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updated and corrections / mises à jour et corrections: 23 March 2017

Canadian Military Law -- Part II
Bibliography H to L /

Droit militaire canadien -- Partie II
Bibliographie H à L


Other sites on Canadian military law

Part II -- Bibliography: A-B--C-D--E-G--H-L--M-R--S-Z

Part I  --  Canadian Military Law -- Miscellaneous

- Blog

- Somalia Inquiry & Government Reaction
      -  1995-1997: Somalia Inquiry
Departmental Reaction to Somalia Inquiry
      -  Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services
          January 1997 to July 1997
-  The Special Senate Committee on the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia (April 1997)
The Report to the Prime Minister on the Leadership and Management of the Canadian Forces (March 1997)
Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change in the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces (October 1997 to 1999)
Bill C-25--An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
(Royal Assent, 10 December 1998)
2003 -- Five Year Review of Bill C-25
      - 2011 -- Second Five Year Review of Bill C-25

Governments Bills 1999-2012 on National Defence Act

- Current Affairs -- Sexual Misconduct

- Court Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-2017

- JAG & DND Web Sites

- Laws, Regulations and Orders

Superseded Legislation

- Web Sites of Interest


Starting here:

Bibliography H to L  /
Bibliographie H à L


Photo Source: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/tu-thanh-ha, accessed 5 Ocober 2016
Tu Thanh Ha

HA, Tu Thanh, "Officer's complaint a royal pain, judge says", The Globe and Mail, published last updated Monday, Mar. 30, 2009, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/officers-complaint-a-royal-pain-judge-says/article1050941/  (accessed 5 October 2016); see the decision of the Federal Court at Giolla Chainnigh v. Canada (Attorney General), 2008 FC 69 (CanLII) — 2008-01-21;

Outward displays of loyalty to the Queen are fundamental to Canadian military discipline, a judge has ruled, rejecting the complaint of an army officer of Irish ancestry who objected to toasting "an unelected monarch of foreign origin."

Captain Aralt Mac Giolla Chainnigh has campaigned for years to be excused from regimental dinner traditions such as toasting the Queen, saluting the Union Jack or singing God Save the Queen.

However, in a 28-page ruling released yesterday, Mr. Justice Robert Barnes of the Federal Court said confusion would ensue if members of the military could opt out of various protocol requirements.


In his judgment, Judge Barnes wrote that the Chief of the Defence Staff, General Rick Hillier, was right when he decided in August, 2006, to support a grievance board ruling that rejected the captain's claims.

"Whether Capt. Mac Giolla Chainnigh likes it or not, the fact is that the Queen is his Commander-in-Chief and Canada's Head of State," Judge Barnes wrote.


Capt. Mac Giolla Chainnigh, who legally changed his name from Harold Kenny to the Gaelic version, is an associate professor of physics at Royal Military College in Kingston, and a member of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry.

HAECK, Louis, 1951-, "A Canadian view on ballistic missile proliferation and space defense", Working paper n.98/04, Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Politics and Economics;

__________ "Certains aspects politiques et juridiques de l'utilisation militaire de l'espace", (1997) 36 Mil. L. & L. War Rev. 159;

_________ Les prolégomènes juridiques relatifs à l'utilisation militaire du milieu aéro-spatial par les forces canadiennes, thèse de doctorat, Institut de droit aérien et spatial, Université McGill, mars 1989,  xxi, 606 p., disponible à http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/-?func=dbin-jump-full&current_base=GEN01&object_id=28403 (vérifié le 6 janvier 2012);

Description: The exploration of space started a long time ago with the inception of civil aviation. This mode of transport very soon became a matter of great interest to the military. Today our strategists are concerned about the outer space and the limits of our universe. We do not have an airforce anymore; we have an aerospace force. The first part of this thesis is a study of the air law applicable to the military operations of our pilots. The study begins with an introduction in the world of the international public law and then moves on to the laws of armed conflicts. The flight continues with a fly pass over the laws of airwar and, lastly, the Canadian military law. In the second part of the thesis, we deal with the space law applicable to the military operations in space. We look at the international public law and several multilateral and bilateral agreements relating to the use of outer space for military activities. We also study specific problems of interest for some military operations in outer space. Thereafter we analyse some legal implications of the spying in space, space stations and self defence. The Soviets' doctrine on space laws is explained in chapter eight. After, we do one full orbit around the law of disarmament in outer space and land on the international order in space in the last chapter to complete our journey in deep space. Lastly, we finally conclude that the military personnel serving in different aerospace forces need a better "corpus aero-spatialis". We, the jurists, should work to fix the legal limits of military operations in the air and space environment. Ultimately, we need an international instrument determining the common rules of law of armed conflict for military personnel serving in their respective aerospace forces. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=facet&fctN=facet_rtype&fctV=Dissertations&rfnGrp=1&rfnGrpCounter=1&frbg=&indx=151&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=%22canadian%20military%20law%22&dstmp=1471511386776, (accessed 18 August 2016);

HAIRE, K.F., Major, "Professionalism in the Army: From Murder in Somalia to Disgrace in Afghanistan, How Far Has the Army Come?", Canadian Forces College, JCSP 42, 2015-16, Master of Defence Studies, v, 94 leaves, available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/318/286/Haire.pdf (accessed 15 August 2016);

HALLSOR, Hall, "Lieutenant-Colonel Randall William Callan appointed judge of the Provincial Court of B.C.", July 26, 2012, N.R. 12.020, available at http://creaseharman.com/lieutenant-colonel-randall-william-callan-appointed-judge-of-the-provincial-court-of-b-c/ (accessed 27 December 2015);

Lieutenant-Colonel Randall William Callan, former Crease Harman LLP partner, was appointed  judge of the Provincial Court of B.C. in Prince George
Lt.-Col. Callan is a legal officer with the Office of the Judge Advocate General and is currently serving as the Assistant Judge Advocate General Atlantic
Region. He has been deployed to Afghanistan and Sudan and was counsel for the Government of Canada and the Canadian Forces before the Somalia Inquiry in 1996

HALPENNY, Andrew, "Book Reviews: Prosecuting Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes in Canadian Courts.  By Annie Lafontaine.  Toronto: Carswell, 2012. 338 pages" (2012) 50 The Canadian Yearbook of International Law 640-647; available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?id=N_DkAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA647&dq=Canada+%22Judge+advocate+General%22&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=MvAYVZbWMsuOyATon4A4&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Canada%20%22Judge%20advocate%20General%22&f=false (accessed 30 March 2015);

___________ The Governance of Military Police in Canada, mémoire de maîtrise en droit (LL.M.), Université d'Ottawa, 2009; non disponible pour consultation; titre noté dans (automne 2009) 68 La Revue du Barrreau du Québec 584; now published in (2010) 48(1) Osgoode Hall Law Journal 1 to 54 approx.; available at http://ohlj.ca/english/documents/48_1_HALPENNY_changesmade_10_07_14.pdf (accessed on 23 February 2011);

English Abstract

The Military Police is a special federal police force in Canada with unique authority, designed to support military commanders both in operations and in garrison. However, it has historically been under the command of non-Military Police officers, and is consequently not governed like other police forces in Canada. Part of this arrangement can be explained by its special military duties, but much of it is the result of a tradition that is at odds with current societal norms. It is the position of the author that differences in norms between the Military Police and other Canadian police forces can only be justified by bona fide military requirements. This article proposes pragmatic changes that would see the Canadian Forces Provost Marshal, who is the senior Military Police officer of the Canadian Forces, command all Military Police. Their duties and functions, however, would be guided by a newly established Military Police Services Board. This Board would provide transparent policy guidance and require equally transparent accountability from the Military Police in a manner that respects the norms of Canadian law and other police services. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. (source: http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/ohlj/vol48/iss1/1/, accessed 6 February 2015)

HALPENNY, H.A., Independence and Impartiality and the Canadian military judicial system, Toronto : Canadian Forces Command and Staff College, 1989, 20, 5, 2 leaves;

HALPRIN, Paul William, Civil Status of the Military, LL.B. thesis, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Law, 1957, 16, [1] leaves ; 29 cm.; copy at York University;

Halsbury's  Laws of Canada, Mental Health/Military/Mines and Minerals, LexisNexis Canada, December 2011, 872 p., ISBN: 9780433456278;


LexisNexis Canada with the assistance of the Office of the Judge Advocate General for the Canadian Forces


With Canada’s armed forces at their most active level since the Korean War, this valuable title is a timely and comprehensive summary of the law that governs military operations and military personnel. From a concise discussion of the organization of the Forces to issues of deployment, human resource management and military justice, this work is carefully designed to serve as the definitive first reference for anyone researching this specialized subject. Topics covered include:


  • The statutory and regulatory framework that authorize and limit military operations
  • Organization of the Canadian Forces, and the role of elected and appointed officials
  • Limitation or exclusion of Crown liability for military actions
  • Operational commands
  • Qualifications and requirements for enrolment in the Forces
  • Remuneration, pensions and additional benefits
  • Promotion, discharge, grievances
  • Deployment of Forces both internationally and within Canada
  • Code of military discipline, courts martial, the appeals process, and the role of military police
  • [Source: http://www.lexisnexis.ca/bookstore/bookinfo.php?pid=2188, accessed on 26 March 2012]

Image source: https://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/dpr-rmr/2008-2009/inst/fcg/fcg01-eng.asp, accessed 22 January 2016
Bruno Hamel
HAMEL, Bruno,  testimony of Bruno Hamel, Chair, Canadian Forces Grievance Board, on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act,
-  before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 64, 6 February 2013, minutes and evidence;
-  before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, meeting issue 38, 30 May 2013, minutes  and evidence;

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/graeme-hamilton-9916ba41, accessed 28 December 2016
Graeme Hamilton
HAMILTON, Graeme, "[ Prime Minister Jean Chretien tells students that... ]", CanWest News, Oct 10, 1996, p.1;
Description: HALIFAX - Prime Minister [Jean Chretien] says the killings and torture committed by Canadian peacekeepers in Somalia were mistakes of the kind to be expected in a large army. With morale in Armed Forces sagging in the aftermath of the Somalia affair, Chretien urged military personnel Thursday to take pride in their accomplishments rather than dwelling on the misdeeds of a few bad apples. After a student asked how his government would improve "the tarnished image and low morale" of the Armed Forces, Chretien blamed the continuing public inquiry for magnifying the impact of the "incidents" in Somalia. (source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved and http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx=211&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=%22Jean+Chretien%22+Somalia+Inquiry&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe, accessed 9 July 2016)

Image source for Fen Osler Hampson: https://www.cigionline.org/content/fen-osler-hampson, accessed 22 January 2015

HAMPSON, Fen Osler, "Canada: committed contributor of ideas and forces, but with growing doubts and problems", in Charlotte Ku and Harold K. Jacobson, eds., Democratic Accountability and The Use of Force in International Law, Cambridge, UK; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2003, xxv, 440 p., at pp. 127-153, ISBN: 0521807476 and 0521002079 (pbk.); copy at Ottawa University, FTX General: KZ 6376 .D46 2003; limited preview available at http://books.google.com/books?id=l_DAftAiXA8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22Democratic+Accountability+%22&lr=&as_brr=0&sig=ACfU3U1mndeNxYJDCoV1veb-OXdo-nwvuA#PPA153,M1 and http://books.google.com/books?id=l_DAftAiXA8C&dq=%22Democratic+Accountability+%22&lr=&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 (accessed on 1 August 2008);

HANCOCK, Jay, 1977-, Determined victor  : Canada's role in the prosecution of class 'A' Japanese war criminals, Thesis (M.A.)--Royal Military College of Canada, 2002;

The current scholarly investigations into Canada's role at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East
(IMTFE) incorrectly identifies the Canadian government's motives and interests in the prosecution of Japan's
wartime leadership. The careful examination of External Affairs files at the National Archives of Canada and
records from the Department of National Defence at the Directorate of History reveal a wide range of incentives
for Canada's participation in the post-war reconstruction of Japan. The appointment of a Canadian judge and
prosecutor to the inter-Allied military court resulted from a determined effort to secure retribution for the
brutal treatment of Canadian nationals and military personnel during the Pacific War. Brigadier Henry G. Nolan
and Justice Edward S.McDougall secured influence from Canada's Allied partners through their dedication and
determination to serve the cause of justice. A subsequent motivation for participating in the Allied administration
of justice in the Far Eastwas the potential to expand Canada's economic partnership with Japan.
(Abstract shortened by UMI.) (source: http://phdtree.org/pdf/25761795-determined-victor-canadas-role-in-the-prosecution-of-class-a-japanese-war-criminals/, accessed on 5 June 2014);

HANDFIELD, Catherine, "Affaire Micheline Montreuil: Ottawa a dépensé plus de 1 million", La Presse, 19 octobre 2012, disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/justice-et-affaires-criminelles/201210/18/01-4584856-affaire-micheline-montreuil-ottawa-a-depense-plus-de-1-million.php (visité 1 mars 2017);

Victor Hansen, image source: http://www.michaeltotten.com/2010/06/war-and-history-ancient-and-modern.php (accessed 13 Janurary 2015)

HANSEN, Victor, "Changes in Modern Military Codes and the Role of the Military Commander: What Should the United States Learn from this Revolution?", (2008) 16 Tulane Journal of International & Comparative Law 419-466; discusses changes in Canadian military law; available at  http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1128126  (accessed on 28 July 2008); also available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/Public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/academic-panel/Hansen/Hansen_Changes_in_Modern_Military_Codes.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014); also available at Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1128126 (accessed 25 September 2016);

This article examines the renewed interest which legal scholars, courts, and practitioners are giving to military justice. In light of this heightened interest, there have been
a number of calls to reform the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Specifically, there is pressure to change and reduce the role of the military commander in the justice system.
This pressure for change comes in part due to the changes made in the military codes of the United Kingdom and Canada. This paper examines whether the United States
should make similar changes. The paper looks in detail at the reasons for the modifications to the military codes of the United Kingdom and Canada, and the specific changes
that those countries made. The paper next compares those changes with the approach taken in this country regarding the role of the military commander. The paper also
examines some of the possible unintended consequences that come with reducing the role of the commander in military justice. Finally, the paper offers specific recommendations
for Congress to consider in making an assessment of the appropriate role for the commander in the military justice system. (source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1128126,
accessed 25 September 2016)

___________"The Impact of Military Justice Reforms on the Law of Armed Conflict : How to Avoid Unintended Consequences", (2013) 21(2) Michigan State International Law Review  229-272; available at http://digitalcommons.law.msu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1115&context=ilr (accessed on 4 January 2014); also available at http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil/Public/docs/meetings/20130924/materials/academic-panel/Hansen/Hansen_Impact_of_MJ_Reforms_on_the_LOAC_Draft_2_Jun_13_DC_submission.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2014); also available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2393485(accessed on 24 October 2014);

One consequence of the “civilianization” of the military justice systems in Canada the United Kingdom and elsewhere potentially impacts the commander’s own personal criminal liability. The doctrine of command responsibility holds that a commander may be criminally liable for the law of war violations committed by the forces under his command if a commander fails to prevent, suppress, or punish law of war violations that he either knew about or was reckless or negligent in failing to notice, he can be punished as if he committed the underlying offenses. It is the commander who, by use of all the resources and authority available to him, ensures that his forces do not violate the laws of war. If those forces do, it is in large part attributable to the commander’s failings. If, as a result of the civilianization of military justice, commanders lose a significant portion of the disciplinary authority they have traditionally held, do they no longer occupy that critical position of responsibility over the forces under their command? If they have lost that authority, to whom does the law now turn to for accountability? Does the commander, who has lost some of his authority, lose the ability to maintain discipline through the military justice system, and does he find himself in a situation where he is given responsibility to maintain discipline and control without having sufficient authority to meet that obligation? This article raises and addresses these important questions and it provides a framework for considering military justice reforms that preserve the commander’s critical role in law of war compliance. (source: https://www.icrc.org/fre/assets/files/2014/ihl-bibliography-4th-trimester-2013.pdf, accessed 15 March 2015)

HANSFORD,  C. C , Brief notes on discipline : a handbook of courts martial duties, discipline, etc., for young officers, [Toronto] : George. J.  McLeod, [c1918], 93 p.: forms; title noted in my research but not consulted yet (5 January 2012);

HARDINGE, Stephen John, "Orbituary", Vancouver Sun, available at http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/vancouversun/obituary.aspx?n=stephen-john-hardinge&pid=14074473&fhid=5857 (accessed 8 September 2016); former Judge and JAG officer, died in 2005;

Chris Madsen
HARRIS, Greg, "Canada's troops lack solid grasp of military law",  University of Calgary Gazette, 28 April 1997, vol. 27, number 2; article about the work of Chris Madsen; available at (accessed 3 March 2017);

Giving Canadian soldiers a stronger grounding in military law would help prevent other tragedies like Somalia, says a U of C post-doctoral fellow.

Chris Madsen, a research fellow in the U of C's Strategic Studies Program, will make that recommendation and others in a report to the Department of National Defence in August.

He says the torture and murder of Somali teen Shidane Arone in 1993 can be seen, in part, as "symptomatic of a training deficiency.

"The Canadian army calls itself a professional force, but somewhere along the line they forgot professionalism is something you continually have to work on," says Madsen.

A soldier's knowledge of military law tends to begin and end with rules of engagement, but proper interpretation of those rules requires a sound knowledge of military law, he says. And in the last 30 years, there has been a "gradual slide" in the way military law has been taught to service personnel.

When Madsen applied for the defence department's R.B. Byers Fellowship at the end of 1995, officials were making erroneous statements about Canadian military history by declaring the Somali incident to be the first of its kind.

"It just wasn't true," Madsen says. "Military history is one of these areas they've ignored . . . . These aren't new problems."

Canadian soldiers have been involved in other criminal acts, including the rape of civilians in the Korean war, and the murder of nine prisoners in the Boer War.

Madsen says the army tends to assign blame to individuals and look no further. His report, however, will propose several systemic changes.

HARDINGE _ Stephen Hon. Stephen John Hardinge, LLB, QC, CD, NDC, passed away May 23, 2005 surrounded by his family. Lovingly remembered and sadly missed by his wife of 54 years, Rose Hardinge; four children David, Eileen, Mary and Carol; seven grandchildren, Bryce, Kerri, Jessica, Michael, Emily, Alanna and Cameron. Served as Judge of the County Court of Cariboo and Justice of the Supreme Court of B.C. for 22 years. Stephen Hardinge graduated in law from UBC and was called to the BC Bar in 1952; he was also member of the Bar of the Northwest Territories. He served in the Canadian Army, Judge Advocate General's office for six years and he later worked as counsel at B.C. Electric Company and B.C. Hydro. He was a partner in the law firm, Fulton, Cumming, Bird in Prince George, Victoria and Vancouver. He was subsequently Crown Counsel for the Dept. of Justice, Vancouver from 1969 and Regional Director for B.C. and Yukon to 1975. Following retirement, Judge Hardinge travelled widely, enjoyed cycling and walking. He also volunteered at Vancouver Coventry House and was a Member of the Officer's Mess, Seaforth Highlanders of Canada. A private family memorial will be held. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Steve's memory to Covenant House or the Canadian Diabetes Association. "FOREVER IN OUR HEARTS" Hollyburn Funeral Home 604-922-1221 - See more at: http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/vancouversun/obituary.aspx?n=stephen-john-hardinge&pid=14074473&fhid=5857#sthash.CG5UPsuz.dpuf

Image source: https://www.thestar.com/authors.harper_tim.html, accessed 2 October 2016
Tim Harper
HARPER, Tim, "Campbell takes heat in Somali killing uproar Minister told to explain, not campaign for Tory votes", Toronto Star, Apr 23, 1993, p.A4;
Description: NDP defence critic John Brewin called for [Kim Campbell] to answer questions regarding what she had been told by her officials and when she knew certain details of the incidents. The job of taking opposition heat in the Commons again fell to Government House leader Harvie Andre who repeatedly said Campbell's "quasi-judicial" role prevented her from publicly discussing many specifics of the criminal probes. * March 16 The beating to death of Somali prisoner Shidane Omar Aroni, while in Canadian custody. Five soldiers, including one who tried to kill himself in the wake of the incident, have been arrested but no charges have been laid.  (source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved and http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=17&frbg=&indx=161&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=%22Pierre%20Boutet%22&dstmp=1468009361837    , accessed 8 July 2016);

Cartoon by Dewar, The Ottawa Sun, 14 August
1996: General Boyle, the CDS, testifying before
 the Somalia Commission of Inquiry.

___________"Lack of meeting notes described as 'bizarre', Toronto Star, Aug 13, 1996, p. A.4;

Description: OTTAWA - With fallout of the botched Somali mission swirling about them, Gen. Jean Boyle chaired a meeting of the Somalia working group at defence headquarters each day through October, 1993. But no minutes were ever kept of proceedings, something Somalia inquiry chairperson Gilles Letourneau yesterday branded ``bizarre.'' (source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved and , accessed 12 July 2016);

---- Image source: parl.gc.ca/Parliamentarians/en/members/Jack-Harris(3633), accessed 22 December 2016
                                                                                                    Jack Harris

HARRIS, Jack, NDP Defence Critic "Defence platforms. NDP-- NDP proposes a new vision for Defence", available at http://espritdecorps.ca/defence-platforms-ndp/?rq=%22military%20justice%22 (accessed 22 December 2016); note: article written before 19 October 2015 federal election!

We already know that certain problems need to be fixed.

Our Forces need the right equipment to do their jobs, and taxpayers need value for money. The Conservatives have demonstrated time and again that they aren’t capable of delivering either.

An NDP government would get military procurement back on track. We would implement an open and transparent bidding process to replace our aging CF-18 fleet, and we would ensure that Canada’s shipbuilding strategy serves the needs of our military.

We have already committed to enhancing our search and rescue capabilities to meet international standards in response times, and our capabilities in the North need to be enhanced.

We would be there to support members of the Canadian Armed Forces and their families, in particular when they are ill or injured.

Mental health challenges, particularly PTSD, continue to be a critical situation, with some of the most severe cases resulting in death. Despite receiving an abundance of concrete recommendations from experts in the field, and a comprehensive study undertaken by the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, the current government has failed to implement many of the recommendations, leaving ill CAF members struggling to find care. This would receive top priority under an NDP government.

We would also review the Universality of Service rule, which the Canadian Forces Ombudsman has called “arbitrary and unfair,” and seek to ensure that fear of discharge would not prevent CAF members from coming forward to obtain treatment for mental health issues.

Finally, there must be a top-to-bottom commitment to eradicate sexual harassment and assault from our military. We would ensure full implementation of the recommendations of the Deschamps report, and consider required changes to our military justice system.

Canadians deserve a new vision for defence strategy in the 21st century — one where our military is well-equipped, world class, and supports its personnel. With an NDP government, they’ll get it.

Kathleen Harris, image soure: http://torontosunfamily.blogspot.ca/2011/03/kathleen-harris-out.html, accessed 11 February 2015

HARRIS, Kathleen, "Ex-soldier who investigated child porn in military slams $25K 'shut up and go away' money:  Retired military police officer's early termination left him bitter and financially short-changed", CBC News/Politics, 5 December 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-police-ptsd-treatment-child-porn-1.3881733 (accessed 7 December 2016); see also: Stemmler v. Canada (Attorney General) (2016) Federal Court 1299;

___________"From drunkenness and quarrels to desertion and insubordination, military misdeeds are dealt with in-house by a system some see as much tougher than the civilian process .  PART ONE: Military justice", The London Free Press, 26 January 2008; available at  http://city3.lfpress.ca/cgi-bin/publish.cgi?p=222846&s=societe (accessed on 8 May 2012); research note by François Lareau:  a second article was published on 27 January 2008 "A look inside Canada's only military prison";

___________"Military reports reveal soldiers, sailors busted for drug dealing: Reports reveal cases involving crystal meth, cocaine trafficking, marijuana grow-ops", CBCNews Politics, 23 April 2015; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-reports-reveal-soldiers-sailors-busted-for-drug-dealing-1.3046559 (accessed 23 May 2016); 

___________from SUN Media, "Painfully absorbed the lesson of Somalia", CNews Features, 27 January 2008; available at http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Features/2008/01/24/4791902-sun.html  (accessed on 30 March 2012); also LCol Jiff Wry, director of military justice policy and research in the Office of the Judge Advocate General is interviewed for the article;

Ten years ago, the Somalia inquiry into the torture death of a civilian teen and the subsequent cover-up recommended sweeping changes to rebuild battered public trust in Canada's military justice system. Ten years later, experts say the once problem-plagued system is stronger and more accountable but still in need of some fine-tuning.

"If we have not reached equilibrium, we're reaching it," said retired Col. Michel Drapeau, a military law expert who teaches at the University of Ottawa. "I think DND has painfully absorbed the lesson of Somalia. It has taken a long while, much longer than I thought, but through time and through changes and through a new generation of people, change has occurred."

Drapeau believes the much-maligned system emerged from the Somalia affair more open and with greater independence between military police, prosecutors and chain of command. In fact, he said the pendulum may have even swung a bit too far to the extreme.

He believes authorities are going right by the book with disciplinary action in a system that allows for a wider range of charges and stiffer penalties than for offenders not in uniform.


___________from Sun Media, "Trading a military Uniform for an orange jumpsuit", 26 January 2008, available at http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Features/2008/01/24/4791813-sun.html?&pic=0 (accessed 11 February 2015); about military prison;

HARRISON, Deborah, "The role of military culture in military organizations' responses to woman abuse in military families", (August 2006) 54(3) The Sociological Review.546-574;

Image source: http://afs.sagepub.com, accessed 9 February 2015
HARRISON, Deborah, and Lucie Laliberté, "The Competing Claims of Operational Effectiveness and Human Rights in the Canadian Context", (Winter 2008) 34 Armed Forces & Society 208-209;

This article explores the tension between military objectives and the “democracy value” cherished by Western civilian societies, using the situations of injured military members and the living conditions of civilian spouses; in particular, the responses of the Canadian Forces to members' posttraumatic stress disorder, and to spouses who are victims of domestic violence. The authors show how these responses currently privilege military objectives over the democracy value to an extent that is incompatible with the human rights of civilians or military members. They conclude by discussing how military leadership training could be modified to produce an altered balance between the two value systems. (source: http://afs.sagepub.com/content/34/2/208.abstract, accessed on 1 January 2012)

Kevin D. Hartzell, image source: http://www.kutakrock.com/kevin-hartzell/, accessed 11 February 2015

HARTZELL, Kevin D., "Voluntary Warriors: Reserve Force Mobilization in the United States and Canada", (1996) 29(2) Cornell International Law Journal 537-570;

The article focuses on the reserve force mobilization systems in the U.S. and Canada. The Canadian Armed Forces (CF) have a voluntary mobilization system, such that individual consent of Canadian reservists is needed before they are deployed internationally. The U.S. reserve mobilization framework is more conducive to voluntary mobilization due to the greater size of the U.S. reserves. The seven individual components in the reserve force structure of the U.S. are Armed Forces, Army Reserve, Army National Guard, Navy Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Coast Guard Reserve, Air Force Reserve, and Air National Guard. The reserve forces of the Canadian Armed Forces (CF) has four cornponents: the Primaty Reserve, the Supplementary Reserve, the Cadet Instructors List, and the Canadian Rangers. (source: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/27665104/voluntary-warriors-reserve-force-mobilization-united-states-canada, accessed 13 January 2015)

HASLIP, Susan,  A Critical Consideration of Contemporary Provisions for the Use of Military Force Against Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, mémoire de maîtrise en droit, c. 2002, University of Ottawa; mentioned in (2002) 62 La Revue du Barreau 465; title noted on 26 October 2003 but thesis not consulted yet;

___________A Critical Consideration of the Use of the Aid to Civil Power Provision Against Aboriginal Peoples in Light of Promises of Protection Made to Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, in 5th Annual Graduate Student Symposium Proceedings 2002, Conference of Defence Associations Institute, Ottawa, 2002; available at http://www.cda-cdai.ca/symposia/2002/haslip.htm (accessed on 9 February 2006) and see also http://www.cda-cdai.ca/symposia.htm (accessed on 9 February 2006);

___________"The Use of State Force Against First Peoples in Canada: A Critical Consideration of the Aid  to Civil Power Provision", 2006, 19 p.;  available at http://www.cda-acd.forces.gc.ca/aborig_conference_autoch/engraph/docs/aidtocivilpower.pdf  (accessed on 24 July 2008);

HASSAN, Taha, "Better Know a Court: Canada’s Courts Martial", Ultra vires The independent student newspaper of the University of Toronto Faculty of Law, 16 November 2015; available at http://ultravires.ca/2015/11/better-know-a-court-canadas-courts-martial/ (accessed 3 February 2016);

Detention involves being sent to Canada’s military prison in Edmonton, where inmates undergo, by regulation, a “routine and training [that] require[s] the maximum
effort and the strictest discipline.” Every aspect of the 15-hour days is scheduled, with an emphasis on military drill and scrubbing rooms and equipment, while in uniform.
For the first two weeks, inmates are not allowed to smoke or speak without permission. After this first stage, they are allowed to speak to others for a maximum of 30
minutes per day, use the library, and have visitors. Inmates are penalized for such misbehaviours as idleness, inattention, attempting to communicate, swearing, singing,
and whistling. The most severe punishment available is days in solitary confinement in a barren cell, unable to lie down, in socks and underwear, fed only bread and water.
Consider yourselves warned, I guess.

Douglas Hay, image source: http://www.osgoode.yor
, accessed 11 February 2015
HAY, Douglas, "Civilians Tried in Military Courts: Quebec, 1759-64", in Murray Greenwood, 1935-,  and Barry Wright, 1957-, eds., Canadian State Trials, Toronto: Osgoode Society, 1996, at pp. 114-126; available at , https://apps.osgoode.yorku.ca/osgmedia.nsf/0/A734CE1602A30FFD85257DA2006A8AD3/$FILE/6%20-%20Civilians%20Tried%20in%20Military%20Courts.pdf accessed on 13 January 2015;

Image source: https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/en/history/ronald-g-haycock-ba-ma-phd-emeritus-professor, accessed 5 October 2016
Prof. Ronald G. Haycock
HAYCOCK, Ronald G., " ‘GETTING HERE FROM THERE’: TRAUMA AND TRANSFORMATION IN CANADIAN MILITARY EDUCATION", (2004) 32(2) Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43-64; available at http://scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/125/156 (accessed 5 October 2016); Note: Professor Haycock, Military History and War Studies, Royal Military College of Canada;


In early 1997, the Canadian Minister of National Defence publicly issued an excoriating report that roundly condemned the poor state of leadership, ethics discipline, professional knowledge and education in the Canadian Armed Forces particularly among officers. His public exposure stemmed from a series of traumatic events that occurred in the four previous years. The most damning one had been the appalling revelation that some soldiers of the Canadian Airborne Regiment, then on a peacekeeping mission in Somalia, had beaten to death a young Somali teenager. The trail led right back to senior officers in Canada and there was evidence of a cover-up. The embarrassed government was forced into appointing a top level Somalia Commission of Inquiry1. Then, in the next several months, followed revelations recorded on camera of grotesque initiation rites and racism in airborne units and others. The usually complacent and unmilitary Canadian public was shocked and indignant.2 The government promptly disbanded the Canadian Airborne Regiment. How, many asked, did the Canadian Forces get here from its excellent performance in past decades? It had fought well in both World Wars, in Korea and had served with great distinction in the many United Nations missions since that time. Canadians, after all prided themselves believing that their forces were the humanitarian ‘honest northern brokers’ and perhaps the world’s best peacekeepers. (source: http://scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/125, accessed 5 October 2016)

Peter T. Haydon, image source: http://www.dal.ca/dept/cfps/fellows/haydon.html, accessed on 8 May 2014

HAYDON, Peter T. (Peter Trevor),  "The Somalia Inquiry: Can It Solve Anything?" (Spring 1997) 26(3) Canadian Defence Quarterly 20-23; also published in Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies = Institut canadien d'études stratégiques, 1997, 4 p.  (series; Strategic Datalink; 62), copy at the University of Ottawa, MRT General, U 162 .S75 v.62 1997;

Laurie Hawn, image source: http://www.parl.gc.ca/Parliamentarians/en/members/Laurie-Hawn, accessed on 9 May 2014

HAWN, Laurie, "Laurie Hawn on Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act", in the House of Commons, 26 November  2010; available at http://openparliament.ca/hansards/2324/1/only/ (accessed on 16 January 2012);

Image source: http://www.ashgate.com/isbn/9780754673460, accessed on 10 February 2015

HEAD, Michael and Scott Mann, Domestic Deployment of the Armed Forces, Military Powers, Law and Human Rights, Farnham, Surrey, England; Burlington, VT : Ashgate Pub., c2009, x, 203 p., and see Chapter 4, "Canada: Making 'Domestic Security' a Core Mission", at pp. 63 to 80  (series; International and Comparative Criminal Justice), ISBN:  9780754673460 (hbk.: alk. paper), 0754673464 (hbk. : alk. paper) and 9780754691259 (ebk.); preview at http://books.google.ca/books?id=OcaQ341m4PEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed on  1 December 2011);

Andrew Heard, photo source: http://www.sfu.ca/politics/faculty/full-time/andrew_heard.html, accessed on 7 April 2014

HEARD, Andrew D., "Military Law and the Charter of Rights" (1988) 11 Dalhousie Law Journal 514-545;

Jean-Claude Hébert, photo source: http://affaires.lapresse.ca/dossiers/litiges-economiques/201201/23/01-4488377-lamf-contre-la-souveraine-sur-le-chemin-de-la-cour-supreme.php, accessed on 7 April 2014

HÉBERT, Jean-C. (Jean-Claude),  "Torture des  prisonniers afghans.  Qui peut controler le gouvernement Harper?" (mai 2010) 42(5) Le Journal -- Barreau du Québec 10; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol42/201005.pdf (vérifié le 5 mars 2012);

Complicité de torture

Rappelons pour mémoire que la convention de Genève relative au traitement des prisonniers de guerre énonce que « aucune torture physique ou morale ni aucune contrainte ne pourra être exercée sur les prisonniers de guerre pour obtenir d'eux des renseignements de quelque sorte que ce soit ».  Un membre des forces canadiennes se rend coupable d’un acte criminel3 pour un acte de torture commis par un tiers afin d’obtenir des renseignements d’un prisonnier. Les militaires canadiens qui, en connaissance de cause, transfèrent des détenus aux forces afghanes engagent leur responsabilité pénale.

Dans l’armée canadienne, un directeur des poursuites militaires est responsable du processus d’inculpation devant la Cour martiale. Il agit sur présentation des dossiers d’enquête colligés par la police militaire. Celle-ci se gouverne en fonction du code de discipline militaire.  Faute d’une directive gouvernementale prohibant expressément aux soldats canadiens en Afghanistan de confier des prisonniers aux militaires afghans, il serait étonnant que Peter McKay, ministre de la Défense,
prenne l’initiative d’incriminer son personnel pour des actes de complicité de torture.  Son collègue Rob Nicholson, procureur général, attend le rapport de Frank Iacobucci pour décider ce qu’il sait ou aurait dû savoir.  D’ici là, motus, bouche cousue !

Face au déni gouvernemental bien charpenté, la possibilité d’imputer une responsabilité pénale aux grandes pointures de la chaîne de commandement, incluant le ministre de la Défense, relève de l’utopie. (notes omises).

___________"Transfert des prisonniers afghans: le trou noir des talibans",  Le Journal Barreau du Québec, mars 2008, volume 40, numéro 3, à la p. 10; disponible à  http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol40/200803.pdf (vérifié le 8 aout 2015);

HEBLY, Peter, Air Commodore, Directorate Legal Affairs, Netherlands Ministry of Defence, LCol JM Cambron and LCol Tammy Tremblay, Office of the Judge Advocate General, Canadian Armed Forces, XXth Congress of the ISMLLW-Prague, Report to the ISMLLW–Findings from the ISMLLW Questionnaire on the Challenges in the Implementation of IHL, available at http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2015_04_14_Prague_textes%20des%20orateurs/2015-04-15%20EN.pdf (accessed 10 November 2016); see also the QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE PRAGUE CONGRESS, available at (accessed 10 November 2016); see also Report on the Questionnaire  at http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2015_04_21_Prague_rep%20quest.pdf (accessed 10 November 2016);
HEBLY, Peter, Commodore de l’air, Direction des affaires juridiques, Ministère de la défense des Pays Bas, LCol Tammy Tremblay, Cabinet du Juge-avocat général Forces armées canadiennes, 20ième Congrès de la SIDMDG Prague,  Rapport de la SIDMDG – Constats tirés des réponses au Questionnaire sur les défis de la mise-en-oeuvre du DIH, disponible à http://www.ismllw.org/congres/2015_04_14_Prague_textes%20des%20orateurs/2015-04-15%20FR.pdf (visité 10 novembre 2016);note: the name of LCol J' Cambron does not appear as one of the authors in the French version;


Rachel Lea Heide, image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/rachel-lea-heide/23/3b6/730, accessed 11 February 2015

HEIDE, Rachel Lea, Obligation of the Home Front: The Necessity of Cultural Awareness Training for Interventions in the New World Order, Presented at "After the Fall: Theory and Practice of Post-Intervention Security", Centre for Security and Defence Studies Conference, 10 March 2006 (Ottawa, Ontario), 36 p.; available at http://www3.carleton.ca/csds/docs/Heide%20final%20paper.pdf  (accessed on 3 November 2014);

Image source: sun025.sun.ac.za/portal/page/portal/Arts/English/research/nrf/heinecken, accessed 4 July 2016
Prof. Lindy Heinecken

HEINECKEN, Lindy, "Military unionism and the management of employee relations within the armed forces: a comparative perspective", (December 2010) 26(4) International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations 401-419;


Many find the prospect of military unions totally inimical to the nature and functioning of the armed forces. Yet, a number of countries allow some form of military unionism, while others vehemently resist any form of independent union based on the premise that this undermines discipline, cohesion, and loyalty. This article examines how four different countries – the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, and Germany – have dealt with the issue of military unionism. The British Armed Forces, like many other English-speaking countries, have tended to approach employee relations from a typically unitarist position, which translates into union suppression or avoidance. The Canadian Armed Forces opted to circumvent the need for a military union by adopting a more human relations or neo-unitarist approach to employee relations. In South Africa, the military has been obliged by legal decree to accept a more pluralist dispensation, which has led to an overtly confrontational employment relationship. In Germany, where a union-like professional association exists, the approach has been more cooperative, even corporatist, typifying the European experience and philosophy towards unions, even in the military. In analysing the management of employee relations from these different typologies, the implications of union avoidance and acceptance within the armed forces are evaluated. (source: https://www.kluwerlawonline.com/abstract.php?area=Journals&id=IJCL2010025, accessed 4 July 2016);


Richard Hewson, a former JAG officer was named a Provincial
Court judge. ("Image Credit: Richard Hewson Law Office/ YouTube")

HELSTON, Charlotte, "Two Okanagan lawyers now judges", 12 December 2013, available at http://infotel.ca/newsitem/two-okanagan-lawyers-now-judges/it6634 (accessed 9 January 2017);

VERNON - Two lawyers from the Okanagan have been appointed Provincial Court judges.

Minister of Justice Suzanne Anton announced the appointments of criminal law lawyer Richard Hewson and family law lawyer Lisa Wyatt on Thursday. Hewson’s appointment is effective Dec. 23, 2013, and Wyatt’s Dec. 30.


Hewson earned his bachelor of laws from the University of Victoria in 1994 and was called to the B.C. bar in 1995. He began his law career as an articled student at Boulton Muldoon in Vancouver. He became an associate there in 1995, and in 1997 moved on to be an associate with Davidson & Co until 2000, when he became a lawyer with Richard Hewson Law Corporation. Between 2001 and 2003, he was also a legal officer with the Office of the Judge Advocate General.

Hewson’s law practice focuses on defending people charged with crimes like trafficking or production of marijuana, white collar crime, sexual or domestic assault, and dangerous or impaired driving. [emphasis in size and bold added]

HÉMOND, Marc-André, "Canadian Military Law and Courts Martial during the Great War", paper, The Second Military and Oral History Conference: Between Memory and History, Victoria, BC, Canada, 5-7 May 2010, Victoria Inner Harbor Marriott Hotel, Paper Abstract, available at http://web.uvic.ca/~veterans/Marc-Andre%20Hemond%20U%20of%20Manitoba.htm (accessed 11 May 2016); contact person Dr. David Zimmerman, Department of History, University of Victoria;

           This paper addresses the significance of military legal history as oral history, as well as the problems presented in studying this field due to the quality of the material available. The courts-martial documents of Canadian trials during the Great War were micro-filmed from 1950-1954, consisting of 46 reels held at Library and Archives Canada. The files contain various documents regarding a trial, specifically the summaries of evidence and trial transcripts. Both offer oral accounts of the crime being investigated and were transcribed at the time of the testimony. The preservation of these documents allows for a novel area of study which has yet to be done within Canadian historiography: the oral history of crimes and trials of Canadian soldiers during the Great War.

            However, there are difficulties which arise from attempting such a study caused by the process of micro-filming: the quality of micro-filming is particularly poor. Furthermore, the micro-films themselves lack organization. Library and Archives Canada provides an index which a researcher can consult to find the reel on which a particular case can be found. However, the index lists the files by file number, which is lacking on nearly all of the files contained in the reels. What then can a scholarly researcher reconstruct about Canadian military case law during the Great War?

___________Military law, courts martial and the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1918,  Thesis (M.A.)--University of Manitoba, 2008, iii, 94 leaves, advisor: DeLloyd J. Guth; available at http://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/jspui/handle/1993/21177 (accessed 19 June 2015);

Abstract – Introduction – Historiography – Shell shock and the Great War – Legal status of the CEF – Theory of military law –
Legislations and procedures for courts martial – Select cases – Assessment of courts martial – Conclusion.
[source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch,accessed on 1 Januray 2012]

Research into the history of Canadian military law during the Great War has received scant attention by historians.
British studies into the subject have,until recently, been political in nature, with a focus on discrediting the
legality and conclusions of courts martial during the war. However, the research done on the subject has been plagued
by methodological problems, resulting in political conclusions which are not supported by historical evidence. In
an effort to redefine the subject of military law during the Great War, this study critically engages the previous work
done on the subject, establishes the legal status of the Canadian forces during the war, re-constructs the theory of military
law and the procedures and legislation of courts martial during the war, and provides concrete examples of specific
court martial cases. The significance of the conclusions derived from this study demonstrates that there is reason to doubt
the predominant assumption that courts martial during the war were arbitrary, and questions the arguments infavour of pardons
for those executed during the war. Finally, this study illustrates the need for analyses of court martial trials specifically,
rather than crimes, in an effort to provide a more accurate historical understanding of Canadian military law during the Great War.
(Source: http://amicus.collectionscanada.ca/aaweb-bin/aamain/itemdisp?sessionKey=1307288528036_142_78_200_11&l=0&lvl=1&v=0&itm=37384111&rt=1&bill=1, accessed 5 June 2011)
Source of photo: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/former-cds.page, accessed 8 November 2015
General R.R. Henault

HENAULT, R.R. (Ray), "Modern Canadian Generalship in Conflict Resolution", (July-October 2000) vol. 3 JAG Newsletter 51-58; see in particular the sections "Ethical Issues" and "Legal Issues", at pp. 55-56;

Because of the circumstances that led up to the Kosovo Air Campaign, combined with
the need to minimize collateral damage, lawyers, military and otherwise, had a prominent
role to play during the Kosovo crisis.  One of the major accomplishments for the CF
during this campaign was the creation of a national targeting policy that established a
process by which targets assigned to CF pilots were reviewed and validated.  This process
was essential to ensure that the CF demonstrated due diligence in the acceptance of NATO
assigned targets.  Among other things, this process included both a legal and moral
evaluation of each and every target, where a military lawyer would assess the target in terms
of the Geneva Conventions governing the Laws of War.  It would be confirmed that the
target was a justifiable military objective and that its value outweighed the potential costs of
collateral damage.  This litmus test was done by NATO before the targets were assigned, and,
for targets assigned to Canada, it was also repeated by a Canadian legal officer, and the chain of
command, where necessary, to ensure that it met Canadian legal and moral standards.  If it did
not meet the Canadian standard, then the Task Force Commander was given the authority to
refuse the target, with the full support of the chain of command.

Another important legal and moral aspect of operations is the Rules of Engagement (ROE) that
are assigned to the participating forces.  The ROE process has come a long way in the past ten
years, to the point where ROE development and authorization is a mature and well-structured
process.  This was particularly important during the Kosovo crisis, where the overwhelming
sensitivity to collateral damage required very clear and strict ROE.  Fortunately, combined with
the extensive targeting review, the ROE assigned proved very successful for the CF.  This was
really a tribute to the discipline and training of the Canadian aircrew who flew the missions over
Kosovo and fully respected and applied the assigned ROE.  If at any time during an actual
bombing attack the pilot was either uncertain about the target itself, or if he was concerned about
the potential of collateral damage, he was under very clear instructions to abort his mission and to
bring the bombs back.  This, in fact, happened on many missions.

With the on-going changes in the "Laws of Armed Conflict", and the varying situations under which
the CF is being asked to deploy and operate, the military lawyer is becoming one of the commander's
most important advisors.  Therefore, the requirement to carefully review, and build into an operational
plan, the legal considerations and consequences pertaining to a specific mission cannot be overstated.  

Image source:  http://www.amazon.ca/Generalship-art-admiral-Perspectives-leadership/dp/1551250608, accessed 8 November 2015
Modern Canadian Generalship in Conflict Resolution:Kosovo as a Case Study", in Bernd Horn and Stephen J. Harris, eds.,  in Generalship and the art of the admiral: Perspectives on Canadian senior military leadership, St. Catharines, Ont. : Vanwell Publishing, c2001, 560 p., ill.; 24 cm. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references and index.  ISBN: 155125056X and 1551250608 (pbk.);

Source de l'image: http://www.amazon.in/Fonction-General-LArt-LAmiraute-Lieutenant-Colonel/dp/1550023675, visité 8 novembre 2015
___________"Le commandement canadien moderne et le règlement des conflits", dans, sous la direction de  Bernd Horn, 1959-, et Stephen J. Harris, La fonction de général et l'art de l'amirauté : perspectives du leadership militaire canadien,  Toronto : Dundurn Press, 2002, 579 p., aux pp. 288-302: ill. ; 24 cm. NOTES: Traduction de: Generalship and the art of the admiral. Comprend des réf. bibliogr.  ISBN: 1550023675; en partie à https://books.google.ca/books?id=fTZG-p5NYkYC&pg=PA288&lpg=PA288&dq=Henault+Because+of+the+circumstances+that+led+up+to+the+Kosovo&source=bl&ots=_fZ3KuJzsH&sig=7PKz9bQxKjL820ViLJAaf_U8c7I&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0CEwQ6AEwBWoVChMIwMqb3ruAyQIVwhkeCh1NIQd5#v=onepage&q=Henault%20Because%20of%20the%20circumstances%20that%20led%20up%20to%20the%20Kosovo&f=false (vérifié 8 novembre 2015); aussi disponible en version électronique, ISBN: 9781550029239;

HENDERSON, Scott, died on 24 January 2002; retired colonel with the Office of the JAG in the 1970s; appointed to the Veterans' Review and Appeal Board; for a short biography see "Alumni/Anciens membres" in , (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 87;

HENDERSON, W.D., "Military Law and Combat Effective Military Units" in Canada, Department of National Defence, Summary Trial Working Group Report, vol. 2, internal document, March 1993, mentioned in Paul Cormier, "La Justice militaire canadienne: le procès sommaire est-il conforme à l'article 11(d) de la Charte canadienne des droits et libertés?", (2000) 45 McGill Law Journal 209-262 at p. 256, note 201;

Stuart Hendin, image source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/stuart-hendin-qc/7/26/293, accessed on 7 April 2014

HENDIN, Stuart, "Amnesty International Canada et al v Chief of the Defence Staff for the Canadian Forces et al. : A Failed Strategy that Lead to a Flawed Judgment",  (2008) 20 (No. 2)  Sri Lanka Journal of International Law 209-274;

___________ "Do as we say, Not as we do: A Critical Examination of the Agreement for the Transfer of Detainees between the Canadian Forces and the Ministry of Defence of Afghanistan", (2007) 7 New Zealand Armed Forces Law Review 18;

___________"Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights : The Differing Decisions of Canadians and UK Courts", (January 2010) 28 Windsor Review  of Legal  and Social Issues 57-86;

The courts of two common law jurisdictions, Canada and the United Kingdom, reached opposite results on the issue of extraterritorial application of domestic human rights instruments. The Canadian Court misapprehended the issue of jurisdiction and control as enunciated by the ECHR, and failed to consider in detail that portion of cases from both the English Court of Appeal and House of Lords that applied directly to the extraterritorial application of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as it pertains to detainee opreations conducted by the Canadian Forces in Afghanistan. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20110708132118/http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/ihl-bibliography-1st-trimester-2010.pdf, accessed on 15 March 2013);

____________biographical notes (not necessarilty written by):
Specializing in International Humanitarian Law, International Human Rights, International Criminal Law, Security Sector Reform and Justice Sector Reform, Stuart has practiced and instructed internationally on the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC/IHL), the application of human rights & criminal law to military operations and the establishment of post conflict legal standards in failing and failed states.  After a long career of litigation that included representing his clients at the Supreme Court of Canada and acting as outside counsel to the Speaker of the Senate, Stuart now teaches for the Canadian Forces on the subjects of morality, ethics and professional leadership. Stuart also lectures at Algonquin College in Ottawa, the NATO School at Oberammergau, the Austrian Defense Academy and is a designated SME for the Centre for the Centre of Civil Military Relations (CCMR) in Monterey California.  Appointed Queen’s Counsel by the Government of Canada, Stuart is a member of the Law Society of Upper Canada (Ontario), the Canadian Bar Association, the International Institute for International Humanitarian Law, the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, the American Society of International Law and the Canadian Forces Intelligence Branch Association. He holds a Bachelor’s degree from the University of Ottawa, a Master’s degree from Carleton University, a Bachelor of Law/JD degree from Queen’s University, a Master of Law from the National University of Ireland and is in the process of defending his doctoral dissertation in ‘Command Responsibility’ at the University of Ottawa. (source: http://www.stratredteam.com/team.html, accessed 19 April 2015);

___________ "Unpunished War Criminals, The Shameful Legacy of Canada's Military Involvement in Afghanistan", (2013) 34(3) Liverpool Law Review 291-310;

Description: This Article will suggest that Canadian officials, both military and civilian, are exposed to criminal prosecution secondary to the transfer of detainees captured by members of the Canadian Forces (CF) during military operations in Afghanistan, To be very clear at the outset, this Article will not suggest that any member of the CF during military operations in Afghanistan engaged in torture or any form of mistreatment of any detainee captured. Rather, this Article will propose that as a result of operations in which individuals were captured by members of the CF and subsequently transferred to the custody of Afghan authorities and in particular the National Directorate of Security that by so doing members of the CF are exposed to prosecution as a result of these transferred individuals being subjected to torture or forms of cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment by Afghan authorities. (source: http://ku-primo-prod.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?frbrVersion=4&tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=TN_springer_jour10.1007%2fs10991-013-9136-x&indx=15&recIds=TN_springer_jour10.1007%2fs10991-013-9136-x&recIdxs=4&elementId=4&renderMode=poppedOut&displayMode=full&frbrVersion=4&dscnt=0&scp.scps=scope%3A%28KU%29%2Cprimo_central_multiple_fe&frbg=&tab=local&dstmp=1407253058262&srt=rank&mode=Basic&dum=true&tb=t&vl%28freeText0%29=canadian%20military%20law&vid=KU_VU1, accessed on 5 August 2014)

Image source: forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=reservists-in-afghanistan-retrospective/hzv9k0eo, accessed 15 March 2017 - Photo courtesy Col DAVID HENLEY
Colonel David Henley
HENLEY, David, note on David Henley, "Reservists in Afghanistan– Retrospective.  Article / September 8, 2014 / Project number: 2014-sum-14-15"

Colonel David Henley took leave from his civilian law practice in Halifax to deploy to Kabul,
Afghanistan 2009. He served with the Combined Security Transition Command as the Senior
Mentor for Afghan National Army Development.

Colonel Herfst with Francis Yergeau (image source: (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités--Newsletter at p. 5)

HERFST, G. (Gijsbertus) (Bert), 1951-, Meeting the Needs of Military Justice: The Advantages and Disadvantages of  Codified Rules of Evidence -- An Examination of the Military Rules of Evidence, Dalhousie University N.S., LL.M. thesis, 1995, vii, 336 p., Includes bibliographical references at leaves 328-336; cited in Martin Friedland's study for the Commission of Inquiry, Controlling Misconduct in the Military: a Study prepared for the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, supra; also mentioned in (1996) 41 McGill Law Journal 938 (thesis survey); see summary of thesis at http://amicus.collectionscanada.ca/aaweb-bin/aamain/itemdisp?sessionKey=1299097997015_142_78_200_11&l=0&v=1&lvl=2&rt=1&rsn=S_WWWbeaklFfkh&all=1&dt=+TW+%22Meeting%22+AND+%22the%22+AND+%22Needs%22+AND+%22of%22+AND+%22Military%22+AND+%22Justice%22&spi=- (accessed on 2 March 2011);

___________Notes on Colonel G. Herfst, available at  http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20071210072008/http://www.forces.gc.ca/dsa/app_bio/engraph/fseniorofficerbiographyview_e.asp?sectchoice=1&maction=view&mbiographyid=582 (accessed 24 January 2016);

Colonel Herfst immigrated to Canada in 1957, settling in Alberta where he graduated from high school in May 1969.

Colonel Herfst joined the CF in Jan 71. Upon graduation from the University of Calgary in May 1974 he was commissioned a Lieutenant in the Logistics Branch and posted to positions in Ottawa, Calgary and HQ UNEF. He left the Canadian Forces in August 1979 to enter the law school at the University of Calgary.

Upon graduation from the University of Calgary Law School, Colonel Herfst was articled to a law firm in Calgary, Alberta in June 1982. After completion of the Bar Admission Program and admission as a member of the Alberta Law Society in June 1983 he continued in private practise in Calgary until March 1984.

Colonel Herfst joined the Office of the Judge Advocate General in April 1984, and has been employed as a legal officer in various directorates.

In August 1985, he was posted as Deputy Judge Advocate and CFE Claims Officer with the Office of the Senior Legal Adviser Europe, at CFB Lahr.

He was promoted to the rank of Major on 1 January 1986.

From 31 July 1988 to 15 August 1991 he was employed at Canadian Forces Base Gagetown as Deputy Judge Advocate (Atlantic Region) serving all units in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.

During the academic year September 1991 to September 1992 Colonel Herfst studied criminal law at the post-graduate level at the Law School of Dalhousie University in Halifax.

In October 1992 he took up the position as DLaw/MJ 2 in Ottawa where his main functions involved administering appeals to the Court Martial Appeal Court and acting as appellate counsel before that Court. In July 1995 he took up the position of DLaw/Ops2. He was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel on 23 June 1997 and assumed the appointment of Director of Law/Operations.

Colonel Herfst served as Division Legal Adviser, Headquarters, SFOR Multinational Division South West, Bosnia Herzegovina, from September 2000 to April 2001. Upon return to Canada he was employed as DLaw/I until his appointment as Commanding Officer of the Canadian Forces National Counter Intelligence Unit on 19 October 2001, the first time in the modern history of the Canadian Forces that a Legal Officer was appointed to command an operational line unit.

Colonel Herfst was promoted to his present rank on 14 May 2004 and assumed the duties of Deputy Judge Advocate General/Regional Services on 1 June 2004. In August 2005, he was appointed Deputy Judge Advocate General Operations.

__________"Presentation to Advanced Military Studies Course 1, Canadian Forces College, 8 October 1998"; Notes: "This presentation provides a legal view of the issues surrounding the development of rules of engagement"; title noted at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/260/261/grant1.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2012);

 ___________Survey of Canadian Military Law, 1981, 18, [4] leaves (series; Adanced criminal law papers); copy at the University of Calgary; text not consulted;

___________Testimony before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, 11 December 2006, meeting number 28, on the study of Canadian Forces in Afghanistan; see minutes and evidence;

Dale Herspring, image site: http://www.k-state.edu/media/mediaguide/bios/herspringbio.html, accessed on 14 November 2014

HERSPRING, Dale R., "Searching for a More Viable Form of Civil-Military Relations: The Canadian and American Experiences", in  Stephen J. Cimbala, ed., Civil-military relations in perspective : strategy, structure and policy, Farnham, Surrey; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, c2012, xiii, 233 p., at pp.31-51; available in part at http://books.google.ca/books?id=ca8iH_hO1KsC&pg=PA213&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed on 28 November 2012);

Image source: www.rs.nato.int/about-isaf/leadership/brigadier-general-simon-c.-hetherington-msc-cd.html, accessed 16 June 2016
Brigadier General Simon C. Hetherington

HETHERINGTON, Major S.C., "Law and Order: Effectiveness of the Canadian Military Justice System in the 21st Century", Canadian Forces College, CSC 30, Exercise New Horizons, 23 p., available at http://wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc30/exnh/hetherington.htm and  http://wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca/papers/csc/csc30/exnh/hetherington.pdf  (accessed on 17 July 2008); also available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/302/287/hetherington.pdf (accessed on 27 April 2014);

Larry Hickey, image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/larryhickey, accessed 11 February 2015

HICKEY, Laurence (Larry) M., Enhancing  the naval mandate for law enforcement : hot pursuit  or hot potato?, [Toronto, Ont.]: Canadian Forces College, 2005, 44 p., available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/281/277/hickey.pdf (accessed 19 December 2015); also with the same title in 7(1) Canadian military Journal, available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo7/no1/maritime-marin-eng.asp (accessed on 2 June 2012); aussi publié en français dans 7(1) Revue militaire canadienne sous le titre "L'inclusion de l'application de la loi dans le mandat de la marine : une voie royale ou sans issue", disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo7/no1/maritime-marin-fra.asp (vérifié le 2 juin 2012);

 "In April 2004, the federal government promulgated Securing an Open Society: Canada’s National Security Policy. This long-awaited document called for greater emphasis to be placed on Canada’s maritime domains in the post-911 security environment. This paper argues that the Canadian Navy’s role should be expanded for domestic maritime enforcement in support of safeguarding national security and the exercise of Canadian sovereignty. After describing the Navy’s significant presence in Canada’s maritime zones and the increasing reliance on the Navy by other government, the issues that shape attitudes towards employment of armed forces for law enforcement tasks are identified and challenged. A simple model for executing an enhanced role is proposed. The model does not suggest that the Navy should shift its primary emphasis from preparing for combat at sea to coast guard duties. Rather, it is an appeal for powers that would enable the Navy to act upon violations detected while carrying out its fundamental military role. Doing so would allow the Navy to leverage its presence at sea, and contribute to realizing the goals articulated in Canada’s national security policy, specifically to provide maritime security for Canadians in an effective integrated manner." -- Abstract. (source: IRC Catalogue);


Image source: glendon.yorku.ca/gspia/faculty-research/bmo-visiting-fellows/, accessed 16 November 2016
Bruce Hicks
HICKS, Bruce, "Hicks: The government isn't out of the nation's bedrooms – yet", The Ottawa Citizen, 15 November 2016; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/opinion/columnists/hicks-the-government-isnt-out-of-the-nations-bedrooms-yet (accessed 16 November 2016);

With Parliament having just made homosexuality, per se, legal, some Canadian government agencies took it upon themselves to find other ways to restore its illegality.

In the Canadian military, the Judge Advocate General’s Office was instructed by the brass to find ways to forcibly remove homosexuals from the military. In response, the annotated Queen’s Regulations and Orders made a number of suggestions on how to bypass Parliament’s, and the country’s, newfound tolerance of homosexuality.

The rationale for the military openly defying changes Parliament had made for the civilian population was that only heterosexual men were “manly” enough to contribute to combat roles, and their very presence would undermine a unit’s morale. There were more, disgustingly homophobic, arguments advanced, but they don’t bear repeating here.

Elizabeth Hillman, image source: http://www.uchastings.edu/news/articles/2012/12/new-academic-dean-hillman.php, accessed on 14 November 2014

HILLMAN, Beth, "Trends in international military justice", 30 September 2011; available at http://www.caaflog.com/?s=canada (accessed on 2 May 2014); also available at http://www.caaflog.com/2011/09/30/trends-in-international-military-justice/ (accessed on 28 October 2014);

Today is the second day of the International Society for the Study of Military Law and the Law of War’s Rhodes Conference on Military Jurisdiction. It’s been a decade since the Society’s first such conference, and much of the conversation so far has focused on the changes those ten years have wrought and rising interest in military justice worldwide.  In Europe in particular, the trend has been toward shrinking military jurisdiction in favor of increasing civilian capacity—through education, reform, and better communications technology—to enforce military justice.

Yesterday, accomplished speakers from the Belgian and French ministries of defence described the extent of efforts to not only limit, but nearly abolish, the jurisdiction of military courts.  Reports from legal officers, jurists, and scholars described major shifts in military prosecutorial authorities, judicial review, and jurisdiction in nations including Australia, Cameroon, Canada, Ireland, Palestine, and Tunisia.

HILTZ, D'Arcy,  Anita Szigeti, Ruby Dhand, Natalie Venslovaitis and Catherine Morin, Mental Health: Military : Mines and Minerals, Markham (Ontario): LexisNexis Canada, 2011, 870 p. (series: Halbury's Laws of Canada; v. 66); copy at University of Ottawa, FTX Reference: KE 444 .H35 M45 2011;

HITSMAN, J.M. (Capt), The Visiting Forces Act 1941-44, Army Headquarters, Historical Section, report number 180, 29 July 1947, 43 p., available at  http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/rep-rap/cmhqrd-drqgmc-eng.asp?txtType=2&RfId=180
(accessed on 14 September 2013); contains the "Creation of the Office of the Judge-Advocate-General Canadian Army Oversas" at pp. 36-38, Appendix "A" -- Chart showing initial distribution of JAGs staff, 21 Army Group, at p. 40, and Appendix "B", Part XV -- The Functions of the Deputy Judge Advocate General and his Staff at pp. 40-43; also available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2016/mdn-dnd/D63-4-180-1947-eng.pdf (accessed 24 January 2017);

Rubson Ho, image source: Twitter, accessed on 9 May 2014

HO, Rubson, "A World that has Walls: A Charter Analysis of Military Tribunals", (Winter 1996) 54 University of Toronto, Faculty of Law Review 149-185; summary available at http://www.utflr.org/abstract/ultr54_1/54_1_149.htm (accessed on 10 July 2008);


Image source: http://www.cdfai.org/PDF/Operations%20Security%20and%20the%20Publics%20Need%20to%20know.pdf, accessed on 14 November 2014

HOBSON, Sharon, 1952-, Operations Security and the Public's Need to Know, Calgary, Alta. : Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, 2011 (Saint-Lazare, Quebec: Canadian Electronic Library, 2011), 1 electronic text (23 p.); available at http://www.cdfai.org/PDF/Operations%20Security%20and%20the%20Publics%20Need%20to%20know.pdf  (accessed on 31 May 2012);

HODGINS, W.E. (Colonel), "The Law Applicable to the Militia of Canada" (1901) 21 The Canadian Law Times PDF at pp. 169-188 (posted on 18 January 2012); copy at the University of Ottawa, FTX Periodcals, KE 12 .C342;

_________"Military Law: Its Origin, Development And application" (1910) 30 The Canadian Law Times PDF at pp. 485-496 (posted on 18 January 2012); copy at the University of Ottawa, FTX Periodcals, KE 12 .C342;

---------------------- Image source:london.ctvnews.ca/court-martial-begins-for-former-london-based-medic-facing-sex-assault-charges-1.1470182 
David Hodson                                                    Image source: acuns.org/review-of-believers-in-the-battlespace/ 
image source: www.google.com

HODSON, David, "Eyes Right: Religious Ideologue and Pragmatist", in  Peter H. Denton, ed., Believers in the battlespace : religion, ideology and war, Kingston, Ont. : Canadian Defence Academy Press, c2011, xxiii, 231 p.; at pp. 179-190, 23 cm. NOTES: "Produced for the Canadian Defence Academy Press by 17 Wing Publishing Office" --T.p. verso. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 9781100161679 (bound) and 9781100161686 (pbk.);  available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/dn-nd/D2-263-2010-eng.pdf (accessed 22 October 2015);

David M. Hodson is a legal officer and litigator with Defence Counsel Services. Previously,
he was a reserve armoured recce officer with The Ontario Regiment, a reserve force rifleman
with the Queens Own Rifles and a regular force infantryman with 2 Princess Patricia’s Canadian
Light Infantry. He is a graduate of the M.A. in War Studies program at the Royal Military Col-
lege of Canada. [p. 223,in Peter H. Denton, supra.  Mr. Hodson practices criminal in Lindsay, ON -- http://www.defendme.ca/]

Vahe Ohanessian

___________"Honoring Vahe Ohanessian",   Durlaw Voice, Volume I, issue IV, Spring 2015, at p. 4; available at http://www.durhamregionlawassociation.com/SpringDURLAW2015.pdf  (accessed 10 January 2016; article about Vahe Ohanessian;

HOLDEN, N.J., "An examination of mechanisms of complaint and grievance resolution in the Canadian Forces", [Ottawa] : Centre for Operational Research and Analysis, Defence R&D Canada, 2005, vi, 33 p.;


HOLLAND, Joseph (Joe) C., Military Objective and Collateral Damage : Their Dynamics and Relationship, A Thesis Presented to The Judge Advocate General's School United States Army in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Laws (LL.M.) in Military Law, 50th Judge Advocate Officer Graduate Course, April 2002, 106 leaves; available at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA440073&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf  and http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA440073 (accessed on 8 March 2012); notes; Lieutenant-Colonel Holland is a member of the Office of the Judge Advocate General, Canadian Forces;

___________Military Objective and Collateral Damage : Their Dynamics and Relationship,  (2004) 7 Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 35-78;

Image source: https://www.securitepublique.gc.ca/lbrr/archives/liaison%203-9-1977.pdf, accessed 4 October 2016
Jack Hollies
HOLLIES, Jack (J.H.),"Canadian Military Law" (1961) 13 Military Law Review 69-87; available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/Military_Law_Review/pdf-files/276C6B%7E1.pdf (accessed on 10 July 2008);


__________"Courts Martial in the Canadian Forces" (1959-60) 2 The Criminal Law Quarterly 67-76;

___________"Hearsay as the Basis of Opinion  Evidence", (1967-68) 10 The Criminal Law Quarterly 288;

Image source: https://www.ucalgary.ca/utoday/issue/2015-07-24/ian-holloway-reappointed-dean-law, accessed 22 January 2016

Ian Holloway

HOLLOWAY, Ian, testimony of Ian Holloway, Professor and Dean, Faculty of Law, University of Calgary,  on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act,

- before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 64, 6 February 2013, minutes and evidence;
- before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, meeting issue 38, 29 May 2014,  minutes and  evidence;  

HOLMAN, Fraser, "The State of the Canadian Forces: The Minister's Report of March 1997", (Summer 1997) Canadian Defence Quarterly 32-37;

Rob Holman, source of photo: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page --accessed 21 March 2014

HOLMAN, Robin (Rob) F. (Frazer), "Cross-Cultural Adventures in the Dissemination and Implementation of IHL -- A Canadian's Experience in Afghanistan",  40th CCIL Conference, 5 November 2011; available at Holman_Cross‐Cultural Adventures in the Dissemination and Implementation of IHL (accessed on 25 June 2012);


Rob Holman, image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cba_abc/14414547366/sizes/m/, accessed 4 August 2015

____________biographical notes on Colonel R.F. (Rob) Holman, available at http://www.iihl.org/Media/Default/Courses%20and%20Workshops/Detention/Holman%20Bio.pdf (accessed on 25 June 2014);

Image source: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/robin-holman.jpg, accessed 28 September 2016
Robin Holman, RMC graduate 1990

____________biographical notes on Colonel R.F. (Rob) Holman, not necessarily written by him, available at  http://www.iihl.org/Media/Default/Courses%20and%20Workshops/Detention/Holman%20Bio.pdf (accessed on 17 February 2015);

 Colonel R.F. (Rob) Holman, CD
Deputy Judge Advocate General, Military Justice
Canadian Armed Forces

Colonel Rob Holman was born into an Air Force family and grew up in a variety of locations across Canada and in Germany. After graduating from high school in Toronto, Ontario, he joined the Canadian Armed Forces in 1986 and attended the Royal Military College of Canada where he earned a degree in Engineering Physics.  Upon commissioning, he undertook basic and advanced flying training at 2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan.  He received his pilot wings in 1991 and subsequently served as a qualified flying instructor and later a standards officer flying the CT-114 Tutor jet trainer. In 1995, he returned to the Royal Military College where he served as a squadron commander and supervised the Air Force’s
Continuation Flying Training program.

In 1997, Colonel Holman was selected for the Military Legal Training Plan. He received his law degree from Queen’s University and, after serving as a judicial law clerk at the Federal Court of Appeal in Ottawa was called to the bar of Upper Canada (Ontario) and joined the Office of the Judge Advocate General in February, 2002.

From 2002 to 2007, Colonel Holman served as a military prosecutor, first as trial counsel before courts martial and later as appellate counsel, appearing in front of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada.  In 2007, he deployed to Afghanistan where, as part of the American-led Combined Security Transition  Command-Afghanistan, he served as a legal advisor and mentor to the senior leaders of the Afghan National Army General Staff Legal Department and the Ministry of Defence Legal Department. He was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal by the United States Army.

Following his return to Canada, Colonel Holman’s work focused upon international law issues affecting Canadian Armed Forces operations.  In 2010, he earned a Masters degree in international law from McGill University’s Faculty of Law where he researched the application of International Human Rights Law to “rogue” civil airliners used as weapons.  He then served successively as the senior legal advisor to the Chief of Defence Intelligence, as an Assistant Legal Advisor at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe during part of NATO’s operations in Libya, as the Assistant Deputy Judge Advocate General for Operational Law and as the Special Assistant to the Judge Advocate General.  Promoted to his present rank in 2013, he assumed the responsibilities of Deputy Judge Advocate General for Military Justice.

Colonel Holman has 2000 hours of flying time in gliders, small civilian aircraft and military jet aircraft.  He is an avid mid-pack runner. He lives in Ottawa with his wife and their three children.

___________"La rendicion de cuentas en la justicia militar de Canada", (2014) Fuero Militar Policial Del Peru  41-44; note: Il Foro Interamericano Sobre Justicia Militar y Rerecho Operacional, Conferencias, 26 al 28 Agosto 2014; available at https://issuu.com/publica_on_line/docs/publicacion_del_foro_2_1_1_todo_5 (accessed 1 July 2016);

Rob Holman, on the right, image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2014-15/ch-2-superintendence-military-justice.page, accessed 4 August 2015

___________Law Enforcement, the Rogue Civil Airliner and Proportionality of Effects: An Analysis of International Human Rights Law, LL.M. thesis, .Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University, 2010, vi, 136 leaves; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/QMM/TC-QMM-97268.pdf and http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/webclient/StreamGate?folder_id=0&dvs=1332805271155~384 (accessed on 26 March 2012);


Existing theoretical approaches to international human rights law governing the State's duty to respect and ensure the right to not
be arbitrarily deprived of life do not provide a satisfactory analytical framework within which to consider the problem of a rogue
civil airliner - a passenger-carrying civil aircraft under the effective control of one or more individuals who intend use the
aircraft itself as a weapon against persons and property on the surface. A more satisfactory approach is provided by the addition
of a norm of proportionality of effects that is analogous to that which has been developed within the framework of international
humanitarian law and modern constitutional rights law. This additional norm would apply only where there is an irreconcilable
conflict between the State's duties in respect of the right to life and all of the courses of action available will result in
innocent persons being deprived of life.


Existants approches théoriques au droit international des droits humains régissant l'obligation de l'État de respecter et de
garantir le droit de ne pas être privé arbitrairement de la vie ne fournissent pas un cadre analytique satisfaisant dans
lequel de considérer le problème d'un aéronef civil à passagers renégat - un aéronef civil portant des passagers et sous le
contrôle effectif d'un ou plusieurs individus ayant l'intention utiliser l'aéronef-même comme une arme contre des personnes
et des biens à la surface. Une approche plus satisfaisante est fournie par l'ajout d'une norme de proportionnalité des effets
qui est analogue à celle qui a été développé dans le cadre du droit international humanitaire et le droit moderne des droits
constitutionnels. Cette norme supplémentaire s'applique que lorsqu'il y a un conflit insoluble entre les devoirs de l'État
en respect du droit à la vie et tous les cours d'action disponibles se traduira par des personnes innocentes étant privé de
leur vie.
[Source: AMICUS catalogue, Library and Archives Canada]

Colonel Holman, centre, at the workshop, National University
of Singapore, Bukit Timah Campus.

___________"Military Justice and Human Rights: The Search for Balance atop the Constitution's 'Living Tree' ", paper presented at The Asia Pacific Military Justice Workshop 2016, 20-21 September 2016, National University of Singapore, Bukit Timah Campus; see http://law.nus.edu.sg/about_us/news/2016/AsiaPac_MilitaryJustice.html (accessed 26 October 2016);

___________"Military Justice, International Humanitarian Law Accountability and International Human Rights Law Standards", Remarks of the Deputy Judge Advocate General Military Justice – University of Ottawa Military Law Conference – 13 November 2015, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law/djag-remarks-military-law-conference-2015.page (accessed 12 February 2016);
"La justice militaire, la responsabilité de droit international humanitaire et les normes relatives aux droits internationaux de la personne", Notes d’allocution du Juge-avocat général adjoint justice militaire – Conférence de droit militaire l’université d’Ottawa – 13 novembre 2015, disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/a-propos-rapports-pubs-droit-militaire/notes-allocution-du-jaga-conference-droit-militaire-2015.page (vérifié 12 février 2016);

___________"The Revival of a Service Connection Test in Canadian Military Law?", Deputy Judge Advocate General, Military Justice, 19 May 2015, Washington, D.C.; available at http://www.armfor.uscourts.gov/newcaaf/ConfHandout/2015ConfHandout/2015ColHolman.pdf (accessed on 4 August 2015); 

___________"The Rogue Civil Airliner and International Human Rights Law: An Argument for a Proportionality of Effects Analysis within the Right to Life", (2010) 48 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 39-96;

Colonel Rob Holman, second from left, at the II Foro Interamericano Sobre Justicia Militar y Derecho Operational, Lima, Peru, August 2014, photo source: https://plus.google.com/photos/
, accessed 18 February 2015

__________" 'II Forum interaméricain sur la justice militaire et droit international humanitaire', Lima-Peru du 6 au 28 août 2014", video (Colonel Holman is a participant), available at http://www.fmp.gob.pe/FMP/Html/2014-09-01/ii_foro_interamericano_sobre_justicia_militar_y_derecho_operacional.html (accessed on 14 November 2015);

HOLMES, Kanina, "Canada Military Drops Anthrax-Vaccine Court Martial", Reuters, 11 April 2012; available at http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/bioter/canadianmilanthrax.html (accessed 7 January 2016);

MacGregor said Thursday's decision to not proceed came after reviewing the evidence to determine whether it supported a reasonable prospect of conviction and was in the public interest to continue.

The military's policy on public interest includes looking at the age of the charge, how frequently it crops up among members and its impact on discipline.



HOOK, Gordon P., "The Emperor's Old Clothes: Lack of Transparency in the Courts-martial Board of Review", (November 2004) 2(2) New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law 285-313; available at http://www.victoria.ac.nz/law/centres/nzcpl/publications/nz-journal-of-public-and-international-law/previous-issues/volume-22,-november-2004/hook.pdf (accessed on 14 October 2015); discusses Canadian law;

__________The Constitutional Status of Military Tribunals: Paradigm Lost, Paradigm Regained: A Critical Analysis of New Zealand Military Justice in the Light of International Trends, doctoral thesis at the Victoria University of Wellington Law School, 2002, 849 p.; title noted in my research but thesis not consulted yet (14 October 2015);

New Zealand military courts are presided over by military officers, not judges, and are capable of punishing service persons overseas and at home with imprisonment, detention and other criminal forms of punishment. They reflect a 19th Century form of justice and have failed to keep up with New Zealand’s international human rights obligations. Gordon Hook's research finds that military courts in New Zealand must undergo a constitutional shift to reflect the civil justice standards of independence and impartiality, and to also bring the military justice system into line with those of our defence allies. (source: http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/ED0312/S00030/victoria-phd-graduates-at-5-year-high.htm, accessed 14 October 2015);

Bernd, Horn, image source: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=30314, accessed on 14 November 2014

HORN, Bernd,  1959-, "An Absence of Honour: Somalia -- The Spark that Started the Transformation of the Canadian Forces Officer Corps", Paper prepared for the International Seminar "Leadership, Education and Multiculturalism in the Armed Forces: Challenges and Opportunities”, La Paz, Bolivia, 13-15 September 2004", 20 p.; available at http://www.cda-acd.forces.gc.ca/bolivia/engraph/seminars/sep2004/papers/Horn_sep_e.pdf (accessed on 10 July 2008); now published in Allister MacIntyre and Karen D. Davis, eds., Dimensions of military leadership, Kingston: Canadian Defence Academy Press, 2006, iv, 394 p. (series; From the Canadian Forces Leadership Institute's research files; vol. 1), ISBN: 0662439643 and  0662440307;


___________"À quoi vous attendiez-vous!?! Analyse de la désobéissance au sein de l'ancien régiment aéroporté du Canada, 1968-1995" dans, sous la direction de,  Howard G. Coombs, Les insubordonnés et les insurgés: des exemples canadiens de mutinerie et de désobéissance, de 1920 à nos jours, [Kingston, Ont.] : Presse de l'Académie canadienne de la défense, c2007, chapitre 14 aux pp. 389-416, ISBN: 978-1-55002-765-5.  Notes: Traduction de: The insubordinate and the noncompliant. Comprend des réf. bibliogr. et un index. Publ. en collab. avec: Dundurn Group, le Ministère de la Défense nationale et Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada; disponible en grande partie à https://books.google.ca/books?id=w6cPFutwP1AC&pg=PA402&lpg=PA402&dq=Somalie+desbarats&source=bl&ots=EkcAeHL9qd&sig=TWLo7BWOT4vNWneYGcmgV7uR8W8&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=-4rOVJbCLpPmgwSbo4K4CQ&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Somalie%20desbarats&f=false (vérifié le 1er février 2015);
___________"What Did You Expect?  An Examination of Disobedience in the Former Canadian Airborne Regiment, 1968-1995" in Howard G. Coombs, The Insubordinate and Noncompliant: Case Studies of Canadian Mutiny and Disobedience, 1920 to Present, Kingston, Ont. : Canadian Defence Academy Press, c2007, 448 p., chapter 14, at pp. 397-426: ill., ports. ; 23 cm.  NOTES: Co-published by Dundurn Group. Issued also in French under title: Les insubordonnés et les insurgés. Includes bibliographical references and index.  ISBN: 9781550027648;

Source of image: https://www.amazon.ca/Bastard-sons-examination-experience-1942-1995/dp/1551250780, accessed 5 October 2016
___________Bastard sons: An examination of Canada's airborne experience, 1942-1995, St. Catharines, Ont. : Vanwell, c2001, 288 p. : ill. ; 26 cm. NOTES: Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 1551250780; 

___________Bastard sons: an examination of Canada's airborne forces, 1942-1995, doctoral dissertation, A thesis submitted to the War Studies Committee, in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor in Philosophy, Royal Military College, Kingston, 2000, vi, 441 leaves; available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/001/nq89095.pdf (accessed 27 October 2016);

The Canadian political and military leadership has consistently taken an irresolute approach to the requirement for airborne forces. The decision to establish a Canadian parachute capability was initially rejected during the early years of the Second World War because the higher command in Ottawa saw no need for these special troops. But the war itself proved otherwise. It was the growing American and British development in airborne forces that eventually provided the catalyst for Canadian acceptance of the concept in 1942. However, the senior command directed that it be kept at a very low and decentralized level. The post war era was similarly fraught with hesitation and indecision. During the late-forties to early-sixties Canada's airborne force took the form of the Mobile Striking Force which evolved into the Defence of Canada Force. Their primary role was the Defence of the North, a contingency which neither the political nor military leadership thought likely to exercise. Yet by the mid-sixties the newemphasis on strategic mobility and containment of brush-fire wars heralded their rebirth. In spite of this new found rationale resentment and institutional enmity continued to fuel the debate in regards to the relevance of paratroopers in the Canadian context. Fatefully, the defining moment for the Regiment and for the public was the brutal torture and killing of a Somali teenager who was caught attempting to penetrate the 2 Commando compound to steal. Once made public, the press raised larger questions of the Airborne's suitability for the mission, its training, and disciplinary record. In 1995, after two years of coping badly with the issue in public, DND and the military establishment were again thrust into the limelight with the exposure of repugnant hazing videos. These pushed the issue over the brink. The problem became defined exclusively in terms of the 'airborne.' The solution was explained in the guise of disbanding the Canadian Airborne Regiment. The disbandment of the Canadian Airborne Regiment on 4 March 1995 and the eclipse of the nation's parachute capability that it represented cannot be dismissed simply as a 'knee jerk' political decision although there seemed to be an abundance of that. The failure rests squarely on the shoulders of the Army. Ultimately, the failure to properly identify a consistent and pervasive role for airborne forces and abide by the doctrine which was developed, led to a roller coaster existence, dependent on personalities in power, and political expedients of the day. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) [source: http://amicus.collectionscanada.ca/aaweb-bin/aamain/itemdisp?
sessionKey=1477555880063_142_78_200_14&l=0&lvl=1&v=0&itm=30719355&rt=1&bill=1, accessed 27 October 2016]

Image source: https://www.amazon.com/Outside-Looking-Perspectives-Canadian-Leadership/dp/0662419987, accessed 4 September 2016

___________ed., From the outside looking in : media and defence analyst perspectives on Canadian military leadership / Bernd Horn, editor, Winnipeg : Canadian Defence Academy Press, c2005, vi, 266 p.; 23 cm. NOTES: Running title: Media and defence analyst perspectives on Canadian military leadership Issued by Canadian Defence Academy. Includes bibliographical references and index.  ISBN: 0662419987; book available at publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/dn-nd/D2-176-2005-eng.pdf (accessed 4 September 2016);

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
 Introduction - When Does Perception Become Reality? . . . . . . . . . .1
Chapter 1 The Military and the Media in Canada: A Relationship from Tension to Trust ,Derek Stoffel. . .19
Chapter 2 The Local Front in News Coverage of the Military, Dr. Steve Lukits...l34
Chapter 3 Canadian Military Leadership in an Era of Military Transformation, David J. Bercuson . . . . . .41
Chapter 4 From the Middle Looking Out: Reflections of a Think Tank Commander,  David Rudd. . . .54
Chapter 5 Perspectives on Canadian Military Leadership, Chris Wattie. . .67
Chapter 6 A Foot in Both Camps, Lewis W. MacKenzie. . .76
Chapter 7  Winning the Public Trust, Carol Off. . .91
Chapter 8 Looking After Your People: A Very Public Demonstration of Leadership, Linda Slobodian...107
Chapter 9 Taking the Middle Ground: A Unique Vantage Point,  Scott Taylor . . .128
Chapter 10 Somalia Redux? The Yahoo Defence, Terminal Bullshit Syndrome And The Myth Of The Isolated Incident, Adam Day...142

Source of image: http://www.amazon.ca/Forced-Change-Crisis-Reform-Canadian/dp/1459727843, accessed 20 October 2015

HORN, Bernd, and Bill Bentley, Forced to Change : crisis and reform in the Canadian Armed Forces / Colonel Bernd Horn and Dr. Bill Bentley; foreword by Romeo Dallaire, Toronto : Dundurn Press, 2015, 167 p., at pp. 67-80,  ISBN: 9781459727847; available in part at https://books.google.ca/books?id=kGHnAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA63&lpg=PA63&dq=CANADA+role+of+the+legal+advisors+in+the+armed+Forces&source=bl&ots=_nq026_k7L&sig=1np_DloM1L1RDavt30V5NLsJpHI&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=jUDGE%20ADVOCATE&f=false (accessed 20 October 2015);

HPCR Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare, Bern, 15 May 2009; HPCR = Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University, available at http://www.ihlresearch.org/amw/manual/  (accessed on 6 March 2012);  Brigadier General Kenneth Watkin, Canadian Forces and Judge Advocate General was one of the participant in the core group of experts;

HUMAN RIGHTS INSTITUTE, Columbia Law School, "U.S. Monitoring of Detainee Transfers in Afghanistan: International Standards and Lessons from the U.K. & Canada", December 2010, 28 p.; available at http://www.law.columbia.edu/ipimages/Human_Rights_Institute/AfghanBriefingPaper%20FINAL.pdf (accessed 20 February 2015);

HUMEN, James Daniel, The Politics of Canadian Defence Policy : NATO to Nuclear Weapons, Master of Arts, University of Alberta, 1992, 123 leaves, available at https://era.library.ualberta.ca/files/6t053j50k/MM77165.pdf (accessed 29 September 2016);       

HUNT, Mel, former JAG officer, 1978-1987, lawyer, Victoria, BC; see web sites at http://www.dinninghunter.com/our-lawyers/mel-hunt/ and http://www.pin.ca/military/lawyer/ (accessed 20 January 2015);

___________Notice from the Victoria Bar Association on the death of Mel Hunt, received from Benoit Pinsonneault by email on 30 November 2015..

"Originally from Toronto, Mel Hunt lived in many parts of Canada and Europe during the years
he was a member of the Canadian Forces. While in the services he was selected to be sent to law
school after obtaining an Honours degree in Philosophy. Mel graduated from the University of
British Columbia Law School in 1977. He articled to celebrated Victoria counsel, Dermod
Owen-Flood, (later Mr Justice Owen-Flood of the BC Supreme Court), and began to serve as a
military lawyer in 1978.

He left the military for private practice in 1987 with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and joined
the firm of Dinning Hunter Jackson Law as associate counsel in 1999.

Mel practised in the criminal courts, as Courts Martial, and in the Federal Courts, as well as the
British Columbia Supreme Court and the British Columbia Court of Appeal on a wide variety of
legal issues including family and personal injury law. He was qualified as an expert witness in
the British Columbia Supreme Court on military law and military personal matters.

Mel practised in the criminal courts, as Courts Martial, and in the Federal Courts, as well as the
British Columbia Supreme Court and the British Columbia Court of Appeal on a wide variety of
legal issues including family and personal injury law. He was qualified as an expert witness in
the British Columbia Supreme Court on military law and military personal matters.

He was frequently consulted by other lawyers throughout Canada and retained by current and
former members of the Canadian Forces in relation to military grievances, summary trials,
human rights and pension matters.

Mel had a broad experience in life prior to becoming a lawyer: construction labourer, heavy
equipment operator, truck driver, boxer, fire-fighter, administrator and military member starting
as a private. Mel was widely regarded as a true litigator and was gracious in sharing his
experience with junior lawyers. He will be missed.

Mel Hunt passed away on Tuesday November 17th 2015."

HUNTER, Paul, "Father ‘never felt any anger’ toward soldier charged in son’s death in Afghanistan", 2 May 2014, available at https://www.thestar.com/news/honourday/2014/05/02/father_never_felt_any_anger_toward_soldier_charged_in_sons_death_in_afghanistan.html (accessed 9 January 2014);

Walsh had been on routine patrol about 20 kilometres west of Kandahar, travelling in the back seat of a jeep-like G-Wagon, when a gun discharged in the military vehicle. A single bullet hit Walsh in the chest, above his flak jacket.

The Canadian soldier responsible for the gun, Robbie Fraser, was charged with manslaughter and negligently performing a military duty. As the investigation dragged for seven months, Walsh’s father Ben, became increasingly angry and agitated that he was unable to get information or updates from the military.

So the senior Walsh, a retired RCMP officer, took matters into his own hands; rising to a challenge is, apparently, a family trait.

Ben Walsh reached out to Fraser and arranged to meet him for a coffee in a cafe on the base at Shilo. There, Fraser recounted what happened on a dusty Afghan road after the Canadian troops heard shots.

“They all got out, took the rifles out and Robbie took the machine gun too I guess,” recounted Walsh.

“They went and checked things out. Then Jeff got in the back first. Robbie was on the opposite side. He threw his machine gun (into the vehicle) and then he threw his rifle in. The rifle hit something and went off.”


The charges against Fraser were eventually dropped and he remains in the military. Walsh keeps in touch with him.

HUNTER, T.M., Some aspects of disciplinary policy in the Canadian  services, 1914-1946, [Ottawa?] : Army Headquarters, Historical Section, report number 91, 15 July 1960, 131 leaves, 29 cm;  "NOTES: "This report was prepared by Lt.-Col. T.M. Hunter, a  member of the Law Society of British Columbia"--Leaf 114; available at http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/rep-rap/ahqrd-drqga-eng.asp?txtType=3&RfId=280 and http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/rep-rap/doc/ahqr-rqga/ahq091.pdf (accessed on 14 September 2013);

HURLEY, Daniel T., Turning around a supertanker: Media-military relations in Canada in the CNN age, thesis for the degree of Master of Journalism, School of Journalism, Carleton University, 2000, vi, 201 leaves; available at https://curve.carleton.ca/bdfb4660-74dc-4eb5-afb8-23d21cc28465 (accessed 5 October 2016);

Abstract In 1998, the Department of National Defence introduced a new public affairs policy pledging greater openness and transparency with the Canadian public. The military endured five years of bad publicity following the death of a Somali teenager at the hands of Canadian soldiers in 1993. During the “Somalia Affair,” the military was portrayed as a closed and secret culture, intolerant of diversity and internal dissent, and hostile towards the media. The affair turned from bad to worse when amateur videos showing soldiers engaged in racist and violent activities were released. Public support for DND plummeted. The Canadian military needed to become more open and transparent because advances in communication technology have made the public more aware and the media more critical of its activities. With this in mind, DND has made noticeable changes to achieve this goal. However, recent events have proven that old habits die hard with the Canadian military.

Image source: mobile.twitter.com/wateraid_nicole, accessed 28 December 2016
Nicole Hurtubise
HURTUBISE, Nicole G., Bridging the perception gap between the military and humanitarian actors, Thesis (M.A.)--Royal Roads University (Canada), 2005, 79 p.; document not consulted; on-going research, 19 August 2016;

Complex emergencies resulting from conflict bring together an intricate combination of military and humanitarian actors. This study explores how to destigmatize the prevailing humanitarian-military debate by standardizing constructive dialogue and the sharing of mutual knowledge at strategic and operational levels between both sets of actors. Qualitative data was collected from a set of 18 interviews carried out with respondents selected from the Canadian military, the humanitarian sector, the Canadian government and academia. While the military and humanitarian actors are rightfully diligent in maintaining an arm's length distance, the decisions to work together or not should come from an understanding of the other's mission, mandates and operational constraints and not out of defensiveness or hostility. There are far more commonalities between both sets of actors than what might be readily evident. Hence, there may be opportunities to find a language that bridges the perception gap and that is less beset with stigma

HUTCHISON, Scott C. and Michael P. Bury, Search and Seizure Law in Canada,  Scarborough (Ontario): Carswell, A Thomson Company, 1990-, 400 p., looseleaf suplemented book,  ISBN: 0459350617; see Chapter 9 on "Military Searches";

Source: https://vimeo.com/31240507, accessed 20 August 2016
Gilles Létourneau (left) with Michel Drapeau

HUTTON, David, "Military Justice in Action: Book Lauch", 28 October 2011; available at http://fairwhistleblower.ca/content/military-justice-action-book-launch  (accessed on 2 September 2013); includes a 20 minute video of the presentations; about Gilles Létourneau with Michel Drapeau's book, Miltary Justice in Action: Annotated National Defence Legislation, 1st edition 2011; the video is also available at https://vimeo.com/31240507 (accessed on 7 March 2015);

It is especially fitting that the Canadian War Museum was the venue for the launch of a book that is intended to improve the lot of those who serve in our forces.

The event featured an impressive array of speakers including recently-retired Supreme Court judge Ian Binnie, Justice Edmund Blanchard, and Richard Pound, former vice president of the International Olympic Committee, who all paid tribute to the authors and their 1,900-page volume. Governor General David Johnston, Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces was also present. (source: http://safeskies.ca/content/military-justice-action-book-launch, accessed 7 March 2015)

Photo of Teresa Iacobelli, photo reproduced from http://www.queensu.ca/history/people/facultyinstructorsalpha/iacobelli.html (accessed on 31 March 2014) 

IACOBELLI, Teresa,  "Arbitrary Justice?  A Comparative Analysis of Canadian Death Sentences Passed and Commuted during the First World War", (Winter 2007) 16(1) Canadian Military History 23-36; available at http://scholars.wlu.ca/cmh/vol16/iss1/3/ and  http://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1444&context=cmh (accessed 7 January 2016);

Image source: http://www.amazon.ca
__________ Death or Deliverance: Canadian Courts Martial in the Great War, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press (UBC Press), 2013, 192 p., ISBN: 9780774825672 (http://www.ubcpress.ca/search/title_book.asp?BookID=299174177; (accessed on 29 September 2013);

Acknowledgments / ix

Introduction / 1
1 Competing Ideologies / 11
2 Military Law: An Overview / 23
3 The Crimes / 37
4 The Court Martial Process / 65
5 The Confirmation Process / 83
6 Pardon Campaigns / 111
Conclusion / 129

Notes / 143
Bibliography / 165
Index / 173  (Source: http://www.ubcpress.ca/books/pdf/chapters/2013/DeathOrDeliverance.pdf, accessed on 2 September 2013)

__________No example is needed : discipline and authority in the Canadian expeditionary Force during the First World War, London, Ont. : School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, University of Western Ontario, c2009, Thesis (Ph.D.), vii, 287 leaves, 29 cm.;


This thesis is a study of the application of military law in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) during the First World War. In particular, this study examines the use of the death sentence for the crimes of desertion and cowardice in order to reveal both the structure of military authority, and how strictly military law was applied. While previous studies have looked at the small number of confirmed death sentences during the First World War, this study greatly expands the research base by also using the case files of commuted death sentences in order to provide a much fairer representation of military justice. Case files from commuted death sentences include transcripts of the actual courts-martial, as well as the letters of recommendation that were provided by a convicted soldier's commanding officers. In these letters commanding officers were expected to comment on whether a death sentence should be confirmed or commuted, as well as provide the reasoning behind their decision. This study has made clear that military discipline during the Great War was far less brutal, and far more flexible than has previously been supposed. There was a great amount of leverage within the military judicial system.  Every level of command was encouraged to voice their opinion, and the opinion of Battalion Commanders mattered just as much, and sometimes more, than the opinion of higher ranking Brigade and Divisional Commanders. Furthermore, in determining who would be executed, the individual records of soldiers mattered far less than the timing of an offence and the behaviour of the battalion as a whole. [Source: http://gradworks.umi.com/NR/73/NR73481.html, accessed on 17 March 2012]

IBBITSON, John and Daniel Leblanc, "Former military members who were discharged over sexuality launch class-action suits", The Globe and Mail, 1 November 2016; available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/former-public-service-staff-launch-sexual-discrimination-lawsuits/article32609060/? (accessed 3 November 2016);

he plaintiffs seek redress for members of the Canadian Forces and the federal public service “who were investigated, targeted, sanctioned and/or who were
discharged or terminated by the Government of Canada because of their sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression,” according to a statement
of claim deposited Monday in Quebec Superior Court.


Two representative plaintiffs – Martine Roy for Quebec and Todd Ross for the rest of Canada – and their lawyers will announce the lawsuits at a news conference
on Parliament Hill Tuesday. The Globe and Mail was informed of the lawsuit in advance.

A.M. Inglis, photo source: http://www.europe.forces.gc.ca/sites/internet-eng.aspx?page=7982, accessed on 10 April 2014

INGLIS, Lt(N) A.M. (April M.), "A Life of Service: A brief biography of former JAG: BGen (ret'd) James Simpson, QC, IDC", (2004) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 11-13;

___________"Une vie de service : Une brève biographie de l'ancien JAG: le Bgén (ret) James Simpson", (2004) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 14-16;

INSTITUT RIDEAU INSTITUTE, Letter to Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, "RE: Need for Commission of Inquiry on Canada’s Transfer of Afghan Detainees to Torture", 7 June 2016, available at (accessed 8 October 2016); available at https://bccla.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Afghan_OpenLetter-Jun7-2016_EN.pdf (accessed 8 October 2016);

The previous government systematically blocked all efforts to investigate what happened.
Citing operational security concerns, it refused to provide uncensored information to the
public, Parliament, the Federal Court, and the Military Police Complaints Commission
(MPCC). It also thwarted an investigation by the House of Commons Special Committee
on Afghanistan, first by refusing to disclose documents and then by shutting down the
committee when the Conservatives won a majority in 2011. The House approved a
December 1, 2009 motion: “That, in the opinion of the House, the government should,
in accordance with Part I of the Inquiries Act, call a Public Inquiry into the transfer of
detainees in Canadian custody to Afghan authorities from 2001 to 2009.” This motion
was ignored. 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF JURISTS, Military Jurisdiction and International Law, Vol. 1 : Military Courts and Gross Human Rights Violations, in two parts, 2004, and see Part II,  "Military Jurisdiction and National Law", at pp. 190-201 for Canada, available at  http://www.icj.org/news.php3?id_article=3254&lang=en  and http://www.icj.org/IMG/pdf/Trib._mil._ENG-_part_II.pdf  (accessed on 23 July 2008); also available at http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/87_1184764985_trib-mil-eng-part-ii.pdf (accessed on 18 December 2011);

From the left: Linda Bianchi, Marie Deschamps and Blaise Cathcart

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF JURISTS CANADA, Administrator, News, "Successful CPD Event: Rule of law in interventions in fragile states", 4 November 2016, available at http://www.icjcanada.org/index.php/en/news.html (accessed 9 January 2017);

On October 20, 2017 [sic should read 2016], ICJ Canada held a very special full-day CPD programme in Ottawa, focusing on building the rule of law in fragile states
through whole of government involvement, linking military, justice sector, humanitarian, and development assistance.


Other themes discussed during the day included:


Oversight of international peacebuilding efforts in relation to international criminal law (Hon. Marie Deschamps, former justice of the SCC and UN investigator; Linda Bianchi, Counsel, Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Section, Department of Justice and former international prosecutor; MGen Blaise Cathcart, Judge Advocate General)

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS, "Customary IHL -- Canada", available at http://www.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v2_cou_ca  (accessed on 31 May 2012); IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION

___________"Follow-up to the 28th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent -- Implementation -- Government -- Canada", available at http://www.icrc.org/Applic/p128e.nsf/va_IBP/7B837043D89AB4F9C12573AE0032E724?openDocument&section=IBP (accessed on 22 May 2012); see also https://rcrcconference.icrc.org/applic/pledges/p128e.nsf/va_navPage/IBP?OpenDocument&Start=1&Count=1000&Expand=1.27 (accessed 28 December 2016);

Hide details for [<span class="VCOUNTRY">Canada</span>]Canada

- Agenda for Humanitarian Action
- Pledge P175

- Agenda for Humanitarian Action
- Agenda for Humanitarian Action

- Agenda for Humanitarian Action
- Agenda for Humanitarian Action

- Agenda for Humanitarian Action
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- Agenda for Humanitarian Action
- Agenda for Humanitarian Action

- Agenda for Humanitarian Action
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- Declaration / Resolution 1
- Declaration / Resolution 1

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- Declaration / Resolution 1
- Declaration / Resolution 1

- Declaration / Resolution 1
- Declaration / Resolution 1

___________"Recent activities to promote national implementation of International Humanitarian Law in countries and organizations of the Americas", 31-05-1998, ICRC Resource Centre; Note: "Working document prepared by the International Committee of the Red Cross for the information of OAS member States which are party to the 1949 Geneva Conventions"; available at https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jp74.htm (accessed 7 January 2016);


1. National structures for implementation of IHL

- October 1996. Representatives of the Canadian Permanent Mission took part in the Meeting of experts on committees or other bodies for the national implementation of IHL, organized by the ICRC in Geneva.

- March 1998. Discussions were under way on the establishment of a Canadian National Committee on International Humanitarian Law, in accordance with a Memorandum of Understanding between the Departments of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, National Defence and Justice, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canadian International Development Agency and the Canadian Red Cross Society. Representatives of these departments and bodies were to be the core members of the Committee; other members may be designated on an ad hoc basis for particular projects. The Committee's main functions will be to the facilitate implementation of IHL and to offer advice on dissemination. It is anticipated that the Committee will meet two or three times a year, and special meetings may be convened as needed. The Canadian Red Cross will provide secretariat services. The first meeting was scheduled for March 1998.

2. Legislative and administrative measures

- Canada ratified the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons in 1994 and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention in 1995. It ratified the Ottawa treaty banning anti-personnel landmines in 1997, and adopted implementing legislation the same year (Bill C-22, passed by the House of Commons on 24 November 1997).

- April 1998. The Canadian National Committee on International Humanitarian Law was formally established on the basis of a Memorandum of Understanding of 18 March signed by the Departments represented on the Committee.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, Tools, available at https://www.legal-tools.org/  (accessed 10 March 2017);

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HUMANITARIAN LAW, Rules of Engagement Handbook, San Remo, November 2009; available at http://www.usnwc.edu/getattachment/7b0d0f70-bb07-48f2-af0a-7474e92d0bb0/San-Remo-ROE-Handbook (accessed on 8 May 2012); Major Phillip Drew, Canadian Forces was part of thedrafting team;
INSTITUT INTERNATIONAL DE DROIT HUMANITAIRE À SAN REMO, Rédigé sous les auspices de l', Manuel de San Remo sur les règles d'engagement, San Remo, novembre 2009; disponible à http://www.usnwc.edu/getattachment/40f03e66-8753-458f-b90c-1dfca1be95b9/Sanremo-ROE-Handbook-%28French%29 (vérifié le 8 mai 2012);  le Capitaine Phillip Drew, Forces canadiennes faisait partie de l'équipe de rédaction;

Source: https://books.google.ca. accessed 22 September 2015
___________San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed  Conflicts at Sea / prepared by international lawyers and naval experts convened by the HIIKL; editor Louise Doswald-Beck,Cambridge; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1995, ix, 257 p., ISBN: 0521551889 (hardcover) and 0521558646 (pbk.); see book preview at http://books.google.ca/books?id=-janjtEKr7UC&pg=PR1&lpg=PR1&dq=%22San+Remo+Manual+on+International+Law+applicable+to+Armed+Conflicts+at+Sea%22+fenrick&source=bl&ots=mlbDbbzUJU&sig=B-5Ekhrmbp5d7DWeLfa1uE3Fphk&hl=en&sa
(accessed on 5 March 2012); Commander William J. Fenrick, Canadian Forces,  was part of the team of experts who authored the Explanation; copy at the University of Ottawa, FTX General KZ 6563 .S256 1995;

INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR MILITARY LAW AND THE LAW OF WAR, "Conference on Military Jurisdiction Rhodes (Greece), 28 September 2011 to 2 October 2011 -- Questionnaire [with answers from Canada]", version 3A -- Sep 12, 2011, 21 p., available at http://home.scarlet.be/~ismllw/conferences/QUESTIONNAIRE%20RHODES/Canada%20EN.pdf (accessed on 26 February 2012);
SOCIÉTÉ INTERNATIONALE DE DROIT MILITAIRE ET DE DROIT DE LA GUERRE, "Conférence relative à la jurisdiction militaire Rhodes (Grèce), du 28 septembre 2011 au 2 octobre 2011 -- Questionnaire [avec les réponses du Canada]", version 3A -- 12 sept 2011, 23 p., disponible à http://home.scarlet.be/~ismllw/conferences/QUESTIONNAIRE%20RHODES/Canada%20FR.pdf (site visité le 26 février 2012);

___________Les Garanties des droits individuels dans le répression disciplinaire et pénale militaire : IIIe congrès  international, Strasbourg 20-21 mai 1964 / Préface de Jacques Léauté / Safeguard of individual rights in the application of military law and disciplinary regulations, Strasbourg, [Paris,] : Éditions Cujas, 1966, 280 p., 25 cm; title noted in my research but book not consulted; may deal with Canada?; copy at McGill University, University of Toronto and Carleton University, UB790.I58 (CaOOCC)0491179; recherches en cours (27 octobre 2016);

Source of image: http://www.turkel-committee.gov.il/files/newDoc3/Annex%20C%20-%20for%20Website.pdf, accessed 22 September 2015

ISRAEL, The Public Commission to Examine the Maritime Incident of 31 May 2010, Second Report -- The Turkel Commission, Israel's Mechanisms for Examining and Investigating Complaints and Claims of Violations of the Laws of Armed Conflict According to International Law, February 2013; available at http://www.turkel-committee.gov.il/files/newDoc3/The%20Turkel%20Report%20for%20website.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2005); deals with Canada; see also MacDOUGALL, M.H. (Holly), "Canada: Investigation and Prosecution of Alledged Violations of the Law of Armed Conflict", in The Public Commission to Examine the Maritime Incident of 31 May 2010, The Turkel Commission, Second Report, Israel's Mechanisms for Examining and Investigating Complaints and Claims of Violations of the Laws of Armed Conflict According to International Law, Annex C -- The Comparative Survey, at pp. 563-640, available at http://www.turkel-committee.gov.il/files/newDoc3/Annex%20C%20-%20for%20Website.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2015);


From the left: Dr. Chris Madsen, Dr. Walter Dorn, Murraw Brewster,
Prof Amir Attaran, Craig Scott
JACK AND MAE NATHANSON CENTRE ON TRANSNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS, CRIME & SECURITY, Osgoode Hall Law School York University Toronto, "Public Forum: "Evidence of Torture in Canada: The New Normal of Official Complicity? Nathanson Centre - Wednesday, 9 January, 2013,  Panel 3 - Evidence of Torture in Canada & Armed Conflicts: Afghan Detainees Case and Other Cases",; NOTE: "Third Panel on torture in the military environment, with special emphasis on case law from the Canadian experience in Afghanistan, Haiti, and Somalia"; available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSZb0hcqS9A&list=UURHE5TWwkyOy1OOVAYJOWgg&index=1, accessed 7 October 2016);

____________ Special Forum on the Canadian Mission in Afghanistan (February 2010), available at http://nathanson.osgoode.yorku.ca/programs/conferences-workshops/2009-2010/special-forum-on-canadian-mission-afghanistan/ (accessed on 1 Marc h 2012);  notes: includes Commander (retd.)  William Fenrick observations;

Image source: https://library.ryerson.ca/sexdiv/authors/jackson/, accessed 20 August 2016
Paul Jackson

JACKSON, Paul, Courting homosexuals in the military: The management of homosexuality in the Canadian military, 1939–1945, Thesis (Ph. D.)--Queen's University, 2002, 866 p., thesis advisor: Karen Dubinsky;

Description: During the Second World War, contradictory anti-homosexual policies in all three branches of the Canadian military made homosexual men vulnerable to discipline and punishment. The category of ‘homosexual’ was inflexibly cast as invidious in public discourse. Medical policy required the immediate discharge of homosexuals as ‘military misfits.’ Under military law, servicemen were court-martialled for homosexual indecency. As the war progressed, more extensive policing and surveillance techniques meant that queer men were increasingly likely to be discovered and prosecuted. Since the regulations governing homosexual activity were promulgated poorly and enforced erratically, many men were unaware of them until they were caught. However, all knew that homosexuality was a serious offence against morality and masculinity. Meanwhile, queer men were commonly appreciated at a personal and professional level, where they were not originally judged categorically as ‘homosexual.’ Many servicemen at all levels of command protected their queer comrades and subordinates from the gaze of hostile military authorities. The mobilisation for war provided queer men with unprecedented opportunities in Canada and overseas to explore their sexuality. While they were active in all types of military units, their visibility depended on the opportunities offered by their units. In all services, officers found guilty by court-martial of homosexuality were discharged while other ranks were most commonly sentenced to periods of detention. Queer veterans who escaped detection often remember their service as formative in their social and sexual development. Loyal servicemen who were persecuted or prosecuted for their sexual difference remain deeply resentful towards the nation that broke faith with them. Using a variety of military records and interviews with veterans, I explore the place of homosexuality in a variety of military environments and study relationships between servicemen at various levels of command. I examine in detail the occasions when homosexuality became a significant issue for men in their personal lives and when it became a problem at the institutional level. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=2&frbg=&rfnGrpCounter=1&indx=11&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&fctV=Dissertations&mode=Basic&vid=01LOC&ct=Next%20Page&rfnGrp=1&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&fctN=facet_rtype&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=%22canadian%20military%20law%22&dstmp=1471511778086, accessed 18 August 2016)

  ___________One of the Boys: Homosexuality in the Military During World War II, McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 2004, 338 pages;

Homosexuality and military service have always made strange bedfellows. Military leaders, generally traditionalists, have typically seen homosexuals as unmanly, immoral, and a threat to cohesion. While the U.S. military has garnered international headlines as a result of its exclusionary policies, the issue is far from new and struggles with it have not been limited to the United States. The Canadian military was acutely concerned with homosexuality during the Second World War. At the outset of the war the mammoth task of mobilizing hundreds of thousands of troops overshadowed concerns about their sexual behaviour of orientation. As the war progressed, however, senior military brass became increasingly determined to rid the services of those engaged in "disgraceful conduct of an indecent kind." Using an wide array of sources - including long-closed court martial records, psychiatric and personnel files, unit war diaries, films, and oral histories - Paul Jackson relates the struggle of queer servicemen of all ranks and branches of the Canadian military to fit in and avoid losing their careers and reputations. Open Secrets, a National Film Board of Canada documentary, was based on this book. [Source: http://books.google.ca/books?id=VahBObOSUDQC&source=gbs_ViewAPI&redir_esc=y, accessed on 27 April 2014]

----source foe EUROMAIL logo: google image at https://www.google.com (21 january 2016)
JACOB, Emmanuel, President of EUROMIL (European Organization of Military Associations)," 'WINDS OF CHANGE' Inaugural Conference on Canadian Military Justice 13 November 2015 Ottawa Information provided by Emmanuel Jacob, President of EUROMIL" in Michel Drapeau Law Office, ed.,  Winds of Change: Conference and Debate on Canadian Military Law, [Ottawa:] Michel Drapeau Law Office, 2016, 102 p., at pp. 33-34, NOTES: Conference held at the University of Ottawa, 13 November 2015; "For the first time an international academic conference on military law was held in Canada at the University of Ottawa with the focus on reform and comparative law" (Gilles Létourneau, Preface, p. 7);  "(Organizing Committee for the Conference: Michel W. Drapeau, Joshua M. Juneau, Walter Semianiw and Sylvie Corbin)"; Speech transcribed by Joshua M. Juneau, p. 31; available at mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2015-Conference-Proceedings.pdf (accessed 20 January 2016);

JACOBS, Major Christopher W., "
Taking the Next Step: An Analysis of the Effects the Ottawa Convention May Have on the Interoperability of United States Forced with the Armed Forces of Australia, Great Britain, and Canada", (2004) 180 Military Law Review 49-114; available at https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/Military_Law_Review/pdf-files/180-summer-2004.pdf(accessed 25 January 2017);

Source of image: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2015/mdn-dnd/D12-21-1997-1-eng.pdf, accessed 26 December 2015
JACOBSON, Captain(N) D.V., "In Defence of the Canadian Court-martial System", The  Defence Associations National Network --  NATIONAL NETWORK  NEWS,  Volume 4 No. 3 - July, 1997 ("Article reprinted courtesy of the Maritime Engineering Journal", February 1997 at 2-5), available at http://web.archive.org/web/20011208005105/http://www.sfu.ca/~dann/nn4-3_11.htm; also available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2015/mdn-dnd/D12-21-1997-1-eng.pdf (accessed 28 December 2015); Note: Captain(N) D.V Jacobson was President of the General court martial of Pte Kyle Brown (Somalia affair);

I do have one caveat, however.  As the Supreme Court observed, the overriding need for a military justice system is not just to resolve issues affecting
military discipline fairly, but quickly as well.  It is
in this area of rapidity and not in any ill-informed or ill-prepared outside criticism that I see the greatest risk
to the continuing separate existence of our military justice system. While recognizing that a compromise is needed between swiftness and resources
dictated by the complexity of the case, I fear that the balance has leaned too far toward economy of resources and away from swiftness of application.
If by our corporate action our military demonstrates that time has ceased to be a factor, then a large part of the rationale for a separate military justice
system will cease to exist

JAMES, Patrick, 1957-, Canada and Conflict, Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press, c2012, 156 p. ; 23 cm. SERIES: Issues in Canada, ISBN: 9780195432206; available in part at http://www.amazon.com/Canada-Conflict-Issues-Patrick-James/dp/0195432207%3FSubscriptionId%3DAKIAIRZN624HBT3HDR5Q%26tag%3Dusafind-20%26linkCode%3Dxm2%26camp%3D2025%26creative%3D165953%26creativeASIN%3D0195432207#reader_0195432207 (accessed 18 January 2016);

Barbara Janusz, image source: http://www.johnprince.ca/wpblog/alternatives-journal-barbara-janusz-2014-06-17/, accessed 26 December 2014

JANUSZ, Barbara D.,  "War and Emergency" in Canadian Encyclopedic Digest, (Ontario, 3d), volume 52, title 158, Scarborough: Carswell; copy at the Fauteux Library, University of Ottawa;

___________"War and Emergency" in Canadian Encyclopedic Digest, (West, 3d), volume 55, title 161, Scarborough: Carswell; copy at the Fauteux Library, University of Ottawa;

Nishika Jardine, image source Google Image - everitas.mcclub.ca, accessed on 9 June 2014

JARDINE, Nishika, LCol, Canadian Forces and the rule of Law: failures of the arrangement for the transfer of detainees in Afganistan, JCSP: Master of Defence Studies, Canadian Forces College, 2007, 89 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/293/286/jardine.pdf (accessed on 18 December 2011);

Image source: http://cmfmag.ca/best_cmf/its-never-too-late/ (accessed 20 August 2016)
Blair Hicks

JARRATT, Lee, "It's Never Too Late: There comes a time, for those of us in the Canadian Armed Forces, when our career path stalls or loses its appeal", (Summer 2015) Canadain Military Family 44-45; about Blair Hicks, admitted as a member of the Law Society of Upper Canada (Ontario Bar) in 2014; available at http://cmfmag.ca/best_cmf/its-never-too-late/ (accessed 20 August 2016);

For Blair Hicks, who was an Air Combat System Operator, that time came in 2010.  After serving 20 years in the Air Force, she decided it was time
for a change.  In 2009, she applied for the Canadian Forces subsidized legal officer training (MLTP -- Military Legal Training Plan).  This program had
candidates apply concurrently to several Canadian law schools.  Hicks made the shortlist, unfortunately due to the limited military positions she was not
accepted.  However, Hicks did gain acceptance into law school at the Western University of London, Ontario where she started her path to becoming a
lawyer in 2010, something she had wanted to do for awhile.(p. 44)

Jean-Baptiste Jeangène Vilmer, source de la photo: http://dandurand.uqam.ca/chercheurs/64
                                                     -chercheurs/1066-jean-baptiste-jeangene-vilmer.html, site visité le 27 décembre 2014

JEANGÈNE VILMER, Jean-Baptiste, 1978-, Au nom de l'humanité: histoire, droit, éthique et politique de l'intervention militaire justifiée par des raisons humanitaires, thèse Ph.D., Université de Montréal, 2009;

Source: http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/content/bl/add_ms_49055.jpg, accessed 3 March 2016
JELLICO of SCAPA, Viscount, Report of the Admiral of the Fleet Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa on Naval Mission to the Dominion of Canada (November-December, 1919), see "Discipline", at volume 1, Chapter 4 at p. 35;

Photo of Paul Jenkins, reproduced from http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=96168  (accessed on 31 March 2014)

JENKINS, P.H. (Paul), "Policing the Canadian Forces in the 21st century", Toronto, Ont.: Canadian Forces Command and Staff College, 32 leaves;  Notes:  Course 17, 1990/91;  title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (1 January 2012); I worked with Paul when he was a young captain with the military police in Halifax, circa 1975-1977;


Myriam Jézéquel, image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/pub/myriam-j%C3%A9z%C3%A9quel/12/248/952, vérifié le 23 janvier 2015

JÉZÉQUEL, Myriam, "Avocat au sein des Forces armées canadiennes: un mode de vie unique en son genre", (1er octobre 2004), 36(16) Journal du Barreau; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/publications/journal/vol36/no16/forcesArmees.html (vérifié le 27 février 2012); notes: interview avec l'avocat militaire Sylvain Lavoie;

Image source: http://writers.ns.ca/members/profile/107, accessed 25 September 2016
Dean Jobb
JOBB, Dean, "Crown asset: Jerry Pitzul has put Nova Scotia's Public Prosecution Service on a sound business footing, but some high-profile cases are mired in controversy and there's grumbling in the ranks over low salaries and the director's aloof management style", Canadian Lawyer, Jan 1998, Vol.22(1), pp.18-21; title noted in my research but article not consulted yet (8 July 2016);

Source of image: http://www.mqup.ca/canada-in-norad--1957-2007-products-9781553391357.php#!prettyPhoto/0/, accessed 22 September 2015
JOCKEL, Joseph T., Canada in NORAD, 1957-2007: A History, Montreal and Kingston: McGill- Queen’s University Press, 2007, 240 p. (series; Queen's Policy Studies Series; 115); see Table of Contents at http://www.mqup.ca/canada-in-norad--1957-2007-products-9781553391357.php (accessed 5 June 2015);

JODOIN, Major R., "The Code of Service Discipline after the Constitution", Toronto, Canadian Forces College, 1983, 1 microfiche (series; Exercise New Horizons); cited in Martin Friedland's study for the Commission of Inquiry, Controlling Misconduct in the Military: a Study prepared for the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, supra, at p. 171, footnote 225;

JOHANSEN,  David, "Armed forces on active service : sections 31 and 32 of the National Defence Act",  [Ottawa] : Research Branch, Library of Parliament, 1990,  4 p., (series;  Mini-review; MR-71E);
JOHANSEN, David, "La mise en service actif des Forces armées : articles 31 et  32 de la Loi sur la défense nationale",  [Ottawa] : Service de recherche, Bibliothèque du Parlement, 1990,  5 p. (series;  Mini-bulletin ; MR-71F);

JOHNSON, Lt(N) Alexandra, "JAG CLE Workshop", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 77-78;
JOHNSON, ltv Alexandra, "Atelier de travail de la FJP du JAG", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 78-79;

JOHNSTON, David, Son excellenec le très honorable, Gouverneur général du Canada, "100e anniversaire de la nomination du premier juge-avocat général canadien", Ottawa, 6 octobre 2011; disponible à http://www.gg.ca/document.aspx?id=14260&lan=fra  (vérifié le 23 décembre 2016);

JONES, Douglas, 1846-, compiled by, Notes on military law for the use of the cadets of the Royal Military College of Canada, Ottawa: Maclean, Roger, 1880, 80 p.; also available: CIHM/ICMH Microfiche series = CIHM/ICMH collection de microfiches ; no. 13594, ISBN:  0665135947; copy available at http://www.archive.org/details/cihm_06713  and http://www.archive.org/details/cihm_13594 (accessed on 21 December 2011)

 "Table of Contents [partial]:
Chapter 1: Introductory...5;
Chapter 2: Martial Law... 6-9;
Chapter 3: Historical Summary of Military Law... 10-19;
Chapter 4: Courts Martial... 20-26;
Chapter 5: Preliminaries to Trial...27-43;
Chapter 6: Crimes and Punishments...44-53;
Chapter 7: Courts of Inquiry...54-55;
Chapter 8: Eviden...56-66; Appendix: Form of Proceedings of a General C.M. (including some of the more unusual incidents which may occur to vary the ordinary course of procedure, with instructions for guidance of the court)...67-75; Administration of Oaths...76-78"

___________Textbook of Military Law For the Use of the Gentlemen Cadets of the Royal Military College of Canada, [2nd ed.,], Kingston (Ontario]: Daily News Stream Print House, 1882, 266 p.; also published by CIHM/ICMH Microfiche Series number 10644, ISBN: 06665106440; available at  (accessed on 27 December 2014); available at  https://archive.org/details/cihm_10644  (accessed on 27 December 2014); also available at https://archive.org/stream/cihm_10644#page/n5/mode/2up (accessed 26 December 2015);

Chapter I. Civil Law, Military Law, and Martial Law, contrasted... 1;
Chapter II. Historical Summary of Military Law...5;
Chapter III. The 'Army Act 1881'...16;
Chapter IV. Discipline...27;
Chapter V. Courts Martial...50;
Chapter VI.  Proceedings before trial...65;
Chapter VII. Duties, Responsibilities etc. of Persons Officiating at Courts Martial...82;
Chapter VIII.  Procedure at Trial...104;
Chapter IX. Field General, and Summary Courts Martial...141;
Chapter X. Crimes and Punishments...149;
Chapter XI. Fotrfeitures, Stoppages, and Fines...178;
Chapter XII. Various Regulations, Penalties etc....183;
Chapter XIII. Courts of Inquiry, Committees and Boards...188;
Chapter XIV. Martial Law...194;
Chapter XV. Evidence...206;
Chapter XVI. Military Law as it Concerns the Militia in Canada...246;
Index 252"


JOSEPH, Michael, former military judge with the Office of the Judge Advocate General, biographical notes at  https://www.ogs.on.ca/ogspi/2005/05clo001.htm(accessed 27 December 2015):

the Honourable Mr. Justice Michael Joseph, LL.B., C.D., Retired Lieutenant Colonel (Assistant Judge Advocate General) Retired Justice of the Ontario Court of Justice (Criminal Division).
On Wednesday, September 14th, 2005, Michael died at Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital in his 94th year. Beloved husband of the late Marie Catherine McDERMOTT, who predeceased him in 1988; beloved father of Brian Michael CLONEY, of Oakville, Ontario loving grandfather of Deborah Lynn Cloney STRANG, great-grandfather of Tyler and Cameron STRANG; son of the late Walter Patrick CLONEY and Josephine Teresa GUERIN, of Toronto, Ontario; brother of the late Elizabeth Mary BEATON, of Ottawa, Ontario, and Edmund Augustine CLONEY, of Coral Gables, Florida, and uncle of Edmund's daughter Irene WILSON, of Middletown, Connecticut; cousin of Catherine Cloney MITCHELL, Stratford, Ontario.
Michael was a 1930 graduate of Saint Mary's Redemptorist College, Brockville, Ontario and Osgoode Hall Law School, Toronto, Ontario and called to the Ontario Bar in 1940.
Michael served as an infantry officer in the Canadian Army (active) in 1942-47 in Canada, England and Italy during the Second World War. From 1947-61 he was an officer of the Canadian Army (Regular), serving as a Military Judge with the office of the Judge Advocate General in Ottawa, Winnipeg, West Germany (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Oakville, Ontario.
Michael retired in 1961 upon assuming the office of Magistrate for Metropolitan Toronto. In 1968, he became a Judge of the Ontario Provincial Court (Criminal Division). He occasionally substituted for other judges in Ontario locations, but principally in the Greater Toronto area. He retired in January, 1987.
In 1961-77, he was a Director of the Salvation Army House of Concord, as well as the Santa Maria House in Toronto; President of the Thomas More Lawyers Guild of Toronto in 1972-73, when he brought His Excellency Archbishop Fulton J. SHEEN to Toronto to address the Guild's Annual Dinner; Life member of the Law Society of Upper Canada; Life member of the Royal Canadian Military Institute; Life member of The Ontario Judges Association.
Funeral services will be conducted at St. Andrew's Church on Reynolds Street at King Street, in Oakville, Ontario on September 17th at 10: 00 a.m.
Interment will take place in the Cloney Family Plot, Mount Hope Cemetery, Toronto, following the Mass of Christian Burial.
Friends may call at the Ward Funeral Home on Friday September 16th from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. and 8 p.m. to 10 p.m. Michael request that instead of floral remembrances, donations to the Covenant House in Toronto be made and would be appreciated.

Vihar Joshi, source of photo: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page --accessed 21 March 2014

JOSHI, Lcol Vihar, "Implementation of the JAG's Intent -- Guiding Principles for the Office of the Judge Advocate General (16 May 06) /  Mise en application de l'intention du JAG -- Principes pour le cabinet du Juge-avocat général (16 mai 2006)", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 50-53;

Notes, materials, slides and resources that were used, prepared or relied upon by Col Vihar Joshi for his appearance at the CBA Conference titled "Canada's Military Citizens: The Intersection of Military and Civilian Laws", held 1 Dec 11 at CFB Stadacona, all disclosed, 14 pages, completed Access to Information Requests, April 2012, request number A-2011-01624; see http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/transparency-access-info-privacy/2012-completed-requests.page, accessed 17 February 2015;

___________Notes on Colonel Joshi (source: email from JAG, 12 December 2014):

Yesterday, the Government of Canada recognized seven lawyers in the federal public service as Queen's Counsel (Q.C.). Formally styled "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law," the federal Q.C. honours lawyers who demonstrate exemplary service to the Canadian justice system.

The individuals receiving this honour are members of the federal public service who have demonstrated leadership in their professional lives, raised esteem for the legal profession, and made outstanding contributions to the development of the law.

Colonel Vihar Joshi, Deputy Judge Advocate General, Administrative Law, Canadian Armed Forces

Colonel Joshi is Canada's leading authority on military administrative law. Throughout his career, he has been involved in such key files as the drafting of the Anti-Terrorism Act (2001) and the Canadian Armed Forces' first pension plan for Reserve Force personnel. He has also made important contributions as a legal adviser on operational matters, including in Haiti, Bosnia and Afghanistan, for which he received honour and recognition (Meritorious Service Medal in 2010, Officer of the Order of Military Merit in 2014).

Le gouvernement du Canada reconnaît hier sept avocats de la fonction publique en leur conférant le titre de conseiller de la reine (c.r.). Auparavant appelé « conseiller de Sa Majesté en loi », le titre fédéral de c.r. rend hommage à des avocats qui offrent des services exemplaires au système de justice canadien.

Le titre de conseiller de la reine est conféré à des avocats du secteur public fédéral qui font preuve de leadership dans leur vie professionnelle, rehaussent l'estime dont jouit la profession juridique et contribuent de manière exceptionnelle à l'évolution du droit.

Colonel Vihar Joshi, juge-avocat général adjoint, Droit administratif, Forces armées canadiennes

Le colonel Joshi est une sommité canadienne en droit administratif militaire. Au cours de sa carrière, il s'est occupé de dossiers importants comme la rédaction de la Loi antiterroriste (2001) et l'élaboration du premier régime de pension des Forces armées canadiennes pour le personnel de la Force de réserve. À titre de conseiller juridique, il a également apporté une importante contribution à des questions opérationnelles, notamment à Haïti, en Bosnie et en Afghanistan, contribution pour laquelle il s'est mérité la Médaille de service méritoire en 2010 et a été nommé officier de l'Ordre du mérite militaire en 2014.

___________Should regulations made under Section 12 of the National Defence Act continue to be exempt from the procedural requirements relating to the making of subordinate legislation in Canada,
Master's essay for LL.M. degree / mémoire de maîtrise en droit pour le grade LL.M., University of Ottawa, 2007; apparently the paper deals with national security and counter-terrorism; on lit que ce mémoire de maitrise n'est pas disponible pour consultation, voir "Liste des mémoires de maïtrise et thèses de doctorat acceptés en 1999", (Automne 1999) 59 Revue du Barreau 757 à la p. 758; note: DCL Paper, University of Ottawa Faculty of Law 1998;

Vihar Joshi,

__________testimony before the House of Commons Special Committee on Electoral Reform, 25 October 2016 (42nd Parliament, 1st session), available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/Committees/en/ERRE/Meetings (accessed 27 October 2016);

JOURNAL DU BARREAU DU QUÉBEC, "Recensions juridiques --Les avocats militaires: Colonel (retraité) R. Arthur McDonald, Les avocats militaires du Canada, Défense nationale, Cabinet du juge-avocat général, Ottawa, Ministère des travaux publics et services gouvernementaux du Canada, 2002, 263 pages", Journal du Barreau du Québec, volume 35, numéro 13, 1er août 2003; disponible à http://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/journal/vol35/no13/recensions.html (vérifié 20 octobre 2015);

"The Judge Advocate General to teach at the US Naval War College from 2010" (May/Mail 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#top and http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/2009/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=37322#article4  (accessed on 28 April 2012);
"Le juge-avocat général enseignera au Naval War College des É.-U. en 2010" (May/Mai 2009) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx et http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2009/2009-05_military.aspx#article12 (site visité le 28 avril  2012);

JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, "Legal Officer Intermediate Training: Military Operations Law - April 29 [2013]" course schedule, Kingston; available at http://nsbs.org/event/2013/05/legal-officer-intermediate-training-military-operations-law-april-29  and at http://nsbs.org/inforum/2013-04-15/full(accessed 5 September 2016);

JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, JAG [Membership] Coins; here is the LIST of the 306 JAG Officers who have received a JAG coin; list obtained Access to Information Act letter, file A-2016-01294, dated 7 December 2016]

Joshua M. Juneau, photo source: http://mdlo.ca/our-team/joshua-juneau/, accessed on 7 April 2014

JUNEAU, Joshua, "Like throwing darts at a dartboard : the promotion system at the Department of National Defence, and the interplay between the Canadian Forces Grievance Board and the Chief of the Defence Staff",  (May/Mai 2012) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2012/PrintHTML.aspx?DocId=48115  (accessed on 6 May 2012);
JUNEAU, Joshua M., "Comme des fléchettes lancées  sur une cible : Le système de promotion du ministère de la Défense et l'interaction entre le Comité des griefs des FC et le chef de l'état-major de la Défense",  (May/Mai 2012) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles-sections/2012/2012-05_military.aspx#article1 (site visité le 6 mai 2012);

JURKOWSKI, Marlo, "Military hosts Manitoba lawyers" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2008/news.aspx (accessed on 26 April 2012);
JURKOWSKI, Marlo, "Des militaires accueillent des juristes du Manitoba" (April/Avril 2008) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2008/nouvelles.aspx#article4 (site visité le 26 avril  2012);

JULIANI,  T J. (Tony Joseph), 1950-, and C.K. (Charles Kenneth) Talbot, Military Justice: A Selected Annotated Bibliography, Ottawa : CRIMCARE, c1981,  xii, 71 leaves (series; A CRIMCARE  publication), ISBN:  0919395007; mostly non-Canadian references; at pp. vii and ix-xi, the authors point out the difficulty of making research on Canadian military law; copy of this book at the Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa; copy at University of Ottawa, Library Annex,  KE 7160 .A1 J845 1981;

KAIROS CANADIAN ECUMENICAL JUSTICE INITIATIVES, Canada, Afghanistan and Human Rights, Toronto: Kairos Canadian Ecumenical Justice Initiatives, 2007, 17 p.; notes: discussion paper; available at  http://schools.alcdsb.on.ca/social_justice/Human%20Rights%20Documents/Afghanistan%20Dec%2007.pdf (accessed on 2 November 2014);

KALWAHALI, Kakule, The Crimes Committed by UN Peacekeepers in Africa: A reflection on jurisdictional and accountability Issues, Doctor of Laws thesis, University of South Africa, 2013, xvii, 404 leaves, promoter: Professor Charnelle Van Der Bijl; available at http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/9950/thesis_kalwahali_k.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed on 10 August 2013); deals with Somalia and the Canadian Forces;


This thesis investigates both substantive and procedural issues pertaining to allegations of crimes committed by UN peacekeepers in three African countries, Somalia, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Under the current UN Model Status-of-Forces Agreements, criminal jurisdiction over peacekeepers rests with their sending States. However, although the UN has no criminal jurisdiction, it has been the Office of Internal Oversight Services that has conducted investigations. It is argued that every Status of Force Agreement and every Memorandum of Understanding should contain specific clauses obligating Troop-Contributing Countries to prosecute and the UN to follow-up. If rape, murder, assault, and any other crimes by UN peacekeepers go unpunished, the message sent to the victims is that peacekeepers are above the law. Rape is the most commonly committed crime by peacekeepers, but is usually considered as an isolated act. The procedural issue of prosecuting peacekeepers is investigated in order to establish whether troops can be caught under the ambits of the criminal law of the Host State to hold UN troops criminally accountable for their acts. The laws relative to the elements of each crime and the possible available defences under the three Host States, and the criminal law of South Africa as a Troop-Contributing Country, are discussed. The apparent lack of prosecution is investigated and existing cases of prosecution discussed. Alternatives to the unwillingness by States with criminal jurisdiction under the Status of Forces Agreement or under the Memorandum of Understanding are considered. Considering the current rules related to crimes committed by peacekeepers, the argument put forward is that crimes by peacekeepers must be dealt with completely and transparently though a Convention aiming at barring Troop-Contributing Countries who do not meet their obligations under international law from participating in future operations of peace. This thesis, furthermore, suggests a tripartite court mechanism to fill the lacunae in the law relating to the prosecution of peacekeepers. It considers the issues of reserving jurisdiction over peacekeepers to the Troop-Contributing Countries which are reluctant to prosecute repatriated alleged perpetrators. The victims’ importance in criminal proceedings and their their right to a remedy are highlighted. (source: http://uir.unisa.ac.za/handle/10500/9950

Image source: http://collegialuniversitaire.groupemodulo.com/2363-precis-de-droit-penal-general-2e-edition-produit.html, accessed 8 January 2015 
KAMEL-TOUEG, Nabil, 1932-, Précis de droit pénal général - Droit pénal I, 2e édition, Mont-Royal (Province of Québec) : Modulo Éditeur, 1994, ix, 242 p., voir "Les militaires" aux pp. 143-144, ISBN: 2891135024;

KARI, Shannon, "Appointment of military judge to Superior Court a first", Law Times, 16 February 2015; available at http://www.lawtimesnews.com/201502164491/headline-news/appointment-of-military-judge-to-superior-court-a-first (accessed on 20 November 2015); about the appointment of Colonel Michael Gibson; article not accurate as it omits Colonel Armand Desroches was the first named Judge;

KARWANDY, Frank, 1927-2016, notes on, former Canadian JAG:

Born in Neidpath, Saskatchewan, in 1927, Frank Karwandy came from a family with roots in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Keen on education, his father served as a councillor and reeve in the Municipality of Lawtonia. Frank was educated locally in one and two room schools, in high school in Herbert, Saskatchewan, and came to UBC in 1947 to study History, English, and French. He entered UBC law school in 1949, when he was twenty-one.

He recalls his years at UBC law school with affection. "Four of us banded together," he says. "Bill Quinn, Roland Barnes, Al MacDonnell, and myself. Law classes were in the morning, and we met in the afternoons and talked about our classes and cases. We'd say, 'What did you think?' and, 'How important is such-and-such a case?" The four of us stayed together for the three years of law school. Law School was difficult! But not so much academically: the main problem was the amount of work and remembering case names. There were so many cases! The library was quiet and I used to stay there until 9 at night. Of the four of us, Bill, who was also from Saskatchewan, moved to Alberta and practiced law there; Roland went into the Royal Canadian Navy legal branch; and Al, who was from Vernon, practiced in Prince Rupert and became a judge in the Supreme Court of British Columbia. I was in the same class as Mary Southin and Patricia Proudfoot [nee Fahlman], both of whom became well-known judges in British Columbia."
Karwandy enrolled in the Canadian Officers" Training Corps (COTC) at UBC in 1950, spent the summers training, and enlisted in the Regular Army prior to the third year of law school. Upon graduation, he was posted to The Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) in Calgary. In 1955, he gained admission to the BC Law Society and obtained his articles with the Burnaby law firm of Hean, Wylie and Hyde. "Burnaby was being developed so it was primarily real estate," he recalls. "I did a lot of title searches!"

His combination of legal and military training made Karwandy an ideal candidate for the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG), which he joined in 1956. This office provides legal advice to the senior and commanding officers of the Canadian Forces. JAG officers also serve as prosecuting and defending officers at General Courts Martial, which deal with serious military offences, and at Disciplinary Courts Martial, which deal with less serious military offences. Additionally, legal officers provide a limited legal aid service to all members of the Forces involving such matters as marital problems and landlord and tenant issues. Karwandy was stationed in Canada and in Germany and saw service in Cyprus and France. In 1982, he was promoted to Brigadier General and appointed Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces. He retired from the Forces in 1987 and now lives in Surrey, BC, with his wife Esther.

For further details, see R. Arthur McDonald, Canada's Military Lawyers (Ottawa: 2002).  (source: http://www.law.ubc.ca/allard/history.html, accessed on 12 May 2014)

Image source: back dust jacket of: McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), 1948-, Canada's Military Lawyers, Ottawa : Office of the Judge Advocate General, c2002, x, 242 p., ISBN: 0662321928;
Frank Karwandy
___________ Orbituary, born 16 September 1927 Neidpath, Saskatchewan - died 26 September 2016, White Rock, B.C,

Brigadier General (retired) Frank Karwandy, LLB, CDQC, was born September 16, 1927 in Neidpath, Saskatchewan. He died on September 26, 2016 in White Rock, B.C. Frank received his LLB in 1952 from the University of British Columbia, whereupon he joined the Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) in Calgary. Frank married the love of his life, Esther Ludwig, in 1954 in her home town of Winnipeg. They had met as students at the University of British Columbia, Frank completing his law degree and Esther her postgraduate nursing degree. In 1956 Frank and Esther returned to B.C. where Frank was called to the B.C. Bar. From May of 1956 until his retirement in 1986, Frank served as a legal officer in Canada's armed forces. His career took Frank and Esther to Edmonton, Halifax, Fredericton, Winnipeg, and Ottawa, as well as to Soest, Germany. In 1982, Frank was appointed to the office of Judge Advocate General and was awarded the CD Queen's Counsel. In 1987, Frank and Esther retired to White Rock, B.C. In 1994, Brigadier General Karwandy was awarded the Special Service Medal in recognition of his service in support of NATO. Frank was predeceased by his parents, Rosina and Frank Karwandy, his brothers John and Walter, sisters-in-law Margaret Karwandy, Ethel Ludwig and Leya Ludwig, brother-in-law Bobby Ludwig, and nieces Leone Karwandy-Hagel and Joanie Ludwig. Frank leaves his beloved wife Esther, siblings Nick (Florence), Rose (Bill), William, Kathy (Archie), brother-in-law Jack Ludwig, many nieces, nephews, and great-nieces and great-nephews. Frank will be remembered for his love of family and for his contribution to Canada. (source: http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/thestarphoenix/obituary.aspx?n=frank-karwandy&pid=181895903&fhid=5869, accessed 13 October 2016)

Photo of Peter Kasurak: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/peter-kasurak/10/384/ab6, accessed on 10 November 2014
KASURAK, Peter, "Concepts of Professionalism in the Canadian Army, 1946-2000: Regimentalism, Reaction, and Reform", (January 2011) 37(1) Armed Forces and Society  95-118;

During World War II the Canadian Army was a small cadre force augmented by citizen volunteers. It was a colonial institution, dependent on the British Army for doctrine and staff training. After the war, the army became involved in a lengthy struggle to define its concept of professionalism. Modernizers aimed for a well-educated officer corps that was integrated with other elites and able to influence national security policy. Traditionalists wished to preserve regimental traditions and leadership based on social class. Contention between these factions resulted in stalemate, with modern management undercut by internal politics. The result was the failure of professional norms in the 1993 Somalia operation. Subsequent reforms have put a modern “constabulary-realist” model of professionalism in place. (source: http://afs.sagepub.com/content/37/1/95.abstract, accessed on 1 January 2012) 

KELLY, Gloria, “RMC-led team win international competition”, (11 May 2005) 8(18) The Maple Leaf 4; available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2015/mdn-dnd/D12-7-8-18.pdf (accessed 25 September 2016); also, with the same title, in (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 11;
KELLY, Gloria, "Une équipe du CMR remporte un concours international", (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 11;

De la gauche, Kim Carter, Jean-Gabriel Castel, et Michael
Barutciski à la conférence Castel, 15 novembre 2006.
KEMENY, Marika, agente de communication de Glendon, d’après les contributions du professeur Michael Barutciski et des étudiants de sa classe de troisième année d’études internationales, et par Meagan Ross, coordonnatrice au développement de Glendon, "L’ombudsman de la Colombie-Britannique [Kim Carter] examine le rôle du droit international humanitaire lors de la conférence Castel tenue à Glendon", disponible à  http://fricka.glendon.yorku.ca/monglendon.nsf/GLNewsReaderF/9B5290FD81981DC885257236005A7A00?OpenDocument (vérifié le 17 octobre 2016);

KEMP, Brian, "Disciplinary charges soar since the push into Afghanistan", CBC News (http://www.cbc.ca), 25 July 2008; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/disciplinary-charges-soar-since-the-push-into-afghanistan-1.699842 (accessed 16 November 2015);

Source of image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Kempt, accessed 25 September 2016
James Kempt by William Salter

KEMPT,  James, Sir, 1764-1854,  Raport du comité spécial [microforme] : auquel a été référé cette partie de la harangue de Son Excellence relative à l'organization de la milice, Neison & Cowan, 1829, microfiche number 39980 one to six, location at the Supreme Court of Canada Library: S/R1 (microforms);

Colin Kenny, image source: http://colinkenny.ca/en/p100012 with Google Image (accessed on 23 January 2015)
KENNY, Colin, 1943-, Parliamentary Control  and National Defence: The Canadian Experience, Toronto : Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies = Institut canadien d'études stratégiques, 1998, 4 p. (series; Strategic Datalink; number 70);


KENNY, Major Martin F., "Protecting International Humanitarian Agencies in a UN Chapter Six Operation" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1, 4 and 7; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
KENNY, Major Martin F., "Précis : La protection des organisations humanitaires dans les missions de l'ONU" (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 1; disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf  (site visité le 18 avril 2012);

Photo of Guy Killaby, image source: https://www.facebook.com/pckillaby, accessed on 10 November 2014;

KILLABY, Lieutenant Commander Peter ("Guy"), "Books & articles of interest" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 6-7; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);
KILLABY, Guy, "Précis : Ouvrages et articles dignes d'intérêts" (January/Janvier 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 6; disponible http://web.archive.org/web/20030519205047/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+01-01.pdf (site visité le 18 avril 2012

____________" 'Great Game in a Cold Climate': Canada's Artic Sovereignty in Question" (Winter 2005-2006) 6(4) Canadian Military Journal available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo6/no4/north-nord-01-eng.asp (accessed on 18 April 2012);
___________ " 'Le grand jeu dans le grand nord' : remise en question de la souveraineté du Canada dans l'Arctique" (hiver 2005-2006) 6(4) Revue militaire canadienne 31-40; disponible à  http://www.arctique.uqam.ca/IMG/pdf/Le_grand_jeu_dans_le_Grand_Nord.pdf (site visité le 31 mai 2012);

___________"National Security and Technology: The Legal Constraints Upon the Canadian Forces" presented at Transformation & Technology : A Canadian Maritime Security Perspective -- A Conference hosted by the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies --- www.cfps.dal.ca -- Dalhousie University, 15-17 June 2006; available at CF INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS PLAN (accessed on 3 June 2012);

___________"The Operational Legal Challenges of Naval Operations in Canada's Artic Waters", Office of the Judge Advocate General, Strategic Legal Paper Series Issue 3, A-LG-007-SLA/AF-003, Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff,  OPI: JAG-DIOL, 2008-06-18; available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-strategic-legal-paper/naval-ops-arctic-waters-guide.page?  (accessed on 28 January 2014) and http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/jag/strategic-legal-paper-3-naval-ops.pdf; (accessed on 28 January 2014);

Table of Contents

___________ "Les difficultés juridiques que présentent les opérations navales dans l'Arctique Canadien, Série de documents juridiques stratégiques du cabinet du juge-avocat général - Fascicule 3, A-LG-007-SLA/AF-003, Publication autorisée par le Chef d'état-major de la Défense
BPR : JAG-DDIO, 2008-06-18; disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/a-propos-rapports-pubs-droit-militaire-document-juridique/operations-navales-eau-arctic-guide.page? (vérifié le 28 janvier 2014) et à http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/fr/jag/document-juridique-3-operations-navales.pdf (vérifié le 28 janvier 2014);

Table des matières

____________"Operational Military Law: Deployment in Kosovo", (July/Juillet 2000) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 3-4; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20030519184345/abc.cba.org/Sections/military_F/sword+00-07.pdf (accessed on 18 April 2012);

KILLABY, P.C., papers completed for his Masters in Law, with distinction and Certificate in National Security Law, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C., 2005, abstracts in (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 75;

1. The Commitment Myth Revisited: The Constitutionality of the Invocation of North Atlantic Treaty Article 5; completed for GULC Constitutional Aspects of Foreign Affairs Seminar Fall 2004;

2. National Security Information Protections in the International Criminal Court; completed for GULC War Crimes Seminar, Fall 2004;

3. International Legal Analysis of the Report of the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Charge; completed for GULC Use of Force Seminar, Spring 2005;

4. Keeping Canada's Military Secrets Secret; completed for GULC Strategic Intelligence Law Seminar, Spring  2005;

5. The Northwest Passage and Alaska Boundary Disputes: A Canadian National Security Law Analysis; completed for GULC Graduate Honors Seminar, Spring 2005;

Lieutenant-Colonel Bruce King

KING, Bruce, JAG officer, testimony before the Military Complaints Commission, 22 May, as reported by Chris Cobb, The Ottawa Citizen, see http://live.ottawacitizen.com/Event/Live_blog_Military_complaints_commission_hearing_Tuesday_May_22?Page=1 (accessed 30 September 2016);  research note: on-going research going on (30 September 2016);

Source of image: https://www.google.com  (Google image, accessed 26 September 2016)

KINGSLEY, Regeena, Fighting against Allies: An Examination of "National Caveats" within the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) Campaign in Afghanistan & their Impact on ISAF Operational Effectiveness 2002-2012, a doctoral thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor in Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand, 2014, xxix, 562 p.; available at mro.massey.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10179/6984/02_thesis.pdf (accessed 29 December 2015); deals with Canada;

Image source: , accessed 3 November 2016
KINSMAN, Gary, Patrizia Gentile, 1970-, The Canadian War on Queers, Vancouver : UBC Press, c2010,  xxiii, 554 p. : ill., port. map ; 24 cm. SERIES: Sexuality studies series, 1706-9947, ISBN: 978-0-7748-1628-1;

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations

Preface: National Security Wars -- Then and Now


List of Abbreviations

1. Queering National Security, the Cold War, and Canadian History: Surveillance and Resistance

2. Queer History and Sociology from Below: Resisting National Security

3. The Cold War against Queers: Social and Historical Contexts

4. Spying and Interrogation: The Social Relations of National Security

5. The "Fruit Machine": Attempting to Detect Queers

6. Queer Resistance and the Security Response: Solidarity versus the RCMP

7. The Campaign Continues in the 1970s: Security Risks and Lesbian Purges in the Military

8. "Gay Political Activists" and "Radical Lesbians": Organizing against the National Security State

9. Sexual Policing and National Security: Sex Scandals, Olympic Clean-Ups, and Cross-Country Organizing

10. Continuing Exclusion: The Formation of CSIS and "Hard-Core Lesbians"

11. From Exclusion to Assimilation: National Security, the Charter, and Limited Inclusion

12. From the Canadian War on Queers to the War on Terror: Resisting the Expanding National Security State

Appendix: Index of Interviews



Index  [source: http://www.ubcpress.ca/search/title_book.asp?BookID=299172599, accessed 3 November 2016]


Source of image: https://www.linkedin.com/in/niave-knell-a8b765b, accessed 26 September 2016
Niave Knell

KNELL, Niave F., Reemergence of the Arctic as a strategic location, Fort Leavenworth, KS : US Army Command and General Staff College, 2008, Thesis / Dissertation ETD; NOTES: School of Advanced Military Studies Monographs; available at http://cgsc.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p4013coll3/id/2330 (accessed 2 March 2016);

This monograph analyzes the Arctic region as a system by examining the strengths and weaknesses of its political, military, economic, social, infrastructure, and information sub-systems. This investigation reveals the key nodes (critical people and things) and key linkages (critical relationships between the nodes). Key nodes include the ice itself, as well as three of the Arctic states (The Russian Federation, The United States of America, and Canada), the European Union (EU), multi-national oil and gas corporations, supra-national non-governmental organizations, indigenous groups, the World Trade Organization, the internet, and trade among the Arctic states. Key linkages include the Arctic Council, the Barents Euro-Arctic Council, the Nordic Council, the EU's Northern Dimension, the indigenous groups' councils, and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) treaty. This investigation also reveals the system's potential. At this time, it could travel in one of two directions, either becoming an area of conflict as the quest for resources drives states to clash, or becoming an area of cooperation with states securing their national interests within UNCLOS while sharing information on common topics. With the knowledge gained from examining the Arctic region as a system and ascertaining the key nodes and linkages, as well as system potential, the researcher examines what this means for the United States. Using an all-of-government approach, the monograph discusses the strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for U.S. instruments of national power. From this discussion, the monograph author then makes recommendations within those instruments, concluding that it is critical for the U.S. to develop the vision, objectives, and policies prior to 2012, when a majority of the Arctic coastal states must have submitted their UNCLOS claims. (source: http://www.worldcat.org/title/reemergence-of-the-arctic-as-a-strategic-location/oclc/465222788&referer=brief_results, accessed 2 March 2016).

KORING, Paul, Brian Laghi, Clark Campbell, "Hillier pushed flawed detainee plan", The Globe and Mail (Index-only), May 2, 2007, p.A.1;
Description:   The Defence officials who helped draft the Canadian agreement included then-judge-advocate-general Jerry Pitzul, a major-general,
and a colonel on his staff, both of whom had experience in the laws of war and international humanitarian law, said a source involved with the discussions.
Just as important, according to an insider, the military officials argued that Dutch and British officials would not be able to effectively monitor detainees
in practice, and that the Canadian agreement was better because it contained an explicit legal commitment that the detainees would be covered by the Geneva Conventions.
(source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=6&frbg=&indx=51&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=Next%20Page&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=Canadian%20Judge%20Advocate%20General&dstmp=1474921570442, accessed 26 September 2016)

Image source for Benjamin Kormos: http://www.walshlaw.ca/Lawyers/Benjamin-J-Kormos.shtml, accessed on 25 November 2014:
KORMOS, Benjamin J., "The Posttraumatic Stress Defence in Canada: Reconnoitring the 'Old Lie' ", (2008) 54(2) The Criminal Law Quarterly 189; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1073982 (accessed on 14 December 2013);

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a hitherto-obscure phenomenon in the criminal law. Law has, for too long, been "marching with medicine, but in the rear, and limping a little." Yet, increasing awareness of the Disorder has prompted counsel to plead it in both civil and criminal proceedings. It is, perhaps, unsurprising that this disease, which was once prevalent as "shell shock," is the modern scourge of Canada's military obligations abroad. When Canadian Forces (CF) personnel return home, they are often not debriefed, nor provided with adequate mental health services. This neglect sows a ticking time bomb in Canadian homes; when the time is up, the explosion is sometimes violent, and criminal charges are laid. Yet, PTSD is not germane to only soldiers; sexual assault victims, and disaster survivors often suffer from the Disorder. However, because combat veterans often suffer more severe PTSD, and suffer it more prevalently, they will be the focus in this analysis. This paper will demonstrate that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder can form the basis of a successful Defence of Mental Disorder (Not Criminally Responsible, or NCR) in criminal proceedings.

The analysis will first define PTSD as a Mental Disorder; second, it will synthesize the Canadian law on the Defence of Mental Disorder; third, it will demonstrate how PTSD can form a basis for a successful NCR defence; fourth, it will address potential problems with the latter assertion; and finally, it will propose some measures to prevent PTSD in the highest risk group - Canadian Forces soldiers - and more effective means of treating them when they do suffer from PTSD.

A 2008 report by CBC News indicates that the number of CF soldiers suffering from PTSD has more than tripled since Canada first deployed troops to Afghanistan in 2001. The deployment is now expected to continue to 2011. Veteran Affairs acknowledges that "without [treatment] - many [such] veterans have the potential to harm themselves or others." In June 2006, the Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench, acquitted a CF member on this precise defence, in R. v. Borsch. The Court of Appeal recently ordered a new trial, on factual grounds. These decisions, coupled with the fact that the Defence application for leave to appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada is currently pending, demonstrate that this defence is clearly relevant to the discourse in the modern Canadian criminal law

  Image source: http://www.rmcclub.ca/eVeritas/2005/Issue21/200521.htm, accessed 21 February 2015
Angela Koskie
KOSKIE (née McDonnell), Captain Angela, "Vision and Achievement:/ Vision et réalisations: A Biography of former JAG MGen (Ret's) Jerry S.T. Pitzul, CMM, CD, Q.C., BAD, MBA, LLB/ Notice biographique de l'ancien juge-avocat général, le M.gén (retr.) Jerry S.T. Pitzul, CMM, CD, C.R., B.Adm, MBA, LL.B.", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 6-9; article in French & English/article en français et en anglais;

Image source: http://www.viewzone.com/politicians.html, accessed 26 September 2016
Jim Kouri

KOURI, Jim, "North American Military Agreement Signed by the U.S. and Canada", Global Research Centre for Research on Globalization, 4 April 2008, available at http://www.globalresearch.ca/north-american-military-agreement-signed-by-the-u-s-and-canada/8551 (accessed 19 September 2016);

Image source: www.huffingtonpost.ca/2015/09/12/jerry-kovacs-veterans-harper-rally_n_8127626.html, accessed 21 August 2016
KOVACS, Jerry, testimony before the House of Commons, Veterans Affairs Committee, 15 October 2012 (41st Parliament, 1st Session); available at https://openparliament.ca/committees/veterans-affairs/41-1/45/jerry-kovacs-1/only/, accessed 21 August 2016; veterans' law;

KRONENBERG, Vernon J.,  All together now: the organization of the Department of National Defence in Canada, 1964-1972,  Toronto : Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 1973,  124 p. (series; Wellesley papers; 3);  notes: Revision of the author's thesis (M.A.), Carleton University, 1971, presented under the title: All  together now : Canadian defence organization, 1964-1971, Bibliography: p. 118-120;

Art Kruse, 1930-2015

KRUSE, Art (Arthur Edward), "Arthur Edward L.COL., LLB, RCAF 1930-2015 Kruse", orbituary; died on 16 June 2015; born in 1930; former JAG Officer and military judge; see http://yourlifemoments.ca/sitepages/obituary.asp?oid=888419 (accessed 12 December 2015);

Image source:/www.editionsyvonblais.com/product-detail/international-law-of-the-sea/, accessed 16 June 2016

LABRECQUE, Georges, 1945-, International Law of the Sea, Toronto : Carswell, [2015], xvi, 595 pages : maps ; 26 cm, NOES: Includes bibliographical references (pages 451-487) and index. Preface and acknowledgements -- Abbreviations -- Figures -- Introduction -- Maps of the maritime world and legal definitions -- Geopolitical and legal history of the maritime world -- Geographical locations of states in relation to the sea -- marine resources and environment -- maritime zones under national jurisdiction -- Maritime zones beyond the limits of national jurisdiction -- Internationa straits and canals -- International maritime boundaries -- Pacific settlement of maritime disputes -- Recent case law on maritime issues -- Canada and the sea -- The Arctic -- General conclusion : the future of the internationa law of the sea. In English. NUMBERS: ISBN: 0779867068 ISBN: 9780779867066;

Source de l'image: http://www.parl.gc.ca/employment/senate/pageprogram/2011-2012-e.htm, visité le 22 septembre 2016
Julien Labrosse

LABROSSE, Julien, “I didn’t have time to find the English words”: The Korean War’s Role in the Evolution of Bilingualism in the Canadian Armed Forces, A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the MA degree in History Department of History, University of Ottawa, 2016, vii, 157 leaves, available at (accessed 22 September 2016); good research on the evolution of bilingualism in the Canadian Forces;

This thesis explores the impact of the Korean War on the evolution of the role of the French language in the Canadian military between 1946 and 1954. It explains how the Korean War acted as both a catalyst for a more accommodating stance towards the French language in the Canadian Armed Forces, and an immediate impediment to the implementation of such changes. Particularly, this thesis explores the conflict that emerged between various officials in the Department of National Defence concerning the place that should be made for the French language, and how best to recruit more French Canadians. It shows that there was serious disagreement between the Minister of National Defence, Brooke Claxton, who wanted more bilingualism in the Canadian military, and the Chief of General Staff, General Guy G. Simonds, who resisted further concessions to francophones. Moreover, this thesis reveals the extent to which there was goodwill within the Canadian Armed Forces on the part of both anglophones and francophones on the frontline in Korea. This constituted the basis on which the Department of National Defence was able to begin the process of implementing a more bilingual system. In this respect, this thesis shows the Canadian military to have been ahead of the federal Civil Service. (source:, accessed 22 September 2016)

Image source: www.amazon.com/Battle-Grounds-Canadian-Military-Aboriginal/dp/0774813164, accessed 3 June 2016
LACKENBAUER, P. Whitney, Battle grounds : the Canadian military and aboriginal lands, Vancouver ; Toronto : UBC Press, c2007, xvii, 350 p. : ill., maps, ports. ; 24 cm (series; Studies in Canadian military history; 013), ISBN: 0774813156;

___________"Carrying the Burden of Peace: The Mohawks, The Canadian Forces, and the Oka Crisis", (Winter 2008) 10(2) Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 1-71; available at http://jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/viewFile/89/99 (accessed 7 July 2016);

___________"Kurt Meyer, 12th SS Panzer Division, and the Murder of Canadian Prisoners of War in Normandy: Historical and Historiographical Appraisal", Gateway--An Academic History Journal on the Web", available at http://homepage.usask.ca/~jgz816/archive9.html (accessed 23 January 2017)

___________"The Military and “Mob Rule”: The CEF Riots in Calgary, February 1916", (2001) Canadian Military History: Vol. 10: Iss. 1, Article 4, pp. 31-42; available at http://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1298&context=cmh (accessed 21 Jamuary 2016);

  -------------------------------------www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/136/284-fra.html, accessed 31/3/14
WhitneyLackenbauer,www.sju.ca/staff/whitney-lackenbaue        Chris Madsen
LACKENBAUER, P. Whitney and Chris Madsen, "Justifying Atrocity: Lieutenant-Colonel Maurice Andrew and the Defence of Brigadeführer Kurt Meyer",  in [Department] of National Defence, and Yves Tremblay, ed., Canadian Military History Since the 17th Century: Proceedings of the Canadian Military Conference, Ottawa, 5-9 May 2000, [Ottawa: DND], at pp. 553-564; available at http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/docs/cmhc_2000.pdf (accessed on 11 November 2014); also available at http://lackenbauer.ca/Hist611/warcrimes.pdf (accessed 2 October 2016);

Source de l'image: collegeahuntsic.academia.edu/SylvainLacoursi%C3%A8re, site visité le 21 décembre 2016
Sylvain Lacoursière
LACOURSIÈRE, Sylvain, Le soldat dans la culture au Québec en 1939-1945; du héros-guerrier à la chair à canon, mémoire présenté comme exigence partielle de la maîtrise en histoire, Université du Québec à Montréal, juillet 2009, viii, 202 p., disponible à http://www.archipel.uqam.ca/2209/1/M10985.pdf (vérifié le 21 décembre 2016);

Fannie Lafontaine, image source at https://www.fd.ulaval.ca/faculte/personnel/40, accessed on 8 April 2014

LAFONTAINE,  Fannie, "Poursuivre le génocide, les crimes contre l'humanité et les crimes de guerre au Canada: une analyse des éléments des crimes à la lumière de l'affaire Munyaneza", (2009) 47 The Canadian Yearbook of International Law --Annuaire canadien de droit international 261-297;

La décision Munyaneza constitue la première analyse judiciaire de la "Loi sur les crimes contre l'humanité et les crimes de guerre" et des définitions qu'elle propose des infractions de droit international maintenant criminalisées dans le système juridique canadien.  Il s'agit d'un régime juridique nouveau, original et complexe, qui fait s'entrecroiser le droit international et le droit canadien, et qui constitue un pilier important de l'entreprise globale de lutte contre l'impunité pour les crimes internationaux les plus graves.  L'auteure propose une analyse critique du jugement Munyaneza en ce qui concerne les éléments constitutifs du crime de génocide, des crimes contre l'humanitié et des crimes de guerre.  Elle offre une discussion de certains des aspects les plus difficiles des définitions de ces crimes et vise à contribuer à ce que la juridsprudence future soit cohérente avec l'esprit et la lettre de la loi et avec le droit international.  Le régime des peines applicables en vertu de la loi est aussi brièvement analysé. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20120119140132/http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/2011/ihl-bibliography-2nd-trimester-2011.pdf, à la p. 30, site visité le 16 mars 2015)

___________ Prosecuting Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes in Canadian Courts, Toronto: Carswell, 2012;

___________Prosecuting International Crimes in Canadian Courts: Where International Law Meets Domestic Law, doctoral thesis (Ph.D.), National University of Ireland Galway, Irish Center for Human Rights, March 2011;

___________site web de la professeure Lafontaine à l'université Laval:  https://www.fd.ulaval.ca/faculte/personnel/40 (visité le 26 août 2013);

___________"The Unbearable Lightness of International Obligations: When and How to Exercise Jurisdiction Under Canada's Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act", (2010) 23(2) Revue québécoise de droit international 1-50; disponible à  http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2117944 (vérifié le 26 août 2013);

___________'Wanted: War Criminals'?: The Challenge of Ensuring Justice for Canada’s Unwanted War Criminals (June 30, 2011). Legal Frontiers, McGill’s Blog on International Law, June 2011 . Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2120841, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2120841  (accessed on 15 October 2012);

LAFRANCE, Édith, 1964-, Résistance à la conscription, réfractaires et insoumis Canadiens-français lors de la deuxième guerre mondiale, thèse (M.A.), Université du Québec à Montréal, 1997;

Photo of Philippe Lagassé, reproduced from http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/?p=109126 (accessed on 31 March 2014)

LAGASSÉ, Philippe, "Accountability for National Defence -- Ministerial Responsibility, Military Command and Parliamentary Oversight", (March 2010) 4 IRPC Study 1-60; available at http://www.irpp.org/pubs/IRPPstudy/IRPP_Study_no4.pdf (accessed on 6 July 2010); IRPC = Institute for Research on Public Policy; in French: IRPP = l'Institut de recherche en politiques publiques;

In this study, Philippe Lagassé assesses the state of accountability for matters of national defence in Canada, and evaluates calls to reform how the government is held to account for military and defence matters. In the first section he examines the national defence responsibilities of Canada’s Parliament, as well as proposals to strengthen the powers of the House of Commons and parliamentary committees in defence matters. The author argues that while certain changes are needed to improve the ability of parliamentarians to hold the government to account for Canada’s defence, reforms must respect the principles of responsible government. Reforms that dilute ministerial responsibility and the adversarial character of Parliament will weaken rather than strengthen defence accountability. Indeed, it could be argued that reinforcing ministerial responsibility and encouraging partisan competition could bolster Canadian defence accountability. In the second section, Lagassé examines the lines of responsibility and accountability for defence within government. He shows that the part played by senior officials in formulating defence policy and in helping to keep the military accountable to the civilian authority is both necessary and in line with statute law. Drawing on the history of Canadian civil-military relations and contemporary civil-military relations theory, the study shows why the government’s existing structure of defence administration is advantageous and effective. Although the administration of national defence in Canada is not perfect, it ensures that the Prime Minister and the Minister of National Defence are well informed about their defence policy choices, and that the policy preferences of the government are respected by the military and the defence bureaucracy, regardless of whether senior officers and official agree with these preferences. – p. 1  (source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 January 2012)

___________"The Crown and Prime Ministerial Power", (Summer 2016) Canadian Parliamentary Review 17-23; available at (accessed 2 October 2016);

Image source: http://ualawccsprod.srv.ualberta.ca/ccs/index.php/review-of-constitutional-studies
___________"The Crown's Powers of Command-in-Chief: Interpreting Section 15  of the Constitution Act, 1867", (2013) 18(2) Review of Constitutional Studies 189-220; available at http://ualawccsprod.srv.ualberta.ca/ccs/images/03_Lagass.pdf (accessed 28 December 2015);

___________"How Canada goes to war", The Ottawa Citizen, 4 December 2013; with the same title at http://cepi.uottawa.ca/how-canada-goes-to-war-2/, accessed on 8 January 2015;

___________How Should Canada's Parliament Decide Military Deployments?  Lessons from the United Kingdom, Calgary: CDFAI (Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute), December 2013; available at http://www.cdfai.org/PDF/How%20Should%20Canadas%20Parliament%20Decide%20Military%20Deployments.pdf (accessed on 9 December 2013);

Executive Summary
Since 2006, Canada’s House of Commons has been asked to vote on military deployments.  These votes have allowed Members of Parliament to express their views on the operations of the Canadian Forces, while serving to democratize the executive's power to send armed forces overseas. However, this practice of consulting the Commons does not impose any binding legal or political constraints on the executive’s prerogative to deploy the military. The legal and constitutional authority to send forces abroad still rests with the prime minister and Cabinet. The practice of consulting MPs when deploying the military remains a courtesy, rather than an obligation.

In contrast, the British House of Commons has been granted political control of the executive's military deployment prerogative through a constitutional convention. The effect of this convention was recently shown in the vote involving British military strikes against Syria. Unlike in Canada, the British government is politically bound to consult and adhere to the views of MPs before considering military deployments overseas.

This paper examines whether Canada should follow the British example, granting members of Parliament control over the executive's power to deploy the armed forces by means of a constitutional convention. It concludes that Canada’s existing practice has many advantages, and that Canadian parliamentarians should be mindful of the risks and costs involved in adopting a constitutional convention to control the executive's military deployment prerogative.

___________"The Military Roles and Responsibilities of Canada's Governor General and Commander-in-Chief", report prepared for the Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces, July 2013; 


___________"Parliamentary and judicial ambivalence toward executive prerogative powers in Canada", (June 2012) 55(2) Canadian Public Administration 157-180; available at http://www.academia.edu/5610281/Parliamentary_and_Judicial_Ambivalence_Toward_Executive_Prerogative_Powers_in_Canada (accessed 2 May 2015);


This article argues that ambivalence surrounds the prerogative powers of the Canadian Crown and the significant authority they afford the executive in Canada. In strictly legal terms, these residual Crown powers are vulnerable to parliamentary abolition, displacement and limitation, and their exercise is subject to judicial review and remedy, leading scholars to suggest that these powers are an increasingly marginal source of executive authority. In practice, however, they have proven more resilient to legislative infringement than their formal vulnerability to statutory interference implies. In addition, the judiciary's authority to review the exercise of these powers has been tempered by the courts' reluctance to impose robust remedies. The article maintains that the predominant understanding of these powers, which stresses their vestigial status, fails to capture the actual power and acquiescence they afford the executive.


Le présent article soutient qu'il existe une ambivalence autour des prérogatives de l'État canadien et de l'importante autorité qu'elles procurent au pouvoir exécutif au Canada. D'un point de vue strictement juridique, ces pouvoirs résiduels de la Couronne sont à la merci d'une abolition, d'une supplantation et d'une restriction parlementaire, et leur exercice est assujetti à un contrôle et à un recours judiciaires, ce qui amène les érudits à laisser entendre que ces prérogatives sont de plus en plus une source marginale du pouvoir exécutif. Dans la pratique, toutefois, ces prérogatives s’avèrent plus résistantes à l'empiètement législatif que ce qu'implique leur vulnérabilité formelle à l'interférence établie par la loi. En outre, la réticence des tribunaux à imposer des recours musclés affaiblit l'autorité du pouvoir judiciaire à revoir l'exercice de ces prérogatives. L'article soutient que la compréhension prédominante de ces prérogatives, qui insiste sur leur statut rudimentaire, omet de saisir le vrai pouvoir et l'accord qu'elles procurent au pouvoir exécutif. (see http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1754-7121.2012.00222.x/abstract, accessed on 8 January 2015)

___________"Parliament Neglects its Duty to Debate Military Deployments", The Ottawa Citizen, 6 May 2014, available at http://cepi.uottawa.ca/parliament-neglects-its-duty-to-debate-military-deployments-2/ (accessed on 8 January 2015);

___________There are excellent references in the courses  taught by Professor Lagassé at Ottawa University, see http://www.cda.forces.gc.ca/cfmlc-cdmfc/index-eng.asp  (accessed on 14 January 2013);


___________"Royal in law, not only in name", 31 August 2011; available at http://www.irpp.org/media/op-eds/2011-08-31.pdf (accessed on 31 May 2012);

Source de la photo: https://www.mfa.gouv.qc.ca/FR/AINES/COMBATTRE-MALTRAITANCE/MEMBRES/Pages/Georges_Lalande.aspx, visité 4 décembre 2015)
Georges Lalande
LALANDE, Georges, notes biographiques; un ancien membre du cabinet du Juge-avocat général;

Me Georges Lalande est diplômé en ingénierie, détenteur d’un certificat en administration publique et titulaire d’un baccalauréat ès art et d’une licence en droit de l’Université de Montréal. Il est membre du Barreau depuis 1974. Dans les années 60, il débute sa carrière dans le domaine de l’aéronautique, alors qu’il est professionnel puis directeur de l’ingénierie de la Division aérospatiale de la compagnie ABEX en Californie. De retour au Canada en 1973, il fait des études en droit, est reçu avocat en 1974 et travaille comme avocat au Bureau du Juge-avocat général à Ottawa. Puis, il amorce une carrière dans l’administration publique du Québec qui sera toutefois brièvement interrompue alors que de 1979 à 1981, il est élu député du comté de Maisonneuve à l’Assemblée nationale. Après un court passage en enseignement, il est nommé directeur des services judiciaires au ministère de la Justice à Saint-Jérôme, puis à Québec et à Montréal. Il est nommé juge administratif en chef et président du Tribunal d’appel des lésions professionnelles en 1989, sous-ministre en titre du ministère des Transports en 1992, PDG de la Société de l’assurance automobile en 1994 et PDG de la Société des établissements de plein air en 1998. Ensuite, il est nommé sous-ministre à la réforme des tribunaux administratifs au ministère de la Justice. En novembre 2004, il est membre et président du Conseil des aînés du Québec. En 2005, il préside un groupe de travail du gouvernement « Pour une pleine participation des aînés au développement du Québec » et en 2009, il accepte de se joindre à l’Association internationale francophone des aînés (AIFA) à titre de vice-président, pour notamment, mettre en œuvre un Conseil international francophone des personnes aînées au sein de cet organisme, qui possède un statut consultatif auprès de l’Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Depuis juin 2012, il assume, par intérim, la présidence de l’AIFA. (source: https://www.mfa.gouv.qc.ca/FR/AINES/COMBATTRE-MALTRAITANCE/MEMBRES/Pages/Georges_Lalande.aspx, visité 4 décembre 2015)

source de l'image: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/eric-lallier-65ba1813, visité 26 septembre 2016
Éric Lallier

LALLIER, Éric, Major, L'emploi de la force, les règles d'engagement et la division des responsabilités au sein des forces canadiennes transformées: un besoin de plus d'intransigeance,  PCEMI numéro 35 / JCSP 35, Projet de recherches / MDS research project, 21 avril 2009; disponible à http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/295/286/lallier.pdf (vérifié le 18 décembre 2011);

André Lamalice, source de l'image: http://www.lamalice.ca/Introduction.php, site visité le 2 mai 2014

LAMALICE, André,  En temps de guerre comme en temps de paix, gouvernement manquant, gouvernance manquée : la protection civile au Canada, 1938-1988, thèse de doctorat en histoire (Ph.D.), Université d'Ottawa, 2011; disponible à http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/handle/10393/19839 (vérifié le 11 janvier 2012); la bibliographie cite d'autres thèses sur le sujet;

Source: www.jalbertlamarreavocats.com/#!nos-professionnels/galleryPage, accessed 11 August 2016
LAMARRE, Patrick, Complicity in International Criminal Law: A fragmented law in need of a new approach, A thesis submitted to the Graduate Program in Law in conformity with the requirements for the Degree of Master of Laws Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, September, 2015, x, 261 leaves; available at qspace.library.queensu.ca/bitstream/1974/13736/1/Lamarre_Patrick_201509_LLM.pdf (accessed 11 August 2016);

LAMBERT, Steve, "Indigenous communities should have power to call in the military, says chief.  Defence minister's meeting in Winnipeg part of cross-country public consultations on defence policy", CBC News, 14 September 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/defence-minister-harjit-sajjan-indigenous-winnipeg-1.3761780 (accessed 23 March 2017);

Peter Lamont, image source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VPaXrVy2p2w, accessed 20 September 2015

LAMONT, Peter J., "The Military Judges", (Été 2007 Summer) 30(1) Provincial Judges' Journal / Journal des juges provinciaux 41; available at http://www.judges-juges.ca/en/publications/pubdocs/jugesv30n1ete07%284739%29.pdf (accessed on 20 March 2012);
LAMONT, Peter J., "Les juges militaires", (Été 2007 Summer) 30(1) Provincial Judges' Journal / Journal des juges provinciaux 40; disponible à http://www.judges-juges.ca/en/publications/pubdocs/jugesv30n1ete07%284739%29.pdf (vérifié le 20 mars 2012);

__________Notes -- Biography on Commander Peter Lamont (not necessarily written by Mr. Peter J. Lamont / Notes -- Biographie sur le capitaine de frégate (non nécessairement écrites par monsieur Peter J. Lamont):

Biography - Commander Peter Lamont, CD, B.A., LL.B

Commander Lamont received his B.A. from the University of Western Ontario, and graduated from the University of Ottawa with his LL.B degree in 1977. He was called to the Ontario Bar in 1980, and was a member of the bars of both Alberta and the North West Territories. Immediately prior to his appointment as a Military Judge, Cdr Lamont was a reserve force legal officer and counsel with the Criminal Law Branch of the Department of Justice. He has extensive experience in both civilian and military justice systems including working as a Provincial Crown Attorney during an exchange with the Ottawa Crown Attorney's Office.

At the time of his appointment, Cdr Lamont was the Deputy Assistant Judge Advocate General for central region, responsible for supervising reserve force legal officers within Ontario. Cdr Lamont has also assisted the Director of Military Prosecutions, and has been the legal adviser to 33 BDE HQ and various reserve force units in the Ottawa area. Cdr Lamont has been a prosecutor and defending officer at Courts Martial, and has argued appeals before the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20070904025804/http://www.forces.gc.ca/cmj/biosLamont_e.asp, accessed on 14 January 2015)


Biographie - Capitaine de frégate Peter Lamont, DC, B.A., LL.B.

Le Capf Lamont a reçu son B.A. de L'Université Western Ontario, et a obtenu son LL.B. de L'Université D'Ottawa en 1977. Il a été admis au barreau de L'Ontario en 1980, et a été membre des barreaux de L'Alberta et des Territoires du Nord Ouest. Le Capf Lamont était, jusqu'à sa nomination à titre de Juge Militaire, un avocat militaire de la force de réserve et avocat au sein de la direction du droit pénal du Ministère de la Justice. Il a une expérience considérable au sein des systèmes de Justice Militaire et Civile, incluant son emploi à titre de procureur de la couronne dans le cadre d'un échange avec le bureau du Procureur Général de L'Ontario à Ottawa.

Au moment de sa nomination, le Capf Lamont était l'adjoint à L'assistant du Juge-Avocat Général pour la région du centre, responsable de la supervision des avocats militaires de la force de réserve en Ontario. Durant son service à titre D'avocat militaire, le Capf Lamont a aussi aidé le Dpm, et a été le conseiller juridique pour le Qg de la 33 BDE et diverses unités de la force de réserve dans la région D'Ottawa. Le Capf Lamont a été procureur et avocat de la defense à differentes Cours Martiales, et il a plaidé des appels devant la Cour D'Appel de la Cour Martiale du Canada. (source: http://web.archive.org/web/20051129214457/http://www.forces.gc.ca/cmj/biosLamont_f.asp, visité le 14 janvier 2015)


Image source: http://www.judges-juges.ca/journal, accessed 13 February 2015
LAMPERT, Irwin E., "President's Report", (Été 2007 Summer) 30(1) Provincial Judges' Journal / Journal des juges provinciaux 8; available at http://www.judges-juges.ca/en/publications/pubdocs/jugesv30n1ete07%284739%29.pdf (accessed on 20 March 2012);
Our constitution was amended recently, so that Canada’s military judges are now entitled to full membership in CAPCJ. We welcome the military judges and were happy to see a number of them in attendance at our Moncton conference.  In October, I had the pleasure of traveling to Ottawa to attend the swearing-in of the Chief Military Judge, Colonel Mario Dutil, as well as two other judges of the court , Lieutenant-Colonels Louis-Vincent d’Auteuil and Jean-Guy
LAMPERT, Irwin E., "Message du Président", (Été 2007 Summer) 30(1) Provincial Judges' Journal / Journal des juges provinciaux 6; disponible à http://www.judges-juges.ca/en/publications/pubdocs/jugesv30n1ete07%284739%29.pdf  (vérifié le 20 mars 2012)
Nous avons récemment amendé notre constitution, de sorte que les juges militaires sont maintenant éligibles à devenir membres à part entière de l’ACJCP. Nous leur souhaitons la bienvenue et étions heureux de voir plusieurs d’entre eux assister au colloque de Moncton. En octobre, j’ai eu le plaisir de me rendre à Ottawa afin d’assister à l’assermentation du juge militaire en chef, le colonel Mario Dutil, ainsi que deux autres juges de la cour, les lieutenants-colonels Louis-Vincent d’Auteuil et Jean-Guy Perron.

Marc Lambert, source: http://www.redecoupage-federal-redistribution.ca/content.asp?section=pei&dir=mem&document=index&lang=f, accessed on 20 March 2014

LAMPERT, Marc, "Absence of Impetus: Examining the doctrine of reciprocity in the law of armed conflict", (May 2013) Sword and Scale; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/sections_military/newsletters2013/essay.aspx and http://www.cba.org/CBA/sections_military/pdf/2013-05-lampert.pdf (accessed on 28 August 2013);

Rémi Landry, image source: http://www.usherbrooke.ca/politique-appliquee/nous-joindre/personnel-enseignant/landry-remi/, accessed on 11 May 2014;

LANDRY, Rémi, "Was Former Captain Robert Semrau Solely Responsible, From an Ethical Point of View, for Killing an Injured Man?, (Spring 2012) 12(2) Canadian Military Journal 53-60; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no2/53-landry-eng.asp (accessed on 2 September 2013) ";
LANDRY, Rémi, "Monsieur Robert Semrau, anciennement capitaine, est-il, du point de vue éthique, le seul responsable d'avoir achevé un blessé?  Commentaires sur l'article du Lieutenant-colonel (à la retraite) Peter Bradley, Ph.D.", (printemps 2012) 12(2) Revue militaire canadienne; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no2/53-landry-fra.asp (vérifié le 2 septembre 2013);

Tim Langlois (left) with the JAG, Jerry Pitzul, photo source: JAG Newsletter, vol. 1, 2006 at p. 10

LANGLOIS, Tim, "Why does the DART need a lawyer?" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at  http://web.archive.org/web/20070515000335/www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters/mil-2006/news.aspx (accessed on 24 April 2012); also published at (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 76;
LANGLOIS, Tim, "Pourquoi la DART a-t-elle besoin d'un avocat?" (December/Décembre 2006) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à  http://web.archive.org/web/20070518052202/http://www.cba.org/abc/nouvelles/mil-2006/nouvelles.aspx#article3 (site visité le 24 avril  2012); aussi publié à (2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 77;

LAPLANTE, Laurent, "Why a Specific Justice System for the Military?",  (1994) 10(3)  Justice Report 6-8; Justice Report is a publication of the Canadian Criminal Justice Association;
LAPLANTE, Laurent,  "Questions sur une justice spécifiquement militaire", (1994) 10(3) Actualités-Justice 6-8; Actualités-Justice est une publication de l'Association canadienne de justice pénale;

Source: www.iforum.umontreal.ca/Forum/ArchivesForum/2001-2002/011126/348.htm, accessed 11 August 2016
Andrée Laprise
LAPRISE, Andrée, 1962-, Des civils internés pendant la Deuxième guerre mondiale [microforme] : le camp des femmes de Kingston, 1939-1943, [Montréal : Service des archives, Université de Montréal, Section Microfilm], 2001. DESCRIPTION: 1 bobine de microfilm; 16 mm. NOTES: Thèse (M.A.)--Université de Montréal, 2001. Comprend des réf. bibliogr (source: catalogue AMICUS); 

LAREAU, François, Bibliography on Obedience to Superior Orders / Bibliographie sur l'obéissance aux ordres des supérieurs
      • Canadian Law / Droit canadien
      • Comparative Law / Droit comparé

___________Bibliography on Command Responsibility and Superior Responsibility / Bibliographie sur la responsabilité des commandants et des supérieurs hiérarchiques
      • Canadian Law / Droit canadien
      •  Comparative Law / Droit comparé

image source: http://asted.org/formation-17-octobre-2016-comprendre-le-droit-d-auteur-dans-les-bibliotheques-8028.html, accessed 25 August 2016
Jules Larivière
LARIVIÈRE, Jules, "La publication des décisions des tribunaux fédéraux canadiens: un aperçu historique", (1995) 20(1) Canadian Law Libraries / Bibliothèques de droit canadiennes 12;

Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/lynn-larson-a0a21328, accessed 25 August 2016
LARSON, Lynn, Testimony before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, 11 March 2009 on the provisions and operation of an act to amend the National Defence Act (court martial) and to make a consequential amendment to another act (S.C. 2008, c.29), Issue 3; testimony about the work of Mr. Justice Lamer review of Bill C-25;

Lynn Larson, Lawyer, as an individual: As a preliminary matter, I thank Jessica Richardson, clerk of the committee, for all her help in getting me here. It was a surprise to receive the invitation, and I thank the committee for inviting me to speak. You will note that my statement is in the plural. I do not have an imaginary friend. Catherine [McKenna] was supposed to be with me today and was quite excited about providing our input to the committee. Unfortunately, she could not be here, as Madam Chair explained.

My name is Lynn Larson. I am a lawyer. I would like to thank the committee for the opportunity to appear before you today. Both Catherine McKenna and I enjoyed the privilege of working with the late Chief Justice Lamer during his 2003 review of the provisions and operation of Bill C-25. I will refer to his report as the Lamer report just for convenience throughout the question period.

My work with former Chief Justice Lamer began when I was an articling student and then continued as an associate. I was assigned various duties on this file including research, organizing base visits and meetings with interested parties, and assisting with pretty much anything that former Chief Justice Lamer requested of me. Ms. McKenna worked as an associate similarly assigned to assist Chief Justice Lamer.

I would like to make clear at the outset that I am not an expert in criminal or military law, nor am I really in a position to comment as to the extent to which the recommendations set out in the Lamer report have been or are in the process of being implemented, but I would be interested to receive some questions on that point if you are interested. Indeed, over five years have passed since the Lamer report was tabled in Parliament on November 5, 2003, and as you all know, former Chief Justice Lamer himself passed away on November 24, 2007. I am, however, happy to provide information regarding the process and approach followed by Chief Justice Lamer in drafting his report and developing his recommendations. I can also provide some context regarding certain recommendations contained in the report that appear most pertinent to the review of Bill C-60. However, I must make it clear that Chief Justice Lamer's report must speak for itself and I cannot presume to speak on his behalf.

It would be useful to provide some background information regarding Chief Justice Lamer's report. As you are aware, unlike previous reports relating to the military justice system, such as those arising from the Somalia inquiry, the report was not precipitated by serious incidents. It arose out of the requirement that the Minister of National Defence arrange for an independent review of the provisions and operation of Bill C-25, which also sounds simple but was not in practice. While Bill C-25 dealt with a variety of issues, one of the main areas subject to review was the military justice system. A number of significant changes to the military justice system made by Bill C-25 were intended to address perceived deficiencies within the military justice system, including the goal of establishing clear standards of institutional separation between the investigative, prosecutorial, defence and judicial functions. The success of this goal was, in turn, reviewed by former Chief Justice Lamer, and several of his recommendations were intended to form the basis for further improvement.

Chief Justice Lamer was given complete access by the Minister of National Defence to the employees of the Department of National Defence, and officers and non-commissioned members of the Canadian Forces of all ranks, as well as to any information relevant to the review. Chief Justice Lamer took a consultative approach to his review, as he had the hope that sharing his concerns with the relevant people and affording them an opportunity to either institute corrective measures or explain why his concerns were unjustified would result in expedient reforms addressing the issues identified by him. During the six months Chief Justice Lamer was afforded to conduct this review, he consulted numerous times with the judge advocate general, the director of military prosecutions, the director of defence counsel services, the Canadian Forces military judges, soldiers of all ranks and many other people with expertise in matters falling under Bill C-25.

Sessions were also conducted at bases across the country — Valcartier, Montreal, Comox, Esquimalt and Gagetown — where, generally speaking, we had round tables with members involved in the military justice system in the morning and confidential meetings with people who requested them in the afternoons. Chief Justice Lamer also received and considered numerous submissions from interested parties in response to his call for comments published in the Canadian Forces newspaper The Maple Leaf and base newspapers where feasible.

I believe it is accurate to say that Chief Justice Lamer found, as a result of the changes made by Bill C-25, that Canada could boast of a very sound and fair military justice framework. However, as his recommendations demonstrate, there were areas where Chief Justice Lamer felt that further improvements could be made to improve the military justice system, keeping in mind the requirement that such a system need often operate abroad under circumstances of duress, hostility and outright war. As noted by Chief Justice Lamer, an independent military judiciary is the hallmark of a fair military justice system, and we can confirm this was one of Chief Justice Lamer's guiding principles when forming his recommendations.

Image source: David Last' website at http://www.davidmlast.org/davidmlast-home/About.html, accessed 3 January 2016
David Last
LAST, David, "Military Police Complaints Commission Discussion Paper: Canadian Values and Civilian Oversight of Operations", Royal Military College of Canada, 10 October 2008,Note:These notes are prepared for discussion pursuant to an informal meeting (by invitation) with the Chair and counsels for the Military Police Complaints Commission, 9 October 2008; available at http://www.davidmlast.org/davidmlast-home/Publications_files/Civilian%20Oversight%20of%20Operations%20and%20Canadian%20Values-r2.pdf (accessed 3 January 2016); 

Source de l'image: http://www.lavoienotaire.ca/about-en.php, visité le 22 septembre 2016
Martial Lavoie
LAVOIE, Martial Notaire, blog du, "Pouquoi avez-vous besoin d'un avocat militaire devant une cour martiale", disponibe à http://notairemartiallavoie.com/juridique/avocat-militaire-cour-martiale.html (vérifié le 28 août 2015);

La sélection d’un procureur

Pour défendre une cour martiale, vous avez besoin d’un avocat plaidant. Les travaux d’essai militaire ne sont pas pour les amateurs. L’avocat militaire doit connaître les lois militaires, les règlements et les procédures de la cour martiale à fond. Même si une cour martiale peut sembler un peu comme un procès civil, il y a d’innombrables détails essentiels que seul un avocat bien formés dans les procès militaires verra. Aussi, votre avocat doit comprendre la mission militaire et la façon dont les militaires pensent. Tout au long du procès, votre avocat devra communiquer avec les commandants militaires, des témoins, des enquêteurs militaires, et les jurés militaires.

Tout aussi important, votre avocat doit être dédié à la pratique du droit. Votre avocat doit avoir une expérience significative dans la salle d’audience. Il doit avoir pris des cours de formation de haut vol et il doit continuer à s’entraîner et faire des recherches pour s’assurer que ses compétences restent affûtées et sa connaissance de la loi ne soit pas dépassée. Assurez-vous qu’il a passé sa carrière à faire des essais contestées en cour martiale.

Votre avocat militaire doit avoir le savoir-faire et la ténacité pour vous protéger contre le gouvernement et pour vous empêcher de dire ou de faire quelque chose qui va nuire à votre cas. Il doit être prêt à vous dire ce que vous avez besoin d’entendre, et pas seulement ce que vous voulez entendre.

Peut-être plus important encore, votre avocat ne doit pas avoir peur des enquêteurs militaires, et pas avoir peur de prendre des cas difficiles dans une salle d’audience et de durs combats pour les personnes accusées de crimes terribles. Trop nombreux sont les avocats militaires qui craignent la salle d’audience et qui sont terrifiés à l’idée d’avoir à juger une affaire devant un jury. Malheureusement, beaucoup d’avocats militaires ont trop confiance dans les enquêteurs militaires, et une trop grande confiance dans les commandants militaires. Même lorsque la culpabilité de l’accusé est claire, vous avez encore besoin d’un combattant pour s’assurer qu’il obtient une peine juste. Très souvent, le combat le plus important est dans la phase de détermination de la peine. 

___________"Comprendre le principe des cours martiales", 13 septembre 2013, disponible à http://www.justicecanada.ca/lois/comprendre-principe-cours-martiales/ (vérifié le 24 décembre 2016);

LAVOIE, Sylvain, "Amnesty International Canada et al v. Attorney General of Canada et al Federal Court of Canada -- 7 February 2008", (30 April 2008) 13 Nato Legal Gazette  2-3; available at  http://www.ismllw.org/NATO%20LEGAL%20GAZETTE/Legal%20GazetteIssueNo%2013.pdf (accessed 12 February 2015);

___________"Les modalités juridiques de la présence de troupes militaires étrangères alliées dans les États de l'O.T.A.N." (June/Juin 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 7; available at http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074204/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/sword2001-06.pdf (site visité le 18 avril 2012);
___________"Précis: The presence of allied armed forces in NATO countries" (December/Décembre 2001) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire 4; disponible à  http://web.archive.org/web/20050125074904/http://dev.cba.org/CBA/Sections/military/swordscalenov2001.pd  (site visité le 19 avril 2012);

Sylvain Lavoie (à gauche) avec le JAG Jerry Pitzul (source: (July-Oct 2000) 3 JAG Newsletter--Bulletin d'actualités à la p. 5
__________voir Myriam Jézéquel, "Avocat au sein des Forces armées canadiennes: un mode de vie unique en son genre",  supra pour un article sur cet avocat militaire;

Image source: https://publicintelligence.net/nato-legal-deskbook/
LAVOIE, Sylain et al, contributors, and al., NATO Legal Deskbook, 2nd edition, available at  https://info.publicintelligence.net/NATO-LegalDeskbook.pdf (accessed 14 September 2016); for more information on this publication, see https://publicintelligence.net/nato-legal-deskbook/ (accessed 14 September 2016);

William J. Lawson, source of photo:
McDonald, R. Arthur, Canada's Military Lawyers, infra, at p. 72

LAWSON, William J., "Canadian Military Law" (1951) 29 Canadian Bar Review 241-255; Brigadier-General Lawson was the Judge Advocate General from 5 May 1950 to 20 February 1969; also reproduced at 9 Judge Advoc. J. 1 (1951);

__________"Every Lawyer's Introduction and Guide to the Canadian Constitution", (January 1964) 50(1) American Bar Association Journal 70-73; available at https://books.google.ca/books?id=FqM8cbfXL2kC&pg=PA70&lpg=PA70&dq=William+J.+Lawson++Judge+Advocate+General&source=bl&ots=giWTPGFbT_&sig=Sx5cLlDsXr4TGD5JSiCn0EXWdBQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiL8PzIiN3NAhXONx4KHXjnA6UQ6AEIKzAD#v=onepage&q=William%20J.%20Lawson%20%20Judge%20Advocate%20General&f=false (accessed 5 July 2016);

___________"The Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces Addresses the Association", The Judge Advocate Journal, Bulletin number 6, October 1950, at pp. 10-13; available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/JAG_Journal-No-6.pdf, accessed on 22 December 2014;

LAWYERS' RIGHTS WATCH CANADA and prepared by Erika Chan, Gail Davidson and Catherine Morris, "Right to Trial by Civilan Courts: International law on the use of military tribunals to determine the rights of civilians", Vancouver, [2015], 15 p., (series; working paper); available at http://www.lrwc.org/ws/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Right-to-Trial-by-Civiliian-Courts-LRWC-6-Jan-2015.pdf  and http://www.lrwc.org/right-to-trial-by-civilian-courts-international-law-on-the-use-of-military-tribunals-to-determine-the-rights-of-civilians-working-paper/ (accessed 28 April 2015);
The Right to Trial by Civilian Courts is a working paper on the right of civilians to be tried, and to have their rights—including rights to remedies—determined by civilian courts. Production of the working paper was inspired by the practice of repressive governments to delegate military tribunals under the control of the executive, the power to both try civilians and to try matters involving alleged violations against civilians by military personnel. Such trials do not comply with internationally protected rights to a fair trial and due process and have resulted in unjust convictions, arbitrary detentions and denial of remedies for grave human rights abuses. LRWC invites feedback on changes and additions to the working paper. (source:, http://www.lrwc.org/right-to-trial-by-civilian-courts-international-law-on-the-use-of-military-tribunals-to-determine-the-rights-of-civilians-working-paper/, accessed 28 April 2015);


Harvey Lazar, image source: http://www.nationalnewswatch.com/author/harveylazar/, accessed 11 February 2015
LAZAR, Harvey, Parliamentary Control of Defence in Canada, 1945-1962, Thesis, M.A. in Economics and Political Science, University of British Columbia, 1963, 374 leaves with bibliography at 363-374;

Source de l'image: https://twitter.com/sim00732, visité le 22 septembre 2016
Simon Leblanc

LEBLANC, Simon, "Cour martiale, le public est le bienvenu", ADSUM, Le journal bimensuel de la Comunauté militaire -- Région de l'est du Québec; disponible à  http://www.journaladsum.com/nouvelle.php?id=831 (vérifié le 14 septembre 2014);

Le premier maître de 1re classe Brian Lillie, du cabinet du juge-avocat général région de Québec, a constaté depuis son arrivée en poste que peu de gens assistent aux cours martiales qui se déroulent à Valcartier. Il croit que les militaires y perdent une belle opportunité de développement professionnel.

C’est pour cette raison qu’il a fait appel au journal, afin de faire savoir aux militaires et aux civils qu’ils sont les bienvenus aux différentes audiences. «C’est important pour les militaires d’assister à la cour martiale. Un jour ou l’autre, ils peuvent être appelés à y participer. D’ailleurs, ça peut les aider à mieux comprendre les principes de droit applicables, même en matière disciplinaire», affirme le pm1 Lillie.

Ce dernier précise qu’il est possible pour les militaires de demander à leur supérieur d’assister à une cour martiale lorsqu’ils sont en service, car l’exercice constitue une forme d’apprentissage pour eux.

___________"Formation sur les enquêtes disciplinaires", ADSUM, 15 janvier 2015; available at http://www.journaladsum.com/nouvelle.php?id=869 (accessed on 16 January 2015); aussi disponible à http://www.journaladsum.com/ftp/journaux/Archives/2015/VOL_43_NO_14_ADSUM_2015-01-15.pdf (vérifié 14 septembre 2016);

Ce sont 55 sous-officiers supérieurs qui ont pris part à des scénarios d’enquête fictifs, sous la direction de la juge-avocate adjointe (JAA),
major Marie-Ève Tremblay, accompagnée du capitaine Henri Bernatchez, qui les familiarisaient avec les procédures entourantl’enquête disciplinaire.

LE BOUTHILLIER, Yves, "Claims for Refugee Protection in Canada by Selective Objectors: An Evolving Jurisprudence" in Ellner, Andrea, Paul Robinson, David Whetham, eds., When soldiers say no : selective conscientious objection in the modern military, Farnham, Surrey, England : Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2014, xvi, 271 pages, at pp. 155 to approx. 176; 24 cm. (series: Military and defence ethics), ISBN: 9781472412140 and ISBN1472412141; copy at University of Ottawa, Morisset Library MRT General  U 22 .W44 2014;

Image source: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/printview/?issn=0885-0607&subcategory=SS240000&linktype=7 , accessed 13 February 2015
LEFEBVRE, Stéphane,  "Canada's Legal Framework for Intelligence", (2010) 23(2) International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence  247-295; Stéphane Lefebvre is Section Head -- Strategic Analysis at the Centre for Operational  Research and Development Canada (CORA), Research and Development Canada (DRDC);

Source de l'image: http://www.operationspaix.net/39-banque-d-experts-legault-dr-albert.html, vérifié le 22 septembre 2016
Albert Legault

LEGAULT, Albert, "Démocratie et transfert de normes: les relations civilo-militaires", (2001) 32(2) Études internationales 169-201; disponible à http://nelson.cen.umontreal.ca/revue/ei/2001/v32/n2/704280ar.pdf (vérifié le 30 avril 2014); aussi disponible à https://www.erudit.org/revue/ei/2001/v32/n2/704280ar.pdf (vérifié 14 octobre 2015);

___________dir., “La commission d'enquête sur la Somalie”, Le maintien de la paix, bulletin no. 22, avril 1996; titre noté dans mes recherches mais non consulté (10 septembre 2015);

__________“Réflexions sur la politique de défense du Canada et sur celle d'un éventuel Québec indépendant” dans Les implications de la mise en oeuvre de la souveraineté : Les aspects juridiques, les services gouvernementaux (Exposés et études vol. 2), Commission d'étude des questions afférentes à l'accession du Québec à la souveraineté, Québec, 1992, p. 309-393; titre noté dans mes recherches mais non consulté (10 septembre 2015); voir sa mise à jour à  http://www.ieim.uqam.ca/IMG/pdf/politique-defense_Canada-Quebec.pdf  (vérifié le 11 mars 2017);

Roch Legault, photo source: http://www.rmc.ca/aca/his/per/legault-r-eng.php, accessed on 27 April 2014

LEGAULT, Roch, "L'organisation militaire sous le régime britannique et le rôle assigné à la gentilhommerie canadienne (1760-1815)", (1991) 45(2) Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française 229-249; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/revue/haf/1991/v45/n2/304967ar.pdf (vérifié le 5 juin 2012); contribution  à la recherche historique importante;

LÉGER, André R.,  The legal and ethical considerations for Canada in using non-lethal  weapons  in an operational environment, Toronto, Ont. : Canadian Forces College, 2006, iii, 64 p.; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/292/286/leger.pdf  (accessed on 2 January 2012);

“This paper examines some of the legal and ethical considerations of using non-lethal weapons, raises some concerns which the Canadian Forces should address if some of the new non-lethal weapons are to be incorporated into the National Use of Force Model, and presents some recommendations to ease in the transition of these new options. This paper concludes by recommending the introduction of the Taser into the Canadian Forces Military Police Branch. Since the early 12th century, there have been efforts by the church and state(s), and more recently the international community to codify the laws of armed conflict. Although the international community recognized a nation’s right to use deadly force in defence of its national interests, international treaties like the Hague Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, ratified in 1907, forbid the use of arms, calculated to cause unnecessary suffering. But what constitutes unnecessary suffering? The existing international treaties are insufficient to support and provide guidance to nations which currently use or are considering using some of the new non-lethal weapons. The manner in which some non-lethal weapons function may render an opponent incapacitated, but will result in the infliction of some pain and suffering. Therefore, is it better to kill your opponent, accepting the fact that there may or may not be any suffering, or is it better to use a non-lethal weapons which will incapacitate your opponent but is specifically designed to cause suffering, the infliction of which is contrary to the Hague Convention (IV)? The dilemma of using non-lethal weapons to incapacitate, even though it was designed to cause some suffering, also brings the Just War Theory, ethical criteria of proportionality into play. Is the critical issue the survival of the opponent, regardless of the amount of pain inflicted, or is the most important consideration the infliction of suffering, and whether or not that suffering is temporary or permanent. The selection of a suitable non-lethal weapon for the CF must be examined from both a legal and ethical perspective. Once a suitable non-lethal weapon has been identified, the CF must educate the Canadian public on the specifics of the weapon while dispelling non-lethal weapon myths, and we must properly train our soldiers so that they will be able to perform their duties with complete confidence in the non-lethal weapon and the chain of command. By understanding the implications and potential pitfalls of using a specific non-lethal weapon, we will be better prepared to provide these new options to our soldiers.” - Author's abstract  [source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 January 2012]

LÉGER, F.A,. "Application de la loi étrangère dans le droit militaire canadien", (1970) numéro 2 Revue de droit pénal militaire et de droit de la guerre 393-395; le colonel Francis (Frank) Léger fut membre du cabinet du JAG; il présida de nombreuses cours martiales;

"The defence and prosecution staffs pose in front of the renamed
Normandy Building of the Maple Leaf Barracks"
LEHMAN, Wady, "Recollections Concerning War Crimes Investigations and Prosecutions”,  (2002) 11(4) Canadian Military History 70-80; available at http://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1335&context=cmh (accessed 21 January 2016);

Image source: http://www.rmcclub.ca/eVeritas/2007/Issue01/200701.htm, accessed 9 April 2016
Eric Lehre

LEHRE, Eric J., 1949-, Canada-US Military Interoperability at what Cost Sovereignty?, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 2012, xviii, 441 leaves; available at https://dalspace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/handle/10222/15306/Lerhe,%20Eric,%20PhD,%20POLSCI,%20Oct%202012%20D.pdf?sequence=5 (accessed 9 April 2016); also published as a book, see infra;
General Henault also indicated that the Judge Advocate General (JAG), Brigadier-General Jerry Pitzul, played a particularly  important internal role:
 “Jerry was as consistent and as honest as you could get in that respect. There was no arm twisting that he would allow.”  While there is a danger of
exaggerating, the fact is the JAG enjoyed very powerful influence over military plans by virtue of his unchallengeable ability to determine what was
legal and what was not.  This was reinforced by the fact that the Chief of Defence Staff was not his only boss.  Rather, the JAG was also responsible for
providing legal advice to the Defence Minister and Governor-General and thus enjoyed a certain independence, and with that a level of freedom from
"arm twisting." (footnotes omitted; p.188).  

Image source: http://www.dal.ca/dept/cfps/publications/AtWhatCost.html, accessed 9 April 2016
___________At what cost sovereignty? : Canada-US military interoperability in the war on terror, Halifax, NS : Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, Dalhousie University, 2013, ISBN:  9781896440729 (pbk.); see Table of Contents at http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/images/cfps/pubs/cfps_lerhetableofcontents-chapter1.pdf (accessed on 11 May 2014); see also his thesis with about the same title, supra;

___________Civil Military Relations and Aid to the Civil Power in Canada : Implications for the War on Terror", 33 p.; available at http://www.cda-cdai.ca/symposia/2004/Lerhe,%20Eric-%20Paper.pdf  (accessed on 2 August 2008); also accessed at http://cdai.jimmedia.ca/uploads/cdai/2009/04/lerhe04.pdf (15 December 2011);  paper presented at the Royal Military College, October 29-30, 2004;

___________"Connecting the dots" and the Canadian counter-terrorism effort-- steady progress or  technical, bureaucratic, legal and political failure? [electronic resource], Calgary, Alta. : Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, 2009 (Saint-Lazare, Quebec : Gibson Library, 14 p.; available at http://www.cdfai.org/PDF/Connecting%20the%20Dots%20and%20the%20Canadian%20Counter-terrorism%20Effort.pdf (accessed on 31 May 2012);
Even when all the departments assemble, not all can share data. While in a perfect data sharing structure each agency would have access to the other’s database to allow instantaneous “dot” connection across the government’s data systems, technology and legal concerns are reportedly hampering that effort.18 These combined maritime centres hoped to overcome this by collecting the various departments’ officers with their separate databases into a single room where face–to-face exchanges might move the information instead.  Regrettably, even this sub-optimal approach was occasionally thwarted with an officer at one MSOC claiming in 2006 that, “anything collected under the auspices of the Customs Act cannot be shared with any other department. It can be as benign as the name of a ship.”  This, of course, dooms any effort to connect all the elements of the myriad data that can provide warning of a developing terrorist attack. In response to these barriers, the Department of National Defence has recently started ‘war gaming’ cross-government legal activities within its maritime exercises. In 2007, for example, legal teams from across government and the United States participated in exercise FRONTIER SENTINEL, an attempt to isolate the legal barriers in the operations that cross-departmental and national boundaries. When an exercise event failed because of a perceived legal or procedural impediment these teams either resolved the impasse or recorded it for later analysis and, one hopes, correction. [p. 3]

___________ Setting the limits on parliamentary influence : the 1994 Defense Policy Review, Thesis (M.A.)--Dalhousie University, 1996, 469 p.; title noted in my research but thesis not consulted yet;

In the past Parliament's influence in defence matters was limited to scrutinizing the government's policies. This thesis will argue that the 1994 Defence Policy Review marks an important departure from this narrow approach. As the paper traces why this review was different, it will conclude that Parliament's participation was not only far greater than past efforts but also that those efforts substantially affected the government's subsequent defence policy. For perhaps the first time Parliament made defence policy. The thesis will also argue that despite this new power, significant limits on Parliament's policy influence still remain because it is failing in its traditional scrutiny function. It will conclude by offering recommendations to improve this. [Source: AMICUS catalogue]

LEONARD, Shaina, "Canadian Military Tribunals: A Constitutional Analysis", 2012 "independent research paper supervised" by Eric M. Adams, professor Faculty of Law, University of Alberta; title noted in professor Adans's c.v., posted on the internet, in pdf format, accessed 24 September 2015;

Professor Joanna Harrington (left) with Shaina Leonard (image source: https://lawschool.ualberta.ca/news/main-news/2014/june/leonardsuccessfullydefendsllmthesis, accessed 13 February 2015)

____________ Jus Post Bellum: The Case for a Light Footprint "Plus" Approach to Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, LL.M. thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Alberta, 2014, viii, 108 leaves, thesis supervisor: professor Joanna Harrington; available at https://era.library.ualberta.ca/public/view/item/uuid:5270f55c-df00-4a3d-9042-028d0653b231/, accessed 13 February 2015); Shaina Leonard is a former member of the office of the Judge Advocate General;

The term jus post bellum is used increasingly to refer to the legal frameworks applied in post-conflict peacebuilding projects. This thesis considers the recent application of three jus post bellum frameworks in states emerging from conflict to determine which framework has the greatest potential for success in terms of securing lasting peace and security in the post-conflict state. The three frameworks considered are: the law of occupation applied in Iraq, the United Nations-led interim administrations applied in Kosovo and East Timor, and the light footprint approach applied in Afghanistan. The thesis concludes that the light footprint approach, with its focus on local ownership over the peacebuilding process, should be considered for future post-conflict states, but with enhanced attention to security and coordination. A light footprint “plus” approach that includes increased international support and mentorship is advocated as the clearest route to lasting peace and security. This thesis concludes that the law of occupation is not an effective tool for post-conflict peacebuilding because it restricts the types of changes that can be made within the post-conflict state and it only arises in rare instances of international armed conflict. In Kosovo and East Timor, the UN-led interim administrations took control of all aspects of governance and made significant changes. While UN-led interim administrations can bring about significant post-conflict change, the lack of popular consultation and perceived lack of accountability makes them less desirable as post-conflict peacebuilding frameworks. In Afghanistan, peace builders were wary of the risks of imposing change on the Afghan people and adopted a light footprint approach that allowed Afghan authorities to lead post-conflict rebuilding efforts. Unfortunately, the international community did not provide sufficient support to the Afghans, the result of which was a poor security environment, an uncoordinated approach, and a failure to incorporate existing judicial frameworks into the new institutions of government. Although the light footprint approach is considered a failure in Afghanistan, a light footprint “plus” approach cannot be discounted for future peacebuilding initiatives. (source: https://era.library.ualberta.ca/public/view/item/uuid:5270f55c-df00-4a3d-9042-028d0653b231/, accessed 13 February 2015)

___________“Targeted  Killing:  A  Choice  of  Law  Analysis  under  International  Law,” 2011, research paper, Faculty of Law, University of Alberta, supervised by Dr. Johanna Harrington, as seen at http://lawschool.ualberta.ca/~/~/media/law/About%20Us/Contact%20Us%20and%20People/Faculty/Joanna%20Harrington/Joanna%20Harrington%20website%20CV.pdf   (accessed on 5 November 2014);

LEPATRIOTE.CA, "Forces canadiennes --des bonis injustifiables", 21 octobre 2014; disponible à http://lepatriote.ca/nouvelles/2014/10/21/forces-canadiennes-des-bonis-injustifiables/ (vérifié le 21 octobre 2014);

Des formations prestigieuses

L’armée dépense près de 700 M$ par année en éducation et formation pour ses membres. Mais les soldats ne vont pas seulement dans les écoles militaires. L’armée permet à ses officiers de parfaire leur formation dans les universités les plus prestigieuses du monde.

Non seulement ils continuent de recevoir leur plein salaire, mais tous leurs frais sont remboursés durant la formation.

Depuis 20 ans, près d’une cinquantaine de militaires vont à l’étranger chaque année et plusieurs ramènent des factures de plusieurs dizaines de milliers de dollars.

Notre Bureau d’enquête a d’ailleurs épluché le parcours d’un juge militaire. L’État a payé, en un an, 246 888 $ afin qu’il réalise une maîtrise à la prestigieuse université London school of Economics, en Angleterre. De ce montant, on constate que le militaire a facturé beaucoup à l’État, malgré son important salaire. Même ses crayons stylo de quelques dollars y ont passé.

Un juge avocat-général adjoint a quant à lui fréquenté l’Université Cambridge, aussi en Angleterre. Les contribuables ont payé 302 473 $ pour sa maîtrise. Il avait aussi, au début des années 90, fait une maîtrise à London school of Economics, au coût de 205 000 $ pour les contribuables.

Nos documents montrent que certains officiers passent parfois le tiers de leur carrière sur les bancs d’école, payés par leur employeur, l’armée canadienne.

Ces années d’études comptent aussi pour leur pension et ils reçoivent leur salaire, ce qu’on retrouve rarement au privé.  L’armée n’a pas commenté.

Luc Lépine, image source: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/luc-lepine/45/112/b8, accessed on 29 June 2015

LÉPINE, Luc, "Les cours martiales durant la guerre de 1812", (1995) 43 Cap-aux-Diamants : la revue d'histoire du Québec 32-35; disponible à http://www.erudit.org/culture/cd1035538/cd1041650/8774ac.pdf (vérifié le 6 janvier 2012);

___________La milice du district de Montréal, 1787-1829, essai d'histoire socio-militaire, thèse de doctorat en histoire, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2005, 684 p;

__________Le Québec et la guerre de 1812, Presses de l'Université Laval, 2012, 142 p., ISBN: 978-2-7637-9959-9; voir "La désertion et les cours martiales", aux pp. approx. 118-124;


Image source: http://www.thestar.com/news/city_hall/2012/04/12/patrick_lesage_to_review_regent_park_condo_purchases.html, accessed on 12 April 2014

LESAGE, Patrick J., former Chief Justice of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, as an individual, testimony on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act before the the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, issue 38, 28 May 2013,  minutes and evidence;

François LeSieur, photo reproduced from   http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/francois-lesieur/8b/247/344 (accessed on 31 March 2014)

LESIEUR, François, A New Appeal to Canadian Military Justice: Unconstitutionality of Summary Trials Under Charter 11(d), master's dissertation, not available for consultation / mémoire de maîtrise, non disponible pour consultation, University of Ottawa / Université d'Ottawa, mentioned at /mentionné à (automne 2010) 69 La revue du Barreau du Québec 374; on 17 February 2011 Mr. LeSieur sent me his work on pdf format with the new title A New Appeal to Canadian Military Justice: Constitutionality of Summary Trials Under Charter 11(d) which is now available at http://www.lareau-legal.ca/LeSieur.pdf  (put on internet 17 February 2011);  you can communicate with the author at f_lesieur@hotmail.com

Source of image: http://lmlaw.ca/robert-j-lesperance/, accessed 2 November 2015
Robert J. Lesperance
LESPERANCE, Robert J.,  "Canada,'s Military Operations against ISIS in Irak and Syria and the Law of Armed Conflict", (2015) 10(2) Canadian International Lawyer 51-63 ; available at http://lmlaw.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/15-9-7-RJL-Canadian-International-Lawyer-Article-00125489xDA33B.pdf (accessed 2 November 2015);

Just Letellier          From the left: a person -- I don't remember her name, François Lareau and Just Letellier, Lahr, circa 1982 (photo by François Lareau)
1961, Metz France
Source of image: detail of a group photo in McDONALD, R. Arthur, (Ronald Arthur), Canada's Military Lawyers, infra, at p. 93.

LETELLIER, Just P., de St-Just, former Judge Advocate General officer and military Judge; deceased, married to Diana Arnison; graduated from Université Laval; Chair of the Pension Review Board, 1985-1987, Chair of the Veterans Appeal Board, 1987-1989;  research made on 7 February 2016;


LETENDRE, Robert W., Pretrial Restraint: A Comparative Historical Analysis of American, British and Canadian Military Law,  Thesis--The Judge Advocate General's School, United States Army, 1969; 80 leaves; available at http://cdm15962.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15962coll7/id/78 (accessed 27 September 2016);

LETOURNEAU, Adam, "Judge Advocate General (JAG)", 5 December 2006; available at http://canadian-law-school.blogspot.ca/2006/12/judge-advocate-general-jag.html (accessed on 30 October 2014);

Gilles Létourneau, source of photo: https://plus.google.com/100888799498930312253/photos---accessed 21 March 2014

LÉTOURNEAU, Gilles, 1945-, "A criminal record for a simple disciplinary offence!", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 27 January 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/search?updated-max=2014-01-27T19:21:00-05:00&max-results=7&start=28&by-date=false (accessed on 15 February 2014);

In Canada prosecutions before disciplinary board for disciplinary offences such as conduct prejudicial to the profession do not create rise to a criminal record. The same act, however, may give rise to a criminal prosecution where, upon conviction, the accused will inherit a criminal record. In Canadian military law, the situation is different. Some disciplinary offences prosecuted before service tribunals, although not criminal in any way, may upon conviction saddle an accused for life with a criminal record.

___________"Actual and perceived independence of military judges", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 26 January 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/search?updated-max=2014-01-27T19:21:00-05:00&max-results=7&start=28&by-date=false (accessed on 15 February 2014);

___________"A new era?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 29 July 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/07/a-new-era.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 30 July 2015);  Mr. Létourneau gives his preliminary impressions on the fact that  LCol Stalker was charged before the civil authorities;

___________"Another drama in the Canadian Forces" Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 January 2017, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2017/01/another-drama-in-canadian-forces.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 5 January 2017);

___________"Another landmark in the quest for justice and fairness in the military justice system", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 2 May 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/05/another-landmark-in-quest-for-justice.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 3 May 2014);deals with the case of Larouche v. Her Majesty the Queen, 2014 CMAC 6;

___________"Another step towards a fairer Canadian military justice system", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 13 March 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/03/another-step-towards-fairer-canadian.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 15 March 2016); deals with the case of R. v. Korolyk, 2014 CMAC 6;

___________"Another step towards the protection of the accused before military courts",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 17 April 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/04/another-step-towards-protection-of.html (accessed on 18 April 2014);  discusses the case of In The Queen v. Wehmeier 2014 CMAC 5 (Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada);

___________"Another strip-tease of the Canadian military justice system", 
Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 22 March 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/03/another-strip-tease-of-canadian-penal.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 23 March 2016); 

___________"Canadian Forces Members Deprived of Constitutional Right to a Jury Trial", The Ottawa Citizen, Defence Watch, 9 March 2014, available at http://blogs.ottawacitizen.com/2014/03/09/canadian-forces-members-deprived-of-constitutional-right-to-a-jury-trial/  (accessed on 14 March 2014);

"However, with the exception of murder, manslaughter and abduction of children committed in Canada, all other ordinary criminal law offences, whether committed at home or abroad by members of the Canadian Forces, in all likelihood will be prosecuted before and tried by a military tribunal, thereby depriving the accused of the constitutional right to a jury trial guaranteed by par.11(f) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

The constitutional protection applies to persons tried by civilian courts for serious offences punishable by an imprisonment of five years or more, but is denied when the trial takes place before a military tribunal.

In my respectful view, as a matter of public policy, equality of rights and treatment before and under the law as well as fairness, no serious ordinary criminal law offence punishable by imprisonment for five years or more should be prosecuted before a military tribunal under the guise of discipline in peacetime.

Not unlike a police officer, a soldier is a citizen in uniform. Like the police officer he should be prosecuted before a civilian tribunal where he would regain his constitutional right to a jury trial."

___________"The Canadian military criminal justice system at a crossroad", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 29 July 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/07/the-canadian-military-criminal-justice.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 30 July 2014);

___________"Canadian military justice system's lack of independence unfair for military personnel", Ottawa Citizen, 22 January 2016; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/lack-of-independence-for-canadas-military-justice-system-unfair-for-military-personnel (accessed 22 January 2016);

Source de l'image: http://www.wilsonlafleur.com/wilsonlafleur/CatDetails.aspx?C=340.591, visité 20 janvier 2016
__________Combattre l'injustice et réformer, Wilson et Lafleur, 2015, 206 p., ISBN: papier, 9782896892945; les pages 87-115 traitent de  "La Commission d’enquête sur le déploiement des Forces canadiennes en Somalie" et les pages 129-146 de " La justice militaire et la nécessité d’une réforme fondamentale";

___________"Comment to the blog article by Eugene R. Fidell, "Statement by Gabriela Knaul, UN Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 23 February 2014; available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/02/statement-by-gabriela-knaul-special.html  (accessed on 22 December 2014);

__________"Comment to the blog article by Eugene R. Fidell, "Victim's rights in the Canadian Forces",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 September 2014; available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/09/victims-rights-in-canadian-forces.html (accessed on 15 February 2014);

___________"Le courage de ses convictions", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 11 October 2015; available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/10/le-courage-de-ses-convictions.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (12 October 2015);

___________"L'effeuillage (strip-tease) du système de justice pénale militaire canadien", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 21 March 2016; available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/03/leffeuillage-strip-tease-du-systeme-de.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (22 March 2016);

__________"Hon. Edmond Blanchard, Chief of the Court Martial Appeal Court and the Federal Court of Canada dies", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 28 June 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/06/hon-edmond-blanchard-chief-justice-of.html (accessed on 29 June 2014);

___________"Fonds Gilles Létourneau", 0,7 m de documents textuels, 1995-1997, Archives nationales du Canada, voir la note bibliographique à http://www.archivescanada.ca/english/search/ItemDisplay.asp?sessionKey=1143825756048_206_191_57_199&l=-1&lvl=1&v=0&coll=1&itm=267137&rt=1&bill=1 (vérifié le 1er février 2015);

Portée et Contenu:
Le fonds comprend des documents qui permettent d'éclairer la façon de travailler d'un président d'une importante commission d'enquête relative au déploiement des Forces cannadiennes en Somalie. Les documents permettent de voir l'évolution, le cheminement intellectuel et les commentaires d'un commissaire ainsi que ses méthodes de travail pendant l'enquête. Les notes d'audiences, les annotations diverses et la correspondance sont particulièrement intéressantes pour étudier non seulement le travail interne mais le mandat, le processus et le fonctionnement de la commission. On retrouve non seulement des notes et de la correspondance mais aussi des agendas, des minutes, des rapports, des allocutions et des communiqués de presse. 

___________"Impact of Administrative Release from Forces on Adequacy and Enforceability of Sentences", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 10 November 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/11/impact-of-administrative-release-from.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 11 November 2014);

___________ Initiation à la justice militaire : un tour d'horizon du système de justice pénale militaire et de son évolution au Canada/Introduction to Military Justice : An Overview of Military Penal Justice System and its Evolution in Canada, Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2012. x, 70, 68, viii p. : ill. ; 24 cm.; copie à la bibliothèque de la Cour suprême du Canada, KF7620 L48 2012; copie également à Fauteux, Université d'Ottawa, KE 7160 .L486 2012; voir la la table des matières en français; now the English Table of Contents is available;

___________"Interview of  Mr. Justice Létourneau" by Pierre Donais, CPAC, 29 minutes and 6 seconds; available at http://www.cpac.ca/endigital-archives/?search=Somalia&orderby=relevance (accessed on 11 July 2016);

In this episode, Pierre Donais sits down with Gilles Létourneau. Justice Gilles Létourneau was appointed Judge of the Federal Court of Canada, Appeal Division and ex officio member of the Trial Division, and Judge of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada on May 13, 1992, as well as Chairman of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia on March 20, 1995. Prior to that, he had been appointed President of the Law Reform Commission of Canada on July 5, 1990. He also contributed to several major legislative reforms in Quebec.

___________"In the search for a better Canadian military justice system", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, Monday 13 April 2015, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/04/in-search-for-better-canadian-military.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 14 April 2015);

___________"It's Time To Examine Status of Military Judges to Unequivocally Ensure Their Independence From The Chain of Command", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, Wednesday 19 March 2014, available at http://blogs.ottawacitizen.com/2014/03/19/its-time-to-examine-status-of-military-judges-to-unequivocally-ensure-their-independence-from-the-chain-of-command/ (accessed on 22 March 2014);

___________"Jurisdiction of Canadian military tribunals questioned -- military justice system at a crossroad", The Ottawa Citizen, Defence Watch, 9 March 2014, available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/jurisdiction-of-canadian-military-tribunals-questioned-military-justice-system-at-a-crossroad (accessed on 14 March 2014);   

___________"L'exemple du Canada" in Ministère de la défense, Colloque: Droit pénal et défense, École militaire 27 et 28 mars 2001, Paris: Ministère de la défense, Secrétariat général pour l'administration, Direction des affaires juridiques, 2001, 202 p., aux pp. 121-139; titre noté dans mes recherches mais article non consulté;

___________"Military nexus and the right to a jury trial", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, Tuesday, 15 December 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/12/military-nexus-and-right-to-jury-trial.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 16 December 2015); includes a blog reply/comment by Michel Drapeau;

___________"Military Penal Justice in Canada", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, Saturday, 30 July 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/08/military-penal-justice-in-canada.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 24 August 2014);

___________"Military Tribunals Being Abolished in Other Countries Except Canada", The Ottawa Citizen, Blog, News, Defence Watch, 29 March 2014, available at http://blogs.ottawacitizen.com/2014/03/29/military-tribunals-being-abolished-in-other-countries-except-canada/ (accessed on 31 March 2014);

___________"The monolith of Canadian military justice: blindness, deafness and general recalcitrance", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, Tuesday, 19 January 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/01/the-monolith-of-canadian-military.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 20 January 2016); 

___________"A Most welcome judicial poultice", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, Monday, 4 January 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/01/a-most-welcome-judicial-poultice_4.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 5 January 2016); comments on the decision R. v. Gagnon, 2015 CMAC 2;

___________"A move towards equality of rights for Canadian soldiers", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, Wednesday 19 March 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/ (accessed on 20 March 2014);

__________"Out of kilter? The investigation, prosecution and trial of ordinary criminal law offences in the Canadian military",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 8 May 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/out-of-kilter-investigation-prosecution.html  (accessed on 9 May 2015); research note: Mr. Létourneau in his blog makes reference to the reply made by Pascal Lévesque, at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/canadian-military-justice-system-has.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29;

___________"La problématique des commissions d'enquête des temps modernes" dans Actes de la XIIIe Conférence des juristes de l'État. Cowansville: Y. Blais, 1998, aux pp. 173; disponible à http://www.conferencedesjuristes.gouv.qc.ca/files/documents/6l/77/laproblematiquedescommissionsdenquete.pdf (vérifié le 1er février 2015); 

___________"Prosecution of children before service tribunals", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 23 January 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/search?updated-max=2014-01-27T19:21:00-05:00&max-results=7&start=28&by-date=false (accessed on 15 February 2014);

___________"Selection Process of the Panel Members of General Courts Martial in Canada: Another Needed Reform", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 2 September 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/09/selection-process-of-panel-members-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 3 September 2014);

___________"Shuffle the deck of cards?" Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 2 February 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/search?updated-max=2014-02-05T09:51:00-05:00&max-results=7&start=14&by-date=false (accessed on 14 February 2014);

In Canada, pursuant to ss. 60 and 273 of the  National Defence Act (Act), civilian criminal courts and military tribunals have concurrent jurisdiction to try ordinary criminal law offences committed by persons subject to the military Code of Service Discipline, even when they are committed outside Canada. This is due to the fact that s. 130 of the Act transforms all ordinary criminal law offences into service offences, i.e., disciplinary offences. This duality of jurisdictions begs the traditional thorny questions: who should prosecute what, when, where, why, how and under what conditions? While the answers to these questions are important for the following reasons, they are not easily found.

___________testimony of Gilles Létourneau, Retired Judge of the Federal Court of Appeal and the Court Martial Appeal Court on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act,

-  before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 65, 11 February 2013, minutes and evidence;
- before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, meeting issue 38, 29 May 2013minutes and  evidence;

___________"The decision in Moriarity could have gone further",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 23 March 2014, available at https://ca-mg5.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch?.partner=rogers-acs&retry_ssl=1#6 (accessed on 24 March 2014);

___________"The long and winding road of reform", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 22 June 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/06/the-long-and-winding-road-of-reform.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 23 June 2014);

The Canadian penal military justice system is in need of fundamental reform, not mere tinkering. So far there has been some changes to the system, a great many of them in the field of penal and disciplinary justice which were imposed by judicial decisions of the Court Martial Appeal Court (CMAC) and the Supreme Court of Canada.

It took more than 19 years of costly litigation to achieve an incomplete independence of military judges: see Leblanc v. R., 2011 CMAC 2, R.v. Lauzon (1998), 6 C.M.A.C. 19 and R.v. Genereux (1992) 1 S.C.R. 259. They still hold a rank inferior to over 100 officers who fall under their penal and disciplinary jurisdiction. As their judicial independence grew, military judges have become more assertive. Improved fairness and justice are already visible on this front.

The same cannot be said, however, of both the existing Prosecutorial and Defence Services which fall under the general supervision of the Judge Advocate General (JAG). The potential for unwarranted command influence is great on both Services, either in the form of active or refraining influence on the lawyers who operate in these Services. Their pay increase is linked to their performance assessed by their superior, i.e. the JAG. It is also the case for their promotion or task assignment within the Canadian Forces as a whole   

___________"The resurection of Napoléon's principle of equal justice", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 30 April 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/04/the-resurrection-of-napoleons-principle.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 24 March 2014);

____________"The title Judge Advocate General: a misleading misnomer in Canada",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 25 April 2014, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/04/the-title-judge-advocate-general.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 24 March 2014);

While the term “JAG” leads one to believe that, in Canada, the person appointed to that position is a judge, he is not a judge at all. He is a senior legal adviser to the Governor General, the Minister of National Defence (Minister), the Defence Department and the Canadian Forces, in matters relating to military law. He is also responsible to the Minister in the performance of his or her duties and functions: see ss.9.1 and 9.3 of the National Defence Act. This is a far cry from a judge who enjoys judicial independence, especially independence from the chain of command. In plain and simple words he is a lawyer. He is himself part of the chain of command as the Commander of all military lawyers. He attends all senior management meetings at National Defence Headquarters.

I think it is fair to say that the misnomer is confusing and misleading for everybody, especially the lay person, but convenient for the incumbent. The title JAG is a remnant of a distant past. For the sake of clarity and the better administration of military justice,  the title should be changed to reflect the current reality as well as the conditions and benefits which attach to the function that it is rather than the function that it is not.

___________"The Status of the Military Nexus Doctrine in Canada", Discussion paper delivered at the Global Military Appellate Seminar, Yale University, Connecticut, April 1, 2011; available at http://www.law.yale.edu/The_Status_of_the_Military_Nexus_Doctrine_in_Canada.pdf (accessed on 3 June 2011);

___________"Text of Oral Remarks on Bill C-15 -- Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Delivered by the Honorable Justice (retired) Gilles Létourneau", 11 February 2013, 7 p.; Note: on 20 March 2013, the clerk of the National Defence Standing Committee of the House of Commons, Leif-Erik Aune, sent me a copy of the public briefs submitted by witnesses under the committee's study of Bill C-15, the Strenghtening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act, First reading, 7 October 2011; also available in French;
"Observations sur le projet de loi C-15 -- Loi visant à renforcer la justice militaire pour la défense du Canada présentées par l'honorable juge (à la retraite) Gilles Létourneau", 11 février 2013, 8 p.; le projet de loi C-15 a reçu sa première lecture le 7 octobre 2011;

___________"Two Fundamental Shortcomings of the Canadian Military Justice System", Global Seminar on Military Justice Reform, Yale Law  School, 18-19 October 2013; available at http://www.law.yale.edu/documents/pdf/conference/Letourneau_TwoFundamentalShortcomings.pdf
(accessed on  7 December 2013);

__________"Two Observations in relation to the Moriarity and Larouche cases", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 9 January 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/01/two-observations-in-relation-to.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 10 January 2015);

__________"Why limits are necessary on the scope of the Canadian penal military justice system", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 May 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/why-limits-are-necessary-on-scope-of.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 15 May 2015);

__________"Will Canada be moving towards a further expansion of the scope of the penal military justice system?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 13 May 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/will-canada-be-moving-towards-further.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 14 May 2015);

___________"Will Justice and Fairness Prevail?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 27 March 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/ (accessed on 28 March 2014);

Will Justice and Fairness Prevail?

In his article entitled ‘Anglo-American’ Military Justice Systems and the Wave of Civilianization: Will Discipline Survive?, Lieutenant-Colonel S.S. Strickey of the Office of the Canadian Judge Advocate General asks whether discipline will survive as a result of what he calls civilianization of military justice.
The issue in Canada is not about civilianization of military justice.  Far from it. It is about justice itself.  It is about justice and fairness to soldiers who, as Canadian citizens, are entitled to it as much as civilians when it comes to the military prosecution of ordinary criminal law offences.
The remedy is a simple one. Let the civilian courts try ordinary criminal law offences and  the military institute disciplinary proceedings against military offenders. In this way the military offenders retain their civil rights that they can invoke before civilian tribunals and the military can secure discipline for disciplinary offences before military tribunals. 

___________"Will the Supreme Court of Canada provide soldiers with equality of treatment", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 12 November 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/11/will-supreme-court-of-canada-provide.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 12 November 2014);

....... From the left: Michel Drapeau and Gilles Létourneau, image source: http://www.hilltimes.com, accessed 12 November 2014

LÉTOURNEAU, Gilles, 1945- and Michel Drapeau, 1943-,  Canadian Military Law Annotated, Toronto: Thomson -- Carswell, 2006, ciii, 1787 p., ISBN: 0459244086; see the Table of Contents, etc., at http://www.nimj.com/documents/CdnMilitaryLawAnnotated.pdf (accessed on 10 July 2008); copy at Ottawa University, KE 6800 .L48 2006; copy at the Supreme Court of Canada Library KF7210 ZA2 L48 2006;

Foreword / Avant-Propos / The Honourable Edmond Blanchard – Prologue / Lieutenant General Richard Evraire – Preface – Table of cases – Table of acronyms and abbreviations – Part I. Introduction. 1. Introduction. Table of contents. Introduction. Background. The war years. The unification of the Canadian Forces. The post-war years. The legislative framework. The current structure. Customs, traditions and service etiquette. Military justice professional associations. Conclusions. Annex A. Canada’s contributions to UN peacekeeping operations, 1947-2006 – Annex B. National Defence Headquarters Organizational Chart – Annex C. CF hierarchical rank structure – Annex D. Pay and allowances: Regular Force – Annex E. Canadian honours and awards – Annex F. CF major weapons platforms – Annex G. Major (non-fighting) equipment – Annex H. Principal Canadian Forces installations-postal addresses – Bibliography – Permissions. Part II. Canadian Military Law. 2. National Defence Act – 3. Visiting Forces Act – 4. Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act – 5. Geneva Conventions Act. Part III. Canadian Military Law: Rules. 6. Court Martial Appeal Court Rules – 7. Military Rules of Evidence – Part V. Defence Agreements. 8. NATO Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA), 1951.  [source, http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 December 2011]

___________"Epilogue" in Michel Drapeau Law Office, ed.,  Winds of Change: Conference and Debate on Canadian Military Law, [Ottawa:] Michel Drapeau Law Office, 2016, 102 p., at pp. 86-90;  NOTES: Conference held at the University of Ottawa, 13 November 2015; "For the first time an international academic conference on military law was held in Canada at the University of Ottawa with the focus on reform and comparative law" (Gilles Létourneau, Preface, p. 7);  "(Organizing Committee for the Conference: Michel W. Drapeau, Joshua M. Juneau, Walter Semianiw and Sylvie Corbin)"; available at mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2015-Conference-Proceedings.pdf (accessed 20 January 2016);

___________Military Justice in Action: Annotated National Defence Legislation, Carswell, 2011, approx. 1700 p., ISBN: 978-0-7798-3632-1;

Foreword – Preface – A word of introduction by the authors – Table of cases – Table of acronyms and abbreviations – 1. The Defence portfolio and key actors – 2. National Defence Act annotated – 3. Queen’s regulations and orders-Volume I. Administration – 4. Queen’s regulations and order-Volume II. Discipline – 5. Queen’s regulations and orders-Volume III. Financial – 6. Military rules of evidence – 7. Rules of the Court Martial appeal court – 8. Charter of Rights and Freedoms. [source: http://ares.cfc.forces.gc.ca/rooms/portal/media-type/html/language/en/country/US/user/anon/page/Sirsi_AdvancedCatalogSearch, accessed on 1 December 2011] 


--- image source: http://mdlo.ca/uncategorized/launch-military-justice-in-action/, accessed 20 February 2015
                                         Michel Drapeau (left) and Gilles Létourneau
___________Military Justice in Action: Annotated National Defence Legislation, 2nd edition,  Carswell, 2015, approx. 2000 p., ISBN: 978-0-7798-6062-3; see video clip in French on the new book at http://tvanouvelles.ca/lcn/infos/national/archives/2015/02/20150212-130051.html, accessed 15 February 2015;

__________"We need restorative justice for members of Canadian military", The Hill Times online, 5 May 2015, available at http://canadianveteran011.blogspot.ca/ (accessed 7 May 2015); at http://mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Restorative-Justice-for-CAF-members1.pdf (accessed 9 May 2015); at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/canadian-military-justice-system-has.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29; and at http://mdlo.ca/news/restorative-justice-for-cf-members-an-absolute-necessity/ (accessed 10 May 2015); see also http://www.hilltimes.com/opinion/2015/05/04/we-need-restorative-justice-for-members-of-canadian-military/41977  (accessed 7 May 2015);

Source de l'image: still photo http://www.scc-csc.gc.ca/case-dossier/info/webcastview-webdiffusionvue-eng.aspx?cas=35755&urlen=http%3a%2f%2fwww4.insinc.com%2fibc%2fmp%2fmd%2fopen_protected%
Mark Létourneau before the Supreme Court of Canada

LÉTOURNEAU, Marc P. (Mark),  Biographical notes on; not necessarily written by Mr. Létourneau;

LCdr Marc P. Létourneau,
Directorate of Defence Counsel Services
(Biography to be added when available)

Prior to joining the Canadian Forces in 2006, LCdr Mark Létourneau acted as a provincial prosecutor with the Directeur des poursuites criminelles et
pénales in Montréal.  Since becoming a Legal Officer, he has been prosecution and defence counsel. LCdr Létourneau is currently the Appellate Counsel
 in the office of the Director of Defence Counsel Services. LCdr Létourneau is a graduate of the University of Montréal Faculty of Law (LLB). He is currently pursuing his graduate degree at Osgoode Hall Law School (LLM Criminal Law and Procedure). He is called to the Bar in Québec. (image source: http://www.cba.org/cba/cle/pdf/MIL13_Materials.pdf, accessed 21 January 2015).

Image source: http://www.nationalnewswatch.com/author/elevant/, accessed 27 September 2016
Ezra Levant

LEVANT, Ezra, "Canada shouldn't be playing the pirates' game", Canadian Lawyer, Jul 2009, Vol.33(7), p.54;

Description:   Levant comments on Canada's namby-pamby approach to piracy. A Canadian warship, HMCS Winnipeg has successfully thwarted a number of pirate attacks. On several occasions, the Canadians seized pirates. But after relieving them of their weapons, they actually let the pirates go, to attack again another day. Canada's Department of National Defence says it is legally and logistically impractical to try the pirates, but that's not true. Legal responses to piracy are almost as old as seafaring itself. And Canada's Criminal Code gives the courts jurisdiction over piracy, wherever it's committed. Some countries are trying captured pirates in their home countries; others have handed them to Kenya. British, Russian, and American forces have killed Somali pirates in military operations. Canada says it's looking into the Kenyan solution, but continues its policy of catch-and-release. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&pageNumberComingFrom=1&frbg=&&fn=search&indx=1&dscnt=0&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe&vid=01LOC&mode=Basic&ct=search&srt=rank&tab=default_tab&dum=true&vl(freeText0)=military%20lawyer%20canada&dstmp=1471636290128, accessed 19 August 2016)

LeVASSEUR, Gilles, "Message from the Chair" (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx and http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#article1  (accessed on 30 April 2012);
LeVASSEUR, Gilles, "Message du président" (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx  et http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#article1 (site visité le 30 avril  2012);

----- Source of the two images: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VPaXrVy2p2w, visité 9 septembre 2015
Éric Léveillé                                                              Tammy Tremblay

LÉVEILLÉ, Éric et Tammy Tremblay, "Avocat/Avocate militaire dans les forces canadiennes", page web, http://www.forces.ca/Content/transcripts/00204_avocatavocate_fr.html (site visité le 4 mars 2012);

LÉVEILLÉ : Le droit militaire englobe trois piliers principaux : y a le droit administratif, le droit militaire – justice militaire qu’on peut aussi qualifier de droit disciplinaire et droit criminel, et il y a le droit opérationnel, qui englobe le droit international humanitaire.

TREMBLAY : C’est tellement, tellement varié. Quand on est déployé, c’est plutôt du droit opérationnel qu’on fait, donc s’assurer que les besoins opérationnels de la mission respectent les droits de la personne, respectent le droit humanitaire.

LÉVEILLÉ : Donc c’est de s’assurer que les opérations des Forces canadiennes sont faites en conformité du droit canadien, des règles d’engagment, et du droit international humanitaire, qui englobe en outre les conventions de Genève et de La Haye.

TREMBLAY : Tout ce qui est droit des conflits armés, protéger les civils, l’évaluation des dommages collatéraux, le ciblage...

___________"Avocat/Avocate", video sur le web à http://webdev.multimediaservices.ca/fr/job/avocatavocate-64 (visité le 22 février 2015);

Mario Léveillée, source of photo: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-org-structure/judge-advocate-general-command.page --accessed 21 March 2014

LÉVEILLÉE, Mario, 1962-,  L'évolution de la justice pénale militaire et de l'office du juge-avocat général, thèse pour l'obtention du grade LL.M., Université d'Ottawa, décembre 1997,  iv, 170 feuilles; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, FTX General, KE 7146 .L485 1997; disponible à http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/tape15/PQDD_0001/MQ36714.pdf (vérifié le 2 août 2008); aussi disponible à https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/fr/handle/10393/4531 (vérifié le 17 juillet 2009);

Description: Cette thèse examine l'évolution parallèle de la justice pénale militaire et de l'office du juge-avocat général des origines à aujourd hui. La justice militaire au sein de l'armée britannique a étée pendant des siècles administrée exclusivement par le commandement, c'est-à-dire le pouvoir exécutif.  Les cours martiales sont alors des instruments de ce pouvoir.  La règle de droit et les juristes n'ont pas leur place dans ce système. L'exercice de la prérogative du commandement fait l'objet d'une surveillance par le juge-avocat général.  Cet office civil est confiée à un juriste. Ses interventions fondées sur le droit son souvent considerées comme une menace à l'autorité du commandement et donc à la discipline. Ses opinions ne lient les autorités militaires. Au Canada en 1911, la charge de JAG est confiée à un militaire clairement subordonné au commandement.  Chez-nous le JAG est complice du commandement dans l'exercice de sa prérogative. Le déclin de la prérogative du commandement au profit d'un pouvoir judiciaire indépendant amoree après la deuxième guerre mondiale a eu un impact significatif sur le système et sur l'office du JAG.  Les rôles du JAG n'ont cessé de diminuer, surtout depuis l'avènement de la Charte.  Nous croyons que cet office doit être réévalué à la lumièe des changements survenus et des nouvelles valeurs du système de justice penale militaire. (source: http://primo-pmtna01.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx=31&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=01LOC&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=juge-avocat+general&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe, visité 8 juillet 2016)

___________Evolution of Military Justice and the Office of the Judge Advocate General, August 2012,  pdf format, part of  the 2012 Canadian Bar Association Canadian Legal Conference and Marketplace/Conf/rence juridique canadienne (CJC) et  Marché juridique de l'Association du Barreau canadien;  available from the Canadian Bar Association  Store; $40.00 for non-members and $25.00 for members; available? at  http://www.cba.org/CBA/Vancouver2012/pdf/CLC12_Slides_Session4_5_Eng.pdf  -- English  et à http://www.cba.org/CBA/Vancouver2012/pdf/CLC12_Slides_Session4_5_Fre.pdf  en français (accessed on 7 April 2014); available also at in CANADIAN BAR ASSOCIATION NATIONALPROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT STREAM MATERIALS, 100 Years of JAG Advice to the Canadian Forces - Challenges and Opportunities / 100 ans du Juge-avocat général (JAG) au service des Forces armées canadiennes : défis et perspectives [PRESENTATION]  [PRESENTATION FRANÇAIS], Moderator:  Lieutenant-Commander Pascal Lévesque, Office of the Judge Advocate General (Gatineau); Speakers: Colonel Mario Léveillée, Office of the Judge Advocate General (Ott.); Lieutenant-Colonel Roger Strum, Office of the Judge Advocate General (Ott.); Commander Bonita Thornton, Office of the Judge Advocate General (Toronto); Note: CBA Canadian Legal Conference, CBA and CCCA Programs, August 12-14, 2012, Vancouver, BC; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/Vancouver2012/cba-pd/Materials.aspx, accessed on 21 January 2015;


This slide presentation outlines the following: legal framework background; military justice and command prerogative prior to 1950; office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) in the United Kingdom; office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) Canada; and the decline of the prerogative – Judiciarization [source: http://www.cba.org/cbastore/search.aspx?pubid=2&subject=Military+Law, accessed on 10 April 2013]

Major Mario Léveillée receiving his diploma of achievement for the OPDP program from BGen Pierre Boutet, JAG, image source: JAG Newsletter/Bulletin d'actualités du JAG, volume 1, Part 1, Jan-Feb 98, at p. 2 (posted 21 December 2016)
___________biographical notes; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/Vancouver2012/pdf/CLC12_BIO_LeveilleeM.pdf (accessed 2 May 2015);

Colonel Léveillée was born in Wakefield, Québec. He articled and practiced law with the Québec Department of Justice before joining the Canadian Forces Legal Branch in 1988. After completing basic officer training and a few months acting as prosecutor and defense counsel before courts martial in Lahr, Germany, he was posted to Halifax Nova Scotia as Deputy Judge Advocate Atlantic Region. His other assignments include: Deputy Judge Advocate CFB Gagetown (Oromocto, NB); Deputy Director Directorate of Law Defense; Director Directorate Military Justice Policy and Research; Director Directorate Law Training; Assistant Judge Advocate General Western Region (Edmonton, AB), Deputy Director Military Department, International Institute of Humanitarian Law (San Remo, Italy), Assistant Judge Advocate General Europe (Geilenkirchen Germany); Director Directorate Strategic Legal Analysis; Acting Deputy Judge Advocate General Regional Services. Deputy and assistant Director of Military Prosecutions. He was appointed by the Minister of National Defense as Director of Military Prosecutions on 7 March 2012. 

Colonel Léveillée was also legal advisor to the Canadian Forces deployed in Haïti (1995-1996); legal advisor to the Task Force commander in preparation for and during the G8 Summit in Kananaskis Alberta (2002); deputy legal advisor to the Commander of NATO`s Stabilization Force in Bosnia (2003, Commander SFOR Commendation); Military Criminal Law Advisor with the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (2008). Colonel Léveillée is a graduate of the University of Ottawa (LL.L. 1984; LL.M. 1997, Bar of Paris Medal for highest academic achievement). He is also a graduate of the Command and Staff Course at the Canadian Forces College (1999-2000 CSC 26).

Source of image: www.amazon.com
___________"L'organisation des Nations Unies et la mise en oeuvre du droit international humanitaire", in Roberta Arnold  and Pierre- Antoine Hidbrand, eds., International Humanitarian Law and the 21st Century's Conflicts: Changes and Challenges, Berne/Lugano: Éditions  interuniversitaires suisses -- Edis, 2005 , 253 p., at pp. 61-95 (series; volume 4 of Argent (Fribourg); Issue 4 of Série argent), ISBN:  2940341044, 9782940341047; also published in  JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter 78-85;

LÉVEILLÉE, Mario, 1962-, Dieter Fleck and Terry Gill, General Report, "The Rule of Law in Peace Operations", in Recueil XVII, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, 2006, pp. 108-158;

__________Rapport Général, "La règle de droit dans les opérations de la paix", dans Recueil XVII, Société internationale de Droit militaire et de Droit de la Guerre, 2006, p. 49-107;


Mylène Lévesque (left) with Nadine Fortin at at the                      This photo is from Mylène Lévesque's article in 
2014 International Woman's Day, Ottawa, 6 Mar 2014                  (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 82
(photo Sgt Dan Shoinard, image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/canadianarmy/12994839924/in/photostream/)

LÉVESQUE, Mylène, "La campagne de charité en milieu de travail 2006", (2007) 1 JAG Les actualités Newsletter 82;

Pascal Lévesque, source of photo: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/pascal-l%C3%A9vesque-llb-ma-llm-cd/52/b05/2a2?trk=pub-pbmap, accessed on 7 April 2014

LÉVESQUE, Pascal, 1971-, "American Military Justice : When the Enemy Is Too Close", 13(4) Canadian Military Journal; available at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol13/no4/page48-eng.asp (accessed on  10 December 2013);
LÉVESQUE, Pascal, 1971-, "Justice militaire américaine; un ennemi trop proche", 13(4) Revue militaire canadienne; disponible à http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol13/no4/page48-fra.asp  (vérifié le 10 décembre 2013);

__________"As air-campaign ends, CBC journalist wonders if LOAC would be applied differently by ground troops",

__________Book Review: "Death or Deliverance: Canadian Courts Martial in the Great War by Teresa Iacobelli", (2016) 85(3) University of Toronto Quarterly 383-384; see excerpt at https://muse.jhu.edu/article/632807/summary (accessed 2  November 2016); see also at https://muse.jhu.edu/article/632807 (accessed 25 January 2017);


__________La célérité de la justice militaire canadienne : vers un meilleur équilibre entre efficacité et équité, thèse LL.M., Université d'Ottawa, 2009, 236 p.; dir. de thèse: Grondin, Rachel; copie à l'Université d'Ottawa, FTX General, KE 7146 .L49 2009; disponible à http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/002/MR59945.PDF  (vérifié le 16 avril 2012); également disponible à https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/28273/1/MR59945.PDF (vérifié 24 septembre 2016);

Abstract (Summary)
Selon une approche classique avec des éléments de droit comparé, l'auteur tente de trouver un meilleur équilibre entre efficacité et équité en justice militaire canadienne en défendant la thèse qu'on peut améliorer les deux à la fois. Remontant dans une première partie aux sources du droit militaire anglo-américain pour saisir le poids de l 'histoire, l'auteur montre comment la justice militaire canadienne est passée d'un système expéditif soumis awc impératifs de la chaîne de commandement à un système équitable mais plus lent. Favorisant la protection des droits de la personne, l'auteur justifie la nécessité de calibrer à nouveau le système malgré la législation en place. Dans une seconde partie, l'auteur propose une série de mesures législatives comme administratives visant à prévenir, de l'enquête au procès, les délais indus et leurs conséquences néfastes tout en rehaussant l'équité par l'augmentation de la capacité d'intervention des juges militaires, lesquels seraient investis de nouveawc pouvoirs au sein d'une cour martiale pertnanente. (source: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?Ver=1&Exp=06-03-2016&FMT=7&DID=2016132381&RQT=309&attempt=1&cfc=1, vérifié le 5 juin 2011; également disponible à  )

___________L'évolution et la réforme des procès sommaires en justice militaire canadienne / [The Evolution and Reform of Summary Trials in Canadian Military Justice], Ph.D. thesis, Queen's University, 2016 (directeur de thèse/thesis director: Don Stuart);

        Il y a un endroit où un citoyen canadien peut être envoyé en détention pour 30 jours, par quelqu’un qui n’est pas juge,
 sans être représenté par avocat et sans avoir un véritable droit d’appel. Il s’agit du système de procès sommaire des Forces
armées canadiennes. La présente thèse analyse ce système et suggère des réformes. Elle est destinée à ceux ayant un intérêt
d’améliorer l’administration de la justice militaire au niveau des unités mais veulent suffisamment saisir les enjeux avant de

           Selon une approche juridique classique, aidée d’éléments d’histoire du droit et de droit comparé, la présente recherche
débute en fixant la justice militaire dans l’espace juridique canadien. Le chapitre introductif explique également les concepts
fondamentaux, au premier chef le maintien de la discipline, notion plus large pour laquelle le procès sommaire est un outil
de dernier recours. Le deuxième chapitre décrit le système actuel. Un aperçu de son évolution historique est d’abord présenté.
Ensuite, chaque étape du processus est démystifiée, de l’enquête à la révision.

Dans le troisième chapitre, les violations potentielles à la Charte sont identifiées, mettant l’accent sur celles posant
le plus grand risque constitutionnel: le manque d’indépendance judiciaire, l’absence de transcrit de l’audition, l’insuffisance
du droit à l’avocat et la disparité de traitement entre les grades. Le quatrième chapitre présente les alternatives qui ont
été adoptées pour faire face à des défis analogues. Ces alternatives proviennent tant des Forces canadiennes que de juridictions
militaires étrangères de pays de common law et de droit civil.

Le cinquième chapitre analyse si ces violations ne pourraient pas être néanmoins justifiées dans une société libre et
démocratique.  Sa conclusion est que, en présence d’alternatives raisonnables, il serait difficile de convaincre un juge que le
système actuel constitue une limite légitime aux garanties judiciaires.

Le dernier chapitre présente des options pour faire face à ces défis. D’abord, un regard critique est porté sur la première
approche, celle de la ‘dépénalisation’, adoptée par le gouvernement dans le récent projet de loi C-71. Ensuite, des mesures sont
recommandées pour mettre en œuvre la seconde approche, celle de la ‘judicialisation’. Ces mesures ne visent pas qu’à renforcer
la constitutionnalité du système, mais plus encore d’améliorer l’administration de la justice militaire dans un souci de promouvoir
les droits des militaires.

Copyright © Pascal Lévesque, 2016



           There is a place where a Canadian citizen can be sent to 30 days detention, by someone who is not a judge, without being
represented by counsel, and without having a meaningful right to appeal. It is the summary trial system of the Canadian Armed
Forces. This thesis analyses that system and suggests reforms. It is aimed at those who have an interest in improving the administration
of military justice at the unit level but want to sufficiently understand the issues before doing so.

Through a classic legal approach with elements of legal history and comparative law, this study begins by setting military
justice in the Canadian legal firmament. The introductory chapter also explains fundamental concepts, first and foremost the broader
notion of discipline, for which summary trial is one of the last maintaining tools. Chapter II describes the current system. An overview
of its historical background is first given. Then, each procedural step is demystified, from investigation until review.

Chapter III identifies potential breaches of the Charter, highlighting those that put the system at greater constitutional risk:
the lack of judicial independence, the absence of hearing transcript, the lack of legal representation and the disparity of treatment
between ranks. Alternatives adopted in the Canadian Armed Forces and in foreign jurisdictions, from both common law and civil
law traditions, in addressing similar challenges are reviewed in Chapter IV.

Chapter V analyses whether the breaches could nevertheless be justified in a free and democratic society. Its conclusion
is that, considering the availability of reasonable alternatives, it would be hard to convince a judge that the current system is a
legitimate impairment of the individual’s legal rights.

The conclusion Chapter presents options to address current challenges. First, the approach of ‘depenalisation’ taken by
the Government in recent Bill C-71 is analysed and criticised. The ‘judicialisation’ approach is advocated through a series of
16 recommendations designed not only to strengthen the constitutionality of the system but also to improve the administration
of military justice in furtherance of service members’ legal rights.

Copyright © Pascal Lévesque, 2016

___________"Justice militaire américaine: Nuire à trop dénoncer", AHQ -- Avocats Hors Québec, 18 novembre 2013; disponible à  http://www.avocatshorsquebec.org/site/fr/les-nouvelles/articles/271-justice-militaire-americaine-nuire-a-trop-denoncer.html (vérifié le 1er février 2015);

___________"Les mesures visant la célérité de la justice canadienne: éléments de comparaison avec des systèmes similaires", travail de recherche dirigée en maîtrise, Université d'Ottawa, 2008 [non-publié];

___________Linked in à https://ca.linkedin.com/in/pascal-l%C3%A9vesque-cd-llb-ma-llm-2a2b0552  (visité 10 septembre 2016);

__________ "Moriarity: Military Justice Now Based on Status, not Nexus: Wider Issues Remain" (2016) 24 Criminal Reports (7th) 377-384;

___________"Op Apollo -- Pensez différemment, sortez de la boîte!", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 65-68;
___________"Op Apollo -- 'Think Outside the Box!' ", (2003) 1 JAG Newsletter -- Les actualités 68-71;

___________"Un reportage de Radio-Canada questionne la capacité de la justice militaire en matière d'agressions sexuelles - Commentaires", 23 mars 2016, disponible à https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/un-reportage-de-radio-canada-questionne-la-capacit%C3%A9-pascal?articleId=6118395359656960000#comments-6118395359656960000&trk=prof-post (vérifié 11 mai 2016);

___________testimony as a member of the Defence Counsel Services, Department of National Defence, before the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs on the provisions and operation of An Act to amend the National Defence Act (court martial) and to make a consequential amendment to another act (S.C. 2008, c. 29); Issue 3, 12 March 2009; evidence;

___________"The Official Languages in Canadian Military Penal Law", Sword and Scale, 23 mai  2013; available at http://www.cba.org/CBA/sections_military/newsletters2013/languages.aspx (accessed on 29 August 2013);

___________"Reply" by Pascal Lévesque to the blog "Canadian military justice system has usurped the functions constitutionally assigned to the provinces" posted by Michel Drapeau,  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 5 May 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/canadian-military-justice-system-has.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 9 May 2015); deals with summary trials;

____________"Reply" by Pascal Lévesque to the blog "Out of kilter? The investigation, prosecution and trial of ordinary criminal law offences in the Canadian military" posted by Michel Drapeau,  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 8 May 2014, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/out-of-kilter-investigation-prosecution.html?showComment=1431151989088#c6450331410049723979 (accessed on 27 May 2015); deals with summary trials;

LÉVESQUE, Pascal, Isabelle Richer, Radio-Canada, "L'ABC de la cour martiale: Isabelle Richer reçoit Pascal Lévesque, avocat et chercheur en droit militaire", audio-video, novembre 2016, 5 minutes, 20 secondes, disponible à http://ici.radio-canada.ca/audio-video/media-7613120/labc-de-la-cour-martiale (vérifié le 19 novembre 2016);   

"Liability of the United States and Canadian Governments for Tortious Conduct of Their Military Personnel", (1943) 53(1) The Yale Law Journal 188-194;

Dorothy Liang, photo reproduced from http://lawandstyle.ca/best_practices_new_recruit/ (accessed on 31 March 2014)

LIANG, Dorothy, LCdr, "Difference of opinion not enough to justify disobeying a lawful command", (May 2011) -- Sword and Scale -- CBA National Military Law Section Newsletter; available at http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx  and  http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#article6  (accessed on 30 November 2011);

The CMAC [CMAC= Court martial Appeal Court;  R. v. Liwyj, 2010 CMAC 6] reviewed the law established by the Supreme Court of Canada – our country’s highest court – and determined that the only exception to a CF member’s duty of obedience is where a superior’s command is “manifestly unlawful.” This is consistent with Note B to QR&O article 19.015, which states in part: “where the subordinate does not know the law or is uncertain of it he shall, even though he doubts the lawfulness of the command, obey unless the command is manifestly unlawful.”
The question becomes: How does a CF member determine whether a command is manifestly unlawful and disobedience is justified? The CMAC identified the following legal principles. First, a command that has no clear military purpose will be considered unlawful. Note F to QR&O article 103.17 echoes the same principle: “A command, in order to be lawful must be one relating to military duty, i.e., the disobedience of which must tend to impede, delay or prevent a military proceeding.”
Second, an order “that offends the conscience of every reasonable right-thinking person,” or that is “patently and obviously” wrong, amounts to a manifestly unlawful order. Note C to QR&O article 19.015 provides the following examples: “a command by an officer or non-commissioned member to shoot a member for only having used disrespectful words,” or “a command to shoot an unarmed child.”
In Liwyj, the CMAC stressed that CF members have no lawful excuse for disobeying an order that is “merely questionable.” A difference of opinion or a “disagreement between fair-minded persons” is not enough to justify disobedience. Furthermore, CF members cannot rely on their own personal opinions. Disobedience is only justified when the objective, reasonable person would find that the command was manifestly unlawful.

Dorothy Liang, on the left, image source: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2011-12/ch-4-military-justice-year-in-review.page,
                                                                                       accessed 9 August 2015
LIANG, Dorothy, "Une divergence d'opinions ne suffit pas",  (May/Mai 2011) Sword & Scale -- Salut militaire; disponible à http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx  et http://www.cba.org/ABC/nouvelles-sections/2011/2011-03_military.aspx#article5 (site visité le 30 avril  2012);

LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA / LAC Forum on Canadian Democracy,  http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/democracy/023023-2600-e.html
- Courts martial records, http://mikan3.archives.ca/pam/public_mikan/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=136599&rec_nbr_list=136599
- Courts –Martial of the First Worlf War, http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/databases/courts-martial/index-e.html
- Department of Militia and Defence Fonds, http://mikan3.archives.ca/pam/public_mikan/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=17&rec_nbr_list=17
- Department of National Defence fonds, http://mikan3.archives.ca/pam/public_mikan/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=48&rec_nbr_list=48
(all links accessed on 17 February 2009)
Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, Forum de BAC sur la démocratie canadienne, http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/democratie/023023-2600-f.html
-  Dossiers des cours martiales, http://mikan3.archives.ca/pam/public_mikan/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=fre&rec_nbr=136608&rec_nbr_list=136608
-  Cours martiales de la Première Guerre Mondiale, http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/base-de-donnees/cours-martiales/index-f.html
-  Fonds du ministère de la défense nationale, http://mikan3.archives.ca/pam/public_mikan/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=fre&rec_nbr=464&rec_nbr_list=464
-  Fonds du ministère de la milice et Défense, http://mikan3.archives.ca/pam/public_mikan/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=fre&rec_nbr=433&rec_nbr_list=433

LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA: At the National Archives of Canada, the Department of National Defence fonds (reference number RG 24, now R112-0-2-E) includes a Judge Advocate General Series: R112-380-5-E (formerly RG24-B-9);
see following sites, accessed on 25 February 2012:


Image source: http://everitas.rmcclub.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Werner-Liedtke.jpg, accessed 16 February 2015
LIEDTKE, Werner, "The Canadian Forces' Use of Armed Contractors: A Step Too Far in the 'Team Canada' Approach to Global Engagement", Canadian Forces College, CSC 32; available at http://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/292/286/liedtke.pdf    (accessed on 2 August 2012);

Image source: http://law.unimelb.edu.au/about/staff/rain-liivoja, accessed 16 August 2016
Rain Liivoja
LIIVOJA, Rain, "Law and Honour: Normative Pluralism in the Regulation of Military Conduct", (May 9, 2012). Jan Klabbers & Touko Piiparinen (eds), Normative Pluralism and International Law: Exploring Global Governance (Cambridge University Press, 2013, Forthcoming); U of Melbourne Legal Studies Research Paper No. 582. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2055519; deals  Canadian law for one section but very informative about others (even if Canada is not mentioned);

Image source: global.oup.com/academic/product/the-oxford-handbook-of-criminal-law-9780199673599?cc=ca&lang=en&, accessed 10 September 2016
___________"Military Justice" in Markus D. Dubber, Tatjana Hornle, eds.,  The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Law, Oxford, United Kingdom ; New York, NY : Oxford University Press, 2014 , xxi, 1203 pages ; 26 cm at Chapter 15 (series; Oxford handbooks), ISBN: 9780199673599, 0199673594;

Image source: cnw.newswire.ca/blog/Meet-the-Press-Justin-Ling-VICE.html, accessed 9 December 2016
LING, Justin, "Presumed independent", CBA--ABC National, web only, blog, available at http://www.nationalmagazine.ca/Articles/July-2016-Web/Presumed-independent.aspx (accessed 9 December 2016);

___________ "Veterans benefits --How a class action by veterans could impact the law of fiduciary obligations owed by the Crown", CBA--ABC National, 12 November 2013, available at http://www.nationalmagazine.ca/Articles/November/Veterans-benefits.aspx (accessed 9 December 2016);

LinkedIn, "Legal Officer -- Canadian Armed Forces", available at https://ca.linkedin.com/jobs/view/147794457 (accessed 5 September 2016);

LINTON, Art, "Experienced International CEO, Director, and Lawyer", available at https://ca.linkedin.com/in/artlinton (accessed on 3 September 2016);
Art is a recipient of both United Nations and Canadian Peace Keeping Medals for his service while
a member of the Canadian Armed Forces, as well as the Judge Advocate General’s Command Coin
for his service to military lawyers
.  [bold added].

Image source: www.linkedin.com/pulse/leadership-team-from-office-judge-advocate-general-played-art-linton?articleId=6101787486382489600#comments-6101787486382489600&trk=prof-post (accessed 31 March 2016)
___________"The Leadership Team from the Office of the Judge Advocate General played a Prominent Role in Canada's Magna Carta 800th Commemoration", 6 February 2016; available at www.linkedin.com/pulse/leadership-team-from-office-judge-advocate-general-played-art-linton?articleId=6101787486382489600#comments-6101787486382489600&trk=prof-post (accessed 31 March 2016);

Source: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/leadership-team-from-office-judge-advocate-general-played-art-linton, accessed 3 September 2016
___________Note on photo "Major-General Blaize Cathcart, OMM, CD, QC, Judge Advocate General of Canada accepts a Certificate of Appreciation from Magna Carta Canada Board Member Art Linton"; 

Source de l'image: https://twitter.com/jflisee, vérifié 12 mai 2016
Jean-François Lisée
LISÉE, Jean-François, "Et si Québec appelait 1-800-l’armée ?", L'Actualité, 21 mai 2012, disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/zzz_archives/blogue-de-jean-francois-lisee/et-si-quebec-appellait-1-800-larmee/ (vérifié 17 octobre 2015); Mr. Lisée is the leader of the Parti québécois since October 2016;

Image source: http://www.law.utoronto.ca/news/grad-student-kyle-kirkup-and-alumnus-ryan-liss-land-2013-trudeau-foundation-scholarships, accessed 26 September 2015
Ryan Liss
LISS, Ryan, "The abuse of ambiguity: the uncertain status of Omar Khadr under international law", (2012) 50 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 95-161;
There has been a great deal of contemporary scholarly debate, in the abstract, surrounding many of the issues related to Khadr's case, such as the status of "unlawful combatants" and child soldiers. This article endeavours to clarify Khadr's status under international law. First, it analyzes Khadr's status under international humanitarian law,(IHL). In doing so, it considers the character of the conflict in which Khadr was captured, the concept of combatancy, the assertion that Khadr was an "unlawful combatant," and the rights guaranteed to Khadr under IHL as a result of his status. Second, the article assesses Khadr's potential protections as a child soldier by surveying the debate concerning the definition of child soldiers, the obligations of states detaining child soldiers, and the principles governing the treatment of minors involved in penal processes generally. This article focuses on the international legal status and protections Khadr should have been granted, rather than the question of whether any specific breaches of his rights in fact occurred. Nevertheless, even without a thorough review of the state conduct at issue, it is evident that the United States (and arguably Canada) breached some of the basic guarantees that should have been afforded to Khadr. While the law surrounding each aspect of his status is not clear, it seems the United States and Canada have exploited this very ambiguity to justify their disregard for Khadr's rights. The article concludes by observing that this approach to legal ambiguity is, itself, contrary to the foundational principles of IHL (source: https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/2014/ihl-bibliography-3-quarter-2014.pdf, accessed 15 March 2015)

--------------------------Image source: forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2013-14/ch-1-who-we-are.page, accessed 27 November 2016
The JAG, MGen J. Pitzul, presents the General      Major A. Litowski
Campaign Starto Maj A. Litowski (image source:
(2006) 1 JAG Les actualités -- Newsletter at p. 11)
LITOWSKI, Anne, Military Boards of Inquiry and Military Police Investigations: Cooperation and the Limits to the Power to Compel Information, mémoire LL.M., University of Ottawa, 2013, thesis mentioned in / thèse citée dans Revue du Barreau du Québec, 2014, volume 73, à la p. 677;

Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/ken-lloyd-3039802a, accessed 11 May 2016
Kenneth Lloyd

LLOYD, Kenneth W.J. (Kenneth William Joseph), 1951-, Blazing a new trail : creating a Dispute Resolution Centre for the Canadian military at Canadian Forces Base Petawawa,  thesis (M.A.)--Royal Roads University, 2004, 144 pages;

To design a template for establishing a Dispute Resolution Centre in an operational military base. The research project examines
the first six months of the Dispute Resolution Centre in Canadian Forces Base Petawawa, during a double deployment for
Operations Athena and Palladium. Conflict theory and systems design are reviewed to research the importance of voice and
procedural justice in resolving conflict. Recommendations for a "Triage" approach to managing conflict at every level of
leadership. To extend the role of the Dispute Resolution Centre to provide first and neutral information on both Rights
and Interest based resolution choices for disputants. [AMICUS catalogue]

James Lockyer, image source: http://professeur.umoncton.ca/umcm-lockyer_james/, accessed on 11 April 2014

LOCKYER, James E., "Charter Implications for Military Justice: A Commentary on  Zillman and Blair" (1993) 42 University of New Brunswick Law Journal 243-258;

                                                                                               Hugo Loiseau, source de l'image: http://www.cei.ulaval.ca/?pid=66, visité 25 décembre 2015

LOISEAU, Hugo, "Une réponse juridique au cyberterrorisme est-elle possible?", Conférence Cyberattaque.  Réponses normatives: du militaire au juridique 20 novembre 2015,  Université de Montréal, présentation Power Point disponible à http://www.crdp.umontreal.ca/docs/2015/12/Pre%CC%81sentation-20112015-H-Loiseau.pdf (visité 25 décembre 2015);

LOISEAU, Hugo, Charles-Antoine Millette et Lina Lemay, "La stratégie du Canada en matière de cybersécurité : de la parole aux actes?", (2013) 19(2) Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 144-157; titre noté dans mes recherches mais article non consulté (25 décembre 2015);

"The London School of Economics & Political Science and the Office of the JAG: A Continuing Success Story", (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 7-8; about the LSE and its JAG students: LCol Blaise Cathcart, LCol Kirby Abbott, LCol Fraser Brownlee and LCol Michael Gibson;
"Le London School of Economics & Political Science et le cabinet du JAG: une exp/rience réussie", (2005) 1 Les actualités JAG Newsletter 8-9; sur le LSE et ses étudiants du JAG: les LCol Blaise Cathcart, LCol Kirby Abbott, LCol Fraser Brownlee et le  LCol Michael Gibson;

Source of image: twitter.com/londonweinsteinhttps://twitter.com/londonweinstein, accessed 22 January 2016
Anne London-Weinstein, Counsel, Criminal Lawyers Association

LONDON-WEINSTEIN, Anne, "Justice for All: Canadian Military Law and Charter Values", in Michel Drapeau Law Office, ed.,  Winds of Change: Conference and Debate on Canadian Military Law, [Ottawa:] Michel Drapeau Law Office, 2016, 102 p., at pp. 72-82, NOTES: Conference held at the University of Ottawa, 13 November 2015; "For the first time an international academic conference on military law was held in Canada at the University of Ottawa with the focus on reform and comparative law" (Gilles Létourneau, Preface, p. 7);  "(Organizing Committee for the Conference: Michel W. Drapeau, Joshua M. Juneau, Walter Semianiw and Sylvie Corbin)"; Speech transcribed by Joshua M. Juneau, p. 31; available at mdlo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2015-Conference-Proceedings.pdf (accessed 20 January 2016);

___________Lawyer, Criminal Lawyers Associations, her testimony on Bill C-15, An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts -- this Bill has the Short Title: Strengthening Military Justice in the Defence of Canada Act, before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, meeting number 66, 13 February 2013, minutes and evidence;

Dan Loomis, photo reproduced from http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/Loomis+1929+2013/9374050/story.html (accessed on 31 March 2014)

LOOMIS, Dan G. (Dan Gordon), 1930-2013, "Lives lived Major-General Dan Gordon Loomis MC, OMM, CD (1929–2013)", (2015) 16(1) The Canadian Army Journal 118-121, available at http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/assets/ARMY_Internet/docs/en/canadian-army-journal/volume-16/caj-vol-16-1-10-e.pdf (accessed 5 Janiary 2016);

Image source: www.riverwashbooks.com/?page=shop/flypage&product_id=27566&keyword=fcwm&searchby=keyword&offset=100&fs=1, accessed 9 October 2016
___________ Not Much Glory : Quelling the F.L.Q. , Toronto: Deneau Publishers, 1984, 199 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm; ISBN: 0888791186;


Image source: www.riverwashbooks.com/?page=shop/flypage&product_id=27586&keyword=fcwm&searchby=keyword&offset=100&fs=1, accessed 9 October 2016
___________The Somalia Affair:  reflections on peacemaking and peacekeeping, revised edition, Ottawa : DGL Publications, 1997, c1996, xxviii, 756 p., ISBN: 0968095208;

LOVAS, Gwynneth Mary, Canadian Military Law : Morale and Welfare Operations, Carswell, 2013, 228 p.; see table of contents at http://www.carswell.com/DynamicData/ProductDocs/tableofcontents/toc-978-0-7798-5546-9.pdf (accessed on 18 October 2013);

Image source: https://ca.linkedin.com/in/david-lowthian-87288648, accessed 12 May 2016
David Lowthian
LOWTHIAN, David, Colonel, "CFACC and CAOC Observations and Recommendations from RIMPAC 2014", (winter 2015) 4(1) The Royal Canadian Air Force Journal; available at http://www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca/en/cf-aerospace-warfare-centre/elibrary/journal/2015-vol4-iss1-03-cfacc-and-caoc-observations-and-recommendations-from-rimpac-2014.page (accessed 23 September 2015);

Delegation of authorities is an important element to mission command. The CFACC, with Judge Advocate General (JAG) assistance, developed a delegation of authorities matrix (Table 1)
to account for an array of operational eventualities so that decisions and actions were not interrupted by process. This tool was extremely effective during RIMPAC 2014, especially so during
dynamic and time-sensitive targeting events.

Ronald Lunau, photo reproduced from http://www.gowlings.com/OurPeople/ron-lunau (accessed on 31 March 2014)
LUNAU, Ronald D., "Military Tribunals under the Charter" (1992) 2 National Journal of  Constitutional Law / Revue nationale de droit constitutionel 197-216;