters in Ottawa. Commander Price was employed as the Assistant Judge
                           Advocate General (Europe) prior to his appointment as a military judge.

    ___________Testimony before the Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, to which was referred Bill S-10, to amend the National Defence Act, the DNA Identification Act and the Criminal Code, met this day, 8 December 1999,  at 3:30 p.m. to give consideration to the bill, available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/362/lega/05ev-e.htm?comm_id=11&Language=E&Parl=36&Ses=2 (accessed 28 December 2015);

    Image source: http://web.uvic.ca/~transpac/, accessed 5 October 2016
    John Price
    PRICE, John, "Racism, Canadian War Crimes, and the Korean War: Shin Hyun-Chan’s Quest for Justice", (15 January 2012) volume 10, issue 3, number 2 The Asia-Pacific Journal/Japan Focus 1-14; available at http://apjjf.org/-John-Price/3678/article.pdf and http://apjjf.org/2012/10/3/John-Price/3678/article.html (accessed 5 October 2012);

    On 16 December, a Canadian army psychiatrist testified that Steeves had a mild form of “repressed hostility” that might cause him to “explode” if intoxicated. Steeves himself testified on 17 December, during his court martial in Seoul, that he could not remember anything about the incident. The following day, the court convicted Steeves of manslaughter in the death of Shin’s father and sentenced him to fifteen years in prison. The field commander arbitrarily reduced the sentence by five years. Steeves had not been charged or tried for the wounding of young Hyun-Chan or for the shooting of the ROK soldier.

    The court martial seemed to have produced a semblance of justice. However, on 13 June 1952, Canadian Press reported that a Canadian “found guilty of manslaughter in the death of a Korean civilian and sentenced to 15 years in prison ha[d] been freed by the Defence Department.”9 John Steeves was freed “some time ago,” after Judge Advocate General Brigadier W.A. Lawson ruled that he had been wrongfully convicted at the December court martial, basing his ruling on the law involving “circumstantial evidence.” In other words, Steeves didn’t even serve six months of his fifteen-year sentence. News of this development never reached the Shin family. Was the court martial really that flawed? Was Steeves really innocent? We may never know the answers to those questions.

    What is striking in the press reports, however, is the number of war crimes reported.

    Source of image: https://www.amazon.ca/Orienting-Canada-Race-Empire-Transpacific/dp/0774819847, accessed 5 October 2016
    ___________Orienting Canada: Race, Empire and the Transpacific, UBC Press, 2011, xiv, 445 p. : ill., map, ports. ; 24 cm. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references and index. Issued also in electronic format. NUMBERS: Canadiana: 20119017040 ISBN: 9780774819831;see chapter 7 Elusive Justice: Canada and the Tokyo Tribunal at pp. 148-168 and chapter 12 Racism, War Crimes, and the Korean War at pp. 257-279;

    PRIVY COUNCIL OFFICE, "Discussions and submissions which led to the phrase "except in the case of an offence under military law tried before a military tribunal…” being inserted into Section 11(f) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms between 1980 and March 29, 1982"; completed Access to Information Act request, File A-2011-00398, May 2012, disclosed in part, 297 pages; see http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca/index.asp?lang=eng&page=acc&doc=2012-eng.htm (accessed 23 October 2016);

    PRIVY COUNCIL OFFICE,  Securing an Open Society: Canada's National Security Policy April 2004, [Ottawa: Privy Council Office], 2004, xi, 52 p., ISBN: 0-662-36982-3; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/CP22-77-2004E.pdf (accessed on 1 July 2012);
    BUREAU DU CONSEIL PRIVÉ,  Protéger une société ouverte : la politique canadienne de sécurité nationale, avril 2004, [Ottawa : Bureau du Conseil privé], 2004, x,  59 p., ISBN: 0-662-76741-1; disponible à http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/CP22-77-2004F.pdf (vérifié le 1er juillet 2012);

    Source de l'image: www.prixduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/recherche/desclaureat.php?noLaureat=425, site visité 22 mai 2016
    Photo de Jean Provencher par Rémy Boily
    PROVENCHER, Jean, 1943-, Québec sous la Loi des mesures de guerre. 1918, Montréal : Boréal Express, 1971, 146 p. : ill., fac-sim., plans, portr.; NOTE: Préface de Fernand Dumont; bibliographie aux pp. [141]-146

    PROVINCE  LOWER CANADA, Adjutant General's Office, F. (François) Vassal de Monviel, Lower Canada, Abstract of the Militia Act at present in force, and of the duties thereby imposed on the officers & militiamen,  Printed by P.E. Desbarats, 1821, available at http://www.archive.org/details/cihm_21103  (accessed on 20 January 2012);

    Source de l'image: http://www.mcgill.ca/law/about/profs/provost-rene, visité le 24 juillet 2015
    René Provost

    PROVOST, René with the research assistance of Guillaume Beaupré, "Canada", (2001) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law at p.469; available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?id=lw62fC-SbrIC&pg=PA470&dq=judge+advocate+general+canada+%22law+of+armed+conflict%22&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=judge%20advocate%20general%20canada%20%22law%20of%20armed%20conflict%22&f=false (accessed 24 July 2015);

    PUCCI, Dick, "Court Reporter, Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, quoted in Hepenstall, Find the Dragon, 262-263" (source: note 88, at p. 392 of the thesis WATSON, Brent Byron, Far Eastern Tour: The Experiences of the Canadian Infantry in Korea, 1950-53, infra); on-going research as of 11 January 2016; copy at the book at Canadian War Museum, Hartland Molson Library/Musée canadien de la guerre, Bibliothèque Hartland Molson;

    PUGH, Anthony, "Queen’s Law grad publishes ‘outstanding’ book on contemporary armed conflict", Queen's University, Queen's Law, 11 January 2017, available at http://law.queensu.ca/Queens-Law-grad-publishes-outstanding-book-on-contemporary-armed-conflict  (accessed 26 January 2017); about Kent Watkin's book: Fighting at the Legal Bounderies: Controlling the Use of Force in Contemporary Conflict;

    David Pugliese, photo reproduced from http://blogs.ottawacitizen.com/author/davidpugliese2/, accessed 31 March 2014

    PUGLIESE, David, David Pugliese's Military Articles archived web site at http://web.archive.org/web/20110718092345/http://davidpugliese.wordpress.com/ (archived site of 18 July 2012, accessed on 18 February 2012); Notes: see current web site at http://davidpugliese.wordpress.com (accessed on 18 February 2012);

    ___________"Activist Ottawa lawyer [Michel Drapeau] targeted by military over positive review of his book", Calgary Herald, 23 April 2014; available at http://www.calgaryherald.com/news/national/Activist+Ottawa+lawyer+targeted+military+over+positive/9768054/story.html (accessed on 27 April 2014); also available at http://o.canada.com/news/national/activist-ottawa-lawyer-targeted-by-military-over-positive-review-of-his-book (accessed 3 September 2016);

    The efforts of an Ottawa lawyer to advocate for families battling the military justice system rankled National Defence so much that even a mildly positive review of his book sparked a plan to counter that in the military’s professional journal.

    The Canadian Military Journal found itself in a predicament after a retired general wrote a positive review of a military law textbook written by retired federal court judge Gilles Letourneau and lawyer Michel Drapeau.

    Drapeau, a retired colonel, is a high-profile critic of the way the Canadian Forces treats its soldiers and families. He has also called for changes in the military’s justice system.

    The book review in late 2011 set off a series of emails on how to deal with the situation, according to documents obtained by the Citizen under the access to information law.

    “We have a bit of a situation here,” the military journal’s editor, David Bashow wrote to Col. Michael Gibson, a senior military lawyer with the Judge Advocate General’s (JAG) branch. “Lieutenant General (ret’d) Rick Evraire has done a review of the latest Letourneau/Drapeau book, and it is positive, and we are publishing it in the Winter edition.”

    The situation played out in late 2011 and early 2012 and resulted in a three-page rebuttal penned by Gibson and published in the military journal. Evraire’s original review ran a page-and-a-half in the journal while Gibson’s piece was twice the length.

    But the department’s interest in countering Drapeau continued. In 2013, it devoted several pages of its website to challenging Drapeau’s comments about how the military and government poorly treats injured soldiers and their families.

    A brief television appearance by Drapeau prompted a 1,500-word rebuttal to his comments about how military members are treated. And another 100 pages of emails and other documents produced by military lawyers concern Drapeau.

    Although the journal review was about the book written by Letourneau and Drapeau, Bashow acknowledged Drapeau was the focus of his concern.

    “The fact of the matter is at the time there were issues brought forward by Michel Drapeau that I think the JAG branch had a legitimate chance to express a countering view,” Bashow said in an interview.

    The Drapeau-Letourneau book, Military Justice in Action, was published in late 2011 and is considered the only textbook on the Canadian military justice system. It contained a forward by Justice Ian Binnie, then of the Supreme Court of Canada, and is used in universities across the country.

    Drapeau said the journal’s efforts were designed to target him and were “petty and unprofessional.” They also raise the question of using a taxpayer-funded publication to attack critics of the department, he added.

    “Where’s the journal’s supposed independence?” asked Drapeau.

    Bashow, however, dismissed Drapeau’s concerns, saying he stands by the material in the journal.

    The emails show Gibson, since promoted to a military judge position, immediately went to his boss, Brig.-Gen. Blaise Cathcart, for permission to write the rebuttal. Gibson called Bashow’s offer a “good opportunity.”

    Cathcart, now a major general and still Judge Advocate General, gave Gibson approval to proceed, with the material being scrutinized by a number of Canadian Forces legal officers.

    Bashow said the rebuttal was about offering up a counter idea. But he acknowledged it is rare for the journal to publish a rebuttal to a book review.

    In one of his emails, Bashow expressed to Gibson how happy he was with the officer’s rebuttal. “I think you ‘hit it out of the park,’ ” Bashow wrote.

    Drapeau and Letourneau’s 1,700-page textbook also received a highly positive review in the U.S. federal lawyers’ bar association magazine.

    An expanded edition is planned for the fall of 2014.



    __________"Boards of inquiry 'designed to cover the military’s butt'", Ottawa Citizen, 17 October 2014, available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/boards-of-inquiry-designed-to-cover-the-militarys-butt  (accessed 13 April 2017);

    ___________"The Canadian Forces Judge Advocate General, second highest paid officer in the Military, is not even a judge", Ottawa Citizen, 30 June 2014, available at  http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/the-canadian-forces-judge-advocate-general-second-highest-paid-officer-in-the-military-is-not-even-a-judge  (accessed 17 January 2016);

    ___________"Canadian Forces sexual misconduct survey:  Concerns raised commanders could be provided with private information", Ottawa Citizen, 17 April 2016, available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/canadian-forces-sexual-misconduct-survey-concerns-raised-commanders-could-be-provided-with-private-information (accessed 17 April 2016);

    __________"Canadian Military threatened soldier's grieving parents with legal action", The Otawa Citizen, published on 17 October 2014, last updated on 21 October 2014; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/canadian-military-threatened-soldiers-grieving-parents-with-legal-action, accessed on 12 November 2014;

    The Rogers family say they twice verbally told the BOI they did not wish to appear. Then Drapeau told the military in writing they wouldn’t participate. DND issued a summons despite this, says the family.

    Summonses were sent to the couple on three different occasions but the department said that was because the date of their required testimony kept changing. Drapeau then filed a legal document with the federal court in Ottawa, giving notice he planned to challenge the summons. After Drapeau filed the paperwork, DND rescinded the summons.

    Petty Officer (second class) Janet Sinclair, right, and her spouse, Petty Officer (second
    class) Silvya Reid, will be  reduced in rank and fined after a court martial judge's order on
    Photograph by: Darren Stone , Victoria Times Colonist

    ____________"Court-martialled sailors handed minimum sentence", The Ottawa Citizen, 10 February 2009; available at http://www.canada.com/news/court+martialled+sailors+handed+minimum+sentence/1271179/story.html (accessed 13 January 2017)   

    ___________"Defence chief issues gag order - Officers forced to obtain approval before talking to media", The Ottawa Citizen,  Friday, November 9, 2001, p. A5;

    ___________"Forces base tightens rules on social media--Freedom of Speech", The Ottawa Citizen, Tuesday, 5 April 2016 at p. NP4;

    ___________"Grieving parents of dead soldier stuck with legal fees in DND spat", Ottawa Citizen, 7 November 2014; published at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/grieving-parents-of-dead-soldier-stuck-with-legal-fees-in-dnd-spat (accessed 8 March 2015); research note: as of 25 February 2015, there is a Public Fatality Inquiry (coroner inquest) in Alberta scheduled to take place --

    The couple [Rick and Ellen Rogers] ] was sent three summonses to attend a military board of inquiry (BOI) examining their 27-year-old daughter’s [Lt. Shawna Rogers] drug overdose in Edmonton, even though the parents, who had no faith in that process, had repeatedly told the Canadian Forces they didn’t want to participate.
    Asked about whether any disciplinary action had been taken against members of the BOI or military lawyers for allegedly harassing the Rogers family, DND spokesman Dan Blouin sent an email that stated, “DND has rescinded the summonses out of respect for the family’s wishes.”


    ___________"How military buries the truth", The Ottawa Citizen, 16 October 1999;

    ____________"Law passed three years ago by Parliament to make it easier to sue DND, deal with military grievances still in limbo", The Ottawa Citizen, 22 September 2016, available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/law-passed-three-years-ago-by-parliament-to-make-it-easier-to-sue-dnd-deal-with-military-grievances-still-in-limbo (accessed 23 September 2016);

    ___________"The Libya Mission One Year Later: The Rules of Engagement", The Ottawa Citizen, 19 February 2012, pp. A1 and A5;

    ___________"Major conference on military justice to be held in Ottawa Nov. 13 [2015]", Ottawa Citizen, 2 November 2015; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/major-conference-on-military-justice-to-be-held-in-ottawa-nov-13 (accessed 2 November 2015);

    ___________"The military and the media: time for openness", (Fall 1997) 27(1) Canadian Defence Quarterly;


    ___________"Military judge won't order secret trial.  Government ask court to force officer to try JTF2 suspect in closed sessions", The Ottawa Citizen, Monday, 7 November 2005, at pp. A1 and A10; title at p. A10 is "Secret: Accused is back in Canada"; Chief Military Judge: Colonel Kim Carter; Department of Justice Canada lawyer is Jan Brongers; available at http://www.canada.com/ottawa/ottawacitizen/news/story.html?id=634f541b-53b1-4eae-a4d5-099fb3371865 (accessed 1 December 2015);

    The unprecedented legal battle revolves around a member of Canada's special forces unit, Joint Task Force 2, who has been charged with aggravated assault
     and ill-treatment of a subordinate after an alleged incident in Afghanistan in August.

    The Sept. 23 charge sheet, which outlines details of the incident, has been classified as secret by the Defence Department.

    But Chief Military Judge Col. Kim Carter has refused to assign one of her judges to preside over the court martial of the JTF2 warrant officer because of the
    secret charge sheet. Col. Carter argues that would be "to accept and follow a presumption of secrecy" in the case, according to legal records.

    _____________"Military Justice system needs needs reform, lawyer argues", The Ottawa Citizen, 30 April 2015; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/military-justice-system-needs-reform-lawyer-argues (accessed 1 May 2015);

    Image source: https://www.google.com/search?as_st=y&tbm=isch&as_q=military&as_epq=sex+cards&as_oq=&as_eq=&imgsz=&imgar=&imgc=&imgcolor=&imgtype=&cr=&as_sitesearch=&safe=images&as_filetype=&as_rights=&gws_rd=ssl#as_st=y&tbm=isch&q=%22Canadian+Forces%22+sex+card&imgrc=FspaBcLy7KNjnM%3A;
    ___________"Military's 'no harm' sex cards stir anger -- Abuse Reminders", The Ottawa Citizen, 17 June 2016, at p. NP3;

    The Canadian Forces has distributed 120,000 wallet-size cards to military-
    personnel to remind them that sexual assault is an "inappropriate" behaviour.

    ___________"Ombudsman takes Vance, Sajjan, bureaucrats to task for failing to help military personnel", The Ottawa Citizen, available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/ombudsman-takes-vance-sajjan-bureaucrats-to-task-for-failing-to-help-military-personnel (accessed 16 March 2017); about the testimony of the ombudsman, Gary Walbourne, before the Senate subcommittee on Veterans Affairs, 8 March 2017;

    My recommendations are straightforward and easily implementable. They are:

    1)  First, that the Surgeon General be assigned the responsibility for determining whether an individual’s illness or injury is attributable to their service, and that Veterans Affairs Canada accept that determination to activate their benefit suite for the releasing member.

    –      We have estimated that this would cut the wait times for VAC benefits by at least 50%.

    2)  Second, that the Member not be released from the Canadian Armed Forces until ALL benefits and services, from ALL sources, including Veterans Affairs, are in place.

    –      This includes their Canadian Forces pensions.

    3)  Third, that a Concierge Service be put in place, staffed by members of the Canadian Armed Forces, to help the member navigate the complex release process.

    4)  Finally, that one easily navigable, COMMON web portal be created containing all relevant information on the benefits and services from Veterans Affairs and the Canadian Armed Forces.

    Senators, you would think that this blueprint would be accepted and implemented as quickly as possible. It has not.

    ___________"Proposed military ombudsman not in a conflict, minister's aide insists", CanWest News, Jun 20, 2005, p.1;

    Description: The leaked records show that in 1999 Cote was acting as the lawyer for the military's senior hierarchy in negotiating the
    mandate of the first Canadian Forces ombudsman, Andre Marin. But the negotiations over 14 lengthy sessions, which at times also
    involved members of the Judge Advocate General's office (JAG) and senior Defence staff, became deadlocked after Marin complained
    he was receiving little co-operation. Marin also pointed out he continued on in negotiations with Cote, but to no avail. Another draft
    report produced after Cote met with the JAG and the Chief of the Defence Staff was profoundly disappointing, according to Marin.
    It rejected recommendations put forward by Marin and his staff and failed to ensure methods were in place to deal with retaliation
    and reprisals against those making complaints to the ombudsman. [Bill Graham]'s spokesman, Steve Jurgutis, said he saw no conflict
    of interest in naming Cote as ombudsman, despite the lawyer's role in representing the generals and Defence Department during
    negotiations in determining the ombudsman's mandate. Jurgutis dismissed concerns Cote, currently the Privy Council lawyer, wouldn't
    be objective and reiterated Graham considered him an excellent candidate.
    (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_
    %20Pitzul%22%20Judge%20Advocate%20General&dstmp=1474922626257, accessed 26 September 2016;
    © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved)

    ___________"Questions remain about top military officer’s removal as replacement ‘double-hats’ navy and defence jobs", The National Post, 29 January 2017, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/questions-remain-about-top-military-officers-removal-as-replacement-double-hats-navy-and-defence-jobs (accessed 31 January 2017);

    ___________"Rank injustice: Seven cases from Canada's military", The Ottawa Citizen, 12 October 1999;

    __________"Searches of lockers of military cadets stopped after complaints about violations of Charter Rights", The Ottawa Citizen, 29 June 2015; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/searches-of-lockers-of-military-cadets-stopped-after-complaints-about-violations-of-charter-rights (accessed 29 June 2015); 

    ___________"Soldier of torture was part of Forces' elite unit", The Ottawa Citizen, 10 October 1999;

    ___________"Top general apologizes to Forces whistleblower: Unprecedented letter admits military failed to act on allegations of sexual harassment", The Ottawa Citizen, pp. A1 and A10; the other title at p. A10 is "Baril: Case not handled properly";

    ___________"Vice-Admiral lashes out at inquiry; Witness stand used to give `surrogate press conference,' Somalia commissioner says; HOT TIMES", Edmonton Journal, Jan 29, 1997, p. A.3;

    PURNELLE, Michel, 1960-, Une armée en déroute / Michel Purnelle préface du colonel Michel W. Drapeau, Montréal: Liber (Diffusion Dimedia, 539, boul. Lebeau, Saint-Laurent, PQ, H4N 1S2), 1996, 189 p., ISBN:  2921569345; monsieur Purnelle était un militaire en Somalie et un témoin à la Commission d'enquête sur la Somalie; il eut également un procès devant une cour martiale;

    QR&O  [The Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Forces] Chapter 108 -  Draft Proposal, MJ 141  mentioned at note 32, p. 44 of the Report of the Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services,  25 March 1997, supra;
    MJ 141, Chapitre 108 des ORFC [Ordonnances et règlements royaux applicables aux forces canadiennes] - Ébauche de proposition, cité à la note 32, p. 48 du Rapport du Groupe consultatif spécial sur la justice militaire et sur les services d'enquête de la police militaire, supra;

    Québec, Assemblée nationale, Projet de rapport. Commission d'étude des questions afférentes à l'accession du Québec à la souveraineté, p. 85-89 (La défense); titre noté dans mes recherches mais non consulté (10 septembre 2015);

    QUÉBEC (Province), Ministère de la Sécurité publique et Canada, Secretary of State, "Réquisition du Procureur-général de la province suivant l'article 277 de la Loi sur la défense nationale",  [Québec, Qué.] : Ministre de la Sécurité publique, 1990, 9 feuilles; autre titre "Pour venir en aide au pouvoir civil." (source: catalogue du Collège des Forces canadiennes);

    QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY, Lederman Law Library, "Select Bibliography -- Military Law", available at
    http://library.queensu.ca/law/bibliographyMILITARY.htm (accessed on 3 November 2013);

    Image source: photo in the article
    Captain Alexander Parker speaking at Queen's University

    QUEEN'S University, Queen's --Law, "How to start a thriving legal career", available at http://law.queensu.ca/news/how-start-thriving-legal-career (accessed 1 May 2016);

    QUINN, Patrick, "Experts say war crimes in Sarajevo exist, but prosecution hard with AM-Yugoslavia", AP (Associated Press) News Archives, 6 July 1993; available at http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1993/Experts-Say-War-Crimes-in-Sarajevo-Exist-But-Prosecution-Hard-With-AM-Yugoslavia/id-a95ea9cc3cf3fa984444488779631a02  (accessed on  22 January 2015)

    SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herzegovina (AP) _ Much evidence exists that war crimes were committed against residents
    of besieged Sarajevo, but two lawyers on assignment for the United Nations said Tuesday that prosecution would be hard.
    [Bill] Fenrick and a Canadian team of three military lawyers and four military police investigators spent two weeks in Sarajevo gathering material for a report
    to U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali.
    'There is a lot of information available. The difficulties we are facing, and I think we are beginning to overcome, is translating evidence for prosecution,'' said
    Lt. Col. Kim Carter, a Canadian army military prosecutor.


    William Quinn, image source: http://www.linkedin.com/pub/captain-n-william-quinn/30/741/100, accessed on 12 November 2014

    QUINN, William, J., Legal and Policy Responses to the Terrorist Threat to Canada: A "Soft Approach", [Toronto]: Canadian Forces College, 2008, iii, 91 p., 28 cm., Masters thesis (Canadian Forces College), JCSP/PCEMI 34-56; available at  http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/294/286/quinn_w.pdf (accessed on 12 January 2012);

    Summary "A credible terrorist threat to Canada exists from nuclear, biological, chemical and conventional weapons, and from cyberterrorism. Obstacles exist to the use of any of these methods, but terrorists have expressed the will to attack Canada and some believe such an attack is inevitable. Canada has acted on many fronts to counter this threat. In the legal domain Canada has used a combination of domestic criminal and immigration law, along with international law to foil terrorists’ plans. Canada is also taking actions that are complementary to legal methods with an aggressive Anti-Terrorism Plan, active cooperation with the United States and significant participation in international cooperative activities. These strategies and tools are important, but they form only part of the solution to the problem of terrorism. Military action is also required to stop terrorists before they reach the shores of Canada, as well as effective consequence management to deal with terrorists who penetrate the layers of defence. The Canadian Government must continue to focus on all of these areas in order to ensure the safety of its citizens." - p. iii (source: Canadian Forces College catalogue)

    Sean Raleigh, image source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/sean-raleigh-cd-ba-llb-pcsc/63/16/4a9?trk=pub-pbmap (accessed on 18 April 2014)

    RALEIGH, Major Sean, "Brigadier-General (Retired) Robert Martin", (2006) 1 JAG  Les actualités -- Newsletter 12;

    RALEIGH, Major Sean, "Brigadier-Général (Retraité) Robert Martin",  (2006) 1 JAG  Les actualités -- Newsletter 13;

    Sunil V. Ram                           Tim A. Mau

    RAM, Sunil V., Tim A. Mau, "The Nature of the Civil-Military Relationship in Canada and its Impact on the Leadership Role of the Officer Corps", CSL Leadership Review September 2016 , pp. 1-21; available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236578651_The_Nature_of_the_Civil-Military_Relationship_in_Canada_and_its_Impact_on_the_Leadership_Role_of_the_Officer_Corps (accessed 26 November 2016);

    Image source: www.linkedin.com/in/rob-ramey-6989a5a8, accessed 30 July 2016
    Robert Ramey
    RAMEY, Robert A., Space Warfare and the Future Law of War, A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Law (LL.M.), Institute of Air and Space, McGill University, 1999; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0030/MQ55106.pdf (accessed on 17 October 2014);

    Source: www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/law/comparative-law/global-anti-terrorism-law-and-policy-2nd-edition, accessed 30 July 2016

    RAMRAJ, Victor, Michael Hor, Kent Roach, et al., eds., Global Anti-Terrorism Law and Policy, 2nd ed., New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2012, 9781107014671; and see The criminal law and its less restrained alternatives Kent Roach and Canada's response to terrorism Kent Roach;

    RANCOURT, Daniel, "   de services juridiques", Servir -- Le journal bi-mensuel du SQFT/FOI (EST) Région de Montréal, volume 18, numéro 13, 1er février 2012, p. 6; disponible à http://www.journalservir.com/ftp/journaux/VOL_18_NO_13_SERVIR_2012_02_01.pdf (visité le 18 mars 2012);  traite du droit militaire et du major Nadine Dery, avocate et juge-avocat adjoint  (JAA) à la garnison Saint-Jean;

    Il y a présentement dix avocats réguliers, deux sous-officiers seniors et six employés civils au sein du Cabinet de l’Assistant du Juge-avocat général Région de l’Est (AJAG RE) qui regroupe tous les bureaux de JAA présents au Québec: à Bagotville, au quartier général de la Réserve navale à Québec, ainsi qu’aux garnisons de Valcartier, Montréal et Saint-Jean. Le Cabinet du AJAG RE peut aussi compter sur l’appui de sept avocats membres de la Force de réserve.

    Maj Prem Rawal, second from left, image source: http://www.touchbaseonline.ca/?p=2141

    RAWAL, Capt. P. (Prem), "First Annual Office of the JAG, Post-Deployment Conference for Legal Officers", (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 25;

    RAWAL, Capt. P., "Première conférence annuelle: post-déploiement du JAG",  (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 25;

    Source of image: http://randyray.ca/biography.html, accessed 28 September 2016
    Randy Ray

    RAY, Randy, "Law in the Trenches", (March 1995) 4 National (The Canadian Bar Association - L'Association du Barreau canadien) 12-24;  research note: article on Canadian military lawyers; note de recherche: article sur les avocats militaires canadiens;

    Book image source: http://www.dominionpaper.ca/foreign_policy/2006/10/31/whose_trau.html, accessed on 8 April 2014

    RAZAK, Sherene H., Dark Threats and white knights : the Somalia Affair,  peacekeeping and the new imperialism, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, c2004, xii, 236 p., ISBN: 0802087086 and 0802086632 (pbk.); limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=nfj8SN649zEC&pg=PA181&dq=%22Dishonoured+Legacy%22&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=sTh-SMObJ4OQsgPw1PHhDw&sig=ACfU3U3IyQDokfGlXdDLR6GcbWA0UEM7OA#PPP1,M1 and
    http://books.google.com/books?id=nfj8SN649zEC&dq=%22Dishonoured+Legacy%22&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 16 July 2008);

       Acknowledgments| p. ix
       'The White Man's Burden,' Rudyard Kipling| p. xi
       Introduction: 'Savage Wars of Peace'| p. 3
       1 Those Who 'Witness the Evil': Peacekeeping as Trauma| p. 15
       I. Those Who 'Witness the Evil'| p. 18
       II. On Being the Hero's Friend: Canadian Investments in Peacekeeping| p. 32
       III. Sending in the Warriors: 'The Spread of Non-Democratic Regimes and Human Rights Abuses'| p. 39
       2 Men from the 'Clean Snows of Petawawa'| p. 51
       I. Masculinities That Make the White Nation| p. 57
       II. Operation Deliverance| p. 67
       3 'Outwhiting the White Guys?' Men of Colour and the M"It is obvious that justice (in the sense of fair treatment, rather than in the more narrow legalistic sense) is important to the members of an organization. Yet, the following questions remain: why is it important, and what is its impact on the effectiveness of that organization? This paper will answer those questions from both the theoretical and practical perspectives. Opening with an examination of organizational justice theory itself and its related concepts, it will argue that in order that the CF/DND retain the trained personnel in which it has invested time and money and attract recruits of quality, it must devote greater efforts to the principles of organizational justice. Discussion will conclude with a series of practical recommendations as to the means of improving both the substance and appearance of organizational justice in the CF/DND." -- p. 3. urder of Shidane Abukar Arone| p. 87
       I. 'A Significant Opposition of Values'| p. 91
       II. The Bully and the Weak Soldier| p. 101
       4 Bad Apples and a Nation Wronged: Public Truth and the Somalia Affair| p. 116
       I. The Disappearance of Race| p. 119
       II. Race as Culture| p. 135
       III. Ill-Prepared and Rudderless Soldiers and a Nation Wronged| p. 141
       Conclusion: Acting Morally in the New World Order: Lessons from Peacekeeping| p. 153
       I. The Role of Racism in the New World Order| p. 155
       II. Superfluous Human Beings and Evil as Policy| p. 158
       Notes| p. 167
       Bibliography| p. 207
       Index| p. 227 (source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch.psml?eventSubmit_doDocumentviewenrichment=1&resultSetId=ResultSet-1875&documentIndex=9&callNumber=341.584%20R39%202004&id=33396002055997#toc, accessed on 20    December 2011)

    ___________"From the 'Clean Snows of Petawawa': The Violence of Canadian Peacekeepers in Somalia", (February 2000) 15(1) Cultural Anthropology 127-163;

    READY, David K., "Organizational  justice in the Canadian Forces", Toronto: Canadian Forces College, 2005, 21 p. (series title: Exercice New Horizons); available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/291/287/ready.pdf#pagemode=thumbs (accessed on 13 September 2013);

    "It is obvious that justice (in the sense of fair treatment, rather than in the more narrow legalistic sense) is important to the members of an organization. Yet, the following questions remain: why is it important, and what is its impact on the effectiveness of that organization? This paper will answer those questions from both the theoretical and practical perspectives. Opening with an examination of organizational justice theory itself and its related concepts, it will argue that in order that the CF/DND retain the trained personnel in which it has invested time and money and attract recruits of quality, it must devote greater efforts to the principles of organizational justice. Discussion will conclude with a series of practical recommendations as to the means of improving both the substance and appearance of organizational justice in the CF/DND." -- p. 3.

    Image source: https://www.friends-amis.org/index.php/en/support-fcwm-2/our-volunteers-test-not-public-visible/347-volunteer-reed-william-arthur-bill, accessed 5 March 2015)
    REED, William Arthur (Bill), biographical notes (not necessarily written by Bill Reed):

    His close to 35 year career as a military lawyer has taken him throughout Canada, Europe, the Balkans and the United States (including Puerto Rico and Hawaii) where he has performed as both prosecutor and defence counsel, sat as a trial judge (alone and with a full court), and provided a wide range of legal advice, services, training and counsel in personnel, administrative, criminal, disciplinary, international and operational legal matters at the strategic, operational/theatre and tactical levels.

    He was the senior Colonel (Captain (N)) and Deputy in the Office of the JAG and, by appointments, both the Acting JAG in the latter’s absence from the National Capital Region and the Legal Branch Adviser.  He is an Officer of the Order of Military Merit. (source: https://www.friends-amis.org/index.php/en/support-fcwm-2/our-volunteers-test-not-public-visible/347-volunteer-reed-william-arthur-bill, accessed 5 March 2015)

    Martin Reesink
    REESINK, Martin, web site for his law practice at http://www.reesinklaw.com/ (accessed 31 May 2016); Martin Reesink is a former JAG officer;

    Darin Reeves, image source: http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=44204, accessed on 23 April 2014

    REEVES, Darin, "An interview with Colonel Commandant of the Legal Branch, Capt(N) Goodfellow / Une entrevue avec le colonel-commandant de la Branche des services juridiques des FC: le Capv Goodfello", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 15-17; article in French & English/article en français et en anglais;

    ___________Detainee Rights and State Obligations; Charting the Shoals Facing the Royal Canadian Navy, LL.M. thesis, Dalhousie University, 2014; available at http://dalspace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/handle/10222/53987/Reeves-Darin-LLM-Law-August-2014.pdf?sequence=1 (25 February 2015);
    This thesis examines the question of Canadian domestic, and international, rights and obligations owed to individuals detained by Ships of the Royal Canadian Navy in a selection of contemporary naval operations. Discussed are underlying lawful authorities as well as the international law affecting the maritime environment. Next reviewed are extra-territorial extensions of State jurisdiction and the rights and international and Canadian State obligations triggered when an individual is detained. Legal issues found in maritime operations are then analyzed in contrast to land operations involving detention of individuals and attendant human right’s concerns. The thesis concludes by re-conceptualizing naval operations in light of State border and frontier zone legal principles and concludes by setting out general principles that can be applied to these, and other, naval operations. (source: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/darin-reeves/11/b55/b35, accessed 30 April 2015)

    __________"Notes on Darin Reeves", available at https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/darin-reeves/11/b55/b35 (accessed on 30 April 2015);

    ___________"Report of the Nova Scotia Military Law Section",  (May/Mai 2012) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2012/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=48115  (accessed on 6 May 2012);
    ___________"Compte-rendu de la Section du droit militaire de la Nouvelle-Écosse",  (May/Mai 2012) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2012/2012-05_military.aspx#article1 (site visité le 6 mai 2012);

    ___________"Set Condition 'one-alpha' for Wet Well Operations" /"Adoptez Conditions 'un-alpha' pour les opéraions de la bâche d'aspiration",  (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 34-36; article in French & English/article en français et en anglais;

    REFORM PARTY OF CANADA, National Defence Task Force: Final Report, July 1997;

    REGIMENTAL ROGUE, THE, The Minute Book, "HMCS Niobe Grounding and Court Martial; Part 2: The Courts Martial, Day 1 of 3, Nov 1911", available at http://regimentalrogue.tripod.com/blog/index.blog/2328804/hmcs-niobe-courts-martial-nov-1911-part-1/ (accessed 28 December 2015);
    Halifax, N.S., Nov 15.—A naval court martial convened here today to investigate the responsibility for the stranding of the Canadian cruiser Niobe near Cape Sable,
    last July. Commander Macdonald of the Niobe and two of his officers are on trial. In order to provide the officers of necessary rank for the court, the British Atlantic
    Squadron, consisting of Leviathan, Essex, Donegal and Berwick was sent here. Capt Baker of the Berwick is presiding over the court.

    REID,  Michel, "Military Ethics and Political Activism: The Charter, the soldier, and freedom of political expression",  (Summer 2008) 1(1) Journal of  the Defence Ethics Programme; available at  http://www.dep.forces.gc.ca/dep-ped/jdep-jped/2008/v1n1-eng.aspx  (accessed on 25 March 2012);
    REID,  Michel, "Éthique militaire et milantisme politique: la Charte, le soldat et la liberté d'expression politique", (Été 2008) 1(1) Journal du Programme d'éthique de la défense; disponible à http://www.dep.forces.gc.ca/dep-ped/jdep-jped/2008/v1n1-fra.aspx (vérifié le 25 mars 2012);

    ___________"Where Ethics and Legality Collide", (Summer 2011) 11(3) Canadian Military Journal 5-13; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo11/no3/03-reid-eng.asp (accessed on 17 August 2013);
    ___________"Lorsque l'éthique et la légalité s'affrontent", (été 2011) 11(3) disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo11/no3/03-reid-fra.asp (vérifié le 17 août 2013);

    REILLY, J., "Military employment law" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 8; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
    REILLY, J., "Précis : Le droit de l'emploi militaire" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 8; disponible http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (site visité le 18 avril 2012);

    Image source: www.google.ca (image search, 31 December 2014)
    REILLY, John, Office of the Assistant Judge Advocate General (Pacific Region), "Op Caribe: Personal Legal Issues", slide presentation, see  http://www.slideshare.net/esquimaltmfrc/mcdv-briefing-december-2014 (accessed on 31 December 2014);

    REMPEL, Roy, 1962-, The Chatter Box : An Insider's Account of the Irrelevance of Parliament in the Making of Canadian Foreign and Defence Policy, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2002; available in part at http://books.google.ca/books?id=TpZ6YOtt7pEC&pg=PT36&lpg=PT36&dq=The+Charter+Box+:+An+Insider
    Irrelevance%20of%20Parliament%20in%20the%20Making%20of%20Canadian%20Foreign%20and%20Defence%20Policy&f=false (accessed on 9 December 2013);

    RENNIE, Ian, "A reply to 'The Battle of the Windmill': a different perspective" (March/Mars 2010) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2010/2010-02_military.aspx and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2010/2010-02_military.aspx#article3 and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/pdf/02-10-military_2.pdf (accessed on 29 April 2012);
    RENNIE, Ian, "Une perspective différente : réplique à 'La Bataille du Moulin-à-Vent' ",  (March/Mars 2010) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/pdf/03-10-salut_militaire.pdf  (site visité le 29 avril  2012);

    RENNIE, Richard, former JAG officer, biographical notes:

    Richard Rennie

    Richard A. Rennie was appointed to the Veterans Review and Appeal Board in 2012. He joined the Royal Canadian Navy in 1964 and, after three years, transferred to the Royal Canadian Air Force. During his 23 years of military service, Mr. Rennie spent most of his field-time with 4 Service Battalion, 4 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in Lahr, Germany. He also served in Comox, Borden, Ottawa and Victoria. After retiring from the Judge Advocate General Branch of the Canadian Armed Forces, Mr. Rennie was Assistant to the Dean in the Faculty of Law at the University of Victoria. As well, Mr. Rennie lectured in Law and Ethics at the University for more than 20 years.

    Mr. Rennie obtained a Bachelor of Commerce from the University of British Columbia, a Master of Public Administration from Carleton University, and a Bachelor of Laws from the University of Victoria.

    Mr. Rennie and his wife Karen have three adult children. They reside in Victoria. [source: http://www.vrab-tacra.gc.ca/Members-membres/Rennie-eng.cfm, accessed 27 December 2015]

    RENNIE, Steve, "Court martial begins for ex-medic: Former medical technician faces sex assault", The Ottawa Citizen, Thursday, 26 September 2013, p. A4; court martial of retired petty officer James Wilks;

    "Report on the Expert Meeting on Human Rights and the Administration of Justice by Military Tribunals, held in Brasilia, 27 to 29 November 2009", 36 p., available at http://www.law.yale.edu/The_Brasilia_Report.pdf (accessed on 17 June 2012); Lt. Colonel Michael Richard Gibson was a participant;

    RESIDUAL SPECIAL COURT FOR SIERRA LEONE PUBLIC INFORMATION, "Press Release: Plenary of Judges Considers Legacy, Charts Way Forward",Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3 December 2015, available at   http://www.rscsl.org/Documents/Press/2015/pressrelease-120315.pdf (accessed 8 July 2016);

    The Plenary approved the finalization of the Appeals Chamber's major jurisprudential legacy project, a legal
    briefing book entitled "Bearing the Greatest Responsibility: Select Jurisprudence of the Special Court for Sierra
    Leone", which will be launched shortly. The book will be made available to legal scholars, jurists, and other courts
    as the RSCSL's contribution to the international criminal justice system.


    The Judges re-elected Justice Jon Kamanda as the RSCSL's Vice-President and elected Justice Pierre Boutet as
    Staff Appeals Judge. Justice Elizabeth Nahamya was elected Deputy Staff Appeals Judge.


    The Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone is responsible for the ongoing legal obligations of the Special Court for Sierra
    Leone, which concluded its mandate in December 2013. These include supervision of prison sentences, witness protection and
    support, maintenance and preservation of the archives, and assistance to national prosecution authorities.

    Maria Rey, image source: http://ieeeradarcon13.org/program/lunch-and-learn/, accessed 11 February 2015
    REY, Maria, Civilians Accompanying the Armed Forces : Issues and Considerations when Employing Civilians in Support of International  Operations,  Canadian Forces College -- Collège des Forces Canadiennes NSSP 10 -- PESN 10, 29 April 2008; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/281/280/rey.pdf (accessed on 8 December 2013);

    Béatrice Richard, source de l'image: http://www.cmrsj-rmcsj.forces.gc.ca/cp-fs/brichard/pp-pp-richard-fra.asp, visité 11 février 2015

    RICHARD, Béatrice, "Le 1er avril 1918 — Émeute à Québec contre la conscription : résistance politique ou culturelle? Conférence de Béatrice Richard, Auditorium de la Grande Bibliothèque Montréal, 31 janvier 2013", Fondation Lionel-Groulx, disponible à http://www.fondationlionelgroulx.org/Le-1er-avril-1918-Emeute-a-Quebec.html (vérifié le 25 mai 2015);

    ___________ Bibliographie, la guerre et le Québec, disponible à http://www.chf.uqam.ca/ (vérifié le 15 décembre 2011); notes: "Nous tenons à remercier la Direction Histoire et patrimoine et la Chaire Hector-Fabre d'histoire du Québec pour leur aide financière dans la réalisation de ce projet.";

    RICHARD, Marcel, "The Role of the Military in Countering Terrorism" in Brian MacDonald, 1939-, ed., Terror, Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, 1986, 170 p., at pp. 113-117, (series; Proceedings; Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies; Spring 1986), ISBN: 0919769225; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (6 January 2012);

    LCol Steve Richards
    RICHARDS, Steve, Lieutenant-Colonel, Preesenter details, 12 February 2015; available at http://careersday.brentwood.bc.ca/portfolio-item/steve-richards/ (accessed 1 December 2015);
    Over the past eleven years, I have served as a legal advisor and as a military prosecutor in a variety of places.
    In addition to postings from coast-to-coast within Canada, and work in the United States, Jamaica, and in Europe,
    I have deployed on military operations in Croatia, Afghanistan, and Jerusalem/West Bank.  I also served as a legal
    advisor during the Olympic security operation for the Vancouver 2010 games.

    Image source: http://www.web.uwa.edu.au/people/sean.richmond, accessed 30 July 2016
    Sean Richmond
    RICHMOND, Sean, At the vanishing point of law? : international law and the use of force by Britain and Canada in the Korean War and Afghanistan conflict, thesis,  D.Phil. University of Oxford 2014 Social Sciences Division Department of Politics and International Relations Linacre College, 311 p., Supervisor: Dr Jennifer Welsh.; see reference at http://www.worldcat.org/title/at-the-vanishing-point-of-law-international-law-and-the-use-of-force-by-britain-and-canada-in-the-korean-war-and-afghanistan-conflict/oclc/903165508&referer=brief_results (accessed 14 December 2015); thesis not consulted yet;
    This thesis examines important aspects of Canada and Britain’s participation in the Korean War of 1950-53 and the Afghanistan Conflict of 2001-present with a view to better understanding how international law influenced this participation, and whether key leaders and officials understood said law as a binding and distinct phenomenon. It draws on constructivist International Relations (IR) theory and “interactional” International Law (IL) theory, and employs a method of historical reconstruction and process tracing. I argue that, contrary to what realism might predict, international law helped define and shape each state’s possible course of action in the wars, and the justifications that could be made for their behaviour. More specifically, Canada and Britain’s involvement in the conflicts suggests that, when states use force, international law can play four broad roles: 1) it helps constitute the identities of the actors at issue; 2) it helps regulate the political and military practice of the actors at issue; 3) it permits and legitimates certain political and military practices that otherwise might not be permitted; and 4) it helps structure the process by which agents seek to develop and promote new legal rules and legitimate practice. However, I also contend that, contrary to what IL scholars might predict, the discourse and actions of Canadian and British leaders and officials during the Korean War and Afghanistan Conflict offer mixed support for the hypothesis that, when states use force, policy-makers understand international law as a binding and distinct set of legal rules, and the legal status of these rules impacts their decision-making. In sum, my findings suggest that international law can play important roles in world politics and the use of force by states, but it is unclear whether these effects are attributable to an obligatory quality in law. (source: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.618545, accessed 14 December 2015);

    RIDEOUT, Wayne, Superintendent, and Superintendent Wade Blizard, "Assistance to the Department of National Defence The Canadian Forces Provost Marshall -- Canadian Forces Detainees in Afghanistan", RCMP Document, 29 June 2007, document number B-17, receipt date: 9/7/07;   Military Police Complaints Commission, 9 July 2007, vol. Operations, File number: 2007-006, document number: 13987; available at http://www.afghanistan.gc.ca/canada-afghanistan/assets/pdfs/docs/362/poa_391.pdf (accessed on 28 December 2011);

    RIDLINGTON, Roy James, former JAG officer, biographical notes:

    Roy Ridlington served for more than two decades with the Canadian Army and the Canadian Forces in the role of Military Recruiter, Transport Officer and Military Lawyer. He received his law degree from the University of New Brunswick in 1977, and is a member of both the Law Society of Prince Edward Island and the Law Society of New Brunswick. From 1977 to 1983, he served as Deputy Judge Advocate at CFB Gagetown and then at CFB Halifax. In 1983, he was appointed Assistant Area Advocate with the Bureau of Pensions Advocates at Veterans Affairs Canada. In 1985, he was promoted to Area Advocate, a position he held until 1999. From 1999 until his retirement in 2009, he was a Legal Advisor for both the Department of Veterans Affairs’ benefits adjudicators and, most recently, the Veterans Review and Appeal Board. He also served on the Board of Directors of the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada, a major federal government employees’ union. Roy Ridlington lives in Summerside, PE. [source: http://www.policecommissioner.pe.ca/index.php3?number=news&dept=&newsnumber=6653&lang=E, accessed 28 December 2015]

    Image source: https://www.smashwords.com/profile/view/wolfriedel, accessed 15 February 2017

    RIEDEL, Wolf, Blog on "Re: Judge Advocate General has gone 3 years without filing reports to Def Minister", available at http://army.ca/forums/index.php?topic=115252.0 (accessed 15 February 2017);

    Okay. Time to throw a few facts into the mix.

    First of all has anyone ever read these reports? Notwithstanding that they are statutorily mandated (and yes I do know what that means and what should happen) very few people look at these things. They mostly get a superficial review to see if there is anything exciting in them (which there never is) and then get shelved.

    Again if you read these things you will see that about 80% of them is boilerplate stuff that one can mostly cut and paste from the previous years review. The remaining 20% is justice system statistics. These are very manpower intensive in collecting. The court martial ones aren't too difficult but the summary trial ones are very hard to get from the units notwithstanding that there is a mandate that they send them to their AJAGs in a timely manner.

    When I worked in Ottawa from 2006 to 2009 on the JAG's Comprehensive Information Management System one of my mandates was to produce a system that automated the gathering of mil justice statistics. Unfortunately by the time that I left the project due to CRA, the system was not completed and in fact the contract for the key component that would allow gathering statistics (the case management system) fell through (after two years in the tendering system) and it didn't look like the contract could be revived within the projects lifetime. My successor was left in the unfortunate situation of having to see what (if anything) could be done to create a case management system out of the toolsets which we had obtained for both the Records and Knowledge Management Systems.

    I don't want to be seen as making excuses here but over the last two decades the demand for legal services from the field (which includes JAG's clients in Ottawa) has expanded tremendously and while the legal branch had grown, demand for services outstrips the resources available. There is, IMHO, a significant shortfall in support staff, within the office of the JAG (Civilian lawyers generally work on a one lawyer to one support staff ratio while within JAG the ratio is frequently 5 or 6 legal officers per support staff) The result is that legal officers spend valuable hours doing necessary clerical which takes away from their providing legal advice. When a General or the Minister calls a legal officer he wants a legal opinion RFN, not some time down the road. As a result the entire office works on priorities which often requires that tasks of a lesser priority get set aside.

    Please remember that the CoC understands this, has been told about the delays and accepts the situation. This news article didn't arise because the Minister or the CDS said "Hey where's our report?". This article comes as a result of the usual gang of critics who make it their mission in life to make a fuss over things which (again notwithstanding their statutory necessity) have really very little importance in the real world.

    One further comment; the Office of the JAG does not sit in judgement of others - that's the role of the Office of the Chief Military Judge who does not belong to JAG, DMP or DDCS.

    One last comment; I know Blaise Cathcart personally. He's earned his promotion.

    RING, Thomas J., Civil-Military Relations in Canada: A 'Cluster Theory' Explanation , thesis submitted to the Division of Graduate Studies of the Royal Military College of Canada in partial fulfillment of the requirements  for the Degree of Master of Arts in War Studies, April 2009, x, 145 leaves; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/002/MR53135.PDF (accessed on 13 March 2012);

    Clive Rippon, 2nd row, second from the right, image from McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, supra, at p. 93.    

    RIPPON, Clive L. (Clive Langley), 1921-2008, The legal status of military air transport, LL.M. McGill University, 1957, xvi, 224, [66] leaves (series; McGill University Institute of Air and Space Law);

    Clive Langley Rippon
    ___________Biographical notes -- obituary--Clive Langley Rippon;

    RIPPON, Clive Langley It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Lt. Col. (retd) Clive L. Rippon, DFC, CD3 on March 4, 2008, in Victoria, British Columbia. Born on April 7, 1921, in Coventry, England, Clive attended Coventry Preparatory School and Rugby School, OTC. In 1939 he enlisted in the RAF, and trained as an Air Observer, Navigator, Bomb Aimer, and joined 23(F) Sqdn., flying night intruder operations over Europe. In 1943 he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and in that year was posted to Calgary, Alberta, for Pilot training and operation rest. He met and on February 25, 1944, married Marion E. Simpson of Drumheller, Alberta. In March 1944, he returned to the UK. He was posted to 116 Squadron operating in France on D Day and on to Arnhem in support of ground forces. In 1945 he was posted to 575(T) squadron flying DC3s out of Bari, Italy. In 1946 he was posted to 216(T) squadron based at Almaza, Egypt, flying freight and passengers to the UK, West Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, Karachi, India, the Middle East and Mediterranean destinations. In 1948 he immigrated to Canada and transferred from the RAF to the RCAF. He attended Dalhousie Law School in Halifax, Nova Scotia, graduating with an LLB in 1952. He joined the Office of the Judge Advocate General in Ottawa, Ontario. He obtained his LLM from McGill University, in Montreal. Between 1958-1962 he served as Deputy Judge Advocate in Metz, France and Soest, Germany. Upon return to Canada, he was posted to Halifax, St. Hubert, Ottawa, and finally as AJAG and Military Judge in Victoria, sitting as Judge at different courts martial in Canada, Europe, Cyprus, Malta, and the UK. In the seventies, he transferred from CF Regular to Reserve Force for call out duties, spent one year in private practice, and was appointed Counsel to the British Columbia Royal Commission on Electoral Reform, and Chairman of the Federal Penitentiary Disciplinary Courts. In 1981 he retired after serving 43 years in the military and 20 years with the penitentiary service. Clive was predeceased by his parents, Col. The Reverend William Rippon and Malvina. He is survived by his wife, Marion; daughter, Michelle Rippon, an attorney in Asheville, North Carolina (Larry Farr); sons, David Rippon (Daphne), Novato, California, and Dr. Tom Rippon (Judy), Victoria; sisters, Rosemary Rippon, Halifax, and Patricia Lyell, Bath, England; grandson, Patrick, California; granddaughter, Victoria Miller (Cam), Mankato, Minnesota; great-grandchildren, Rose and Jacob Miller; nephew, Robert Lyell, France; and niece, Susie Bancroft (Andy), Bath. A memorial service will be held at St. John the Divine Anglican Church, 1611 Quadra Street, Victoria, on Friday, April 11, 2008 at 2:00 pm. In lieu of flowers, donations are gratefully accepted to the BCSPCA or the BC Heart and Stroke Foundation. He will always be our hero. 450929. [By Times Colonist (Victoria) March 11, 2008; available at: http://www.canada.com/story_print.html?id=e43e489c-4672-4fa6-a54a-cba37570d423&sponsor=, accessed 27 December 2015; see also http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/timescolonist/obituary.aspx?n=Clive-Langley-Rippon&pid=105325241, accessed 13 February 2016]

    Glen Rippon, image source: http://www.namaoflyingclub.com/club.php?page=board, accessed on 23 April 2014

    RIPPON, Major Glen, "Message from the Chair" (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 2; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd  (accessed on 19 April 2012);
    RIPPON, Major Glen, "Précis : Message du président" (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 2; disponible à  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd (site visité le 19 avril 2012);

    ___________"Message from the Chair: While nullifying the trial judge's decision on procedural grounds, the CMAC went on to reject the trial judge's s. 7 Charter analysis, pointing out that mere risk to life or security of the person is not sufficient to invalidate orders" (May/Mai 2002) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 2; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125112748/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaleapril2002.pdf (accessed on 19 April 2012);
    ___________"Précis : Message du président" (May/Mai 2002) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 2; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125112748/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscaleapril2002.pdf  (site visité le 19 avril  2012);

    Image source: http://www.thecourt.ca/about-the-staff/, accessed 20 December 2015.
    RITA, Zinejda, "R. v. Moriarity: Reconfirming the Jurisdiction of Court Martial in Canada:, http://www.thecourt.ca, 25 November 2015; available at http://www.thecourt.ca/2015/11/25/r-v-moriarity-reconfirming-the-jurisdiction-of-court-martial-in-canada/ (accessed 1 December 2015);

    Image source:  Google Image, accessed on 21 May 2014http://www.bagbooks.com/?page=shop/flypage&product_id=19034

    RITCHIE, Andrew R., Watchdog: A History of the Canadian Provost Corps, Burlington (Ontario): Canadian Provost Corps Association, 1995, xiii, 334 p., ISBN:  0969964706; title noted in my research but book not consulted yet (15 December 2011);

    Source: http://www.scc-csc.ca/court-cour/judges-juges/image-eng.aspx?id=roland-almon-ritchie, accessed 16 August 2016
    Roland Almon Ritchie,
    Credit: Al Blair, photographer
    National Film Board - Library and Archives Canada Collection (1990-295, # PC23C)

    RITCHIE, The Honourable Roland Almon, biographical notes,

    The Honourable Roland Almon Ritchie

     Roland Almon Ritchie was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on June 19, 1910. He was the son of William Bruce Almon Ritchie and Lillian Stewart. After graduating from the University of King's College with a B.A. in 1930, he went to Oxford University, where he earned a further B.A. in 1932. He returned to Halifax and was called to the bar in 1934. He practised law for a few years with Stewart, Smith, MacKeen & Rogers, then enlisted in the armed forces and went overseas during the Second World War. From 1941 to 1944, he served as Assistant Deputy Judge Advocate with the Third Canadian Division. Upon his return to Canada, he resumed his practice in Halifax and helped found the law firm of Daley, Phinney & Ritchie. He also lectured on insurance law at Dalhousie University for 12 years and acted as counsel to the royal commission on the terms of Newfoundland's union with Canada in 1949. On May 5, 1959, he was appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada. He served on the Court for 25 years, retiring on October 31, 1984. Justice Ritchie died on June 5, 1988, at the age of 77. (source: http://www.scc-csc.ca/court-cour/judges-juges/bio-eng.aspx?id=roland-almon-ritchie, accessed 16 August 2016)


    RITHOF, Joseph, "Child soldiers: Should they be punished?" (May/Mail 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#top and http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article6 and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/pdf/05-09-military_2.pdf  (accessed on 28 April 2012);
    RITHOF, Joseph, "Faut-il punir les enfants soldats?" (May/Mai 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx et http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article2  (site visité le 28 avril  2012);

    "RMC Ex-Cadets currently with JAG", What’s Happening At RMC Posted by rmcclub on April 14th, 2009, available at http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?s&paged=255 (accessed on 29 June 2014);

    11027 Brigadier-General Ken Watkin, O.M.M., C.D., Q.C. (RMC 1976) .....

    RMC graduates are well represented within the Judge Advocate General branch.  The following Ex-Cadets are currently serving as JAG officers throughout the CF – our apologies if we missed anyone:

    20103 Maj E. Charland; 15788 LCol M. Gendron; 14435 LCol M. Gibson;10953 Maj R. Henderson;
    17344 Maj R. Holman;12188 LCdr G. Killaby; 19210 Maj A. Koskie;15519 LCdr Sandra MacLeod;
    16004 Maj T. McLeod; M0729;  LCdr M. Paillé; 20514 Maj K. Reichert; 16141 Maj J. Simpson;
    19413 Maj C. Smith; 16149 Maj R. Stoney; 17395 Maj A. Tamburro; and 18278 LCdr B. Walden


    Photo of Kent Roach, reproduced from http://www.law.utoronto.ca/faculty-staff/full-time-faculty/kent-roach (accessed on 31 March 2014)

    ROACH, Kent W., The 9/11 effect: comparative counter-terrorism, Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, xiv, 477 p., ISBN: 9781107006164 and 9780521185059 (pbk.); available in part at http://books.google.ca/books?id=meZDxEpBAjsC&pg=PA389&lpg=PA389&dq=%22National+defence+act%22&source=bl&ots=rh6SchtFo5&sig=icyuZTW4ajEtKZvcJ2OVWLaF2D4&hl
    =en&sa=X&ei=ud0BUP7bOIrH6gHjm_HxBg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%22National%20defence%20act%22&f=false (accessed on 15 July  2012);

    ____________"Editorial: Calling Out the Troops", (2003) 48(2) The Criminal Law Quarterly 141-143; note: this editorial is signed "K.R." and Kent W. Roach is the Managing Editor; available at http://www.law.utoronto.ca/documents/Roach/_48CLQ1.pdf (accessed on 7 March 2012);

    ___________"The law working itself pure? The Canadian experience with exceptional courts and Guantánamo" in Fionnuala Ni Aoláin and Oren Gross, eds., Guantanamo and Beyond Exceptional Courts and Military Commissions in Comparative Perspective, New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, 2013, xxii, 385 pages ; 24 cm, ISBN: 9781107009219 (hardback); 1107009219 (hardback); 9781107401686 (pbk.); 1107401682 (pbk.); 

    ___________"Police Independence, The Military Police and Bill C-41", University of Toronto, 14 January 2011, available at http://www.mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/alt_format/1100/1102-eng.pdf (accessed on 3 June 2011);
    ___________"L'indépendance de la police, la police militaire et le projet de loi C-41", traduction vérifiée par la Commission et non par l'auteur, Université de Toronto, 14 janvier 2011, 36 p., disponible à http://www.mpcc-cppm.gc.ca/alt_format/1100/1102-fra.pdf (vérifié le 3 juin 2011);

    ___________"Police Independence and the Military Police", available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1888517 (accessed on 26 July 2011); now published at (2011) 49(1) Osgoode Hall Law Journal 117-149, available at http://ohlj.ca/english/documents/ART_Roach.pdf (accessed on 27 November 2011);

    ROBB, Anthony, "An Unfortunately Popular Aversion to Truthful Feedback within the CAF", (Autumn 2015) 15(4) Canadian Military Journal 49-54; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol15/no4/pdf/CMJ154E.pdf (accessed 30 October 2015);
    ROBB, Anthony,  "Une malheureuse aversion généralisée à l'égard de la rétroaction sincère dans les Forces armées canadiennes" (automne 2015) 15(4) Revue militaire canadienne 48-54; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol15/no4/pdf/CMJ154F.pdf  (vérifié 30 octobre 2015);

    Canadian Military Journal

    ROBERT,  Véronique, "Le viol de Caporale V...", 6 mars 2013, disponible à http://voir.ca/veronique-robert/2013/03/06/le-viol-de-caporale-v/ (vérifié le 31 juillet 2015);

    Valérie* est militaire.  Le 15 décembre 2011, elle a été agressée sexuellement.  Dans un manège militaire.  Par son adjudant.


    Me Robert, s’il y a une chose qui n’effrait pas les procureurs militaire, c’est d’obtenir une condamnation en Cour martiale. Toutefois, ils sont d’une grande prudence avant de porter des accusations, ayant des standards très élevés en ce qui a trait à la probabilité d’obtenir une condamnation. On exige d’eux presqu’une certitude d’obtenir une condamnation avant de porter des accusation. Je vous invite à regarder le taux de condamnation en Cour martiale pour vous en convaincre… près de 95% des procès en Cour martiale se soldent par des verdicts de culpabilité. Souvent, on reproche justement à la justice militaire d’obtenir trop de condamnation en terme de pourcentage…


    ROBERTS, Leslie, There Shall Be Wings: A History of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Toronto: Clarke, Irwin and Co., 1959;

    ROBERTS-SMITH, L., "A Nettle Grasped Lightly: The Introduction of the Australian Military Court.  Address to the 2007 Judicial Conference, Washington DC 17 May 2007 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces by Major General The Hon Justice L. Roberts‑Smith, Judge Advocate General – Australian Defence Force", (2007) 174 Australian Defence Force Journal 53-70; available at http://www.adfjournal.adc.edu.au/UserFiles/issues/174%202005%20Sep_Oct.pdf (accessed on 28 February 2014);

    ___________Letter to The Secretary, Senate Foreign Affairs Defence and Trade References Committee of Australia on "Submission Relating to the Committee's Inquiry into the Effectiveness of Australia's Military Justice System", 2014; available at http://www.defence.gov.au/oscdf/jag/papers/20040216_emjs_jagsubmission.pdf (accessed on 1 may 2014); deals extensively with Canadian military law;

    ROCKLIFFE, Amber, "Veterans devastated after pension payouts plummet", Global News, 21 August 2013, available at http://globalnews.ca/news/791818/veterans-devastated-after-pension-payouts-plummet/  (accessed 18 March 2017); HAS VIDEO; two still images posted;

    SASKATOON – Jay Jorgensen feels he’s been betrayed by the Department of National Defence after finding
    out his estimated pension amount was nearly half what he expected it to be.

    And that’s why, when given the option to cash half of his veteran’s pension, he took it, comfortable with the
    amount that was estimated to him.


    Both vets have spent hours on the phone trying to get answers. Both have been told the shocking drops are due to market fluctuations.

    Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP Lawyer Jana Steele deals with pensions on a daily basis. She said such a drop is unusual.

    “In our experience, in a short period of time after the estimate, there usually would not be a significant fluctuation generally speaking, but subject to any other actuarial considerations that may be at play here.”

    Global News reached out to the Department of National Defence, and after several days and dozens of emails back and forth, by late Tuesday afternoon, the department had this to say:

    “We will continue to do our due diligence and investigate this matter internally to ensure the members are provided the support they require.”

    The veterans plan to continue fighting the government for answers, so future service members don’t face the same losses.

    Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/dave-rogalsky-39678a22, accessed 21 August 2016
    Dave Rogalsky, pastor

    ROGALSKY,  Dave, "PeaceQuest challenges Canada to sign Small Arms Treaty", (16 February 2015) Canadian Mennonite 26; available at http://www.canadianmennonite.org/sites/default/files/past-issues/19-04small_468_2015-02-16.pdf (accessed 21 August 2016);

    PeaceQuest challenges Canada to sign Small Arms Treaty
    KITCHENER, ONT.—A new peace group in Waterloo Region gathered at Kitchener
    City Hall on Jan. 19 to highlight the fact that the Canadian government has yet to sign
    the Small Arms Treaty and to begin a local petition to have people encourage the gov-
    ernment to do so. Roger Albrecht of the new PeaceQuest group, pictured, addressed
    the group. As the photo illustrates, the group chose Martin Luther King Day to begin
    its public work. The treaty is an attempt to ensure that conventional weapons are not
    transferred to those who would violate international human rights or humanitarian
    law, engage in acts of genocide or crimes against humanity, or facilitate terrorist
    attacks. Canada is the only NATO country that has refused to sign it, even though
    Canada voted to approve the text of the treaty back in April 2013. By now refusing to
    sign it and bring it to Parliament for ratification, some believe Canada appears to be
    backing the only three states that voted against it: North Korea, Iran and Syria. “That
    doesn’t send a good message to the global community about Canada’s commitment
    towards working for peace,” said PeaceQuest coordinator Emily Mining.


    ROGERS, Bill, "Going to War in the Courtroom", (2007) 31(7) Can. Law. 18-19; title noted in my research on 21 March 2012 but article not consulted yet;

    ROGERS, Chris, "Addressing Civilian Harm in Afghanistan : Policies & Practices of International Forces", CIVIC (Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict), 2010, 15 p., and see Canada at p. 11; available at http://civiliansinconflict.org/uploads/files/publications/Addressing_civilian_harm_white_paper_2010.pdf (accessed 20 April 2015); NOTE: "All information from interview with MAJ Michael McCarthy, Canadian Legal Advisor Kandahar, March 11, 2010, email"

    Canada provides ex-gratia payments for civilian property loss, injury or death caused by Cana-
    dian forces. In the case of damage to real property, Canadian forces accept documents attesting
    to ownership signed by local elders. There must also be evidence that Canadian forces caused
    the damage or harm. Payment will also be made in cases where harm was suffered during joint
    ANA-Canadian operations and it is unclear which force was responsible.

    Full compensation is not the goal of the ex-gratia payments, though the Canadian forces claim
    they try to compensate for most of the losses suffered. There are no standardized amounts, but
    there are upper limits on what forces in the field are authorized to provide. Factors considered
    in cases of personal injury or loss include family situation and lost earnings. Canadian forces
    also rely on local monetary values to estimate appropriate amounts on a case-by-case basis.
    Canada has declined to disclose what the ranges or upper limits on payments are, however,
    the Canadian Legal Advisor in Kandahar is only authorized to approve payments up to 2,000
    CAN (approximately 1,960 USD). Above that amount, approval from Ottawa is required, which
    can take weeks or months. In almost all cases of personal injury or death, because the amount
    claimed is above 2,000 CAN, approval will be delayed by the need to get approval from Ottawa.

    ROSSIGNOL, Michel, 1949-, International Conflicts: Parliament, the National Defence Act, and the Decision to Participate, [Ottawa]: Library of Parliament, Research Branch, 1992, 23 p. (series; Background Paper; BP-303E); available at http://publications.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP/bp303-e.htm (accessed on 9 January 2012);
    ROSSIGNOL, Michel, 1949-, Conflits internationaux, le rôle du Parlement, la Loi sur la défense nationale et la décision d'envoyer des troupes, Ottawa: Bibliothèque du Parlement, Service de la recherche, 1992, 23 p., (Collection; Étude générale; BP-303F), disponible à http://publications.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP/bp303-f.htm (vérifié le 9 janvier 2012);

    ___________ National Defence Act: Reform of the military justice system,
    Ottawa:  Library of Parliament, Research Branch (Political and Social Affairs Division), [1996]-, (revised 22 January 1997) 15 p.; 28 cm. (Series; Current issue review; 96-1E), ISSN: 1483-1864, available at http://dsp-psd.tpsgc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/CIR/961-e.htm (accessed on 9 July 2008); Research Note by François Lareau: The bibliography at pp. 14-15 lists several newspaper articles;
    ___________La Loi sur la défense nationale et la réforme de la justice  militaire,  Ottawa : Bibliothèque du Parlement, Service de recherche,  [1996]-, (révisé le 22 janvier 1997), 16 p. ; 28 cm. (Collection; Bulletin d'actualité; 96-1F),  ISSN:  1483-1910; Note de recherche de François Lareau:  La bibliographie aux pp. 15-16 énumère plusieurs articles de journaux; disponible à http://dsp-psd.tpsgc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/CIR/961-f.htm (vérifié le 9 juillet 2008); aussi disponible à http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection-R/LoPBdP/CIR-f/961-f.pdf (vérifié le 10 juin 2013);

    Louis-Philippe Rouillard, source of image: http://ca.linkedin.com/in/lprouillard, accessed on 20 May 2014

    ROUILLARD, Louis-Philippe F., "Canada's prevention and repression of war crimes", (2005) 2 Miskolc Journal of International Law 43-58; available at http://www.uni-miskolc.hu/~wwwdrint/MJIL3/20051rouillard1.pdf (accessed on 18 January 2012);

    ___________"The Enlargement of Human Rights in 'Situations of Exceptions' "(2007) 4(1) Miskolc Journal of International Law 39-94; available at http://www.uni-miskolc.hu/~wwwdrint/MJIL9/20071rouillard1.pdf  (accessed on 21 May 2012);

    ___________"Ethics, Human Rights, and the Law of Armed Conflict
    ", Canadian Military Journal, volume 12, number 1, available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no1/06-rouillard-eng.asp (accessed on 28 February 2012);
    ___________"Éthique, droits de la personne et droit des conflits armées", Revue militaire canadienne, volume 12, numéro 1, disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no1/06-rouillard-fra.asp  (visité le 28 février 2012);

    ___________"Misinterpreting the Prohibition of Torture under International Law: The Office of Legal Counsel Memorandum", (2005) 21(9) Am. U. Int'l L. Rev. 9-41; available at http://auilr.org/pdf/21/21-1-3.pdf (accessed on 28 February 2012);

    Image source: http://www.lybrary.com/precise-of-the-laws-of-armed-conflicts-p-397880.html, accessed 2 February 2015
    ________________________Precise of the Laws of Armed Conflicts, 2nd ed., Budapest, 2007, 324 p.; available at http://www.jak.ppke.hu/tanszek/doktori/letolt/p.pdf (accessed on 28 February 2012); important contribution!

    Stéphane Roussel, source de l'image: http://www.cirricq.org/chercheurs/profil/index.php?id=stro, visité 11 février 2015
    ROUSSEL, Stéphane,  "Bibliographie: La politique de la sécurité au Canada", UQAM, disponible à http://www.pedc.uqam.ca/IMG/pdf/Bibliographie_210409-2.pdf, http://www.pedc.uqam.ca/pdfs/Website-biblio-v07.pdf  (vérifié le 6 janvier 2012);

    ROWE, Peter, "Maintaining Discipline in United Nations Peace Support Operations: The Legal Quagmire for Military Contingents", (2000) 5 Journal of  Conflict and Security Law 45-62;

    ___________"Military Misconduct during International Armed Operations: ‘Bad Apples’ or Systemic Failure?" (2008) 13(2) Journal of  Conflict and Security Law 165-189;

    The various trials of soldiers for the excessive use of force or for the ill-treatment of detained civilians during international armed operations have attracted considerable publicity. The explanation frequently given by senior commanders is that misconduct of this type can be explained by seeing the alleged culprits as ‘bad apples’ and, once they are removed, the military system should be able to operate without further incidents of serious wrongdoing. This article explores why the various forms of misconduct take place and, in so doing, it considers the effectiveness of training, the effect on the soldier of any uncertainty of action, command failures and group influences. The action likely to be taken (or not taken) by way of legal or other proceedings against both soldiers and their commanders is assessed. The article concludes by taking the position that whilst the ‘bad apple’ theory might explain why some, but not all, soldiers engage in military misconduct during armed operations it fails to address the more important systemic issue, namely, whether adequate training and effective command responsibility can control such conduct. It argues for the need, on the part of military commanders, to reduce uncertainty of action or conduct to its irreducible minimum (through measures to counteract the causes of misconduct discussed in the article). This may then prove to be the key to reducing the need to rely predominantly on taking legal proceedings against individual soldiers in a search for alleged ‘bad apples’. (source: http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/2/165.abstract?sid=c055bd3e-09b0-4e04-b898-ee3f4fdd2a51, accessed 2 February 2015)

    Dorothée Roy, source de l'image: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/doroth%C3%A9e-roy/8a/113/981, visité 11 février 2015;

    ROY, Dorothée, 1979-, Analyse de la politique étrangère : application du  modèle poly-heuristique à la décision canadienne d'intervenir en Afghanistan, Thèse (M.A.), Université Laval, 2006, 128 feuilles; disponible à  http://www.theses.ulaval.ca/2006/23651/23651.pdf (vérifié le 8 novembre 2013);

    Source de l'image pour Gabriel Roy: (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 27.

    ROY, Gabriel, "Une expérience de vie pleine d'ambiguïtés et de contradictions [en Afghanistan]", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 27;

    ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE OF CANADA, Graduate Studies Calendar 2011-2012, Academic Units -- Faculty of Arts, Department of Defense Studies;

    [Course] DS519 Military Law in Comparative Perspective

    Military law in Canada has evolved historically, legally, and organizationally to meet the specific needs of the Canadian Forces and reflect broader changes in Canadian society. This course examines the state of Canadian military law from the past to the present day, with particular emphasis on the balance between operational requirements and the primacy of civilian control in a parliamentary democracy. (source: http://www.rmc.ca/aca/ac-pe/gsc-adc/au-ua/fa/ds-ed-eng.asp#ds519, accessed on 27 February 2012)

    COLLÈGE MILITAIRE ROYAL DU CANADA, Annuaire des études supérieures 2011-2012, Faculté des arts, Département des études de la défense;

    [Cours] ÉD519 Droit militaire dans la perspective comparative

    Le droit militaire au Canada a évolué des points de vue historique, légal et organisationnel afin de satisfaire aux besoins spécifiques des Forces canadiennes et de refléter les changements plus vastes au sein de la société canadienne. Ce cours examine l'état du droit militaire canadien depuis le passé jusqu'à maintenant, en insistant particulièrement sur l'équilibre entre les exigences opérationnelles et la suprématie du contrôle civil au sein d'une démocratie parlementaire. (source: http://www.cmrc.forces.gc.ca/aca/ac-pe/gsc-adc/au-ua/fa/ds-ed-fra.asp#ds519, visité le 27 février 2012)

    image source: http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/03/crossed-sabres-in-ottawa.html, accessed 23 January 2016
    Clayton Ruby
    RUBY, Clayton, Lawyer, his testimony on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act, before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 65, 11 February 2013, minutes and evidence;

                                                                                       Photo of Michel Tremblay (Photo: Louise Bilodeau), reproduced form (1999) 4 JAG Newsletter 30 

    RUEL, Sylvie, "Michel Tremblay, en Bosnie-Herzégovine: Conseiller juridique de la SFOR",  (15 novembre 1999) 31(19) Journal du Barreau du Québec; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol31/no19/aventure.html (vérifié le 31 juillet 2012); aussi publié dans (October-December 1999) 4 JAG Newsletter -- Bulletin d'actualités  30-31;

    ---------Image source: JAG Les actualités /Newsletter, volume 1, 2006 at p. 10, accessed 27 November 2016
    Anthony Russell                                          Lt(N) Anthony Russell, left, congratuled by MGen Jerry Pitzul, JAG, for his promotion to the rank of LCdr                                         

    RUSSELL, Anthony, biographical notes (not necessarily written by him):

    Le Capc Russell est Juge-avocat adjoint à Montréal depuis 2010. Membre du Barreau du Québec depuis 1992, détenteur d’un baccalauréat en droit et d’une maîtrise en droit commercial international, il s’est s’enrôlé dans les Forces canadiennes en 2003 après avoir exercé le droit au ministère de la Justice du Québec et au ministère des Relations internationales du Québec. Il a ensuite été conseiller juridique au Cabinet du Conseiller juridique du ministère de la Défense nationale et des Forces canadiennes (2003), au Bureau d’étude juridique militaire à Kingston (2006-2007) et au Centre de droit militaire des Forces canadiennes (2007), en plus d’enseigner au Collège militaire royal de Kingston (2005-2010). Au cours de sa carrière, il a été déployé à Sarajevo (2006), en République démocratique du Congo (2008-2009) et en Afghanistan (2011). Pour plus d'information, consultez la biographie du Capc Russell.

    Image source:forces.gc.ca/fr/nouvelles/article.page?doc=des-nouvelles-de-la-region-du-quebec-avril-2015/i8oa1nfm, accessed 16 March 2017
    ___________Note on Anthony Russell, détail d'une photo de Anthony Russel dans un article, Défense nationale et les Forces armées canadiennes, "Des nouvelles de la région de Québec -- avril 2015";

    Le 17 mars 2015, le Capitaine de corvette Anthony Russel, juge-avocat adjoint Montréal, s’adresse aux invités et membres de la Clinique
    internationale de droit pénal et humanitaire de l’Université Laval. Photo : Marie-Anne Jutras, BAPDN-RQ(article 6 de 9).


    Russell, Jesse and Ronald Cohn, Ken Watkin, Book on Demand, 2012, 74 p., ISBN: 5510984902 and  9785510984903;

    High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Brigadier General Kenneth "Ken" Watkin, OMM, CD, QC
    (born 1954) was Judge Advocate General (JAG) of the Canadian Forces from 2006 to 2010. He is an expert
    on military law. (source: google.ca/books?id=ekVyMAEACAAJ&dq=canadian+military+law+google+books&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjN64_4oo
    , accessed 6 Apr 2017)

    RUTKUS, Paul, "The Battle of the Windmill: Genesis of unlawful combatant trials in Canada" (May/Mail 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#top and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#article6 and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/pdf/05-09-military_1.pdf (accessed on 28 April 2012);
    RUTKUS, Paul, "La Bataille du Moulin-à-Vent : genèse du traitement judiciaire des combattants illégaux au Canada" (May/Mai 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx et http://www.a.org/acbbc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article1 (site visité le 28 avril  2012);

    ___________"Licensing of Armed Force: NATO's Attack Upon Yugoslavia" 33 U.N.L.Rep. 117 (John Carey ed., 1999); title noted in my research but article not consulted yet,  https://books.google.ca/books?id=RvAYn7ufhEkC&pg=RA1-PA155&lpg=RA1-PA155&dq=paul+rutkus&source=bl&ots=BnKEaKJmlw&sig=UboVau7T-umIvBBFzkLaWWSk5YE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjAm9zrn4_TAhVs5oMKHbl5CKwQ6AEIUDAJ#v=onepage&q=paul%20rutkus&f=false accessed 6 April 2017;   

    ___________"NATO's Attack on Yugoslavia: The Deputation of an Ad Hoc International Constabulary", chapter 7, pp. 211-226 in John Carey, 1924-, William V. Dunlap and R. John Pritchard, International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 3, Prospects, Ardsley, N.Y. : Transnational Publishers, 2006; 

    ___________"POE 488A Law of Armed Conflict, Department of Political and Economic Science", Spring 2010 Syllabus, 9 pages; available at http://www.davidmlast.org/Politics_Review/Politics_Courses_files/POE%20488%20-%20RUTKUS.pdf (accessed 21 June 2015);  note Professor Paul T. Rutkus is described as a LCdr at the CF Military Law Centre, Canadian Defence Academy;

    Course Description:
    The principle aim of this course is to introduce the student to the complex area of international law regarding armed conflict. This subject comprises two separate bodies of rules governing the actions of states in armed conflict often referred to as the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC). The first body of rules, referred to as jus ad bellum (the law before war), governs the legality of a state’s resort to use force. The second body of rules, jus in bello (the law in war), regulates conduct of hostilities once armed conflict has commenced. The body of rules contained in jus in bello is also referred to as International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and sometimes as the Law of War (LOW). The body of jus in bello rules will be the primary focus of this course.

    Image source: http://cbanational.rogers.dgtlpub.com/2010/2010-12-31/pdf/profile.pdf, accessed 9 January 2016)
    Photo of Ken Watkin

    RYAN, Patti, "A leader for his times -- Retired Judge Advocate General Ken Watkin on the fight for justice in a volatile world and the importance of dreaming big", (December 2010) National 41-43; available at http://cbanational.rogers.dgtlpub.com/2010/2010-12-31/pdf/profile.pdf (accessed 17 February 2015);

    For a military lawyer just starting out, the notion of a term as JAG may seem like pie in the sky. But the key, says Watkin, is to keep dreaming big.

    “Never feel constrained by where you are now and where you think you want to go,” he says, by way of advice to those new to the profession.
     “Be inquisitive. Treat people fairly. And never accept the idea that ‘That’s the way we’ve always done it.’ That drives me crazy.”

    RYCKEWAERT, Laura, "Cudmore takes on policy director role in Defence Minister’s Sajjan’s office.  Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has also made some staff changes in the PMO", The Hill's Times, Monday, 27 March 2017; see http://www.hilltimes.com/2017/03/27/cudmore-takes-policy-director-role-defence-ministers-office/100725 (accessed 28 March 2017);

    Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/jim-rycroft-4414917a, accessed 30 August 2016
    Jim Rycroft

    RYCROFT, Jim, former JAG Officer, 1981-2002;