Canadian Military Law/
Droit militaire canadien

updated and corrections / mise à jour et corrections: 13 March 2017
By/par © François Lareau, 1998-, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada



Part I --Current Affaits -- Sexual Misconduct

______

Other sites on military law

-Part I -- Canadian Military Law -- Miscellaneous

Blog

- Somalia Inquiry & Government Reaction
      -  1995-1997: Somalia Inquiry
      - 
Departmental Reaction to Somalia Inquiry
      -  Special Advisory Group on Military Justice and Military Police Investigation Services
          January 1997 to July 1997
     
-  The Special Senate Committee on the Canadian Airborne Regiment in Somalia (April 1997)
      - 
Report to the Prime Minister on the Leadership and Management of the Canadian Forces (March 1997)
        - 
Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change in the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces (October 1997 to 1999)
         -
Bill C-25--An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
        
(Royal Assent, 10 December 1998)
       -
2003 -- Five Year Review of Bill C-25
       - 2011 -- Second Five Year Review of Bill C-25    
         

Governments Bills 1999-2012 on National Defence Act

- Current Affairs -- Sexual Misconduct

- Court Martial Comprehensive Review 2016-2017

- JAG & DND Web Sites

- Laws, Regulations and Orders

-
Superseded Legislation

- Web Sites of Interest


Part II -- Canadian Military Law -- Bibliography
 A-B--C-D--E-G--H-L--M-R--S-Z

------

Starting here:

Current Affairs: Sexual Misconduct



Image source: ca.linkedin.com/in/alison-auld-55184a63, accessed 20 December 2016
Alison Auld
AULD,  Alison, "Military probe finds 'unacceptable language' in cadet dress-code pamphlets.  All 1,135 cadet organizations across the country reviewed", CBC News/Newfoundland & Labrador, 19 December 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/military-dress-code-unacceptable-language-1.3902862 (accessed 20 December 2016);





Image source: nationalpost.com/m/wp/news/blog.html?b=news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/retired-army-medic-takes-the-stand-in-court-and-denies-conducting-inappropriate-breast-exams&pubdate=2017-01-28, accessed 4 February 2017
James Wilks, left with his defence counsel, David Hodson (photo
by Jean Levac, Postmedia/wire, taken earlier during the trial)
BERTHIAUME, Lee, Canadian Press, "Ex-medic found guilty of sex assault for inappropriate breast exams on recruits.  It’s the third such conviction for former petty officer James Wilks, who was also found guilty of breach of trust",  thestar.com, 3 February 2017; available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2017/02/03/ex-medic-found-guilty-of-sex-assault-for-inappropriate-breast-exams-on-recruits.html (accessed 4 February 2017);

 


Kevin Bissett

BISSETT, Kevin, "Women in Canadian military subjected to harassment, discrimination, suit alleges.  Plaintiff is Glynis Rogers, 29, a former member of the Canadian Armed Forces from Nova Scotia", CBC News/Nova Scotia, 21 November 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/proposed-lawsuit-alleges-discrimination-bullying-in-canadian-armed-forces-1.3861109 (accessed 14 December 2016);



BOUVIER-AUCLAIR, Raphaël, "Huit nouvelles enquêtes liées à des inconduites sexuelles au sein de l’armée canadienne", Radio-Canada.ca, 1r février 2016, disponible à http://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/762698/rapport-forces-armes-plaintes-enquetes (vérifié le 2 janvier 2016);




image source: twitter.com/dannybraun1, accessed 14 December 2016
Dany Braun
BRAUN, Danny,"Inconduite sexuelle dans l'armée: toujours pas de justice", vendredi, 18 mars 2016, ici Radio-Canada, disponible à  ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelles/societe/2016/03/18/001-femmes-armee-canadienne-agressions-sexuelles-justice-temoignages.shtml (vérifié 20 Mars 2016);




Image source: www.journalismforum.ca/about-us/members-1/murray-brewster, accessed 25 May 2016
Murray Brewster
BREWSTER, Murray, "DND resumes inquiry into handling of sex assault case. Report into army's handling of high-profile case was already written, now on hold for further investigation", CBC News, 22 June 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/military-inquiry-sex-assault-1.3646197 (accessed 22 June 2016);


__________ "Ghomeshi trial could hurt military efforts against sexual misconduct, expert says Retired colonel Michel Drapeau says the grilling that the alleged victims received so far will give pause to female officers thinking about stepping forward", The Canadian Press, Sunday 7 February 2016, http://www.thestar.com/news/queenspark; available at http://www.thestar.com/news/queenspark/2016/02/07/ghomeshi-trial-could-hurt-military-efforts-against-sexual-misconduct-expert-says.html (accessed 8 February 2016);



___________"Military sex assault and misconduct investigations increase in 2015-- Complaints to new crisis response centre at National Defence lead to charges and new investigations", CBC News -- Politics, 24 May 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-sex-assault-misconduct-canadian-forces-1.3592501 (accessed 25 May 2016);



___________"Real number of sex assault complaints in military higher than official figures, watchdog says Military ombudsman receives dozens of sex assault, harassment complaints not counted by Defence Dept.", CBC News -- Politics, 24 May 2016, available at  http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-sex-assault-ombudsman-1.3598589 (accessed 25 May 2016);



___________"Sexual-misconduct lawsuit against Armed Forces alleges 'reckless' conduct: 3 former military members spell out allegations of sexual assault and institutional indifference", CBC News, 12 December 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-misconduct-lawsuits-1.3893499 (accessed 13 December 2016);



CAMPION-SMITH, Bruce, "Top general issues orders to drum out sexual offenders.  Canada’s top general has sent a formal order to make good on his goal that anyone guilty of sexual misconduct will be forced out of the military.", 3 January 2017; available at https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2017/01/13/top-general-issues-orders-to-drum-out-sexual-offenders.html (accessed 14 January 2017);.



Source of image: http://forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/caf-community-support-services/sexual-misconduct-progress-report-en.pdf
CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, Chief Of Military Personnel, Progress Report Addressing Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour, 1 February 2016, Covering the period June through December 2015, Prepared for the Chief of the Defence Staff by the Chief of Military Personnel; available at  http://forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-support-services/sexual-misconduct-progress-report.page  (accessed 2 February 2016);


Source of image: http://forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/about-report-pubs-op-honour/op-honour-progress-report-29-aug-2016.pdf, accessed 29 September 2016
CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, Chief Of Military Personnel, Progress Report Addressing Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour,  August 30, 2016, Covering the period January through June 2016, Prepared for the Chief of the Defence Staff by the Chief of Military Personnel; available at  http://forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/about-report-pubs-op-honour/op-honour-progress-report-29-aug-2016.pdf and http://forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-op-honour/2016/second-progress-report.page (accessed 29 February 2016);
Table of Contents





CANADIAN ARMED FORCES STRATEGIC RESPONSE TEAM ON SEXUAL MISCONDUCT (CSRT-SM), Canadian Armed Forces Action Plan on Inapproriate Sexual Behaviour: addressing the External Review Authority Report's Recommendations, 30 March 2015, 11 p.; available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/caf-community-support-services-harassment/caf-action-plan-inappropriate-sexual-behaviour-20150427_en.pdf and http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-support-services/external-review-sexual-mh-2015/caf-action-plan-inappropriate-sexual-behaviour.page (accessed on 2 May 2015);
FRANÇAIS :
ÉQUIPE D'INTERVENTION STRATÉGIQUE DES FORCES ARMÉES CANADIENNES SUR L'INCONDUITE SEXUELLE (EISF-IS), Plan d'action des Forces armées canadiennes sur le comportement sexuel inapproprié donnant suite aux recommandations du rapport de la responsable de l'examen externe, 30 avril 2015, 12 p.; disponible à  http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/fr/communaute-fac-services-soutien-harcelement/plan-action-fac-conduite-sexuelle-inconvenante-20150427_fr.pdf et  http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/communaute-fac-services-soutien/examen-externe-sexuelle-hd-2015/plan-action-fac-conduite-sexuelle-inconvenante.page (sites visités le 2 mai 2015);


  ----Oops...!  this artile does not belong here! But for researchers & folks: remember that quite often in the army ...plus ça change plus c'est pareil!
  General J.M.G. Baril (image source: www.google.com)

CANADIAN FORCES, Chief of the Defence Staff, J.M.G. Baril, Open Letter, "Sexual Harassment, Sexual Misconduct and General Military Discipline in the Canadian Forces to all Members of the Canadian Forces and Their Families", 9 June 1998, available at http://web.archive.org/web/20020209135321/http://www.dnd.ca/eng/archive/1998/jun98/discipline_n_e.htm;
FRANÇAIS :
FORCES CANADIENNES, Le Chef d'état-major de la Défense, J.M.G. Baril, Lettre ouverte, "Harcèlement sexuel, actes d’inconduite sexuelle et discipline générale au sein des Forces canadiennes", 9 juin 1998, disponible à http://web.archive.org/web/20020427052353/http://www.dnd.ca/fr/archive/1998/jun98/discipline_n_f.htm;





CANADIAN FORCES, JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, 2015-2016, Annual Report of the Judge Advocate General: A report to the Minister of National Defence on the Administration of Military Justice from 1 April 2015 to 31 March 2016, [Ottawa, 2016], [1], iv, 43 p., Cat. No. D1-16E-PDF, ISSN: ISSN 1497-7192; available at (accessed 28 July 2016); available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-military-law-annual-2015-16/index.page (accessed 28 July 2016);

Also in this reporting period the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) issued his order concerning Operation HONOUR which is aimed at eliminating harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour within the CAF. Inappropriate sexual behaviour of any kind is contrary to the values of the profession of arms, the profession of law, the ethical principles of the Department of National Defence (DND) and the CAF. Accordingly, I have directed the implementation of Operation HONOUR within the Office of the JAG in order to eliminate inappropriate sexual behaviour, to ensure that efforts to implement the CDS’s direction by the chain of command occur with a complete understanding of applicable law and consequent legal risk and to ensure that those individuals who are alleged to have committed a service offence of a sexual nature contrary to the Code of Service Discipline are properly dealt with according to the rule of law. [p. iv]
......

The JAG will continue to support the CDS and other members of the chain of command in the execution of Operation HONOUR. In addition to taking the necessary steps to implement the strategy of the CDS to eliminate inappropriate sexual behaviour within the CAF, the Office of the JAG will work to ensure that efforts to implement Operation HONOUR occur with a complete understanding of applicable law and consequent legal risk. Additionally, the Office of the JAG will ensure that any efforts to develop the military justice system complement efforts that are being undertaken by other CAF authorities in support of Operation HONOUR. [pp. 33-34]


CANADIAN PRESS, "MacLean's alleges 'disturbing' levels of sexual assault in Canadian military: The article contains interviews with alleged victims and tracks military police investigations", 24 April 2015, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/maclean-s-alleges-disturbing-levels-of-sexual-assault-in-canadian-military-1.2621333 (accessed on 30 April 2015);


CANADIAN PRESS, "New chief of defence staff issues first order to Canadian Forces: Sexual harassment 'stops now' ", 23 July 2015, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/new-chief-of-defence-staff-issues-first-order-to-canadian-forces-sexual-harassment-stops-now (accessed 24 July 2015);
Canada’s newly minted chief of defence staff will hold a summit this August with the leadership of the Canadian military to determine
the way ahead for eradicating sexual assault and harassment in the Canadian Forces.


CANADIAN PRESS,  "Proposed class-action claims bullying, sex assault of women in Armed Forces", The Globe and Mail, 21 November 2016, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/proposed-class-action-claims-bullying-sex-assault-of-women-in-armed-forces/article32965161/, accessed 8 December 2016;


CANADIAN PRESS,  "Report into military sex misconduct case still under review 14 months later: An investigation into the handling of a misconduct case is complete, but the report is currently being examined by the commander of the Canadian Army, a defence spokeman says", thestar.com, 21 March 2016, available at http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2016/03/21/report-into-military-sex-misconduct-case-still-under-review-14-months-later.html (accessed 24 March 2016);
he inquiry examined how the military responded to the allegations and grievances of former master
corporal Stephanie Raymond, who alleged she was raped by a superior and then driven out of the
army for reporting it.

CBC NEWS, "Jason Kenney guarantees independent centre to handle military sexual misconduct", 13 May 2015, published at  http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/jason-kenney-guarantees-independent-centre-to-handle-military-sexual-misconduct-1.3072324 (accessed 14 May 2015);
Kenney was asked point blank by NDP defence critic Jack Harris whether he would "guarantee that the Canadian Armed Forces will establish an independent body to handle sexual misconduct. Yes or no."

Kenney responded: "Yes."

....

Lawson's orders also seem to rule out Deschamps's recommendation to have civilian police handle an entire investigation, if the victim chooses.

However, Justice Minister Peter MacKay, a former defence minister, suggested Wednesday he supports that recommendation.

"I personally think, and I encourage — I spoke to the [military's] Judge Advocate General yesterday — that there should be perhaps a protocol or perhaps a consultation that takes place between Crown prosecutors and military justice system."

"I just think there's an opportunity there for greater collaboration in some cases between our military justice system when the behaviour crosses that line."



___________"Military harassment report: 10 recommendations", available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-harassment-report-10-recommendations-1.3055935 (accessed 14 May 2015);



___________"Military sexual misconduct : Indpendent centre to focus on victim support", 26 June 2015; available at  http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-sexual-misconduct-independent-centre-to-focus-on-victim-support-1.3127439 (accessed 26 June 2015);



CBC NEWS, THE NATIONAL, "Military's response to sexual misconduct report", available at https://fedgeno.com/apps/global-paradigm-shift/links/militarys-response-to-sexual-misconduct-report-3353564 (accessed 18 May 2015);



CDS Op Order -- Op HONOUR, August 2015, available at  http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-support-services/cds-operation-order-op-honour.page (accessed 18 August 2015);

Service Support

  1. The JAG is committed to ensuring that those findings and recommendations within reference A that touch upon the military justice system are closely reviewed, in coordination with CSRT-SM, to ensure that any changes to military justice legislation, policies and practices are consistent with the approaches being developed by that team.


COMOX VALLEY ECHO, "General talks to CFB Comox staff about sexual misconduct in the military", 16 May 2015; available at http://www.comoxvalleyecho.com/news/local-news/general-talks-to-cfb-comox-staff-about-sexual-misconduct-in-the-military-1.1937980  (accessed 17 May 2015);
Whitecross hopes to see change as soon as possible.

"Our first report is due in the fall" said Whitecross.  "And in that timeframe, we're hoping to actually have tangible action plans and perhaps even measurements
available in all our action items.  I can't really say how long it will take us.  Culture change takes months and years.  Behaviour change as well.    
Whitecross hopes to see change as soon as possible.
"Our first report is due in the fall," said Whitecross. "And in that timeframe, we're hoping to actually have tangible action plans and perhaps even measurements available in all of our action items. I can't really say how long it will take us. Culture change takes months and years. Behaviour change as well." - See more at: http://www.comoxvalleyecho.com/news/local-news/general-talks-to-cfb-comox-staff-about-sexual-misconduct-in-the-military-1.1937980#sthash.hdUILs41.dpuf



Contract between Marie Deschamps and the Government of Canada, available at http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/common/contactus/index.shtml (accessed 13 April 2015);




CPAC, Revue politque, "The findings of a survey on sexual assault within the Canadian Forces paint a troubling picture of the situation. Commissioned following the tabling of Justice Marie Deschamps ‘s report, the survey reveals that close to 1,000 sexual assault cases were reported in the twelve months preceding this consultation. Pierre Donais discusses this file with lawyer and retired colonel Michel Drapeau and Noémi Mercier, the reporter with journaliste de l’Actualité magazine who broke the story, in 2014, on sexual misconduct in the military. The following MPs also share their views on this file : Joël Lightbound (Liberal Party), Pierre Paul-Hus (Conservative Party), Brigitte Sansoucy (NDP) and Michel Boudrias (Bloc Québécois)", 28 minutes, available at http://www.cpac.ca/en/digital-archives/?search=military (accessed 30 November 2016);



CTV NEWS, " 'Action plan' to follow release of report on military sexual misconduct", 30 April 2015; available at http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/action-plan-to-follow-release-of-report-on-military-sexual-misconduct-1.2351523 (accessed 30 April 2015);





CTV NEWS, "Critics cast doubt on justice for sex assault victims in Canadian military", 1 December 2016; available at http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/critics-cast-doubt-on-justice-for-sex-assault-victims-in-canadian-military-1.3186253 (accessed 2 December 2016);
This week, two more soldiers faced court martials on sexual assault charges. In both cases, the soldiers pleaded guilty to a lesser charge of disgraceful conduct while the
 sexual assault charges were stayed.

Retired Col. Michel Drapeau calls the process “a second-class type of justice system” for victims of sexual assault.

“The accused pleads guilty to (a) disciplinary offense and gets away -- I think that’s the term -- with a minor sentence, no criminal records,” Drapeau told CTV News.

....

Military prosecutors say they take sexual offences seriously and that plea bargains are not a default.

“Obviously if we put them forward professionally, it’s because we think they are appropriate in the circumstance. Otherwise we would not put them forward,” said Lt.-Col David Antonyshyn with the Canadian Military Prosecution Service.

Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan has said the system is under review.



CUDMORE, James, "Army Chief orders mandatory briefings on sexual misconduct", CBC News, 23 June 2015; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/army-chief-orders-mandatory-briefings-on-sexual-misconduct-1.3124190 (accessed 24 June 2015);


___________ "Canadian Forces brace for report on sexual misconduct in the rank: review by former Supreme Court justice expected to blast military leadership",  CBC News, 28 April 2015; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/canadian-forces-brace-for-report-on-sexual-misconduct-in-the-ranks-1.3052154 (accessed 29 April 2015);


___________"Military's response to sexual misconduct report curtailed by general's orders.  Chief of the defence staff's directive set out 'assumption' that meant key recommendation would be ignored", CBC News, 13 May 2015; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-s-response-to-sexual-misconduct-report-curtailed-by-general-s-orders-1.3071386 (accessed 14 May 2015);


DESCHAMPS, Marie, 1952-, External Review into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces[: Report], [Ottawa], 27 March 2015, xii, 89 p.; available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/caf-community-support-services-harassment/era-final-report-%28april-20-2015%29-eng.pdf  (accessed on 30 April 2015); also available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2015/mdn-dnd/D2-506-2015-eng.pdf (accessed 25 July 2015);
FRANÇAIS :
DESCHAMPS, Marie, Examen externe sur l'inconduite sexuelle et le harcèlement  sexuel dans les Forces armées canadiennes [: rapport], 27 mars 2015, xiii, 87 p.; disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/fr/communaute-fac-services-soutien-harcelement/era-final-report-%28april-20-2015%29-fr-v3.pdf  (site visité 30 avril 2015); also available at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2015/mdn-dnd/D2-506-2015-fra.pdf and at http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/301/listes_acquisition_hebdomadaire/2015/w15-26-F-F.html/collections/collection_2015/mdn-dnd/D2-506-2015-fra.pdf (accessed 25 July 2015);



   

D'AMOURS, Matt, "Canadian Forces face human rights complaint over sexual harassment allegations.  Canadian Human Rights Commission agrees to investigate complaint filed by former member of military", CBC News, Montreal, 14 December 2016; available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/canadian-forces-sexual-harassment-paula-macdonald-1.3895260 (accessed 26 January 2017); 


DICKSON, Louise, "Victoria lawyers file sexual harassment suit against Armed Forces", Rime Colonist, 5 December 2016, available at http://www.timescolonist.com/news/local/victoria-lawyers-file-sexual-harassment-suit-against-armed-forces-1.3805812 (accessed 6 December 2016);




DOOLITTLE, Robyn, "Unfounded.  Canadian military police to review sex-assault cases", The Globe and Mail, 12 March 2017, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/canadian-military-police-to-review-sex-assault-cases/article34278927/ (a ccessed 13 March 2017);
Victoria lawyers file sexual harassment suit against Armed Forces - See more at: http://www.timescolonist.com/news/local/victoria-lawyers-file-sexual-harassment-suit-against-armed-forces-1.3805812#sthash.a7TAytus.dpuf



DRAPEAU, Michel , "Blog comment to 'Retired justice to investigate how Canadian Forces deal with sexual misconduct and harassment'", Blog posted on Global Military Justice Reform web site, 22 July 2014 to original article posted on 11 July 2014, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2014/07/retired-justice-to-investigate-canadian.html (accessed on 24 July 2014);
Justice (retired) Marie Deschamps' mandate specifically excludes any review of any decision relating to the military penal justice system or a decision made to investigate complaints, lay charges, to proceed with charges or prosecute charges. It also excludes any legal advice received by the Department of National Defence or the Canadian Forces, the conduct of military police or any matter related to the JAG in respect of his function as the Superintendent of the administration of the military justice. In short, her mandate is limited to (a) a review of policies, procedures and programs in relation to sexual misconduct and sexual harassment, and (b) the extent to which members actually report incidence of sexual misconduct.

I am unable to comprehend why a jurist of her high standing would have accepted such a truncated mandate. Particularly since both her vast and acclaimed judicial expertise and experience lie precisely in the area pertaining to the penal justice system and since the failure by victims to report ‘sexual misconduct’ probably exist in the first place because of the failure of the existing military penal justice system to properly deal with such crimes.

Unless, her mandate is enlarged, this External Review risks to be left with the pleasant task of giving accolades to the military for the clarity and comprehensiveness of their policies, instructions, orders, regulations, directives on the issues of sexual misconduct as well as the appropriateness of their training programs to prevent sexual misconduct. By the same token, however, this will provide the military penal justice system an unassailable opportunity to “montrer patte blanche’ despite its current alleged inability to deal effectively with victims of sexual assault resulting in a disturbingly high level of unreported incidents of sexual misconduct.


___________"Canadian military's apathetic and lethargic response to External Review on Sexual Misconduct. A call for leadership by the new CDS", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 12 May 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/canadian-militarys-apathetic-and.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 13 May 2015);


___________"Canadian Military Sexual Misconduct Response Centre--Progress?",
Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 3 February 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/02/canadian-military-sexual-misconduct.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 4 February 2016);



___________"
Canadian trial: will it discourage complainants?", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 7 February 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/02/canadian-trial-will-it-discourage.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 8 February 2016);



___________"A   dramatic courtroom scene",  
Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 December 2016, available at  http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/12/a-dramatic-courtroom-scene-in-canada.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 5 December 2016);


___________"
Firestorm of protest in Canadian parliament over military mishandling of sexual misconduct issue", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 14 May 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/a-firestorm-of-protest-in-parliament.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 17 May 2015);


___________"Going
from bad to worse: Statistics Canada makes public a survey of 43,000 soldiers",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 28 November 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/11/going-from-bad-to-worsestatistics.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 29 November 2016);
 


___________ "Opinion Leader 'Actualité' in French Canada weighs in with a restricted jurisdiction for military tribunals", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 7 May 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/05/opinion-leader-actualite-in-french.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29  (accessed on 8 May 2015);



__________"Sexual Assaults and the Canadian military justice system: early signs of real leadership", 
Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 4 February 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/02/sexual-assaults-and-military-justice.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 5 February 2016);




___________"
Sexual misconduct has escaped the military brass for past two decades", 7 December 2016, available at http://mdlo.ca/news/the-complexities-of-military-assault-problem-escape-the-brass/ (accessed 8 December 2016);



__________
"Sexual misconduct in the military due to biological wiring?",  Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 19 June 2015, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2015/06/sexual-misconduct-in-military-due-to.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+%28Global+Military+Justice+Reform%29 (accessed on 20 June 2015);


FIDELL, Eugene R., "Action filed in Canada over CAF sexual assaults", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 30 November 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/11/action-filed-in-canada-over-caf-sexual.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform) (accessed on 1 December 2016);

 

Image source: theglobeandmail.com/authors/gloria-galloway, accessed 8 December 2016
Gloria Galloway
GALLOWAY, Gloria, "New defence chief orders 'harmful behaviour' to stop.  General Jonathan Vance says sexual misconduct is a threat to the military", The Globe and Mail, Saturday, July 18, 2015, p. A5;
In his first speech as CDS, Gen. Vance told the officers, politicians and bureaucrats attending the ceremony in a downtown convention centre that the well-being of the members of the Armed Forces will be his own top priority and that of all other officers of the army, navy, air force and special operations.

"Any form of harmful behaviour has been and always will be absolutely contrary to good order and discipline.  It is a threat to morale, it is a threat to operational readiness and a threat to this institution," said the general.  "Therefore, as my first order to the Canadian Armed Forces, everybody must continue to work together to eliminate this harmful behaviour.  It must stop now."


____________"Third sexual-abuse class-action suit in works against Canadian military", The Globe and Mail, 7 December 2016; available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/third-sexual-abuse-class-action-suit-in-works-against-canadian-military/article33256676/ (accessed 8 December 2016);




Image source: linkedin.com/in/jengerson, accessed 8 December 2016
Jen Gerson
GERSON, Jen, "Sex assault scandals rock prestigious Royal Military College in Kingston", National Post, 29 May 2015, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/sex-assault-scandals-rock-prestigious-royal-military-college-in-kingston  (accessed 2 June 2015);



GURNEY, Matt, "Matt Gurney: Failings in leadership aren’t biologically hardwired, either", National Post, 17 June 2015; available at http://news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/matt-gurney-failings-in-leadership-arent-biologically-hardwired-either (accessed 19 June 2015); on the CDS statement on sexual harassment;



HOUNSELL, Kayla, "Former civilian employee pushing to join lawsuit against Canadian Armed Forces", CTV News Atlantic, 19 December 2016, available at http://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/former-civilian-employee-pushing-to-join-lawsuit-against-canadian-armed-forces-1.3210197 (accessed 20 December 2016); includes Video;





HOUSE OF COMMONS, Standing Committee on National Defence, Subject discussed: Sexual Assault in the Military, 27 May 2014; witnesses: Department of National Defence:Gen Thomas J. Lawson, Chief of the Defence Staff; RAdm Jennifer Bennett, Champion for Women in Defence; MGen Blaise Cathcart, Judge Advocate General; MGen David Millar, Chief of Military Personnel; Col Robert P. Delaney, Canadian Forces Provost Marshal.; available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/CommitteeBusiness/CommitteeMeetings.aspx?Cmte=NDDN&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=41&Ses=2&Stac=8370338#DT20140527NDDNMEE27ID8370338, accessed on 5 August 2014;



____________Standing Committee on National Defence, Subject discussed: Briefing on th external review and sexual harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces, 25 May 2015; Witnesses: As an individual: Marie Deschamps, External Review Authority. Department of National Defence: MGen Christine Whitecross, Commander, Canadian Armed Forces Strategic Response Team on Sexual Misconduct; available at  http://www.parl.gc.ca/CommitteeBusiness/StudyActivityHome.aspx?Cmte=NDDN&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=41&Ses=2&Stac=8704756 (accessed 26 May 2015);   



____________Standing Committee on National Defence, "Briefing on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces", 29 September 2016, meeting 19; witnesses:  RAdm Jennifer J. Bennett, Director General, Canadian Armed Forces Strategic Response Team On Sexual Misconduct and LGen Christine T. Whitecross, Commander, Military Personnel Command, available at http://www.parl.gc.ca/Committees/en/NDDN/Meetings (accessed 4 October 2016);





---------------
John Ibbitson, image source: twitter.com/johnibbitson                     Daniel Leblanc, image source: twitter.com/danlebla

IBBITSON, John and Daniel Leblanc, "Former military members who were discharged over sexuality launch class-action suits", The Globe and Mail, 1 November 2016, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/former-public-service-staff-launch-sexual-discrimination-lawsuits/article32609060/, accessed 8 December 2016;



Image source: cbc.ca/amp/1.3521580, accessed 8 December 2016
Jack Julian
JULIAN, Jack, "Military, DND face class-action lawsuit over alleged treatment of gays, lesbians.  'There was a constant aura of intimidation and fear within the forces for anyone who was gay or lesbian'", CBC News, 8 December 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/halifax-military-lawsuit-sexual-orientation-descrimination-1.3886254 (accessed 8 December 2016);


LAZZARINO, Dave, "OPERATION HONOUR.  Edmonton-based soldier spearheading program to battle sexual assault in the military", Toronto Sun, 19 November 2016, available at http://www.torontosun.com/2016/11/19/edmonton-based-soldier-spearheading-program-to-battle-sexual-assault-in-the-military      (accessed 24 November 2016);



LEBLANC, Simon, "Le CIIS, un processus confidentiel",  ADSUM -- Le journal bimensuel de la communauté militaire -- Région de l'Est du Québec; Centre d’intervention sur l’inconduite sexuelle = CIIS; disponible à http://www.journaladsum.com/nouvelle.php?id=1043 (visité le 10 janvier 2017);



LÉTOURNEAU, Gilles, "A worrying command centric decision regarding sexual offences and harassment by Canada's Chief of the Defence Staff", Global Military Justice Reform web site, blog, 8 December 2016, available at http://globalmjreform.blogspot.ca/2016/12/a-worrying-command-centric-decision.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+GlobalMilitaryJusticeReform+(Global+Military+Justice+Reform)  (accessed on 9 December 2016);



LEVITZ, Stephanie,  "Military's sexualized culture hostile to women: inquiry", The Canadian Press, 30 April 2015; available at http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/military-s-sexualized-culture-hostile-to-women-inquiry-1.2352263 (accessed on 2 May 2015);




Pascal Lévesque, ancien avocat militaire, avec Isabelle Richer
LÉVESQUE, Pascal, Isabelle Richer, Radio-Canada, "Agressions sexuelles dans l'armée: Isabelle Richer reçoit Pascal Lévesque Lévesque, avocat", disponible à ici.radio-canada.ca/audio-video/media-7640182/inconduites-sexuelles-dans-les-forces-canadiennes (vérifié le 12 janvier 2017);




LOUGH, Shannon, "Contract reveals limited scope of military's million-dollar sexual harassment investigation", Global News, 29 April 2015, available at http://globalnews.ca/news/1969388/contract-for-the-external-audit-on-the-military-shows-limitations/  (accessed 24 November 2015);
 


Source of photo: http://tvanouvelles.ca/lcn/infos/faitsdivers/archives/2004/02/20040205-093540.html (accessed 13 May 2015)
MARTIN, Fraser, "Opinion: Dealing — or not dealing — with sexual assault in the Canadian Armed Forces", Montreal Gazette, 12 May 2015; available at http://montrealgazette.com/opinion/columnists/opinion-dealing-or-not-dealing-with-sexual-assault-in-the-canadian-armed-forces (accessed 13 May 2015);


MEISSNER, Dirk, "Ex-sailor launches sexual harassment class-action suit against Canadian Forces", The Globe and Mail, 5 December 2016, available at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/ex-sailor-files-sexual-harassment-lawsuit-against-canadian-forces/article33212327/, accessed 8 December 2016;



MERCIER, Noémi, "Ce que je vise, c'est l'élimination complète des comportements sexuels dommageables et inappropriés:  Le général Jon Vance admet que les Forces canadiennes doivent faire mieux pour combattre les violences sexuelles dans leurs rangs. Voici l’intégrale de l’entrevue qu’il a accordée à L’actualité", L'Actualité, 16 février 2016; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/societe/ce-que-je-vise-cest-lelimination-complete-des-comportements-sexuels-dommageables-et-inappropries/ (vérifié 22 février 2016);


___________ "Jonathan Vance: ‘I’m not satisfied at all with where we are at’ Noémi Mercier in conversation with the Chief of the Defence Staff of the Canadian Armed Forces on sexual assault and harassment in the military", MacLean's, 1 February 2016; available at http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/jonathan-vance-im-not-satisfied-at-all-with-where-we-are-at-right-now/ (accessed 5 February 2016);



___________"Lutte aux crimes sexuels dans l’armée: progrès et faux pas. Les Forces canadiennes ont fait le bilan de leurs efforts pour lutter contre les violences sexuelles dans leurs rangs, un an après le déclenchement de l’Opération Honour. Analyse", L'Actualité, 20 septembre 2016; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/societe/lutte-aux-crimes-sexuels-dans-larmee-progres-et-faux-pas/ (visité le 21 septembre 2016);

LUTTE AUX VIOLENCES SEXUELLES DANS LES FORCES CANADIENNES:

CINQ CHANTIERS À SURVEILLER

1- Vers une réforme des cours martiales?

Un examen en profondeur du système des cours martiales a démarré en juillet dernier, étude qui porte entre autres sur la gestion des infractions sexuelles.

C’est une introspection inhabituelle pour un appareil judiciaire que l’armée a toujours défendu bec et ongles et ce, jusqu’en Cour suprême. L’institution a jusqu’à présent refusé de remettre en question son pouvoir de traduire elle-même en justice les soldats accusés de crimes sexuels, malgré les critiques nourries dont ce système fait l’objet.

Un comité composé de quatre avocats militaires, dont une femme, a pour mission de passer en revue « tous les aspects » des cours martiales afin d’améliorer « l’efficacité, l’efficience et la légitimité du système ». L’équipe mènera sous peu des consultations publiques et sollicitera l’avis d’experts canadiens et étrangers. Elle remettra son rapport au plus tard en juillet 2017 au Juge-avocat général, le grand responsable de la justice militaire.

En ce qui concerne les infractions d’ordre sexuel, le comité se demandera s’il faut les mettre à jour ou en ajouter de nouvelles au répertoire de la justice militaire; il évaluera les règles en matière de détermination de la peine; et il envisagera des mesures pour mieux protéger les intérêts des victimes. Le comité devra aussi s’assurer que ses recommandations s’harmonisent avec les exigences de l’Opération Honour. Reste à voir s’il osera bousculer l’ordre établi.

2- Bientôt plus de rigueur dans les enquêtes et les accusations

La police militaire prend des mesures pour introduire plus de rigueur dans ses enquêtes et ainsi laisser moins de décisions à la discrétion des policiers – dont la juge Deschamps avait décrié, dans son rapport, l’incompétence et l’insensibilité.

Toutes les enquêtes sur des crimes sexuels seront désormais confiées à des enquêteurs dédiés aux infractions de cette nature, et ce, peu importe la gravité des allégations. Dix-huit postes d’enquêteurs spécialisés viennent d’être créés à cette fin dans l’ensemble du pays. Les inconduites sexuelles devront aussi être traitées en priorité, tant dans les enquêtes qu’au moment des audiences devant un tribunal militaire. Autre nouveauté, les enquêteurs devront obtenir l’accord d’un procureur militaire avant de renoncer à porter des accusations dans un dossier d’agression sexuelle, une décision qu’ils pouvaient auparavant prendre unilatéralement.

Quant aux procureurs, ordre leur a été donné de tenir compte du point de vue des victimes tout au long des procédures, y compris pour décider dans quel système judiciaire, militaire ou civil, l’affaire sera entendue.

3- Soutien aux victimes : enfin du nouveau?

Un programme d’aide exclusivement destiné aux militaires souffrant d’un traumatisme sexuel devrait voir le jour d’ici six mois. Ce nouveau service reprendra le modèle de « soutien par les pairs » qui existe déjà pour les soldats souffrant d’un traumatisme de guerre : c’est-à-dire des rencontres de groupes animées bénévolement par des militaires actifs ou retraités ayant vécu une épreuve semblable. Jusqu’à présent, le Centre d’intervention sur l’inconduite sexuelle, une ligne d’écoute et de référence créée l’an dernier, devait se contenter de diriger les appelants vers les ressources existantes, mais n’avait pas de nouveau programme à offrir.

[...]

 




......
MERCIER, Noémi et Alec Castonguay, "Cimes sexuels dans l'armée: en terrain miné -- L’enquête indépendante déclenchée à la suite du reportage-choc de L’actualité est en marche. Opération de relations publiques ou véritable examen de conscience ?", L'actualité, 16 août 2014, disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/societe/crimes-sexuels-dans-larmee-en-terrain-mine/ (visité le 15 mars 2015);
C’est la première fois que l’inconduite sexuelle dans l’armée fait l’objet d’un examen externe. Le chef d’état-major, le général Tom Lawson, en avait fait l’annonce en avril, après la parution d’un dossier-choc dans L’actualité et Maclean’s. Un budget de 795 000 dollars a été alloué pour couvrir les honoraires et déplacements de l’examinatrice, d’un conseiller juridique (Pierre Fournier, ancien bâtonnier de Montréal) et d’une adjointe administrative. « On est loin du comité de neuf experts et trois sous-comités créé l’an dernier pour étudier la chose aux États-Unis », dit Eugene Fidell, professeur de droit à l’Université Yale, au Connecticut, et spécialiste de la justice militaire.

[...]


Le modèle canadien est une rareté à l’échelle internationale. Dans de nombreux États, les soldats doivent répondre de leurs crimes devant la justice civile, tandis que l’armée arbitre uniquement les entorses à la discipline. Le Canada doit suivre leurs traces, affirme Gilles Létourneau, juge retraité de la Cour d’appel fédérale et de la Cour d’appel de la cour martiale. Les victimes auraient ainsi l’assurance, estime-t-il, que leur plainte est entre les mains d’enquêteurs et de personnes de loi indépendants du pouvoir militaire. « Partout, les pays font des réformes, et nous, on rame à contrecourant, dit-il. La juge Deschamps ne pourra proposer que des cataplasmes. Il faut une révision complète du système de justice militaire. » 

___________"Crimes sexuels dans l’armée : la générale Whitecross fait le point", L'actualité, 26 mai 2014; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/societe/crimes-sexuels-dans-larmee-la-generale-whitecross-fait-le-point/ (vérifié 27 mai 2015);


___________"Crimes sexuels dans l’armée : les députés montent au front", L'actualité, 17 mai 2014; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/societe/crimes-sexuels-dans-larmee-les-deputes-montent-au-front/  (vérifié 18 mai 2015);



___________"Crimes sexuels dans l’armée : un profond changement s'impose", L'actualité, 30 avril 2015; disponible à  http://www.lactualite.com/societe/crimes-sexuels-dans-larmee-un-profond-changement-de-culture-doit-soperer-dit-deschamps/ (vérifié 17 septembre 2015);



____________"Crimes sexuels: l'armée lance son examen indépendant, L'actualité, 9 juillet 2014; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/societe/crimes-sexuels-larmee-lance-son-examen-independant/ (vérifié le 23 avril 2015);



___________"Des chiffres explosifs confirment le fléau des crimes sexuels dans l'armée", L'actualité, 15 août 2014; disponible à  (vérifié le 17 septembre 2015);



___________"Document interne sur les crimes sexuels: l’appareil militaire dans le déni.  Une évaluation interne des programmes et politiques des Forces canadiennes en matière de violence sexuelle — préparée à la demande du chef d’état-major Tom Lawson, en avril dernier — conclut que les mesures prises par l’armée sont «efficaces» et qu’aucun changement majeur n’est requis, selon ce même document obtenu par L’actualitéL'actualité, 12 juin 2014; disponible à  http://www.lactualite.com/societe/crimes-sexuels-lappareil-militaire-dans-le-deni-selon-un-document-interne/ (vérifié 18 mai 2015);


___________"Intervenir sur l'inconduite sexuelle dans l'armée: une mission impossible?",  L'actualité, 26 mai 2015; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/societe/intervenir-sur-linconduite-sexuelle-dans-larmee-une-mission-impossible/  (vérifié le 27 mai  2015);



___________"La justice militaire dans la mire de la Cour suprême", L'actualité, 7 mai 2015; disponible à http://www.lactualite.com/actualites/quebec-canada/la-fin-de-la-justice-militaire/  (vérifié le 8 mai 2015);



MILEWSKI, Terry and CBC News, "Harassment in Canada's military tolerated by leadership, former justice finds", 30 April 2015; published at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/harassment-in-canada-s-military-tolerated-by-leadership-former-justice-finds-1.3055493  (accessed 14 May 20154);





NATIONAL DEFENCE, Defence Policy Review Public Consultation Document 2016, available at http://dgpaapp.forces.gc.ca/en/defence-policy-review/docs/defence-policy-review-consultation-paper.pdf  (accessed 27 July 2016);
OPERATION HONOUR

In 2015, the Chief of the Defence Staff announced Operation HONOUR – the CAF’s mission to eliminate harmful
and inappropriate sexual behaviour – and in February 2016, the first progress report was released. Among other
efforts, a Sexual Misconduct Response Centre was established to provide CAF members with an additional, and
unique, victim support option. Additionally, an extensive review of policies and programs has been completed to
assess the effectiveness of current resources related to harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour. This is
forming the basis of definitions, policy, and program changes, and an updated curriculum that will be implemented
starting in the spring of 2016. The CAF continue to focus efforts on a positive cultural shift to ensure a healthy,
respectful, and professional environment for all members 



Marie Deschamps
NATIONAL DEFENCE AND THE CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, "External Review on Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces", July 2014, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-support-services/external-review.page (accessed on 17 July 2014)
Scope of Work

Mme Marie Deschamps will independently conduct the External Review and deliver a report to the Chief of the Defence Staff. Mme Deschamps will consider and make recommendations concerning: 

  • CAF policies, procedures and programs in relation to sexual misconduct and sexual harassment.
  • The definition of “sexual misconduct” and “sexual harassment” as provided for in the Defence Administrative Order and Directives.
  • The training CAF members receive in relation to sexual misconduct and sexual harassment.
  • The extent to which CAF members report alleged incidents of sexual misconduct or sexual harassment and if applicable, any reasons why reporting may not occur, including the role of military culture and the chain of command as it relates to the reporting of incidents.
  • Any other matter that Mme Deschamps considers relevant in assisting the CAF to strengthen the prevention of incidents of sexual misconduct and sexual harassment.

Over the course of the contract, Mme Deschamps will complete a comprehensive review of CAF policies, procedures and programs related to sexual misconduct and sexual harassment, will conduct onsite interviews with CAF members, subject matter experts, and stakeholders outside of the CAF, and is scheduled to provide a final report to the Chief of the Defence Staff, complete with recommendations, by Spring 2015.

Mme Deschamps will receive the full cooperation of the CAF and the DND and will have direct access to CAF members, facilities and documents as she wishes.  She will also be available to CAF members that wish to contact her directly.

Limitations to the Scope of Work

The scope of work for the External Review does not include:

  • The review of any decision relating to the military or criminal justice system including: a decision by a military judge in the performance of his or her judicial duties, a decision of a court martial or summary trial, or a decision made to investigate complaints, lay charges, proceed with charges or prosecute charges.
  • Legal advice received by the DND or the CAF in relation to any matter or any proceedings.
  • Professional conduct and professional standards under the jurisdiction of the Bar Society of province.
  • Conduct of military police that may be the subject of a complaint under Part IV of the National Defence Act.
  • Any matter related to the Judge Advocate General (JAG) in respect of his superintendence of the administration of military justice in the CAF.

Reviewer’s Biography

The Honorable Marie Deschamps received a Licentiate in Laws from the Université de Montréal in 1974 and an LL. M. from McGill University in 1983. The Université de Montréal awarded her an honorary doctorate in 2008; she received from the Law School of McGill University the F. R. Scott award for distinguished service in 2013. She was appointed Companion of the Order of Canada in 2013. She was called to the Quebec Bar in 1975 and practiced as a litigator at Martineau Walker and Sylvestre et Matte in family, civil and commercial law, then at Rouleau, Rumanek et Sirois in criminal law and finally at Byers Casgrain in civil and commercial law.

She was appointed judge to the Quebec Superior Court in 1990, to the Court of Appeal in 1992 and to the Supreme Court in 2002. She retired from the judiciary in August 2012. She has been an adjunct professor at the law schools of University of Sherbrooke since 2006, and of McGill University since 2012. She continues to serve as member of a number of committees and boards of directors, including Gaz Metro inc., Éducaloi and Pro Bono Canada. She rejoined the Quebec Bar in 2013. She is regularly invited to give lectures and conferences to various audiences, mostly on constitutional and commercial law and on governance and ethics.

How to contact the Reviewer

All current and former CAF members who wish to get in touch with the Reviewer are encouraged to do so via email at forces@review-examen.com.


FRANÇAIS :
DÉFENSE NATIONALE ET LES FORCES ARMÉES CANADIENNES, "Examen externe sur les inconduites à caractères sexuels et le harcèlement sexuel dans les forces armées canadiennes", juillet 2014, disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/communaute-fac-services-soutien/examen-externe.page (vérifié le 17 juillet 2014);
Portée des travaux

Mme Marie Deschamps mènera un examen indépendant externe et soumettra un rapport au chef d’état‑major de la défense. Mme Deschamps tiendra compte des éléments ci‑après et formulera des recommandations :

  • Les politiques, les procédures et les programmes des FAC qui touchent l’inconduite sexuelle et le harcèlement sexuel.
  • La définition des expressions « inconduite sexuelle » et « harcèlement sexuel », comme il est établi dans les Directives et ordonnances administratives de la Défense.
  • La formation que les membres des FAC reçoivent relativement à l’inconduite sexuelle et au harcèlement sexuel.
  • La mesure dans laquelle les membres des FAC signalent les incidents présumés d’inconduite sexuelle ou de harcèlement sexuel et, s’il y a lieu, les raisons qui expliquent l’absence de signalement, y compris le rôle de la culture militaire et de la chaîne de commandement en ce qui concerne le signalement des incidents.
  • Toute autre question qui, de l’avis de Mme Deschamps, pourrait s’avérer pertinente et aider les FAC à renforcer la prévention des incidents d’inconduite sexuelle et de harcèlement sexuel.

Dans le cadre de l’exécution du contrat, Mme Deschamps effectuera un examen complet des politiques, des procédures et des programmes des FAC qui touchent l’inconduite sexuelle et le harcèlement sexuel, mènera des entrevues sur place avec des membres des FAC, des experts en la matière et des intervenants de l’extérieur des FAC et présentera, au chef d’état-major de la défense, un rapport final contenant des recommandations d’ici le printemps 2015.

Mme Deschamps pourra compter sur la coopération pleine et entière des FAC et du ministère de la Défense nationale (MDN) et aura, à sa guise, un accès direct aux membres, aux installations et aux documents des FAC. Les membres des FAC pourront également communiquer directement avec elle.

Limites de la portée des travaux

La portée des travaux réalisés dans le cadre de l’examen externe n’inclut pas : 

  • L’examen de toute décision relative au système de justice militaire ou criminel, notamment : les décisions rendues par un juge militaire dans l’exercice de ses fonctions judiciaires, les décisions rendues par une cour martiale ou dans le cadre d’un procès sommaire, ou les décisions rendues pour faire enquête sur une plainte, déposer des accusations ou intenter une poursuite. 
  • Les avis juridiques reçus par le MDN ou les FAC relativement à toute affaire ou procédure judiciaire. 
  • La déontologie et les normes professionnelles sous la juridiction du barreau d’une province. 
  • La conduite de la police militaire pouvant faire l’objet d’une plainte en vertu de la partie IV de la Loi sur la défense nationale. Toute question relative au juge-avocat général (JAG) en ce qui a trait à sa supervision de l’administration du système de justice militaire dans les FAC.

Biographie de l’examinatrice

L’honorable Marie Deschamps a obtenu une licence en droit de l’Université de Montréal en 1974 et une maîtrise en droit de l’Université McGill en 1983. L’Université de Montréal lui a décerné un doctorat honorifique en 2008 et la faculté de droit de l’Université McGill, le prix F.R. Scott pour service exemplaire en 2013. En outre, elle a été nommée Compagnon de l’Ordre du Canada en 2013. Admise au Barreau du Québec en 1975, elle a exercé comme avocate plaideure au sein des cabinets Martineau Walker et Sylvestre et Matte dans les domaines du droit civil, du droit de la famille et du droit commercial, ensuite chez Rouleau, Rumanek et Sirois en droit criminel, puis chez Byers Casgrain en droit civil et commercial.

Elle a été nommée juge à la Cour supérieure du Québec en 1990, à la Cour d’appel du Québec en 1992, puis à la Cour suprême du Canada en 2002. Elle a pris sa retraite de la magistrature en août 2012. Elle est professeure associée aux facultés de droit de l’Université de Sherbrooke depuis 2006 et de l’Université McGill depuis 2012. Elle siège sur divers comités et conseils d’administration, dont Gaz Metro inc, Éducaloi et Pro Bono Canada. Elle est redevenue avocate en 2013. Elle est régulièrement invitée à donner des cours et des conférences à des auditoires variés, principalement en droit constitutionnel et commercial et sur la gouvernance et l’éthique. 

Comment communiquer avec l'examinatrice

Tous les membres actuels et anciens des FAC qui souhaitent communiquer avec l'examinatrice sont encouragés à le faire par courriel à forces@review-examen.com.




GOVERNMENT OF CANADA, News Release, "The Chief of the Defence Staff addresses Statistics Canada survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces", 28 November 2016; available at : http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1161199, accessed 29 November 2016;


NATIONAL DEFENCE AND THE CANADIAN ARMED FORCES, "Internal Review of Workplace Policies, Programs and Leadership Engagement", 25 June 2014, available at http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/caf-community-support-services/internal-review.page (accessed on 3 May 2015);
FRANÇAIS :
DÉFENSE NATIONALE ET LES FORCES ARMÉES CANADIENNES, "Examen interne des politiques et des programmes sur le milieu de travail et de la participation de la direction"25 juin 2014, disponible à http://www.forces.gc.ca/fr/communaute-fac-services-soutien/examen-interne.page (vérifié le 3 mai 2015);

 




NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY WEB SITE, "Conservatives hamstring external review on military sexual assault", 10 July 2014, available at http://www.ndp.ca/node (accessed on 18 July 2014);
The Conservatives have specifically excluded any examination of how the military justice system has handled sexual assault cases in their upcoming external review of sexual misconduct and harassment in the armed forces.

The way Canadian military police and the Judge Advocate General’s office handle sexual assault reports will be excluded from scrutiny, meaning that the review will not be able to examine the systematic failure to investigate or prosecute sexual crimes in the military.

“Any meaningful investigation must look at all aspects of Canada’s military justice system, and its findings must be made public,” said NDP Defence critic Jack Harris (St. John’s East). “Instead, the Conservatives have set up a process that specifically excludes the key issue of military justice and how the system has failed victims of sexual assault. The review won’t be able to look at some of the most serious problems that have been reported.”

The external review was launched after reports that approximately five sexual assaults take place every day in the Canadian military, many of which go unreported due to a lack of confidence that complaints will be appropriately dealt with. New Democrats have called for a full judicial commission into these reports.

“The Conservatives love to talk about supporting victims, but when it’s time to take action they’re not there,” said NDP deputy Defence critic Élaine Michaud (Portneuf – Jacques-Cartier). “It’s time for them to stop passing the buck and take real action to protect the women and men in the Canadian Forces from sexual assault.”

FRANÇAIS :
NOUVEAU PARTI DÉMOCRATIQUE, SITE WEB, "Les conservateurs limitent trop l'enquête sur les agressions sexuelles dans l'armée", 10 juillet 2014, disponible à http://www.npd.ca/node (vérifié le 18 juillet 2014);
Dans leur prochain examen externe de l’inconduite sexuelle et du harcèlement dans les forces armées, les conservateurs ont exclu de manière spécifique l’examen de la façon dont le système judiciaire militaire a traité les cas d'agressions sexuelles.

En effet, la façon dont la police militaire canadienne et le Bureau du juge-avocat général ont géré les incidents d’agressions sexuelles signalés ne sera pas soumise à cette enquête, ce qui veut dire que l’examinatrice ne pourra pas enquêter sur l’absence systématique d’enquête et de poursuites dans les cas de crimes sexuels dans l’armée.

« Pour que cet examen soit exhaustif, il faut que tous les aspects du système judiciaire militaire soient scrutés à la loupe et que les résultats soient rendus publics, a affirmé le porte-parole du NPD en matière de défense, Jack Harris (St. John’s Est). Or, les conservateurs ont mis en place un processus qui exclut de manière spécifique le plus grand problème de la justice militaire, soit la manière dont le système laisse systématiquement à leur sort les victimes d’agression sexuelle. En raison de ces restrictions, l’examen va ignorer certains des plus sérieux problèmes signalés.»

L’examen externe a été lancé à la suite d'un reportage journalistique révélant qu'il y avait cinq agressions sexuelles par jour dans l’armée canadienne et que la majorité n’était pas signalée en raison du fait que la plupart des victimes ne croient pas que leurs plaintes seront gérées de manière appropriée. Le NPD avait demandé qu’une commission judiciaire soit mise sur pied afin d’enquêter sur cette situation.

« Les conservateurs se vantent d’appuyer les victimes, mais ils sont aux abonnés absents quand vient le temps d’agir, a ajouté la porte-parole adjointe en matière de défense, Élaine Michaud (Portneuf-Jacques-Cartier). Il est temps pour eux d’arrêter de lancer la balle aux autres et d’agir afin de protéger les femmes et les hommes des Forces canadiennes contre toute forme d'agression sexuelle. »





Image reproduced from Google Image, accessed on 2 June 2014

O'HARA, Jane with Brenda Branswell, John Geddes, Shanda Deziel, Sharon Doyle Driedger and Stephanie Nolen, "Rape in the military", 25 May 1998 issue, Maclean's -- Canada's Weekly NewsMagazine; available at
 
http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/rape-in-the-military/
(accessed on 2 June 2014);





-----------
Video still at 36:09 (Law reform --The Winds of Change  Conference, Ottawa)         Phillip Millar, avocat, capitaine à la retraite, video still at 40:58
PASIC, Seana, 
Danny Braün, réalisateurs, Femmes au combat, ICI RDI, série les Grands Reportages, Saison 2016 Épisode 42, année de production: 2016, date de diffusion 21 mars 2016, durée: 44 minutes, production YAYAFILM; disponible à http://ici.tou.tv/les-grands-reportages/S2016E42 (visité 22 mars 2016);
Cinq femmes des Forces armées canadiennes témoignent des agressions sexuelles qu’elles ont subies dans
 l’armée. Elles ont fait face à un ennemi venu de l’intérieur, leurs frères d’armes. Femmes au combat, c’est le
 parcours de ces femmes courageuses qui ont osé porter plainte au prix d’une carrière dont elles rêvaient.



Image source: https://www.google.com, image search,  accessed 22 January 2017
Former service member
James Wilks, center, at his court martial, followed on the right by his defence counsel David Hodson
PEDWELL, Terry, The Canadian Press, "
‘I felt exposed’: Military tribunal hears from women who allege medic examined their breasts", 17 January 2017, available at http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/national/felt+exposed+military+tribunal+hears+from+women+allege/12725048/story.html (accessed 22 January 2017);


 
Image source: goldblattpartners.com/our-lawyers/emma-phillips/, accessed 10 March 2017
Emma Phillips
PHILLIPS. Emma, "Sexual Harassment: Canadian Forces' toughest battle is culture change", Opinion Page, The Globe and Mail, Monday, 15 February 2016, p. A9;  "Emma Phillips: Counsel to the External Review into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces.  Partner at Goldblatt Partners LLP"; see http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/the-canadian-forces-toughest-battle-is-culture-change/article28745892/ (accessed 10 March 2017);



Jason Proctor
PROCTOR, Jason, "
In Depth: 'A place of fear and dread': case illustrates impact of harassment in military Unwanted advances result in demotion and fine for warrant officer who admitted disgraceful conduct", CBC News, 3 December 2016 available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/harassment-military-sexual-1.3871196  (accessed 5 December 2016);


PUGLIESE, David,
"Crude joke mars program: Questions are raised about military progress against sexual harassment", Ottawa Citizen, Monday, 26 October 2015, p. 1


MGen Chris Whitecross, photo by
Matthew Fisher, source: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/general-named-to-devise-plan-to-deal-with-sexual-misconduct-in-canadian-forces
___________"General to devise plan to deal with sexual misconduct in military", The Ottawa Citizen, 3 March 2015; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/general-named-to-devise-plan-to-deal-with-sexual-misconduct-in-canadian-forces, accessed on 7 March 2015;

Maj.-Gen. Christine Whitecross will develop a plan to deal with problems identified in a new report produced by Marie Deschamps, a former Supreme Court of Canada Justice, according to an email Lawson sent to military staff. The email was obtained by the Citizen.

“The team will be led by Major-General Chris Whitecross, who will be supported by Chief Warrant Officer Helen Wheeler to form the leadership team,” Lawson stated in the message sent Monday. “Its mandate will be to conduct a detailed review of the final report produced by Mme Deschamps, and to develop an action plan to address the report’s recommendations.”
....

But in advance of receiving that report, Lawson is putting in place what he is calling the Canadian Armed Forces Strategic Response Team on Sexual Misconduct. That is the team led by Whitecross.

Sources say the move by Lawson is designed to offset criticism about the Canadian military when the Deschamps report becomes public. (source: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/general-named-to-devise-plan-to-deal-with-sexual-misconduct-in-canadian-forces, accessed on 7 March 2015)




PUGLIESE, David, "Gen. Tom Lawson’s spectacular crash and burn – What happened?", The Ottawa Citizen, 18 June 2015; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/gen-tom-lawsons-spectacular-crash-and-burn-what-happened (accessed 19 June 2015);




___________"Military Justice system needs reform, lawyer argues"
, The Ottawa Citizen, 30 April 2015; available at http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/military-justice-system-needs-reform-lawyer-argues (accessed 1 May 2015);



___________"Top
general plans to boot those involved in sexual misconduct out of Canadian Forces", Calgary Sun, 14 December 2016, available at http://www.calgarysun.com/2016/12/14/top-general-plans-to-boot-those-involved-in-sexual-misconduct-out-of-canadian-forces (accessed 16 December 2016);



Image source: https://twitter.com/dougquan, accessed 2 December 2016
Douglas Quan
QUAN, Douglas, "
Predators and prey: Canada’s military cadets and the sex misconduct problem few talk about", National Post, 24 May 2016, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/cadets (accessed 6 August 2016);




Image source: twitter.com/mmsioui, accessed 2 December 2016
Marie-Michèle Sioui
SIOUI, Marie-Michèle, "Inconduites sexuelles: l'armée met sur pied une équipe stratégique", 2 mars 2015, http://www.lapresse.ca/, disponible à http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/201503/02/01-4848818-inconduites-sexuelles-larmee-met-sur-pied-une-equipe-strategique.php (vérifié le 3 mars 2015);
L'Équipe d'intervention stratégique sur l'inconduite sexuelle, dirigée par la major générale Christine Whitecross, doit réagir au dépôt, ce printemps, du rapport de l'ex-juge de la Cour suprême Marie Deschamps sur les agressions sexuelles dans les forces armées.
[...]
Pour l'instant, l'équipe stratégique n'est constituée que de cinq personnes. «L'équipe se met en place. Il reviendra à la major générale de déterminer de quelles ressources elle aura besoin», a affirmé la porte-parole.





STATISTICS CANADA, "Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces, 2016", released 2006-11-28; available at http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/161128/dq161128a-eng.htm and http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/161128/dq161128a-eng.pdf and http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/olc-cel/olc.action?ObjId=85-603-X&ObjType=2&lang=en&limit=0(accessed 29 November 2016);



STEPHENSON, Mercedes, "
Military advances fight against sexual misconduct", CTV News, 2 December 2016; available at http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/military-advances-fight-against-sexual-misconduct-1.3187952 (accessed 4 December 2016); contains VIDEO;



SULLIVAN, Steve, "Missing in action: Harper is shrugging off military sexual assault", ipolitics, 6 May 2015; available at  http://www.ipolitics.ca/2015/05/06/missing-in-action-how-harper-is-shrugging-off-military-sexual-assault/ (accessed 10 May 2015);
One of the most important recommendations in the report calls for the creation of “an independent centre for accountability for sexual assault and harassment outside of the CAF with the responsibility for receiving reports of inappropriate sexual conduct, as well as prevention, coordination and monitoring of training, victim support, monitoring of accountability, and research, and to act as a central authority for the collection of data.” The military doesn’t seem comfortable with this recommendation — probably the “independent” part — but they’ve had decades to deal with this problem and have failed repeatedly. It’s time to take it out of their hands.




Photo of Scott Taylor, reproduced from http://espritdecorps.ca/bio/ (accessed on 31 March 2014)
TAYLOR, Scott, "ON TARGET: Sexual abuse in the military not a new story", The Chronicle Herald, 3 May 2015, available at http://m.thechronicleherald.ca/opinion/1284354-on-target-sexual-abuse-in-the-military-not-a-new-story
 (accessed 4 May 2015);

The 1998 stories were eerily similar to the most recent revelations, in that victims of rape had also been victimized by a military chain of command intent on protecting careers and the reputation of the institution, at the expense of administering justice. By then, the public had already soured on the Canadian military after more than two years of public inquiry into a top-level attempted coverup of a murdered prisoner at the hands of Canadian paratroopers that became collectively known as the Somalia Scandal.

Then-Liberal defence minister Art Eggleton had at first attempted to defuse the bombshell as a tempest in a teapot, but by the fourth weekly front cover body blow, the public clamour was too loud to ignore. In response to the outrage, Eggleton announced the appointment of Andre Marin as the first-ever ombudsman for the Forces. Marin was a keen young lawyer, and in the interest of full disclosure, I consider him a friend.

However, despite all the fanfare that accompanied the creation of the ombudsman’s office, the powers which Marin insisted he needed to effectively challenge the chain of command were never granted.

Now that we are back to Square 1, 17 years later, perhaps the solution is not to create another non-independent layer of oversight, but to simply revisit those powers Marin recommended but never received


VENTURA-GIROUX, Alexandra, "Les Forces se mobilisent pour contrer l'inconduite sexuelle", (13 mai 2015) 21(20) Servir à la p. 5; disponible à http://www.journalservir.com/ftp/journaux/Servir_13_05_15_new.pdf (vérifié le 25 mai 2015);
Le lundi 4 mai dernier à l’auditorium de la Garnison Saint-Jean avait lieu la présentation du major-général Christine Whitecross, commandant de l’Équipe d’intervention stratégique des Forces armées canadiennes (FAC), en matière d’inconduite sexuelle.  Secondée par le colonel Gisèle Fontaine, commandant adjoint de l’Équipe, ainsi que par l’adjudant-chef Helen Wheeler, adjudant-chef de l’Équipe, le mgén Whitecross est venue exposer son plan d’action en réponse au rapport déposé le jeudi 30 avril dernier par la juge à la retraite Marie Deschamps.

[...]


Entrevue avec le major-général Whitecross
[...]
Servir
: Pourquoi les membres des FAC doivent se tourner vers le système de justice militaire plutôt que civil?
Mgén Whitecross : Le système militaire est en place pour plusieurs bonnes raisons, mais nous gardons l’esprit ouvert. Selon la situation, une victime pourra porter plainte selon le système de justice civil. Par contre, je sais que nos commandants sont engagés à enrayer ce problème et qu’ils veulent relever ce défi. Ils sont imputable du bien-être de leurs gens et le système de justice militaire leur per-met d’agir en ce sens




Zappa, Pierre-Olivier, TVA Nouvelles, "Enquête «J.E.» – La guerre contre les homosexuels: L’homophobie persiste dans l’armée", 25 octobre 2016, disponible à  http://www.tvanouvelles.ca/2016/10/25/lhomophobie-persiste-dans-larmee (vérifié 2 décembre 2016);